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Impact properties of natural fibre composites

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Abstract

Little analysis has been made to correlate the impact behavior of natural fiber composites with the fiber properties. It is with this view that the present study on the impact properties of natural fiber composites has been undertaken. Unidirectionally aligned fiber/polyester composites containing ca. 0. 5 volume fraction of sisal, pineapple, banana and coir fibers were prepared from unsaturated polyester prepregs. An attempt has been made to explain the variation in impact properties of various natural fiber composites in terms of microfibrillar angle of the fiber.

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... Similar to the tensile and flexural strengths, the impact strength of flax/PP composites cannot also compete with glass fibre composites, even in terms of the specific impact strength. Generally, the fracture toughness of composites depends on the stress-strain behaviour of fibre in addition to the interfacial strength[29,279]. Glass fibres are stronger than flax fibres, and therefore, they impart high work to fracture on the composites[279]. ...
... Generally, the fracture toughness of composites depends on the stress-strain behaviour of fibre in addition to the interfacial strength[29,279]. Glass fibres are stronger than flax fibres, and therefore, they impart high work to fracture on the composites[279]. The E-glass fibres are isotropic fibres, whereas the flax fibres are anisotropic fibres. ...
... Flax fibres show the non-constant crosssection along the fibre length and variability of the chemical composition from one fibre to another. These are the main causes for the poor impact strength of natural fibre composites[55,[279][280][281][282][283][284][285][286][287]. ...
Thesis
This work investigates the effects of fibre content and fibre orientation on the mechanical performances of flax fibre-reinforced polypropylene composites (FFPCs) along with fracture characteristics, particularly for unidirectional (UD) beam-like specimens. This work also investigates the effects of fibre content, fibre orientation and frequency on the dynamic behaviour of UD beam test specimens of FFPCs. Laminates of various fibre contents and orientations were manufactured by a vacuum bagging process, their static and dynamic properties are then obtained using various mechanical (tensile, flexural and impact (Charpy impact and drop weight impact)) and dynamic (dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and impact hammer technique (IHT)) analyses, respectively. The mechanical properties of the composites are strongly affected by fibre orientation with respect to the loading direction; for example, the tensile modulus decreases from 20 GPa to 3.45 GPa at an off-axis angle of 30° for a fibre volume fraction of 0.40. The largest mechanical properties (tensile, flexural and Charpy impact strength) are found in the case of 0° fibre orientation. For composites with fibre volume fractions in the range 0.31-0.50, tensile moduli are in the range 16-21 GPa and tensile strengths are in the range 125-173 MPa, while flexural moduli and strengths are in the ranges 12-15 GPa and 96-121 MPa, respectively, making them suitable for structural applications. The maximum impact strength of 52 kJ/m2 is observed for a fibre orientation of 0° and volume fraction of 0.50 in the case of in-plane impact load (i.e., Charpy impact), whereas the composites with 30° and 45° fibre orientations have the maximum energy absorption of about 17 J on average in the case of out-of-plane impact load (i.e., drop weight impact). The measured tensile moduli are compared with the predicted tensile moduli and a reasonable agreement is seen up to a fibre volume fraction of 0.40. The obtained results also suggest that the flax fibre composites are comparable to glass fibre composites especially in terms of specific stiffness. The dynamic characteristics were found from vibration measurements of beam test specimens using DMA and IHT to frequencies of 100 Hz and 1000 Hz, respectively. The frequency response of a sample was measured and the response at resonance was used to estimate the natural frequency and loss factor. The single-degree-of-freedom circle-fit method and the Newton’s divided differences formula were used to estimate the natural frequencies as well as the loss factors. The damping estimates were also investigated using a “carpet” plot. Experiments were subsequently conducted on a range of samples with different fibre volume fractions and orientations. The results show significant variations in natural frequencies and loss factors according to the variations in fibre orientation. Samples with 45°, 60° and 90° fibre orientations exhibit approximately the same natural frequencies. Composites with differing fibre orientations exhibit different loss factors for the various modes of vibration, and the maximum loss factor is obtained for the case of 45° fibre orientation, with the loss factor generally lying in the range of 2-7%. It was found that the loss factor increases with increasing frequency and decreases slightly with increasing fibre content. It was shown that the effect of twisting on damping is more significant (153% higher) than the bending. Numerical estimates of the response, and in particular the natural frequencies, were made using a Mechanical APDL (ANSYS parametric design language) finite element model, with the beam being discretised into a number of shell elements. If the fibre angle is 0° or 90° with respect to the beam axis, then, for an impact on the centreline, the motions are predominantly bending. For other fibre orientations, the impact induces both bending and torsion. The outcomes from this study indicate that flax fibre-reinforced composite could be a commercially viable material for applications in which noise and vibration are significant issues and where a significant amount of damping is required with a combination of high impact energy absorption and stiffness. The thesis concludes with suggestions for further research in the future, based on the findings of this study.
... Traditionally, glass [1, 2] (GF) and occasionally carbon fibers (CF) [3,4] are used as reinforcing materials, achieving a stiffness as large as 13 GPa at least with carbon fibers [4]. Recently, traditional fibers have often been replaced with natural fibers or wood flour [5][6][7][8]. These fibers have various advantages including their natural origin, beneficial effect on carbon footprint, they are light and cheap, and have reasonable stiffness and strength as well [5,6]. ...
... Recently, traditional fibers have often been replaced with natural fibers or wood flour [5][6][7][8]. These fibers have various advantages including their natural origin, beneficial effect on carbon footprint, they are light and cheap, and have reasonable stiffness and strength as well [5,6]. On the other hand, natural fibers have several drawbacks like the dependence of properties on the source of the fiber, the year of the harvest and climatic conditions. ...
... On the other hand, natural fibers have several drawbacks like the dependence of properties on the source of the fiber, the year of the harvest and climatic conditions. They are also sensitive to water and heat, have poor adhesion to most polymer matrices especially to J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f polyolefins (PE, PP), and small transverse strength [5,6]. ...
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Polypropylene composites were prepared from neat and alkali-treated sugarcane bagasse fibers. The results showed that alkali treatment leads to an increase in composite stiffness and strength. A maximum is achieved in these properties at around 5 wt% NaOH content of the treating solution. The increase in properties was assigned to the improvement in inherent fiber characteristics. Acoustic emission testing and electron microscopy showed that the two main local deformation processes related to the fibers are their fracture and debonding; the latter is accompanied by the shear yielding of the matrix. Increased inherent strength of the fibers results in an increase in the fracture initiation stress and fracture energy of the composites. Interfacial adhesion has a slight effect on stiffness, but more significant on strength and impact resistance. Changing adhesion modifies the relative importance of local deformation processes, the number of debonding events decreases, while fiber fracture increases with increasing adhesion. Increased interfacial adhesion improves stress transfer and the load bearing capacity of the fibers as well, but suppresses matrix yielding. Alkali treatment increases inherent fiber strength, which can be directly correlated with composite strength.
... The tequila extraction process leaves the agave bagasse nearly ready for its use as source of fibres and with promising properties similar to other natural fibres used in composites [35,72,74]. UNF obtained from this source were still arranged in bundles covered by non-cellulosic materials. ...
... agave sisalana 385-577 MPa) [87] widely used and produced specifically as reinforcement for composites. The lower mechanical properties of ATF used in this study, in comparison with other non-waste natural fibres [18,74,77,85,86] is likely to be the result of mechanical and thermal stresses during tequila production. These processes might have partially removed cementing materials that kept the cohesion between fibre cells. ...
