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Communicative and Cultural Memory

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Abstract

Like consciousness and language, human memory is acquired through communication, socialization, and acculturation. It is, therefore, about both one’s brain and one’s social and cultural relations and comprises three dimensions: the personal, social, and cultural. Human memory is “embodied” in living personal memories and “embedded” in social frames and external cultural symbols (e.g., texts, images, and rituals) that can be acknowledged as a memory function insofar as they are related to the self-image or “identity” of a tribal, national, and/or religious community. Whereas the social or “collective” memory comprises knowledge commonly shared by a given society in a given epoch, cultural memory in literate societies includes not only a “canon” of normative knowledge but also an “archive” of apocryphal material that may be rediscovered and brought to the fore in later epochs. The formation of a canon of “classical” or sacred texts requires techniques of interpretation to keep accessible the meaning of the texts that may no longer be altered or multiplied. At that stage of cultural evolution, cultural memory changes from ritual to textual continuity. Cultural memory becomes complex, splitting into the “classical” and the “modern,” the “sacred” and the “secular.”

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... Indeed, from the literature, we can identify two types of collective memories characterized by how they are remembered. Assmann organizes actively remembered knowledge (Assmann, 2008) with two concepts: the canon -"actively circulated memory that keeps the past present" (p. 98), and the archive-"passively stored memory that preserves the past" (p. ...
... 98). Memory studies scholars have extensively argued that culture is inextricably linked to memory (Assmann, 1995;Halbwachs, 1992Halbwachs, , 1997) and its counterpart, forgetting (Assmann, 2008). Assmann (1995) also defines the existence of two modes of cultural memory . . . the mode of potentiality of the archive whose accumulated texts, images, and rules of conduct act as a total horizon, and . . . the mode of actuality, whereby each contemporary context puts the objectivized meaning into its own perspective, giving it its own relevance. ...
... 130) Collective memory is primarily shaped by communicative acts (e.g., conferences) that focus the attention of specific communities on specific pieces of knowledge (Candia et al., 2019). Cultural pieces that receive most of the collective attention live in a mode of actuality (Assmann, 1995) and form part of the canon (Assmann, 2008) and their current interpretation is part of the community's identity (Mukherjee et al., 2017). ...
Article
How long will this article be remembered? How long will people reference it in their conversations, and for how many years will other authors cite its findings in their own works? A community's attention to a cultural object decays as time passes, a process known as collective forgetting. Recent work models this decay as the result of two different processes. One linked to communicative memory-memories sustained by human communication-and the other linked to cultural memory-memories sustained by the physical recording of content. Collective forgetting has significant impacts on communities, yet little is known about how the collective forgetting dynamic changes over time. Here, we study the temporal changes of collective memory and attention by focusing on two knowledge communities: inventors and physicists. We use data on patents from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and physics papers published by the American Physical Society (APS) to quantify those changes over time. The model enables us to distinguish between two branches of forgetting. One branch is short-lived, going directly from communicative memory to oblivion. The other branch is long-lived, going from communicative memory to cultural memory before going on to oblivion. The data analysis shows an increase in the forgetting rate for both communities as the amount of information in each of them grows. That growth of information forces knowledge communities to increase their selectivity regarding what is stored in their cultural memory. These findings confirm the forgetting as annulment hypothesis and show that knowledge communities can slow down collective forgetting and improve selectivity processes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... This differentiation may be useful in identifying particular domains of studythe micro, the mezzo and the macro; nonetheless, the social fields in which memory operates continue to be missing. For this reason, Assmann (2008) identifies institutional and noninstitutional frames of memory. The former involves the organisational bodies and symbolic devices which arrange how time is perceived and understood, i.e., how the past is remembered. ...
... This communicative memory embodies genres of communication, thematisation and emotions that bind together distinct groups, from families to generations. By distinguishing a communicative memory, Assmann (2008) unites the performativity and habitual nature of memories examined by Connerton (1989) with the collective mediations and dynamics identified by Halbwachs (1992). ...
... Throughout this research, I have contended that nostalgia is a structure of feeling composed by an articulation of emotions, meanings and materialities. Based on this, this thesis offers two contributions to the study of nostalgia and its relationship with memory as a socially constituted act (Assmann, 2008;Olick, 1999). ...
Thesis
In this thesis, I analyse how young audiences engage with nostalgic media texts. In recent years, from remakes or reboots to media texts set in previous decades, nostalgia has become a key ingredient of recent media production. Hence, I address two specific research questions: 1) how do young audiences interpret the past represented in nostalgic media texts; and 2) how do the national context and social identities of young audiences mediate their engagement with nostalgic media texts? For this, I conducted a media consumption habits survey, 13 focus group discussions, and 35 paired interviews in one private and one public secondary education school in Costa Rica. My intention is to explore the reception of nostalgic media texts in a nation of the Global South in which the past has recently generated political and social tensions. Thus, I first argue that these young audiences interpret the past represented in nostalgic media texts through an aestheticisation of the past and by employing a particular nostalgic social imaginary. Following textual cues and national discourses, these young people idealise the styles of the past but exhibit a critical awareness in terms of some social tensions of previous decades. Then, I argue that nostalgia is a structure of feeling which emerges from an unsatisfying present. By exploring the social identities of the participants, I discuss how nostalgia is differently articulated depending on the social position of these young people. I identify how the students from the private school experience an aesthetic nostalgia, based on the romanticisation of the styles of the past but characterised by an optimistic appraisal of the future, and how the students from the public school experience a material nostalgia, an idealisation of the past derived from daily experiences of economic deprivation and the expectation of a precarious future.
... Memory should be analyzed not only as personal traces of the past, but also as a function of social life (Halbwachs [1952(Halbwachs [ ] 1992. Memory is not only the recollection of personal experiences, but also a social construction that connects people with other members of their group, and gives society a diachronic identity (Assmann 2011). It is what "allows us to construe an image or narrative of the past and, by the same process, to develop an image and narrative of ourselves" (Assmann 2011, p. 15). ...
... Nevertheless, it may endure for 80-100 years, passed by parents and grandparents to successive generations. Cultural memory, on the other hand, is exteriorized by institutions that store it away in symbolic forms that are circulated and re-embodied in society and transferred from one situation to another (Assmann 2011). This is why it lives much longer. ...
... Cultural memory leans on what is remembered and even mythologized, and not on what is investigated by historians. In other words, cultural memory is not just knowledge about the past, but rather a kind of consciousness that supports identity (Assmann 2011). These qualities expose traumatized groups to "time collapse" (Volkan 2001;Bar-Tal 2013), a pheonomenon that blurs the distinctions between past and present, and even brings the past to life through current events. ...
Article
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Much has been written about the representation of the Holocaust in Israel, but there is less awareness to its effects on attitudes toward democracy and the universal meaning of human rights. Representations of the Holocaust by Israeli socialization agents usually focus on hatred toward Jews, disregarding the broader theoretical-ideological context. This tendency is typical to groups that suffered such severe traumas in their past. Nonetheless, we argue that it does not allow a healing process and fosters a reduced perspective on the essential principles of democracy. It also particularizes the concept of human rights, thus excluding those of “others,” such as Palestinians. We further argue that a more extensive perspective on the Holocaust, which includes an understanding of Nazism within an ideological mosaic that denies democratic principles and humanity, may strengthen Israelis’ identification with democratic principles and universal human rights. We analyze the different approaches to teaching the Holocaust in the context of the collective trauma and explore their impact on society’s sense of victimhood and moral injury. The paper ends with a suggestion for further research that will explore the possibility that a school curriculum that emphasizes universal lessons will enable the memorialization of the Holocaust without succumbing to nationalistic perceptions.
... Thus, collective memory contributes to finding an identity characteristic of the human being. This identity allows us to orient ourselves in time and space, thinking about time horizons much further away than our birth or death (Assmann, 2011). Assmann states that there are three levels in which the connection between memory, time, and identity operates: (i) Internal or individual level, where only the individual's memory operates. ...
... It remains in constant evolution due to generational changes, and because memories are increasingly blurred in people's minds, so it is distorted and manipulated with the passing of the years. One of these transformations, and perhaps the most obvious, is the transition from communicative memory that allows us to socialize and transmit knowledge to cultural memory that functions as a repository of socially constructed stories (Assmann, 2011;Confino, 1997;Nora, 1989). ...
... Communicative memory does not have physical aspects capable of recalling but is found in everyday interactions and communications. For this reason, it has a limited duration, and this duration depends on social ties and time frames (Assmann, 2011). We will understand time frames, as a framework from the recent past, which refers to social or communicative memory, it is gradually forgotten over time and does not last more than three generations. ...
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Collective memory is a common representation of the past shared by a group of people that modulates its identity. Recent literature on computational social science quantifies collective memories using expressions of those memories operationalized as the amount of collective attention focused on specific cultural icons, either artifacts or people. We model the temporal dynamics of collective memory using a two-step decay process, characterized by a short-lived and intense initial stage followed by a long-lived and milder decline of collective attention. Different collective memory mechanisms sustain the two-step process. The first is communicative memory, which corresponds to all memories supported by socializing acts. The second is cultural memory, which corresponds to all memories sustained by accessing records. Thus, this model predicts a transition time when cultural memory overcomes communicative memory. It has practical consequences related to shrinking or extending the time a specific topic is part of a community's conversation, i.e., communicative memory, empowering policymakers with valuable time to generate solutions and compromises for contingent and public problems.
... In the years following the Second World War, the Arts Council of Great Britain played a key role in subsidising the arts, national museums, and the British Library. Cultural policy research in the UK evolved from the intersection of cultural studies, political theory, urban theory, sociology, and cultural history, more recently including the role of cultural memory as an emerging and important field (Erll, 2008;Assmann, 2011). ...
... Overall, the connection between time, identity, and memory is considered in this thesis across three levels: the individual, the social, and the cultural (Assmann, 2011). In addition to these, the media are positioned as equally important for the conceptualisation of memory. ...
... Research on the memory of historical environmental or climate events suggests that memory of extreme events held by individuals may be constructed rather than experienced, repressed, inaccurate, or forgotten (Laney and Loftus, 2005;Chaudhuri and Fiete, 2016). Memories are retrospectively made as much as they are experienced, and the process of creating an event in memory is collective and cultural (Assmann, 2011;Endfield and Veale, 2017;Walshe, 2019). Little research suggests what aspects of the climate of weather events will be forgotten; in general, research on long-term memory at an individual scale is sparse (Fanta et al., 2019). ...
... Memories can be constructed, inaccurate, repressed and forgotten (Laney and Loftus, 2005;Assmann, 2011;Chaudhuri and Fiete, 2016;Endfield and Veale, 2017;Walshe, 2019), although with regards to disasters the aspects that are forgotten by individuals are not known (Fanta et al., 2019). Despite this, the large number of interviews taken allowed me to validate the data and identify anomalies using the frequency of times the experience was mentioned against other household interviews. ...
Thesis
The importance of the role of governance in reducing disaster risk has international recognition from the United Nations’ Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. The decentralisation of decision-making has been proposed by scholars as a practice to improve disaster outcomes. However, there is very little research that examines the role of decentralised disaster governance in household disaster experiences. Much of the current disaster experience research tends to use aggregate trend data of numbers of people affected, fatalities and economic loss that reveal high-level changes over time, but provide very little sense of the outcomes for different types of affected households. Studies that focus on household-scale outcomes tend to be one-off studies that do not provide longitudinal evidence of changing household experiences over time. This study fills a gap by researching the historical associations between disaster governance and the lived experiences of households over three decades of disasters. The research problem is studied through the case study of Samoa, a typical small island developing state. Small island developing states are relevant case studies as they are often physically small and remote, low lying, and resource poor – all of which can affect disaster outcomes. By taking a political ecology approach, the study reveals how power dynamics within communities interact with formal governance systems. Despite differences between disaster outcomes experienced by all households, this research identified three ‘types’ of households, based predominantly on their primary income source, which had similar experiences. Households with access to formal income and those receiving remittances had improved disaster outcomes between 1990 and 2018. However, subsistence households experienced few improvements in disaster outcomes over this period, continuing to struggle to access income and food after cyclones disrupted their agricultural source of income. The research finds that while formal decentralised governance arrangements are important at the local scale to support collective action and local scale relief distribution, decentralisation of responsibility often occurs without the complete decentralisation of power and resources. Despite noteworthy reforms in Samoa, the current formal disaster governance arrangements have not improved the disaster outcomes for the most marginalised households. Households with low-income and low social status struggle to access both resources and access to decision-making within villages. For higher-income and more powerful households, improved disaster outcomes are more closely associated with increased national scale economic development as opposed to governance reforms. I conclude that for governance to improve outcomes, formal decentralisation of responsibility for disaster preparedness, response and recovery may need a concurrent decentralisation of power and resources. However, decentralising power and resources can also be problematic, leading to the concentration of power and resource capture by local elites. The thesis makes recommendations to improve disaster outcomes of all household groups, not just those that are already best placed to recover from disasters.
... Communicative and cultural memory Collective memory and its two distinct but interrelated componentscommunicative and cultural memorydrive societal salience of species [11]. Communicative memory (also referred to as lived memory [9]) is generated through societal communication and interaction and transmitted through personal interactions or contemporary dissemination channels, like news, movies, social, and other media [11][12][13]; its dynamics tend to be associated with relatively short timeframes. Cultural memory (sometimes referred to as distant memory [9]) is maintained by physical or digital recordings and cultural products, such as oral traditions, literature, paintings, and other artworks; it typically unfolds over longer timeframes [11,12]. ...
... Communicative memory (also referred to as lived memory [9]) is generated through societal communication and interaction and transmitted through personal interactions or contemporary dissemination channels, like news, movies, social, and other media [11][12][13]; its dynamics tend to be associated with relatively short timeframes. Cultural memory (sometimes referred to as distant memory [9]) is maintained by physical or digital recordings and cultural products, such as oral traditions, literature, paintings, and other artworks; it typically unfolds over longer timeframes [11,12]. ...
Article
The ongoing global biodiversity crisis not only involves biological extinctions, but also the loss of experience and the gradual fading of cultural knowledge and collective memory of species. We refer to this phenomenon as 'societal extinction of species' and apply it to both extinct and extant taxa. We describe the underlying concepts as well as the mechanisms and factors that affect this process, discuss its main implications, and identify mitigation measures. Societal extinction is cognitively intractable, but it is tied to biological extinction and thus has important consequences for conservation policy and management. It affects societal perceptions of the severity of anthropogenic impacts and of true extinction rates, erodes societal support for conservation efforts, and causes the loss of cultural heritage.
... One strength of the hourglass metaphor is to suggest an additionalyet importantlayer to the study of collective memory: families and generations. Although families were central to Halbwachs' model of collective memory (1994Halbwachs' model of collective memory ( [1925) and the Assmanns' notion of communicative memory (Assmann 2009(Assmann , 2011, they have received far less attention than groups such as nations. Yet, they are important hubs of information and representations. ...