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The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of upcycling fibre residues from the harvesting and production of tequila to green composites. Specifically, four different surface-modified natural fibres were assessed as raw material for green composite production. Before any surface treatment, the morphology and tensile properties of agave bagasse fibres from the tequila production batches were determined by optical and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and single fibre tensile test, respectively. Further to this, agave fibres were exposed by immersion to four surface treatments including alkali, acetylation, enzymatic and silane treatments, in order to improve their morphology and compatibility with polylactic acid (PLA). The effects of these treatments on fibres’ morphology, mechanical properties (i.e. Youngs modulus and ultimate tensile strength), interfacial shear strength (IFSS), and water absorption were assessed. Overall, surface treatments showed improvements in agave bagasse fibre properties with the best results for alkali treated fibres with an ultimate tensile strength of 119.10 MPa, Young modulus of 3.05 GPa, and an IFSS of up to ~60% higher (5.21 MPa) to that performed by untreated samples. These tests allowed to identify alkali treatment as the most suitable for agave bagasse fibres. These results shed light on the interfacial interaction between agave bagasse fibres and PLA and the potential to up-cycle these residue agave fibres to manufacture PLA-based green composites.
... Pests and diseaseses are naturally regulated only with changing types of fruits, mixed cultures or with the use of pesticides [1]. Most of the chemicals used are very toxic and have a harmful effect on the environment especially aquatic ecosystem, groundwater and creating health problems of the surrounding community [20,37]. In Costa Rica where monoculture cultivation of pineapple is prevalent [38], the villagers of surrounding areas reported health issues related to headache, body aches, nausea and leukaemia. ...
... Pineapple varieties and distribution[16,20,21] ...
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Chapter
A pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) is classified according to the sources in plants, where they occur and from which they are extracted. PALF is considered to be superior in texture than any other vegetable fibre. It helps in climate restoration and soil quality by preventing soil erosion. This chapter includes pineapple cultivation practices, plant anatomy, varieties, diseases, nutritional needs, usefulness and its production at a global level. Plant distribution, varieties, fruit and fibre yield potential are also envisioned in this chapter. Post-harvest operations, decorticating practices, fibre retting, finishing, chemical composition and physico-chemical properties are reported. It also explains plant benefits to farmers, consumers and the environment.
... Sinha and Panigrahi [5] found that plasma-treated fibres demonstrate superior surface hydrophobicity and improved their shear strength. Similarly, research on the treatment of natural fibers has involved heating the fibers to temperatures close to those that can cause their degradation and affect their properties [6]. Huber et al. [7] found that electron radiation can improve the interfacial bond between natural fibres and polypropylene (PP) from 21% to 53% due to the generation of free radicals that promote fibre/matrix cross-linking. ...
... A vast bulk of natural fibre processing literature has also focused on the chemical treatment of natural fibres that have shown improved physical strengths and interfacial strength properties [3,6]. Chemically, such treatments often involve the use of alkali, acetyl, silane, benzyl, acrylic, permanganate, peroxide, isocyanate, titanate, zirconate, and acrylonitrile treatments, along with a maleic anhydride graft interfacial agent [9]. ...
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Natural fibers are gaining wide attention due to their much lower carbon footprint and economic factors compared to synthetic fibers. The moisture affinity of these lignocellulosic fibres, however, is still one of the main challenges when using them, e.g., for outdoor applications, leading to fast degradation rates. Plastination is a technique originally used for the preservation of human and animal body organs for many years, by replacing the water and fat present in the tissues with a polymer. This article investigates the feasibility of adapting such plastination to bamboo natural fibres using the S-10 room-temperature technique in order to hinder their moisture absorption ability. The effect of plastination on the mechanical properties and residual moisture content of the bamboo natural fibre samples was evaluated. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) were employed to characterize the chemical composition and 3-dimensional morphology of the plastinated specimens. The results clearly show that, as plastination lessens the hydrophilic tendency of the bamboo fibres, it also decreases the residual moisture content and increases the tensile strength and stiffness of the fibers.
... A series of studies on the impact properties of a composite structure with banana fiber reinforcement have been conducted [12][13][14][15][16]. The impact strength of banana pseudo-stem unplastisized polyvinyl chloride composites were conducted by Zainudin and Sapuan [12] using the Izod impact test. ...
... It was found that fiber loading using banana fiber could possibly enhance the impact strength properties of the composites. Pavithran et al. [13] conducted the Charpy test in order to evaluate the effect of banana, sisal, and pineapple reinforcement on the fracture of coir/polyester composites and found that the sisal/polyester composites exhibited the highest value. The impact strengths of hybrid sisal, banana, coir, and sisal/banana/coir-fiber-reinforced epoxy were also compared by Balaji et al. [14]. ...
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Banana fiber has a high potential for use in fiber composite structures due to its promise as a polymer reinforcement. However, it has poor bonding characteristics with the matrixes due to hydrophobic–hydrophilic incompatibility, inconsistency in blending weight ratio, and fiber length instability. In this study, the optimal conditions for a banana/epoxy composite as determined previously were used to fabricate a sandwich structure where carbon/Kevlar twill plies acted as the skins. The structure was evaluated based on two experimental tests: low-velocity impact and compression after impact (CAI) tests. Here, the synthetic fiber including Kevlar, carbon, and glass sandwich structures were also tested for comparison purposes. In general, the results showed a low peak load and larger damage area in the optimal banana/epoxy structures. The impact damage area, as characterized by the dye penetration, increased with increasing impact energy. The optimal banana composite and synthetic fiber systems were proven to offer a similar residual strength and normalized strength when higher impact energies were applied. Delamination and fracture behavior were dominant in the optimal banana structures subjected to CAI testing. Finally, optimization of the compounding parameters of the optimal banana fibers improved the impact and CAI properties of the structure, making them comparable to those of synthetic sandwich composites.
... Bast fibers Mesta, Roselle, Hemp, Jute, Flax Long length, highly durable and soft in nature. [28,29] Grass fibers Rice, Bamboo, Wheat, Rice, Barley Short fiber cells, slightly hard in nature and isolated cell diameter is 10-18 μm. [30,31] Core fibers Jute, Kenaf, Flax, Hemp High stiffness, tough and strong fibers. ...
Article
The continuous delivery of E-waste from petroleum-based products creates ecological and environmental problems due to non-biodegradable polymers, which release harmful chemicals and toxic gases. This results in biodegradable polymers/fibers appearance, which are biocompatible and degrade in the surrounding environments without causing any environmental pollution and these relieve environmental burden. However, the bio-based materials are unable to meet certain properties in the way of flexibility, dielectric properties, electrical properties, water and gas vapor barrier properties. The current day's research focus is towards the implementation of biodegradable composites properties by introducing different nanostructures. The biopolymers/biofibers are used as raw material in concern with environmental aspects. Nowadays researchers are supplementing a new form of materials known as nanofillers in various biopolymer-based composites in a small amount. This nanofillers will act as additives and helps in enhancing the different properties such as mechanical, thermal, flame retardancy and water absorption behavior of the nano composite materials as well as maintaining the optimum density of them. The nanocomposites applications are extended in various sectors for the reason of higher surface area, aspect ratio, and superior properties. This review outlines the types of biofibers/biopolymers and their characterization, types of nanofillers, and their characterization, and summarizes the various functional properties of nanocomposites with their applications. K E Y W O R D S biodegradable composites, biofiber, biopolymer, cellulose, nanofillers
... Tensile testing (also called as tension testing) is a basic science and engineering tests of materials in which a model is subjected to continuous stress before failure. Properties specifically evaluated via a tensile test are ultimate tensile strength, breakage strength, extreme elongation and area reduction [22][23][24]. ...