Article
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Collective memories are memories shared by a group that influence their social identity. The goal of this paper is to focus on two major limitations in current studies on collective memory and show how the hourglass metaphor can overcome those limitations. The first limitation concerns the partial nature of studies devoted to the analysis of collective memory. Studies tend to focus either on the choice of the past (how memory agents mobilise the past) or the weight of the past (how the past affects the individual or the group). The second limitation relates to the temporal dimension of research conducted so far. Most studies only assess memory over a single generation, yet it can have long-term effects. In this paper, we suggest considering memory work as an hourglass, with the collective and the individual at opposite ends and the sand of memories passing from one to the other, filtered through family values and representations. The hourglass metaphor thus provides a helpful tool to explain the formation of collective memories over time and the interactions between the macro, meso, and micro levels. We approach the study of collective memory from an interdisciplinary perspective, mainly involving psychology, political science, and history. We conclude by suggesting three challenges that future studies of memory will need to address: (1) the need to combine multiple approaches; (2) the need to consider the role of generations; and (3) the need to bridge discussion across disciplines.
... The emphasis on communal and social elements of intangible heritage clarifies its position not only in relation to memory but also to history. As A. Assmann (2008) remarks regarding the relationship between social memory and history: ...
Thesis
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Critical interpretations of heritage over recent decades have stimulated a focus on intangible heritage –the understanding of which remains inconclusive within a UK built heritage context. This is problematic when considering architectural conservationists and the broader built heritage profession are increasingly required to consider intangible heritage and understand how it correlates with alterations to built heritage assets. Situated within a postmodern conceptualisation of heritage as increasingly dynamic, social and intangible, this study confronts the paradox of safeguarding immaterial manifestations of culture within an interdisciplinary context that prioritises scientific materialism, material authenticity, and visual aesthetics. Underpinned by a Practice Theory ontology and driven by a multi-methodological qualitative design, sixteen built heritage professionals were firstly interviewed to understand how intangible heritage is conceptualised within built heritage practice and what barriers may restrict its integration within formalised procedures. Following this, a series of three pilot case studies (Long Street Methodist Churchand Sunday School;theHill Houseand Box; and the Coventry Cathedralsite) explored opportunities for accommodating intangible heritage within the built heritage paradigm. Lastly, a final case study (Bletchley Park) focusedspecifically on the dynamic between intangible heritage and physical alterations to built heritage assets. Findings suggest built heritage practice should be reconceptualised as a storytelling activity, which may encourage professionals to see themselves as narrators of intangible heritage, as well as custodians of physical heritage. Five supporting socio-material strategies (memorialisation; simulation; translation; innovation; and commemoration) are offered as alternative ways of framing standardised conservation methods, by prioritising the safeguarding of stories over the conservation of materials. The study suggests that the conservation of socio-material practices, rather than physical materials alone, can overcome traditional binary views of tangible/intangible,by encouraging cross-stakeholder participatory practices. The significance of this study is especially relevant to the development of built heritage practice, evolving as it must to both influence and accommodate ever-changing conceptions of what heritage is and how it is understood by relevant stakeholders.
... Modern researchers understand cultural memory as a result of the interaction of the past and the present in a socio-cultural context (Erll, 2008, p. 2). Moreover, in cultural memory, based on the cultural position of Assmann (2011), the past is not preserved as such, but rather is galvanized (resurrected) in symbols that seem to illuminate the changing present (p. 19). ...
... Memory is the faculty that permits humans to have consciousness of personal or collective selfhood or self-identity (Assmann, 2008). It is memory that enables people to be reminiscent and nostalgic of their historical identities and experiences. ...
Article
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Mainstream media tend to frame media content from the perspectives of locals and seldom in the interest of diasporic communities. However, the emergence of social media has supported the existence of online diasporic communities.
... As acknowledged by Lipsitz (2001), family and society play a major role in promoting national collective memory. Such concern reflects societal interest to enhance self-image of society or identity of the nation among future generations (Assmann, 2011). In addition, family and society are keen to build up their generational knowledge and skills, to enable them to understand past events in a way that enables them to contribute to national development (Lee, 2005;Rüsen, 2005). ...
Article
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This study investigates Omanis' perceptions of the roles of stakeholders in promoting awareness of national figures of historical prominence. A questionnaire was administered to 2,863 Omanis, comprising 1,470 males and 1,393 females. The tool consisted of 38 items divided into four domains: importance of raising awareness of historically prominent Omanis; role of family and society; role of TV, radio, and newspapers; and the role of social media. The results found that Omanis strongly believe in the importance of raising awareness of prominent historical figures, and they think the family, society, media, and social media are instrumental in this. The study also revealed that Omanis' perceptions differ due to their gender and qualification.
... Taking our point of departure in memory studies and studies of uses of the past (Ankersmit 2001;Aronsson 2005;Assmann 2008;Karlsson & Zander 2014;Redin & Ruin 2016;Russen 1994Russen , 2004, we lift the discussions on the uses of history and the role of media in memory to a new level of empirical and theoretical development aiming to explain how media logics influence history writing in Ukraine, specifically in a particular historians' project "Likbez". To show that mediatization of history is not unique only for Ukraine we put our discussion into a broader context of the countries of Eastern Europe, such as Belarus, Lithuania, or Poland. ...
Chapter
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“The glut of media is also a glut of memory: past is everywhere” wrote Andrew Hoskins (2014: 662) to emphasize the close link between media and perception of the past. This is especially perceptible in Eastern Europe, where so much public debate, from media polemic to trolling on Facebook, is rooted in historical problematic. As we have demonstrated, the countries in the region, including Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine, have all witnessed an increasing transfusion between fields of academic history and media/entertainment. Not only the media are intervening in history, setting the agenda and creating prosthetic memory artefacts, but also historians are actively pursuing the path of being visible, vocal and viral in both traditional and social media. Historikerstreit is happening on Facebook and in professional web forums as much as in peer-reviewed journals, sometimes even more intensively in the new and social media. Ever more often historians also create media product, ranging from popular articles for glossy magazines to popular books to YouTube videos to full-length films. The very habitus of historian is changed; no longer confined to a narrow problem or a cabinet hermit, the present-day historian in Eastern Europe—now more often than previously female—is in ever more cases a social media persona, skillful at using new media, and maintains a permanent media visibility. Such situation creates opportunities for both hegemonic manipulation of history and counter-efforts to it. As demonstrated in the article, mediatized history opens up for memory wars around contested issues of shared, entangled histories, and suits well to propagating nationalist versions of those histories. Yet mediatization of history also creates space for counterefforts striving to set the historical record right and debunk myths and conspiracy theories wherever it is possible. It is only logical that the media, where much manipulation takes place, becomes also a space contested by historians willing to mitigate the consequences of the “use and abuse of history for life”, to use the title of the famous essay by Nietzsche. Perhaps, mediatization of history is as much of a blessing as it is a curse—not unlike Platonian “pharmakon” in Derrida’s reading; both poison and medicine for the region shattered by mutual attacks on the shared history. Whether this proposition is true remains to be seen, and most certainly invites further research.
... Collective memory is culturally mediated (Assmann 2008). It rests upon the infrastructure of texts, pictures, films, memorials, toponyms, museums, public holidays, symbols, and rituals (Irwin-Zarecka 1994, 14;Etkind 2004;Langenbacher 2010, 29;Gustafsson 2014). ...
Article
Scholars of nationalism knew about the role of memory and forgetting in nation building long before the contemporary boom of memory studies. Still, they can learn a lot from this relatively new research field. This article offers an overview of the literature on the politics of memory, focusing on different patterns of dealing with a dark past of genocides, civil wars, and political repressions, on the one hand, and on the observations derived from the recent so-called “memory wars” in Europe, on the other. Both issues elucidate a persistent role of nationalism in the contemporary world.