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Article
Get access Share icon Skip to Main Content Log in | Register Search in: Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies Latest Articles 28 Views 1 CrossRef citations to date 0 Altmetric Research Article Physical and mechanical properties, morphological behaviour of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polyester resin composites Praveena B a,Balachandra P Shetty,Sachin B,Shiv Pratap Singh Yadav &Avinash L Accepted 17 Nov 2020, Published online: 30 Nov 2020 Download citation https://doi.org/10.1080/2374068X.2020.1853498 CrossMark LogoCrossMark ABSTRACT The article focuses on the study of the physical, mechanical, and SEM of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polyester composites. An investigation has been carried out in this relation to allow better use of PALF to manufacture value-added goods. Normal composites made from fibre are under intensive research because of their environmentally friendly nature and peculiar character. Their continuous supply is beneficial for natural fibres, simple to handle and naturally biodegradable. In this research, the hand lay up process was used to manufacture composites. SEM was used to clarify the topography of fibre, matrix adhesion, fibre breakage, and failure. Related with additional regular fibre composites based on cellulose, the PALF polyester composites have greater mechanical properties. It was also experiential that as the fibre content increase young’s modulus and tensile strength also increases and it was found to be 2545 MPa and 66 MPa, respectively, at 40 Wt. %. Even compression strength & hardness values also increase with an increase in the fibre content at 40 Wt. %. The compression strength of 23 MPa and hardness of 83 was recorded. This was observed with SEM where fibres and matrix have exposed well miscibility at 40 wt. % of PALF.
... [1][2][3][4][5] Today, due to the global environmental threat, the production of natural fibre-based reinforced polymer composite and biodegradable composite materials are being replaced with synthetic (conventional) fibre composites and are being extensively used as an alternate source. [6][7][8] So natural fibre-based composite materials have received worldwide acceptance in most of the engineering applications to meet the expectation of design requirements. At present, natural fibre composites are extensively being used in applications such as automobiles, railways, buildings, defence, sporting goods, etc. [2][3][4][9][10][11][12] In the context of sisal and jute fibres, they are found to have higher strength and modulus, are easily available, are lower in cost and biodegradable. ...
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Natural fibre composites have received worldwide attention due to their good mechanical properties, lightweight and low density. Due to these advantages, the natural fibre composites have been used in various engineering applications. Drilling is one of the most frequent machining operations performed on hybrid sisal–jute polymer composites, to assemble the numerous structural components by using mechanical joining process. Furthermore, the machining of fibre reinforced composite material has attracted several researchers because of its non-homogeneous and anisotropic structure. The present research work concerns with the experimental studies on the drilling process of hybrid sisal–jute epoxy composite, using three different types of drill geometry (twist drill, step drill and core drill). The significance of the current work aims to reveal the effect of drill geometry configuration and drilling parameters in terms of drilling-induced force and damages (delamination and surface roughness) for the drilling of hybrid natural fibre composites. Drilling forces, drilling-induced damages and hole quality attributes were experimentally investigated for different drill geometries. The delamination and surface roughness type damages are revealed by microscopic analysis with the help of scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that twist drill is best suited for the hole- and force-induced damages.
... 6 Scholars that studied the coupling modification of natural fibers include Tabari et al. 8 and Lu et al. 9 while others that worked on the improvement of natural fibers through mercerization, acetylation and coupling include Lee et al., 10 Panigrahy et al., 11 Santos et al., 12 Hu and Lim, 13 and Li et al. 14 The properties of natural fiber composites can be tailored to achieve the desired end product depending on the type of fibers, type of resin, the proportion of fiber-resin, manufacturing conditions and the type of manufacturing process. [15][16][17] Recently, researchers have examined various applications of natural fiber reinforced thermoplastics. For instance, physical and rheological properties of biodegradable composites, 18 application of eco-friendly composite materials in automotive industries, 19 non-structural facilities, 20 and biomedical, energy and sports. ...
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This paper focused on the establishment of performance level and cost of plantain fibers reinforced High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) matrixes as gas pipeline material using pressure containment of the new materials as performance criterion. The cost of modified plantain fibers, the cost of plantain fibers reinforced HDPE (PFRHDPE) and the cost of PFRHDPE master batch (HDPE resin + plantain fiber particles + stabilizer, plasticizer) for pipes extrusion production and pipelines fittings injection productions were established. The burst pressure evaluated for available standard outside diameter ratio (SDR) using the ultimate tensile strength of PFRHDE is very much greater than the standard SDR design pressures even when the temperature derating factors were applied. The Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) of PFRHDPE and induced stresses of pressurized pipes established indicated that the new material is suitable for pipeline design for natural gas and liquid petroleum (LPG) lines. The PFRHDPE developed has better specific properties than the conventional steel and HDPE pipe material in terms of yield strength, elastic modulus and density of the new material. But in terms of cost, steel and HDPE has approximate desirability for selection with PFRHDPE. The energy required to manufacture and process steel products is about 480 MJ/m ² , while that of plastics is about 320 MJ/m ² . The study further established that PFRHDPE can be applied in the design of oil and gas gathering, transportation and distribution lines.
... The quality depends on the origin of the crop or even the time of the harvest, the fibers are sensitive to heat during processing, their adhesion to the polymer matrix is often poor, they absorb moisture and change dimensions, and so on. 27 However, one of their largest drawbacks is their poor strength in the transverse direction to their axis and the consequent small impact resistance of their composites. [28][29][30] Many attempts were made to vary the particle characteristics of wood, the properties of the matrix polymer, or interfacial adhesion by coupling, but the impact resistance of PP/wood composites remained small. ...
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Article
Polypropylene (PP) hybrid composites were prepared by the combination of natural reinforcements and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibers. Wood, flax, and sugar palm fibers were used to increase stiffness and strength, while PET fibers served to improve impact resistance. Interfacial adhesion was increased by using a maleated PP (MAPP) coupling agent. The hybrid composites containing 20 wt% of the natural fibers were homogenized in a twin‐screw compounder and then injection molded into standard tensile specimens. The amount of PET fibers was changed from 0 to 40 wt% in the composites. Tensile and impact testing, acoustic emission measurements, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for the characterization of the composites as well as to follow deformation and failure processes. The results proved that the concept of using PET fibers to improve impact resistance works with all natural fibers. Local deformations, the debonding or pullout of the PET fibers, initiate the plastic deformation of the matrix, which consumes considerable energy. The fracture of PET fibers might also contribute to energy absorption. The type of natural fiber does not influence the effect; the amount of PET fibers determines fracture resistance. The improvement of interfacial adhesion by coupling increases strength and slightly improves impact resistance. The overall properties of the hybrid composites prepared are acceptable, sufficiently large stiffness and impact resistance being achieved for a large number of structural applications.
... They are in the same order of magnitude as those obtained for the study of other varieties of bamboo fibers and vegetable fibers. 27,40 Study of cross-sections Figure 6 illustrates the evolution of the straight sections of BV fibers along the stem. ...