... The only memory of a relatively distant past that is brought up frequently in American presidential rhetoric is that of former British prime minister Winston Churchill. 7 The evocation of Churchill transcends generational considerations and impact (Mannheim, 1952(Mannheim, [1928) as it can be found in speeches of presidents for whom his days of glory and fame were part of their "formative years" (Corning and Schuman, 2013;Schuman and Scott 1989), as well as among those for whom he was a collective memory rather than a biographical one (Assmann 2008;Halbwachs 1950). We do not imply that the formative years are not important, but rather suggest that the use of the memory of Churchill goes beyond generational concerns. ...
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In light of the incessant passage of ideas, images, cultural products, and people across cultures and borders, this research—located in the third wave of memory studies—examines how foreign events are imported and incorporated in national political rhetoric. Examining speeches made by American presidents (1945–2020), this analysis shows that the practice of importing events is affected by time, structure, and meaning-making processes. First, imported events are affected by epochal considerations and attest to the power of the present. Second, imported events are presented during non-commemorative occasions and are evoked together with national past events. Third, whether through legitimization, confirmation, or appropriation, imported events are constructed for the sake of enhancing the American nation and affirming its greatness. Imported events, thus, provide new strategies of nationalism in globalized cultures. At the same time, imported events—by now memories—are sought after and by mere appearance pierce the heart of the nation. With this research, we contribute to core questions in collective memory, tying political, cultural, and social considerations with regard to the continuing transformation of collective memories in a constantly changing world.
... Olick and Robbins, 1998;Simko et al., 2020), collective memory plays an important part in contemporary social spaces. Indeed, the resources for collective memory can be found not only in museums and memorials dedicated to illuminating the past, but also in texts, speeches, discourse, and narratives (on the distinction between communicative and cultural memory, see Assmann, 2008). These locations are obviously man-made, produced by various actors in society with several objectives and aims. ...
Article
Within the “politics of memory,” this study conceptually expands understanding of the role of political leaders as active producers of memory. By considering the growing exchangeability of ideas and meanings across cultural and national borders, analysis demonstrates how political leaders adapt and reorient transnational memory narratives’ most iconic events. However, deliberately relying on memories from across the border also embody additional functions that are not entirely focused on the domestic. Identifying three considerations that affect how memories are used in political speech: audience, context, and memory, this study shows that political leaders re-narrate, change, and revise foreign memories so that new meanings and utilizations are devised. These intertwining memories contribute to the blurring of frontiers, bringing to the fore the everlasting debate between history and memory, truth and post-truth, and the exalted role of politicians in the construction of past events.
... Memory is embodied in lived personal experiences and embedded in social frames and cultural symbols. Like language, it is acquired through communication and socialization and contributes to individual and group identity as aggregations of socially framed individual memories (Assmann 2011;Olick 1999). ...
... Como dijimos, no solo en estos dos casos, sino a nivel general de las historietas sobre la memoria reciente: muestran distintas miradas y posturas ideológicas, muchas veces en tensión o choque, por tratarse de un campo también diverso y (casi siempre) en conflicto. Assman (2010), Benwell (2016) y Hirsch (1992, entre otros autores, distinguen entre la memoria traumática, transmitida de formas simbólicas (políticas) o "encarnadas" (sociales), recurriendo a la idea de "redes de memoria" (memory networks), para referir a este diálogo entre los relatos de diferentes generaciones. Dichos diálogos y la reconstrucción o revisión resultante de ellos, entendemos que son centrales para comprender tanto los límites como las particularidades de los discursos presentes en las historietas sobre Malvinas. ...
Conference Paper
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Este trabajo pretende reflexionar sobre algunos discursos en narrativa gráfica que visibilizan aspectos disruptivos al relato hegemónico sobre la guerra de Malvinas, como trauma de la historia reciente. En particular, nos focalizaremos en las obras Cómo yo gané la guerra (Angonoa y Solar) y Tortas fritas de polenta (Marinelli y Bayúgar). Dichas historietas, autobiográficas y/o testimoniales, funcionarían como memorias desplazadas, entendiendo el desplazamiento como una indagación hacia lo inexplorado, lo invisibilizado, lo que habría sido oculto a fin de no perturbar un relato consensuado sobre ese pasado, pero también como una práctica que excede a los circuitos tradicionales del campo de la historieta. Analizaremos, entonces, algunas posturas teóricas que problematizan los conceptos de memoria histórica e historiografía, de testimonio y documento, en el marco de esta tensión particular entre memorias individuales, memorias colectivas y relatos oficiales; buscando, a la vez, determinar las características discursivas de las historietas argentinas que abordan este trauma postbélico. Palabras clave: historieta-memoria-historia reciente-trauma.
... Cultural memory is historical and mythical, to be learnt from formalized texts, rituals, and iconic resources. Communicative memory is a powerful transgenerational legacy, an influential stock of stories from one's immediate socialization network with one's significant others as the carriers of these personalized stories (Assmann, 2011;Kovács, 2012). Hungary has a specific position among the Central and Eastern European countries with its earlier, consumerist "goulash communism" traditions. ...
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This study is an exploration of entrepreneurial identity, employing a culturally sensitive mixed methods approach, Identity Structure Analysis (ISA). The sample includes 30 small/micro entrepreneurs in Southern-Transdanubia, Hungary. Hungary had introduced some “staccato” economic reforms in the previous social system, changing communist hostility towards entrepreneurs as “capitalists” into lasting ambivalence. The results reflect indistinct commitments to entrepreneurial values; constant adaptation to environmental factors instead of building own strategies; and limited future expectations. In the two sub-samples of male and female entrepreneurs there were no statistically significant differences. The dominant, masculine discourse of entrepreneurship, the underdevelopment of social enterprises in Hungary, the impact of the previous communist discourse understanding equality as sameness, and the pandemic-induced crisis may explain for these findings.
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The chapter explores the impact of artificial intelligence on art creation and on the manners in which AI art challenges our understanding of beauty and artistic value.
Chapter
The online research portal MEMOZE is based on the local memory site Goldbacher Stollen, a tunnel system built by forced labourers of the Dachau concentration camp. Through different media, among them 360° online spaces, MEMOZE educates users not only about the site itself but also introduces major concepts in memory studies and transgenerational aspects of (mediatised) testimonies. As MEMOZE seeks for a better visibility and accessibility of an ineffective physical memory place, it serves as an example to examine the process of translating such places to the digital sphere. This chapter explores the portal’s possibilities to provide a ‘glocal’ Holocaust Education by analysing the different spaces of MEMOZE. These refer to key aspects of digital memory cultures, such as transfer, transgenerational dialogue, cultural expressions and commemoration. The website also addresses ‘empty spaces’, which represent the incompleteness of cultural memories.
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This article analyzes the interventions of monuments that occurred in conjunction with the mass 2019–2020 anti-neoliberal protests in Chile where almost 400 monuments representing Spanish conquerors and colonial and nineteenth-century national heroes were pulled down, contested, or transformed. The article illustrates how a social movement against social injustices and inequalities enacted and engaged with decolonial repertoires of action. It analyzes two performative cases of toppled monuments to Pedro de Valdivia, the leading Spanish conqueror, in the southern cities of Concepción and Valdivia. It then examines recent debate about the anti-racist and decolonial de-monumentalization trend seen around the world and discusses some particularities of the Latin American case. It concludes by arguing that, although the monument interventions involved spontaneous and effervescent ritualistic affects, they are expressive of decolonial challenges to intertwined and long-standing national memories, calling for reconsideration of our national identities.