Article
In this study on characterization of bambusa vulgaris fibers from Cameroon (BV), we evaluated the linear density as well as the moisture uptake. With the help of SEM, the cross-sections were observed to be circular shapes; they increase from outside to inside in any transverse position along the stem. Also, the degradation temperature of BV was investigated with the aid of TGA and the result showed that the degradation temperature of BV fibers is between 366 °C and 380 °C. In addition, their Young's moduli in dynamic tensile test was determined and it was noticed that the Young moduli increase from inside to outside. The bending tests of BV fibers were carried out and enable the various parameters in zone 3/3. Finally, the creep behavior of BV fibers was studied and it was revealed that the 4-element Burger model describes very well this phenomenon and could help in well predicting fatigue behaviour of BV fibers reinforced composites.
... Compared to other natural fibers, which may contain up to approx. 15 wt % is a small [25]. The maximum degradation rate in this step is reached at 55°C. ...
... Bio-composites are used in the automobile, construction, and packaging industries. Bio-composites are mostly used in non-load-bearing and non-structural applications due to limitations in mechanical properties [150]. The construction sector requires composites to bear high stress, compression, and tension [129]. ...
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Article
Increased environmental concerns and global warming have diverted focus from eco-friendly bio-composites. Naturals fibers are abundant and have low harvesting costs with adequate mechanical properties. Hazards of synthetic fibers, recycling issues, and toxic byproducts are the main driving factors in the research and development of bio-composites. Bio-composites are degradable, renewable, non-abrasive, and non-toxic, with comparable properties to those of synthetic fiber composites and used in many applications in various fields. A detailed analysis is carried out in this review paper to discuss developments in bio-composites. The review covers structure, morphology, and modifications of fiber, mechanical properties, degradable matrix materials, applications, and limitations of bio-composites. Some of the key sectors employing bio-composites are the construction, automobile, and packaging industries. Furthermore, bio-composites are used in the field of medicine and cosmetics.
... Examined the Influence of short glass fiber expansion on the mechanical properties of sisal strengthened low thickness polyethylene composites [4]. Studied the influence of fiber microstructure on fiber breakage and mechanical properties of natural fiber reinforced polypropylene and studied the tensile modulus, tensile strength and elongation of sisal fiber [5]. Studied the tensile & flexural properties of sisal/glass fiber reinforced hybrid composites. ...
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Article
This project work is created by manual procedure of restoring the tiny tension. It will be occurring till one hour and difficulty in atmospheric temperature. We are producing four layers to changing the position and number of times. We investigated the flexures and ductile properties of sisal with glass fiber composites. The results of this paper slightly increasing the fiber properties. The layer grouping has more noteworthy impact on pliable, flexural properties. Generally speaking examination between the properties of the considerable number of covers uncovered that the half breed overlay (GSSG) with both end glass employs on either side is the ideal blend with an honest harmony between the properties and price. Limited component models are made with ANSYS recreation programming. These models are utilized to reproduce the effect tests for half and half fiber composite material with various stacking grouping. Diagrams are plotted to think about the effect conduct of various utilize directions. This innovation brief depicts an examination on to the sisal and glass fiber fortified plate and the particular points of interest of ANSYS Express for this sort of reenactment.
... Traditionally, the majority of impact studies on NFCs have been conducted using pendulum methods like Charpy or Izod tests. [9][10][11][12][13] Although of some interest, such tests do not necessarily represent the in-service impact behaviour and end-use application of composite laminates and structures and do not reproduce the failure modes likely to occur under normal impact conditions. A more appropriate method to study the in-service impact behaviour of composite panels is using falling weight impact testing. ...
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Article
Natural fibre composites are of interest for a wide range of semi-structural applications in the building, construction and automotive sector. For a number of these applications, the evaluation of performance degradation after impact is of some relevance. The present work focused on the influence of fibre volume fraction and fibre surface treatment on the residual load-bearing capability of hemp fibre-reinforced sheet moulding compound (H-SMC) after non-penetrating impacts. Post-impact flexural strength and stiffness of H-SMC decreased linearly with increasing impact energy. At higher impact energy levels, the residual flexural strength of H-SMC improved with increasing fibre volume fraction. However, for the same amount of absorbed energy, the residual strength or damage tolerance capability of glass fibre-reinforced sheet moulding compound was about twice that of H-SMC. Composites based on surface treated hemp fibres showed a slight improvement in residual flexural strength, particularly for systems based on hemp fibres treated with a combined alkaline and silane surface treatment. Surface treated systems showed improved levels of adhesion and increased levels of energy absorption through potential mechanisms such as debonding, pull-out or fibre fibrillation.
... Environmental considerations are very important in the application of wood and natural fibers, but the technical parameters and price of their composites are also quite good [25]. Nevertheless, wood has several drawbacks as well; its properties depend on its source and on the season of harvest, it is sensitive to water and heat during processing, and its transverse strength is quite small [26]. ...
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Article
A polypropylene (PP) homopolymer was reinforced with carbon fiber, glass fiber and wood flour in order to compare their advantages and drawbacks. Interfacial adhesion does not influence stiffness, but it affects strongly properties, i.e. tensile strength and impact resistance. Several local deformation and failure processes take place simultaneously or consecutively in the composites during deformation. The fracture of wood fibers is the dominating process at good adhesion, while debonding, fiber pullout and fiber fracture occurs in carbon and glass fiber reinforced composites. Some of the local deformation processes do not result in the failure of the composites, while others lead to catastrophic failure. A close correlation was found between the characteristic stress determined by acoustic emission and the mechanical properties of the composites. Composites with advantageous properties, i.e. large stiffness, acceptable impact resistance and price, can be prepared by the proper selection of fiber type, composition and interfacial adhesion.
... Result demonstrated that with fibre content up to 50% mechanical properties are increasing [67]. Pine apple leaf fibres are at the same time gaining popularity due to its superior properties [68][69]. Pineapple Leaf Fibber (PALF)-reinforced polypropylene (PP) based composites were fabricated successfully by conventional compression moulding technique with various weight percentages of fibre. ...
... PF (5.4 wt% loading) had shown increase in the flexural strength of polypropylene by 5.1% [8]. The impact strength of PF reinforced polyester composite had shown high value compared to banana and coir reinforced polyester composites [9]. In pineapple leaf powder reinforced high density polythene composite, increasing in fibre loading improved the mechanical properties of the composites [10]. ...
Article
In current research work, influence of nano-calcium carbonate (N-CaCO3) with different filler loading (1, 3 and 5 wt%) on the mechanical behavior and thermal stability of pineapple fibre reinforced epoxy (PF/Ep) composites were considered. Hand lay-up method and ultra-sonication method were used for the fabrication of agglomeration-free composite slabs. Test results showed that upon incorporation of N-CaCO3 up-to 3 wt% enhanced the tensile, flexural properties and fracture toughness. Impact test results also showed an improvement in impact strength of N-CaCO3 filled PF/Ep composites at 1 wt%. Thermal stability of PF/Ep composites was analyzed using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), and the data showed that the thermal stability of N-CaCO3 filled PF/Ep composite was better when compared to unfilled PF/Ep composites.
... The standard deviation and coefficient of variation are also reported in the table. As already reported in the literature, tensile strength of untreated raw PALF can range from 170 to 1627 MPa (Pavithran et al. 1987;Asim et al. 2015). Pickering et al. concluded in one of his article that the strength increases with increase in crystallinity and cellulose content and decrease with temperature (Pickering, Aruan Efendy, and Le 2016). ...
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Article
Nowadays, the research is more focused on natural fibers because of their comparable properties of biodegradability, environment friendly, ease of access, lightweight, and low cost. In this research paper, the effect of chemical treatment on morphological, physical, chemical, mechanical, and thermal properties of pineapple leaf fibers has been studied. Because of the highest amount of cellulosic content, this fiber is having great potential for mechanical and thermal strength. Initially, fibers were extracted using retting and scrapping method and thereafter treatment with different concentrations of alkali was performed. Characterization has been done to analyze its properties and found that the alkaline treatment leads to better mechanical and thermal properties but only up to 7% alkali concentration. After increasing the concentration above 7%, the properties start degrading because of the onset of fiber degradation at higher alkali application. Mercerization helps in making fiber more compatible with hydrophobic matrix resin and hence can be easily reinforced with polymeric matrix for specific composite applications.
... Nowadays, pineapple fiber has been used in several applications because of its good mechanical properties, lightweight material, reinforcing capability, high strength-to-weight ratio, and stiffness properties. PALF fiber now uses as a replacement of conventional materials like metals, nonmetals, woods, etc. [23,24]. ...
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In this experimental studies, three types of fabric such as Jute, Okra and Pineapple Leaf Fiber (PALF) were selected and matrix material such as polypropylene (PP) was selected to manufacture composites. Jute/PP, Okra/PP, and PALF/PP based composites were prepared successfully by a conventional compression molding technique. The objective of this study is to compare the mechanical such as tensile strength (TS), tensile modulus (TM), bending strength (BS), bending modulus (BM), elongation at break (Eb%), Impact strength (IS) and interfacial properties of the composites. Jute fiber (hessian cloth)-reinforced polypropylene matrix composites (45wt% fiber) were fabricated by compression molding. TS, TM, Eb% BS, BM, and IS of the composites were found to be 45 MPa, 2.2 GPa, 11%, 54 MPa, 4.1 GPa, and 16 kJ/m2, respectively. Then Okra and PALF fiber reinforced polypropylene-based composites (45 wt% fiber) were fabricated and the mechanical properties were compared with those of the jute-based composites. The result revealed that mechanical properties of PALF composite higher than jute and Okra fiber reinforced composites. Water absorption and elongation percentage at break showed different scenario and it was noticed from the experimental study that water absorption and elongation at break (%) of jute fabric was higher than other composites. Fracture sides of the composites were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the results revealed poor fiber-matrix adhesion for jute fiber-based composites compared to that of the other fiber-based composites (OF/PP and PALF/PP).
... The properties of FRPCs mainly depends on the fibre content, distributaion and orientation because fiber are load bearing constituents [10]. new generation fibre reinforcement as they are renewable, cheap, completely or partially recyclable, biodegradable, and environment friendly materials [4]. ...
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Recently, there has been a rapid development in the natural fibre composites (NFCs). The attention paid is warranted because of unique features of these materials like low price, small environmental effects and support their potential across a wide range of industrial applications. The properties of NFCs vary considerably depending on chemical composition and structure, which relate to fibre type as well as growing conditions, harvesting time and fabrication method. In spite of the fact that many research works have been reported recently respecting on innovative and eco-friendly polymer matrix composites (PMCs) reinforced by natural sisal fibres, but there is not a clear comparison available rooted on the sisal fibre pattern, orientations, and hybridization. Also, the machining of fibers reinforced composite material is attracted to several researchers, because of its non-homogeneous and anisotropic structure. In order to impart a contribution to the comprehension of the effects of the fibre patterns on the tensile strength and transverse strength. In the present work an experimental analysis has been attempted by selecting a suitable process parameter values after the significant pilot experimental study. For the improvement of the sisal fibre properties, initially selected sisal fibres have been treated with NaOH 10% solution. The results of the successive experimental work revealed that the selected orientations of sisal fibres have their different role, which can be categorized based on the applications. The morphological analysis was carried out using SEM to analyze the fracture mechanism of the fabricated PMCs. By applying D-optimal mixture design, the best optimal mixture of sisal/ jute fibre-based hybrid composites has been found. Drilling was performed on hybrid fibres composites with three different geometry drill bits (twist, step and core), to finding out the suitable drill to make the hole in terms of lesser damages production. The delamination and surface roughness type damages are revealed by microscopic analysis.
... Sisal fibers behave like a viscoelastic material because of both crystalline and non-crystalline structure [3]. Sisal fibers have better performance for commercial applications due to their higher elastic modulus, increased impact strength and moderate tensile and flexural strengths, when compared to other vegetal fibers [4,5]. Oksman et al. in 2002 presented the incorporation of sisal fiber in an epoxy resin matrix to develop a composite material that can be employed in resistant and rigid products [6]. ...
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Recently, there has been a rapid development in the natural fibre composites (NFCs). The attention paid is warranted because of unique features of these materials like low price, small environmental effects and support their potential across a wide range of industrial applications. Theproperties of NFCs vary considerably depending on chemicalcomposition and structure, which relate to fibre type as well asgrowing conditions, harvesting timeand fabrication method. Many natural sources like plants from which fibers can be obtained are sisal, hemp, bamboo, coconut, flax, kenaf, jute and ramie. Fibers from animals are for example wool and feathers. Captivatingly, the fibre with which the highesttensile strength was achieved is sisal. This paper provides an overview on the recent developments and existing challenges of sisal fibre based NFCs. Major influencing factors that affect the mechanical properties of sisal fibre based NFCs and detail achievement made with them has been highlighted.
... Los materiales lignocelulósicos que están fácilmente disponibles pueden ser difíciles de degradar por procesos como la fermentación, pero pueden generar productos de valor agregado como combustibles por ejemplo, etanol, butanol e hidrógeno, que pueden aprovecharse en el área energética [43]. ...
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RESUMEN Los diferentes tipos de textiles ya sean hilos, fibras o telas no tejidas pueden tener diferentes propiedades debido a su tipo de tejido o a su conformación y tratamientos, esto se utiliza para realzar las propiedades que se desean. La industria textil actualmente está comprometida a resolver necesidades provenientes de diferentes áreas como la médica, energética, medio ambiente y automotriz. El uso de membranas selectivas para adsorber toxinas, los textiles antiestáticos, la generación de desechos textiles y la utilización de telas y fibras para los interiores automotrices son solo algunos usos que se les pueden dar a los textiles técnicos. La aparición de excesiva de prendas de vestir ha producido un efecto negativo en medio ambiente, debido a sus problemas de degradación, es por esto que se ha impulsado la obtención de textiles degradables y la obtención de estos mismos a partir de fuentes renovables. Se pueden fabricar textiles técnicos utilizando partículas de tamaño nanométrico o micrométrico (nanopartículas de carbono, metálicas, cerámicas, etc.) dentro de una matriz polimérica. Los compuestos polímero-partículas de diferentes tamaños, recientemente han abierto una opción para la elaboración de textiles técnicos. Estos materiales se diseñan con la finalidad de que tengan propiedades isotrópicas y una buena compatibilidad entre la fase matriz y la fase de refuerzo. Existen diferentes formas de dispersar los aditivos y hacer interaccionar las fases presentes, algunos métodos como la funcionalización mediante diferentes técnicas y la dispersión de las partículas en el medio por procesos de fabricación o pretratamientos, son mencionados en este manuscrito. Las evaluaciones pertinentes para evaluar las propiedades fisicoquímicas y morfológicas de los textiles son de gran importancia para poder confirmar conforme a las normas establecidas la calidad, apariencia, durabilidad y principalmente su aplicación. ABSTRACT The different types of textiles, whether they are yarns, fibers or non-woven fabrics, can have different properties due to their type of fabric or their conformation and treatments, this is used to enhance the properties that are desired. The textile industry is currently committed to solving needs from different areas such as medical, energy, environment and automotive. The use of selective membranes to adsorb toxins, antistatic textiles, the generation of textile waste and the use of fabrics and fibers for automotive interiors are just some uses that can be given to technical textiles. The appearance of excessive clothing has produced a negative effect on the environment, due to its problems of degradation, which is why it has promoted the production of degradable textiles and obtaining them from renewable sources. Technical textiles can be manufactured using nanometric or micrometric size particles (carbon nanoparticles, metal, ceramics, etc.) within a polymeric matrix. Polymer-particle compounds of different sizes have recently opened an option to produce technical textiles. These materials are designed with the purpose of having isotropic properties and a good compatibility between the matrix phase and the reinforcement phase. There are different ways of dispersing the additives and interacting the present phases, some methods such as functionalization by different techniques and the dispersion of the particles in the medium by manufacturing processes or pretreatments, are mentioned in this manuscript. The relevant evaluations to evaluate the physicochemical and morphographic properties of textiles are of great importance to be able to confirm according to the established norms the quality, appearance, durability and mainly its application.