Thesis
‘Memory in Roman Oratory: Theory and Practice’ challenges and changes current perceptions of the evolution and use of mnemonic techniques in the ancient world, especially Roman oratory. The field of ‘artificial’ memory is one to which cognitive science bears real relevance: this thesis combines fresh analysis of ancient philosophical and rhetorical texts with modern scientific findings to rewrite the standard narrative surrounding the ‘art of memory’, which holds that the proliferation of written material through the ancient Mediterranean precipitated a need for a method of memorising texts verbatim. I show that we must instead understand the art of memory as inherently performative. Mnemonic techniques allowed speakers (orators, rhetoricians, even certain philosophers) to free themselves from a script and to improvise. In the second half of the thesis, I apply these theoretical findings to delineate real-world scenarios in which mnemonic techniques were used. By analysing the role that memory played in the various stages of a late-republican forensic trial, I show how orators prepared and delivered speeches, while offering novel insights into how some advocates utilised mnemonic techniques in real time, during trials while their opponents were speaking. Finally, I investigate why superior memory was framed in the Roman world as a desirable attribute for leaders, from orators and statesmen to generals and emperors. The answer lies partly with Cicero’s philosophy of leadership; and partly, with the importance wider Roman society attached to the social practice of nomenclatio (‘greeting by name’). Later sources indicate that Cicero’s views exerted a lasting influence on the portrayal of exemplary mnemonic ability, such that memory became a rare topos of imperial praise.
Article
Himalayan peoples bathe in hot springs for medical and spiritual therapy. Included in local myths, hot springs are natural features that form a part of cultural memory and are social, cultural, religious, and medical venues. They also represent the tension between economic growth and environmental protection and, consequently, the competition between different parts of people’s identities. By analyzing religious, historical, and medical texts in combination with biographical accounts, a comprehensive picture of the cultural and religious significance of hot springs in the Himalayas is presented. The focus lies on Buddhist influenced societies within the Tibetan Cultural Area which are those parts in the Himalayas that have been influenced by Tibetan culture
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The present study explores the construction of humor in internet memes along two dimensions. The external dimension is concerned with humor in internet memes as opposed to verbal humor on the one hand and as opposed to humor in comics and caricatures on the other. The perceptive differences, stemming from the workings of the human memory, and the medium are posited as the two main differentiating factors. On the internal dimension, we explore manifestations of humor in light of the communicative situation and taxonomic relations at both the intermedial and intramedial levels of internet memes, taking as an example a family of You Wouldn’t Get It image macros. Our analysis employs elements of intertextuality theory and the notion of orders of indexicality. The study aims to contribute to the growing theoretical and methodological framework for multifactorial analyses of internet memes.
Article
Studies of material objects in the field of memory studies have followed diverse epistemological and disciplinary trajectories, but their shared characteristic has been the questioning of philosophical assumptions concerning human relations with inanimate things and lower-level organic objects, such as plants, within the Aristotelian hierarchy of beings. Rather than accept at face value their categorizations as passive or deficient in comparison to the human subject, critical scholarship has reformulated the place and role of nonhuman entities in culture. This essay examines the nexus of materiality and memory in the work of the French philosopher and art historian Georges Didi-Huberman, with the focus on the questions of mnemonic affordance of things and plants. The essay proposes that Didi-Huberman’s project can be approached from the perspective of “undoing” the key binaries of Western historiography of art and material culture: surface/depth, exteriority/interiority, visibility/invisibility, and malleability/rigidity. Focusing on imaginal representations of memory objects in Didi-Huberman’s two essays Bark and Being a Skull, the essay situates these texts within the context of his philosophical reading of Aby Warburg’s iconology, and argues that Didi-Huberman’s undoing of the binaries that have traditionally structured thinking about materiality and memory could be productively approached as a philosophical project of transvaluating surface.
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Sweathouses are a type of vernacular sauna, unique to the island of Ireland. They represent a tradition of sweat bathing that existed on the island for at least three centuries, which has since been consigned to history. Their origins remain a mystery and to date, only one has ever been excavated. It is probable that famine in the 19th century was a key factor which contributed to the loss of this tradition, as it brought about enormous changes in the social and cultural fabric of the country. These monuments are poorly understood and are fading from the landscape, as well as from the public consciousness. This paper provides a brief overview of the current understanding of weathouses, their morphology and distribution. It is proposed in this paper that folklore records can provide a deeper insight into people’s relationship to sweathouses, why they were built and how they were used.
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The noticeable urgent need for the preservation of collective and cultural memory in Europe, coupled with a fear of loss of important aspects of heritage, indicates the importance of educating the youth who will become future policymakers in the field. Analyses of the survey conducted through this research show the current perspective of youth on the typology of World War II memorials on the territories of the former republics, now independent states, of SFR Yugoslavia in Southeast Europe. Targeting architecture and civil engineering students as a specific youth group who are directly involved in learning about the built memorial structures, as well as the phenomenological background of space, creation of place and memories, resulted in a qualitative observation of the group’s understanding and judgement of the topic. This article investigates the level of knowledge and emotional response to memorial heritage within the target group. It addresses relevant issues of age, gender, level of study, and respondents’ backgrounds, demonstrating the existence of an initial interest in memorial heritage among the architecture-oriented youth. With an additional focus on a possible active role in heritage preservation and future placement, the research indicates a segment in the youth’s comprehension of valuable memorial heritage that needs to be improved.
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The churches (Manila, Santa Maria, Paoay, Miagao) built in the Spanish period of the Philippines (16-18C) exemplify the reinterpretations of the European Baroque style by Chinese and Philippine artisans. Symbolising the fusion of the West with local materials and motifs, they have formed an innovative building tradition. Characteristics of these churches are monumental and massive to protect against intruders or natural harm. The iconographic-decorative Miagao facade underlines the regional understanding of Christianity and Saint Patron among contemporary Catholics. This paper discusses the tangibility-intangibility of Baroque Philippine churches through the spirit of place and collective memories among churchgoers-inhabitants-visitors, reinterpreting sacred buildings.
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The aim of this paper is to analyze the role modern apocrypha play in the processes of collective remembering. From the perspective of cultural studies the modern apocrypha can be seen not only as literary or religious texts but also as an important element of cultural autocommunication. And if we understand autocommunication as a crucial mechanism of cultural memory, we can describe intertextuality (which is a form of cultural autocommunication) as an autoimmune technique of preventing the basic cultural meanings from the oblivion. The canon is a basic tool of collective memory in the so called ‘literate cultures’ or ‘Cultures of the Book’. That is the reason why the apocrypha, which deal with canonical contents, build the unique set of texts playing an essential role in protecting the source myth and tradition from the ‘semiotic death’.
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In the last three decades, a ‘memory fever’concerning past dictatorships and political violence emerged both in the Latin American Southern Cone and in Central and Eastern Europe. Both regions witnessed the creation and then consolidation of memory regimes related to remembering military dictatorships and state socialism, respectively. This article interrogates how transnational migration experiences between the two regions challenge nationally framed memory regimes, with a focus on Chile, Romania, and Croatia. By tracing individual migrants and exiles between Romania and Chile, as well as the Croatian Chilean diaspora, this article discusses the entanglements between Chile and Southeastern Europe in the remembrance of the Pinochet and Ceausescu dictatorships, as well as the Tito´s Yugoslavia. First, it shows how migrants who experienced dictatorships in both regions operate their own vernacular comparisons between the two experiences. These reframe the tropes existing in dominant memory narratives in each country and create hierarchies of suffering and oppression (i.e. in the case of the Romania–Chile comparison, with a more negative valuation of the Ceauşescu dictatorship). Second, by discussing intergenerational memory for those who did not experience dictatorship, as well as diasporic memory formations (e.g. Croat Chileans), it shows that, in these instances, comparisons are more under the influence of dominant national memory frames, but also of memory entrepreneurs who mobilize specific threads. Moreover, the article discusses how these various migrant experiences constitute and reframe senses of belonging, interrogating both the formulations of home and transnationality.