Chapter
Continuing the efforts of the research community, all over the world, for improving the performance properties of the fiber reinforced composites, efforts were focused to incorporate continuous fibers (instead of fibers longer than critical fiber length) in thermoplastic polymer composites. The strategies are altogether different and the equipment involved are also very different. Some of them are presented here. The efforts in this direction, made available in literature, are found with a few of the matrices that are found to be suitable for such experiments. These matrices that were found in such investigations included Polypropylene, Nylon‐6, Polyphenylene Sulphide (PPS) and Poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK). Several novel processing methods of continuous fiber impregnation in such viscous thermoplastic matrices mentioned above are summarized in this Chapter. The innovative methods are praiseworthy and some are already found commercial outlets. To mention a few here: ‘Direct long fiber fed injection molding’, ‘Glass fiber mat reinforced PP composites‐continuous process’, ‘Carbon fiber fabric composites with interleaved PP films’, ‘Wood‐CF‐hybrid composites’, ‘PP/continuous hemp fiber composites’, ‘RIM‐pultrusion process with Nylon 6’, ‘Melt‐impregnation of continuous CF reinforced Nylon‐66 composites’, ‘Ultra‐lightweight CF reinforced PPS composites using ‘spread tow technology”, ‘PEEK/continuous CF composites’ etc. The composites prepared by each novel technique have been tested thoroughly using international standard methods and validated. Where modification of fibers and matrices are required to be modified, they were done and the effect on composite properties was evaluated.
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This study investigated the impact response behaviours of pineapple leaf fibre (PALF)/carbon hybrid laminate composites for different ply orientations and stacking sequences. The laminates were manufactured using a vacuum infusion approach with various stacking sequences and ply orientations classified as symmetric quasi-isotropic, angle-ply symmetric, and cross-ply symmetric. The laminates were analysed using an IMATEK IM10 drop weight impact tester with an increment of 5 J until the samples were perforated. This investigation reveals that the overall impact properties of PALF and carbon as reinforcements were improved by a beneficial hybridised effect. The laminates with an exterior carbon layer can withstand high impact energy levels up to 27.5 J. The laminate with different stacking sequences had a lower energy transfer rate and ruptured at higher impact energy. The laminates with ply orientations of [0°/90°] and [±45°]8 exhibited 10% to 30% better energy absorption than those with ply orientations of [±45°2, 0°/90°2]s and [0°/90°2, ±45°2]s due to energy being readily transferred within the same linear ply orientation. Through visual inspection, delamination was observed to occur at the interfaces of different stacking sequences and ply orientations.
Article
The paper describes a technology for preparing a fibrous product for the formation of composite materials. The developed technology ensures maximum use of the strength characteristics of natural fibers in the formation of composite materials. The structure of a self-optimizing production system for the preparation of a fibrous product to form composite materials for various purposes is described.
Article
The rising environmental and ecological awareness has motivated hard work in support of growth of new pioneering resources for a variety of end-use application. Polymeric composites prepared from natural resources, occupied substantial research awareness from the last upcoming years. In this paper a summarized effort that includes the vicinity of biocomposites, majority of the category of eco-friendly polymers, natural fibres, highlighted with production techniques and properties of these composites are discussed. A variety of interface alteration methods were included to advance the fibre–matrix bond resultant in the improvement of different characteristics of the bio based composites. This paper conclude that the bio based composites constitute a promising field in polymeric composites that increase awareness for applications in various fields ranges from vehicle to the construction industries.
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Ever increasing demand of petroleum products leads to depletion of resources. In order to substitute, biodegradable, perishable and abundantly available natural products are in trend. Because of high cellulosic content, pineapple leaf fibers exhibit excellent mechanical properties hence are used in automobile industries and building construction purposes. In this review article, the detailed study of pineapple leaf fibers was done in order to demonstrate the possible applications of their developed composites with various different matrix types. The property analysis of pineapple leaf fibers were studied for their mechanical and thermal strength apart from other chemical, physical and morphological properties. The cultivation and origin of pineapple leaf fibers have also been summarized in brief so as to understand its economical value and sustainability. It is aimed to have all research previously done related to the properties, extraction, hybridization, processing techniques of pineapple leaf fibers at one place in summarized form for its better application as a sustainable, eco-friendly and potential composite material.
Article
Advantages of composite materials based on natural fibre have warranted increased utility of these products and have significantly offset the use of artificial fibre composites. This work on preparation of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites has been carried out by utilizing naturally occurring fibres from sisal, jute, banana, and ramie plants. Two sets of FRP composites have been prepared (1) by chemical treatment and (2) without chemical treatment. Detailed characterization of FRP composites prepared has been carried out. Detailed procedures for preparation of the samples have been explained. Parameters like tensile strength, flexural strength, water absorption, density, and microstructure analysis are performed. For density measurement, Archimedes concept using air and water weight measures and ASTM C830-00 guidelines have been followed. KIC-2-1000-C is employed for tensile tests, and digital weighing method is adopted for water absorption analysis. The FRP prepared have a great potential as natural fibre polymer composites (NFPCs) and constitute for a wide range of applications. A significant improvement in these properties has been obtained by heat and chemical treatment of these composites. Satisfactory improvements of the properties were noticed with heat and chemically treated fibre-reinforced composites. Tensile and flexural strength tests were carried out on untreated and treated sisal, jute, ramie and banana fibre-reinforced composites, which revealed significant improvement of treated composites (tensile strength 73.59, 41.70, 36.30 & 33.87 N/mm2 and flexural strength 60.77, 40.47, 72.05 and 31.54 N/mm2, respectively) as compared to untreated composites (tensile strength 57.24, 37.72, 35.19 and 21.83 N/mm2 and flexural strength 50.51, 40.27, 41.77 and 21.35 N/mm2 respectively).
Article
Sisal fiber‐reinforced thermoplastic starch (TPS) composites with excellent properties have been widely used in agriculture, packaging, and other fields. In this work, a new type of sisal/starch composite was prepared by torque rheologic melting and a hot pressing process successively, improving the compatibility between sisal fibers and TPS. The additives of glutaraldehyde and starch nanocrystals played an important role in improving the properties of the composites. They not only improved their surface smoothness, uniformity, compatibility, and interfacial adhesion strength but also promoted the mechanical properties that was because the interaction between the matrix and fibers was formed to effectively promote stress dispersion and share the load to enhance the deformation ability. These additives also promoted the cross‐linking function of the composites and reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on their surface, decreasing the moisture absorption rate. After cross‐linking with these compatibilizers, the hydrophobicity of the composites improved, decreasing their water vapor permeability.
Chapter
Sustainability has become the prime focus nowadays for scientific strategies; hence researchers are keen on developing more sustainable materials displaying properties that may be comparable to conventional materials. Owing to their environmental-friendly nature, sustainability and good specific properties natural fibers have succeeded in attracting many researchers and industries to utilize them as reinforcements in the production of Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs). However, PMCs reinforced with man-made fibers like carbon, glass, and aramid have exhibited better performance in comparison with PMCs strengthened with cellulosic fibers. One of the reasons for PMCs reinforced with natural fibers displaying lower mechanical properties is the inadequate interfacial adhesion between a hydrophobic matrix and hydrophilic natural fibers. Hence in order to achieve good interfacial bonding among fiber and matrix, a lot of research has been taking place in the direction of achieving hierarchical nature into the composites by incorporating nanomaterials in any of the constituents. In the view of maintaining sustainability, this book chapter emphasizes the detailed description of various natural fibers and green nano reinforcements. A detailed description of inducing hierarchical nature into the biocomposites via incorporating reinforcements at different scales such as Micro Crystalline Cellulose (MCC), Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNC), and Bacterial Cellulose (BC) and recent studies in this area has been reported in the latter part of this chapter.
Chapter
Renewable resources, their usage and alteration are involved in a multitude of major processes with a multitude of essential processes significant impact on our daily lives. In view of that, the idea of “green composites,” which have emerged as new environmentally sustainable products, with engineering and industrial applications, and technologically advantageous benefits, has been introduced. Natural fibre reinforced composites are gaining growing interest in research because of their easy availability, recyclability, lightweight and low cost. Many natural fibres have been effective strengthening for thermosets and thermoplastic matrices with organic matrices such as polylactic acid, but natural fibres such as bamboo, banana, wheat, sisal, sugarcanes, oil palms, cotton, flax straw, silk and coconut have been losing predilection because of low reliability as a result of the use of synthetic materials such as glass and carbon fibrillation. In this study, the sources of various fibers have been identified and discussed in detail that will help the readers in gaining full understanding about these natural fibers.
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The Packaging used to protect the products and first impression of product which interact the consumers. The non-biodegradable materials i.e., plastics, glass, and metals in packaging applications are produced every year with the intention of use and throw are raising concerns about environmental pollution. In view of that, the idea of “Green composites” fabricated from plant fibres which have emerged as new environmentally sustainable products, with Engineering and Industrial applications. Therefore, there have been substantial studies to develop alternative packaging products using plant fibers with focus on re-packaging products. Studies have reported that the use of natural composites fabricated from plant fibre may reduce the plastic waste and thus consecutively solve the waste disposal problem to some extent owing to its biodegradability. The aim of this book chapter is to summarise information on possible plant fibres and their applications for packaging applications. Overall, this chapter will helpful to Young Scientists, Product designers and Engineers, who are working in the area of sustainable packaging for commercial uses.
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3D printing and especially Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technology for composite materials reinforced by continuous fibers is an emerging research field which aims to enhance the mechanical performance of 3D printing structures and to widen the field of application (aerospace, sailing…). Another trend, 3D printing allows to develop stimulable materials (sensor and/or actuators) and to consider parts with complex architecture that can be deployed under various stimulation (electricity temperature, pressure…). The present work is therefore part of this context and aims to develop new multi-functional materials elaborated by 4D printing. First, the scientific objective of this work is to better understand the relationship between the process, the induced microstructure, mechanical and the hygromechanical performances in order to target structural applications (aeronautic, sailing) for composite materials reinforced with synthetic fibers (carbon and glass) and natural fibers (flax). The second part of this work aimed to develop hygromorphic composites reinforced with continuous fibers (synthetic and natural) by 4D printing with a bioinspired bilayer architecture inspired by the pinecone scale. The conductive behavior of carbon fiber was used to create new electro-thermo-hygromorph actuators with controlled and accelerated actuation compared to conventional hygromorphs. Finally, the design freedom provided by 4D printing made it possible to control the local stiffness and actuation of composite actuators reinforced with continuous flax fiber
Article
In this work tensile, flexural, compression, impact and hardness properties of alkaline treated sugarcane bagasse (SB), pine apple leaf (PALF) and sisal fiber (SF) reinforced with polyester composites are expressed for the first time. This effort to develop hybrid composite materials with improved execution for worldwide applications is a progressing procedure. Be that as it may, with their remarkable and wide scope of inconstancy, common fiber composites could rise as another elective designing material which can substitute the utilization of manufactured fiber composites. The challenge in working with natural fiber composites (NFC) is the large variation in properties and characteristics. In this experimental investigation SF as a base material, PALF and SB are filler materials. The weight percentage of SF has been maintained as constant and the remaining two fiber fillers were varied. The NFC are prepared by hand layup method and mechanical characteristics of tensile, flexural, compression, impact and hardness tests were performed as per ASTM standard. The experiment results revealed a consistent tendency of an increase in the above mechanical attributes to adding natural fibers/fillers. Better interlinking capability between the NFC and polyester matrix is also responsible for the effective resistance capability. This type of composite materials can be useful for various engineering fields.
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Plant fibers are becoming popular in polymer composites because of their eco-friendliness and natural availabilities at lower cost than synthetic fibers. The kenaf fiber as reinforcement has shown better specific properties than glass fiber because of its low density. Thus, it will be crucial in composite development for structural industrial components along with other natural and artificial fiber with thermoset polymer matrix. This paper presents a review of kenaf fiber reinforced thermoset composites (KFTCs) and their hybrids. First, a brief overview of the basic components of KFTCs, and detailed insight into the fabrication techniques and performance of KFTCs and their hybrids are presented. KFTCs and their hybrid composites are explored in detail, especially for the mechanical, thermal-physical, water absorption, and durability properties to provide the space to narrate the development of ideas and our current understanding of this research field. After that matrix modification and fiber modification as alternate solutions to improve performance of KFTCs and their hybrids are reviewed. Finally, the application and the future potential scope of KFTCs and their hybrids are addressed. It is anticipated that this review paper will become a reliable reference on the performance optimization of KFTCs and their hybrids.
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Article
In this paper, the effects of stacking sequence and ply orientation on the mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fibre (PALF)/carbon hybrid laminate composites were investigated. The hybrid laminates were fabricated using a vacuum infusion technique in which the stacking sequences and ply orientations were varied, which were divided into the categories of cross-ply symmetric, angle-ply symmetric, and symmetric quasi-isotropic. The results of tensile and flexural tests showed that the laminate with interior carbon plies and ply orientation [0°, 90°] exhibited the highest tensile strength (187.67 MPa) and modulus (5.23 GPa). However, the highest flexural strength (289.46 MPa) and modulus (4.82 GPa) were recorded for the laminate with exterior carbon plies and the same ply orientation. The fracture behaviour of the laminates was determined by using scanning electron microscopy, and the results showed that failure usually initiated at the weakest PALF layer. The failure modes included fibre pull-out, fibre breaking, matrix crack, debonding, and delamination.