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Outdoor learning through its immersive experience can be an avenue for critical inquiry in artmaking. Malaysian artists Piyadasa and Suleiman claim artists have not engaged in critical thinking and have become craftsmen instead of thinkers. Artmaking becomes concerned with superficial form, technique and style rather than content. The art education in Malaysian schools has emphasized the technical ‘know-how' of art production with little critical inquiry, focusing on the end product of art as craft and not a thinking process. Outdoor learning, through the context of time and place as social materials, aims to inculcate critical thinking and develop a student's voice and Malaysian identity. Redefining outdoor learning as sites of memory, this paper presents four types of spaces: physical space in natural and urban environments, communicative space, collaborative space and media space through an art gallery, as ways of integrating artistic thinking and developing a Malaysian identity through art education.
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Cities are places of constant contradictions – on the one hand culturally rich and diverse places with interesting entanglements of social and spatial relations, on the other hand sites of inequality, segregation and conflict. There are obviously various and sometimes opposing understandings, narrations and representations of a city. From an urban history perspective, it is adequate to critically ask: how do historymaking and representations of a city’s past contribute to create cities and trajectories of urban development? To understand this, we need to pay attention to how urban phenomena are historicised, categorised, preserved and used in official history, and in urban planning. How cities are narrated and projected will influence what kind of city it is possible to imagine, what is understood as problematic, and consequently how and for whom cities are planned and developed. This correlation between history and future-making places questions of power at the centre of urban history and development. This anthology has its origin in the conference Creating the City. Identity, Memory and Participation, in Malmö, Sweden, 9-10 February 2017, arranged by the Institute for Studies in Malmö’s History (IMH) – a research institute affiliated with the Urban Studies department at Malmö University. The conference gathered scholars from various disciplines, such as history, anthropology, literature, geography, sociology, political science and media and communication; and practitioners as archive and museum professionals, urban planners, architects and artists.
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Sport is one of the most powerful institutions for the production of places of memory and the constructions of identities that fantastically connect the past with the present and the future through the symbolic investment in particular sports practices. The study of the Arkadian races is a micro-history in the field of sports that utilizes diverse quality data (life stories, photographs, newspaper texts) and is oriented to the semantic worlds, social events and repertoires of physical cultures and sports practices of a local society. The Arkadian races were institutionalized in 1936 and are the longest-lived sports institution in Rethymnon, which, with various adaptations, is preserved to this day. Through this invented sports institution, the local community negotiates aspects of its complex past and forms a mental bridge with the voluntary sacrifice of Arkadi, a symbol and identifying element of locality. The analysis highlights the complex social, cultural and economic implications of the institution, its relationship to the proposals of civil society, as well as the repertoires of representations of a particular community of memory formed around the struggles over time. Περίληψη Ο αθλητισμός είναι από τους πιο ισχυρούς θεσμούς παραγωγής τόπων μνήμης και διαμόρφωσης ταυτοτήτων που συνδέουν νοερά το παρελθόν με το παρόν και το μέλλον μέσα από τη συμβολική επένδυση σε ιδιαίτερες αθλητικές πρακτικές. Η μελέτη των Αρκάδιων αγώνων συνιστά μια μικρο-ιστορία στο πεδίο του αθλητισμού που αξιοποιεί πολύμορφα τεκμήρια ποιοτικών δεδομένων (αφηγήσεις ζωής, φωτογραφίες, κείμενα εφημερίδων) και προσανατολίζεται στους νοηματικούς κόσμους, τα κοινωνικά συμβάντα και τα ρεπερτόρια των σωματικών πολιτισμών και των αθλητικών πρακτικών μιας τοπικής κοινωνίας. Οι Αρκάδιοι αγώνες θεσμοποιήθηκαν το 1936 και αποτελούν τον μακροβιότερο αθλητικό θεσμό του Ρεθύμνου, ο οποίος, με ποικίλες προσαρμογές, διατηρείται ως τις ημέρες μας. Μέσα από αυτόν τον επινοημένο αθλητικό θεσμό η τοπική κοινωνία διαχειρίζεται και διαπραγματεύεται όψεις του σύνθετου παρελθόντος της και διαμορφώνει μια νοερή γέφυρα με την εθελοθυσία του Αρκαδίου, σύμβολο και ταυτοποιητικό στοιχείο της τοπικότητας. Η ανάλυση αναδεικνύει τις σύνθετες κοινωνικές, πολιτισμικές και οικονομικές προεκτάσεις του θεσμού, τη σχέση του με τα προτάγματα της αστικής κοινωνίας, καθώς και με τα ρεπερτόρια των αναπαραστάσεων μιας ιδιαίτερης κοινότητας μνήμης που διαμορφώθηκε γύρω από τους αγώνες στο πέρασμα του χρόνου.
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This paper explores how art contributes to the articulation of memories that counter the official historical narrative of Hungary’s self-proclaimed political and ideological system, illiberal democracy. Amid deepening polarization between Europe’s post-colonialist and post-socialist countries, the Hungarian government promotes a Christian conservative national identity against the “liberal” values of Western Europe. Systematic appropriation of historical traumas is at the core of such efforts, which largely manifests in removing, erecting and reinstating memorials, as well as in the re-signification of trauma sites. Insufficient civic involvement in rewriting histories generates new ways of resistance, which I demonstrate through the case study of a protest-performance organized by the Living Memorial activist group as a response to the government’s decision to displace the memorial of Imre Nagy in 2018. I seek to understand the dynamics between top-down memory politics, civil resistance and art within the conceptual apparatus of the “memory activism nexus” (Rigney 2018, 2020) and “multidirectional memories” (Rothberg 2009). I argue that artistic memory activism has limited potential to transform the dynamics of memory in a context where a national conservative political force has gradually taken control over historical narratives, triggering inevitably polarizing responses in the society. Although profoundly embedded in local histories, the case-study may offer new ways of negotiating traumatic heritages through the entanglement of art and memory activism.
Article
By the early eighteenth century, the economic primacy, cultural efflorescence, and geopolitical power of the Dutch Republic appeared to be waning. The end of this Golden Age was also an era of natural disasters. Between the late seventeenth and the mid-eighteenth century, Dutch communities weathered numerous calamities, including river and coastal floods, cattle plagues, and an outbreak of strange mollusks that threatened the literal foundations of the Republic. Adam Sundberg demonstrates that these disasters emerged out of longstanding changes in environment and society. They were also fundamental to the Dutch experience and understanding of eighteenth-century decline. Disasters provoked widespread suffering, but they also opened opportunities to retool management strategies, expand the scale of response, and to reconsider the ultimate meaning of catastrophe. This book reveals a dynamic and often resilient picture of a society coping with calamity at odds with historical assessments of eighteenth-century stagnation.
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This paper investigates secular bio-icons’ political revitalization, illustrating their application as critical interventions into contemporary political struggles in the Middle East. To elucidate this phenomenon, we introduce the concept politics of revitalization to address how memory entrepreneurs can manage the past in ways that legitimize their involvement in particular visions of the future, thereby holding the potential to consolidate the position of political elites in power. Based on an analysis of three secular bio-icons: Jamila Bouhired, Leila Khaled and Hilarion Capucci, we argue that the mobilizing, resistive and aspirational potential of secular bio-icons can be utilized strategically by political actors to boost and legitimize existing (and widely contested) regimes or ideological beliefs by anchoring them in mediated renditions of historical narratives. We hold that secular bio-icons’ political application constitutes a distinct social technique applied by Iran, Syria and Hizbollah to (re)activate nostalgic collective memories, pointing towards particular futures in which they entrench their political status and undermine opposing actors.
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Food issues 食事. Interdisciplinary Studies on Food in Modern and Contemporary East Asia concentrates on the relationship among food, culture, literature, and language in a comparative, transcultural, or literary perspective. The contributions investigate these aspects from different approaches: historical, sociological, anthropological, religious, linguistic, and want to deepen issues such as the symbolic value of food; food as an essential element for the construction of individual identity and a sign of belonging to a community; food as an intercultural medium; food as language and the language of food. The articles included in the volume are organized in a Japanese and a Chinese section and use different approaches within humanities disciplines to explore topics ranging from classical and contemporary East Asian literature to present-day issues, focusing on Food Culture and its declinations.
Article
This paper affords a Lotmanian cultural semiotic analysis of the inner workings of ritual embodying the mechanism of cultural memory. In this intersectional study, we propose treating ritual as an integral semiotic system in which the community follows a prescribed collective process to create religious or social meanings and to regulate the mechanism of cultural memory through concrete symbols in the forms of behavior, speech, gestures, objects, spatial structures, and so on. Three semiotic properties of ritual in relation to cultural memory are identified, namely, continuity, concreteness, and integrity, which are jointly responsible for the efficacy of ritual in cultural memory making, or to be specific, in the preservation, retrieval, and even reproduction of cultural memory. With these properties, ritual helps construct and maintain socio-cultural order and group identity in the community, by repeating itself and thus creating a sense of continuity through the preservation and retrieval of cultural memory. The key components in ritual are its diverse and polysemous symbols, which are seldom confined to a specific context, although they are indeed subject to the dominant symbol and the dominant meaning in a ritual when necessary. With an extraordinary degree of autonomy and not bound to any fixed context, ritual symbols can enter a ritual situation as its components but retain the freedom of leaving the ritual context at any time, like an unchained “spectator,” and permeating multiple contexts as self-contained units. It is precisely through these transferrable ritual symbols that the fragments of cultural memory are randomly dispersed in the semiosphere and carried to unexpected socio-cultural contexts, bridging the past, the present, and the future and creating new cultural memory.
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his article makes use of history documentary films to examine mediated historical culture and memory narrated by media. It particularly focuses on transgenerational dimensions of memory in media representations – the idea of how collective memories are transmitted through media to a second generation of people who did not directly experience the actual events but who nonetheless have often been exposed to the traumatic tensions of the first generation. The article first asks how mediated memory provides different views on war in historical culture. Second, it discusses how the memory of war is negotiated in the contemporary institutional historical culture of a democracy. The article demonstrates that since the role of the state in public remembrance is no longer as clear-cut as before, at least in democratic countries, historical culture is a more appropriate and precise concept than either civil society or even public history for analysing the importance of memory in society. The article also confirms the notion that it is difficult, if not even impossible, to separate media-narrated memory into the collective and private spheres of life. The empirical body of research consists of three Finnish history documentary films on WWII screened or broadcast in 2017, when Finland celebrated its 100-year anniversary.
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Изучаются практики визуализации нарративов культурной памяти города на примере анализа бренда как мифа. Актуальность исследований указанной тематики подтверждается повышенным научным интересом к тем феноменам, которые символически детерминируют городскую реальность, а также эпизодичностью исследований, связанных с изучением проблематики культурной памяти города. Особую роль в процессах репрезентации образов городского прошлого играют нарративы, представляющие собой символический репертуар фрагментов культурной памяти города. В связи с этим бренд города рассматривается как миф, который через доступную символику визуальных форм передаёт и поддерживает идею города для различных аудиторий, вызывая устойчивые ассоциации, идентифицирующие город посредством культурных смыслов. Рассматривая три уровня наррации, автор раскрывает различные аспекты функционирования бренда-мифа в городской среде: а) формирование устойчивой идентификации места и его «отличимости»; б) конструирование культурного коллажа, части которого в хронологии и в пространстве образуют связные тексты города; в) реализация социальных практик, направленных на рефлексию и интерпретацию замысла бренда. Поскольку нарративный текст предполагает наличие смысловых последовательностей, то идея бренда должна быть представлена в городской реальности путём регулярной дешифровки заложенных в бренде смыслов. В качестве иллюстрации к выдвигаемым тезисам автор обращается к трём типам практик брендирования городов, которые визуально манифестируют разные способы уникальности места: бренд-миф города, основанный (1) на народных промыслах и культурных традициях, (2) на исторических событиях, (3) на сакральных значениях природы. Символическая природа мифа позволяет рассматривать бренд города как одну из практик визуализации нарративов, конструирующих городскую реальность через образы культурной памяти города. Исходя из этого, новизной статьи можно признать попытку рассмотреть визуальные носители городского мифа как современные способы репрезентации нарратива, которые с помощью доступных форм «упаковывают» сложные смыслы культурной памяти города в простые и понятные большинству формы. При этом мифологическая природа бренда делает его мощным детерминантом структурирования культурных смыслов, а следовательно, фактором конструирования городской реальности. Автор подчёркивает, что в результате и сам бренд города следует рассматривать не столько как средство повышения привлекательности места, столько как инструмент осмысления города для горожан. В связи с этим брендинг города представляет собой одно из направлений символической политики региональных элит. The article is dedicated to the study of practices of visualizing narratives of the city’s cultural memory on the example of the analysis of brand as a myth. The relevance of the research on the practices of visualizing narratives of the city’s cultural memory is confirmed by the increased scientific interest in the phenomena that symbolically determine the urban reality, as well as by the episodic nature of research related to the study of the city’s cultural memory. According to the author, narratives that represent the symbolic repertoire of fragments of the city’s cultural memory play a special role in the processes of representation of images of the city’s past. In this regard, the city brand is considered as a myth that conveys and supports the idea of the city for various audiences through the accessible symbolism of visual forms, evoking stable associations that identify the city through cultural meanings. Considering three levels of the narrative, the author reveals various aspects of the brand-myth functioning in the urban environment: a) the formation of a stable identification of the place and its “distinctiveness”, b) the construction of a cultural collage, parts of which form coherent texts of the city in chronology and in space, с) the implementation of social practices aimed at the reflection and interpretation of the brand idea. Since the narrative text assumes the presence of semantic sequences, the brand idea should be presented in the urban reality by regularly deciphering the meanings embedded in the brand. As an illustration of the proposed theses, the author refers to three types of city branding practices that visually manifest different ways of place uniqueness: the brand myth of the city, based (1) on folk crafts and cultural traditions, (2) on historical events, and (3) on the sacred meanings of nature. The symbolic nature of myth allows considering the city brand as one of the practices of visualizing narratives that construct urban reality through images of the city’s cultural memory. The visual media of the urban myth represent one of the modern ways of representing the narrative, which, using accessible forms, “packs” complex meanings of the city’s cultural memory into simple forms understandable for most people. Meanwhile, the mythological nature of the brand makes it a powerful determinant of structuring cultural meanings and therefore a factor in constructing urban reality. The author states that brand should be considered not only as a means of increasing the attractiveness of the place, but as a tool of understanding the city for citizens. In this regard, city branding is one of the directions of the symbolic policy of regional elites.
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Los involucrados en prácticas relacionadas con la desaparición forzada no se reducen a lecturas binarias concentradas habitualmente en la relación víctimas-victimarios, los actores son diversos y los efectos que tiene tal situación varían dependiendo de la manera como se ubican ante el acontecimiento, el momento en el cual deben enfrentar una relación con lo vivido y las perspectivas que agentes externos construyen sobre territorios afectados por ello. La condición de afectación es tan amplia como las formas de enfrentarse que encuentran los diferentes miembros de una comunidad ante un ejercicio de violencia tan fuerte y permanente en el tiempo, a diferencia de otras formas de violencia esta además alimenta la condición de angustia, incertidumbre y miedo, a partir de la ausencia de un cuerpo que al no aparecer, no permite cerrar un trauma por medio de los recursos simbólicos que como colectivos nos valemos en este tipo de pérdidas, ésto con la intención de continuar en medio de la tristeza pero tratando de caminar desde lo vivido. El desaparecer forzosamente implica una herida abierta dirigida a una población, que sobrevive, se adapta y resiste. El tejido roto que implica esta forma de violencia no se puede abordar en un tiempo específico, tiene impactos inconmensurables que se deben entender desde miradas más estructurales; el ritual, es uno de estos recursos que habla de las prácticas cotidianas de la comunidad, así como de los trámites emergentes de estas ante situaciones de violencia como las padecidas, termina siendo entonces éste un dispositivo cultural que atraviesa el contexto cotidiano y las huellas que deja este tipo de experiencias de forma tanto individual como colectiva.
Chapter
This chapter explores how Mussolini’s Fascist regime politicized the remembrance of the First World War by linking a narrative of heroism to specific notions of grief. It reveals that, given the scale of Italy’s losses in the war, commemoration of the fallen was a highly emotional issue, which provided the regime with a powerful means of political communication. As the Fascist authorities sought to exploit feelings towards the dead for the purpose of mobilizing the Italian population, emotions came to define the political agenda. In seeking a high degree of emotional control, the Italian dictatorship elaborated strategies of manipulation that were later imitated by other authoritarian powers, including Hitler’s Germany and Franco’s Spain. Ossuaries from the time offer evidence of the political intentions of the Fascist regime and the emotional responses that visitors were meant to feel. Architecture and its surrounding discourse thus acted as carriers of emotional messages with political intent.
Article
This article argues that transgression provides an illuminating critical category to examine the narrative construction of John Boyne’s The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas (2006). Boyne’s decision to entrust his testimonial narrative to Bruno, the son of an SS commander, produces a representational uncertainty that is reminiscent of Theodor Adorno’s claims on post-Auschwitz aesthetics. Bruno’s fictional testimony is marked by a difficulty in conceptualising experience via language, which reveals voids in his cognizance of reality. This epistemic modality, however, is transgressed by the interaction of words and images in the film version of the novel.
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The paper examines the role of the senses in conflicting urban memories through a study of the Smithfield Market area in London. It investigates which histories are silenced in cultural and communicative memories and which ones are mobilized to construct a narrative of Smithfield as a liminal place that can resist and shape broader processes of change. Beyond discussing how a better understanding of sensory memories might inform the development of the site, the paper aims to reflect more broadly on two questions: how to widen historical approaches to the study of conflicting urban memories through interdisciplinary attention to the senses; and, by comparing and relating the case studies to other areas in and beyond London, how to conceptualize uneven distributions of conflictual memories in urban spaces.
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Klassik ist durch die prinzipielle Doppelheit von Normativität und Historizität charakterisiert. Klassik wird einerseits als etwas Normatives, Zeitresistentes bestimmt — andererseits läßt es sich als jeweils historisches Phänomen verstehen und rekonstruieren.
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This article considers the relevance of individual and collective memory in political analysis. It proposes that there are four formats of memory and these are individual memory, social memory, political memory, and cultural memory. It argues for the existence of collective memory and explains that human beings do not only live in the first person singular, but also in various formats of the first person plural. It contends that each 'we' is constructed through specific discourses that mark certain boundary lines and define respective principles of inclusion and exclusion and suggests that to acknowledge the concept of collective memory is to acknowledge the concept of some collective identity.
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Despite substantial work in a variety of disciplines, substantive areas, and geographical contexts, social memory studies is a nonparadigmatic, transdisciplinary, centerless enterprise. To remedy this relative disorganization, we (re-)construct out of the diversity of work addressing social memory a useful tradition, range of working definitions, and basis for future work. We trace lineages of the enterprise, review basic definitional disputes, outline a historical approach, and review sociological theories concerning the statics and dynamics of social memory.
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Aleida Assmann fragt nach den verschiedenen Aufgaben kultureller Erinnerung, ihren Medien (wie Schrift, Bilder, Denkmäler) im historischen und technischen Wandel sowie nach den Umgangsformen mit gespeichertem Wissen, bei denen neben Politik und Wissenschaft auch der Kunst eine wachsende Bedeutung zukommt.
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In ten brilliant essays, Jan Assmann explores the connections between religion, culture, and memory. Building on Maurice Halbwachs's idea that memory, like language, is a social phenomenon as well as an individual one, he argues that memory has a cultural dimension too. He develops a persuasive view of the life of the past in such surface phenomena as codes, religious rites and festivals, and canonical texts on the one hand, and in the Freudian psychodrama of repressing and resurrecting the past on the other. Whereas the current fad for oral history inevitably focuses on the actual memories of the last century or so, Assmann presents a commanding view of culture extending over five thousand years. He focuses on cultural memory from the Egyptians, Babylonians, and the Osage Indians down to recent controversies about memorializing the Holocaust in Germany and the role of memory in the current disputes between Israelis and Palestinians in the Middle East and between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland.
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Two studies of autobiographical memory explored the hypothesis that memories become more accessible when the linguistic environment at retrieval matches the linguistic environment at encoding. In Experiment 1, Russian-English bilinguals were asked to recall specific life experiences in response to word prompts. The results supported the hypothesis of language-dependent recall: Participants retrieved more experiences from the Russian-speaking period of their lives when interviewed in Russian and more experiences from the English-speaking period of their lives when interviewed in English. In Experiment 2, the language of the interview was varied independently from the language of the word prompts. Both variables were found to influence autobiographical recall. These findings show that language at the time of retrieval, like other forms of context, plays a significant role in determining what will be remembered.
Collective Memory—What Is It?
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Gedi, Noa, and Yigal Elam. “Collective Memory—What Is It?” History & Memory 8.1 (1996): 30-50
Letter VII, Platonis (Opera Ed
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Oxford: Oxford University Press. Plato (1901b). Letter VII, Platonis (Opera Ed., I. Burnet, Trans.). (St. III, Vol. 5, pp. 323d–351).
Memory, individual and collective The Oxford handbook of contextual political analysis
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Schrift, Tradition, Kultur [Writing, tradition, culture
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Five steps of canonization: Tradition, scripture and the origin of the Hebrew Bible
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Pour une approche anthropologique de la mémoire religieuse [Toward an anthropological approach to religious memory
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Europäische Literatur und lateinisches Mittelalter [European literature and Latin middle ages]
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Kleinere Schriften [Short writings
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Aby Warburg. Eine intellektuelle Biographie [Aby Warburg: An intellectual biography]. Frankfurt am Main
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La topographie légendaire des évangiles en Terre Sainte [The legendary topography of the gospels in the Holy Land]
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Joseph und seine Brüder [Joeseph and his brethren] (4 vols.). Frankfurt am Main
  • T Mann
Kunst und soziales Gedächtnis. Die Warburg-Tradition [Art and social memory: The Warburg tradition
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Collected Works (G 20 vols. Bollingen series
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Remarks on personal identity-Inner, social and historical time
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Lebenserfahrung und kollektives Gedächtnis. Die Praxis der “Oral History” [Life experience and collective memory: The practice of “oral history
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