Chapter
In recent years, ecological awareness and other environmental issues led to the development of composite materials based on renewable resources such as natural fibers. These materials are environmentally friendly and low-cost alternatives to replace synthetic fibers. However, despite all those advantages, vegetable fibers have certain limits which can be reduced by using the natural fiber hybridization technique. Indeed, the combination of two or more different types of natural reinforcements in a common matrix leads to the improvement in composite mechanical properties. The only condition required to obtain a hybrid effect is that the two reinforcements must be different in terms of mechanical property and the type of interaction with the matrix. The aim of this chapter is to present the recent advances in manufacturing hybrid natural fiber composites and highlight their importance. First, it gives a complete presentation about the hybrid biocomposites in the case of thermoplastic and thermosetting materials, followed by their implementation process. Then, it explains how fiber hybridization is a promising strategy to toughen composite materials and to offer a better balance in mechanical properties than nonhybrid composites. Finally, despite all this technique's advantages, it has been concluded that any microstructural changes in the material can cause irreversible damages, which are listed at the end of the chapter.
Chapter
The raising use of fiber composites is leading to a growing demand for understanding and mastering the damages and failures during the in-service of composite components. This chapter aims to provide a relatively detailed description of defects and damages that occur in fiber composite structures especially the defects related to the fiber and the matrix. An understanding of the criticality of the defects and damages leads to determine the failure mechanisms and the failure modes that range from simple failure modes to complex failure modes occurring in bidimensional laminates. Conclusively, methods of detecting the defects and damages using nondestructive testing methods have also been described.
Article
The research article focusses on succinct characterization of pineapple leaf fibers before and after different chemical modification techniques so as to ease its usage in developing light weight composite tiles for bathroom floor or wall tiles in building and construction industry. After the surface treatment namely, 7% alkali, 3% acrylic acid and 1% silane treatment, fibers were analyzed through physical, chemical, morphological, mechanical and thermal properties using various sophisticated instruments and concluded with the fact that in general, surface treatment helps in strengthen the fiber properties. Fibers with 7% alkali treatment exhibit maximum improvements, 55% increase in tensile strength, 40% increase in crystallinity index, 13% increase in density and 12.6% decrement in diameter. Similar enhancements in fiber quality were witnessed in physical, chemical and thermogravimetric analysis. After 60% mass degradation of the fiber, fibers with 7% alkali treatment show better thermal stability till around 700°C.
Article
The article focuses on the study of the physical, mechanical, and SEM of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polyester composites. An investigation has been carried out in this relation to allow better use of PALF to manufacture value-added goods. Normal composites made from fibre are under intensive research because of their environmentally friendly nature and peculiar character. Their continuous supply is beneficial for natural fibres, simple to handle and naturally biodegradable. In this research, the hand lay up process was used to manufacture composites. SEM was used to clarify the topography of fibre, matrix adhesion, fibre breakage, and failure. Related with additional regular fibre composites based on cellulose, the PALF polyester composites have greater mechanical properties. It was also experiential that as the fibre content increase young’s modulus and tensile strength also increases and it was found to be 2545 MPa and 66 MPa, respectively, at 40 Wt. %. Even compression strength & hardness values also increase with an increase in the fibre content at 40 Wt. %. The compression strength of 23 MPa and hardness of 83 was recorded. This was observed with SEM where fibres and matrix have exposed well miscibility at 40 wt. % of PALF.
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Conference Paper
The aim of the research was to study the mechanical properties of hybrid reinforced fibre. For the study of properties we use pineapple and banana fibre with polyester resin. Mechanical properties such as tensile and compression test are determined. The test is done after the fabrication of fibre ie(pineapple, banana) to a hybrid fibre composite which will be in a laminated form which is done with the help of the polyester resin and hardner. Fabrication is done by simple hand layup technique in a mould which is cured under pressure for a day at room temperature. All the laminates are made by layering up pineapple and banana fibers. Specimen preparation and testing is done according to the ASTM standards. The ASTM standard used is D3039 for tensile, D3410 for compression. The tensile strength of the specimens are 60, 38, 62.5 and 55.3.Compression strength of the specimens are 14MPa, 17MPa and 24MPa.
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Modern research in the field of motor vehicles covered by a cycle of product development and components to production and exploitation of vehicles in traffic, all the way to retirement and recycling. In this way is decreasing negative impact of motor vehicles on the environment. Application of hybrid and electric vehicles to reduce or eliminate emissions of toxic and harmful gases are emitted into the environment during use of vehicles with conventional drive systems on gasoline or diesel fuel. In parallel with the implementation of such vehicles, it is necessary to set up and solve the problems in more detail their exploitation, as well as problems that precede the use of vehicles (quarrying and raw materials, energy production, and everything is built into a vehicle), and partly to problems that come later (after exploitation period). This particularly applies to the treatment of waste batteries and electrical and electronic circuits that are typical for this kind of vehicle. Requirements for zero emission of waste materials at all stages of the service life of hybrid and electric vehicles are a complex task for researchers, especially in the field of development and application of new materials and advanced and secure technologies in the process of production and application. That way, manufacturers are demands for easy dismantling and recycling of vehicles at the end of life service and safety classification of the material, which is accompanied by certain problems. A particular problem is the lack of specific policies and procedures that can be applied in such vehicles. To meet these requirements it is necessary to develop new materials and equipment to be installed in a vehicle, as well as the development of new manufacturing technologies and processes for recycling. This paper describes the procedures for the retirements of such vehicles, as well as the recycling of specific parts of electrical installations and electronic circuits.
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To date, the literature has focused on synthetic fibre-reinforced composites, but it has not adequately addressed the unique properties that differentiate natural from synthetic fibres, such as their natural variation in microstructure and composition across species. This review paper proposes a critical overview of the current state of 3D printing of natural fibre-reinforced composites or biocomposites for mechanical purposes, as well as an overview of their role in 4D printing for stimuli-responsive applications. The paper is structured as follows: after the first part recalling the specificities of natural fibres and their associated composites, the two main sections are each divided into two parts presenting an analysis of the available data to provide fundamental understandings and a discussion and outlook for the future. Natural discontinuous fibre-reinforced polymers exhibit moderate mechanical properties compared to composites manufactured by conventional processes due to specific factors of the 3D printing process, such as high porosity, low fibre content, and a very low fibre-aspect ratio (L/d). Hygromorph BioComposites (HBC) are categorized into a new class of smart materials that could be used for 4D printing of shape-changing mechanisms. Fibre content, fibre orientation control, and fibre continuity are outlined in relation to known challenges in actuation performance.
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In the course of the most recent thirty years composite materials, plastics and earthenware production have been the predominant rising materials. The volume and number of utilizations of composite materials have developed consistently, infiltrating and vanquishing new showcases perseveringly. Present day composite materials constitute a huge extent of the built materials advertise extending from regular items to refined specialty applications. While composites have effectively demonstrated their value as weight-sparing materials, the present test is to make them practical. This survey paper talk about overall audit write about characteristic strands and its applications. In this day and age, there is an expanding request towards segment materials that are solid, dependable, lightweight, what's more, with mechanical properties that are altogether superior to those of the conventional materials. In the meantime it is ideal if these materials are eco-accommodating and bio-degradable. Biocomposite material has hinted at fulfilling the majority of the above conditions. In this paper we concentrate basically on the current patterns and advancements in Biocomposites as connected to the therapeutic also, building industry, refering to a few illustrations. The nano-bio interface, idea of a green kitchen, advantages of utilizing biocomposite material, for example, concrete filaments, wood concrete strands and sisal filaments have been talked about, and their applications have been highlighted. At long last, the benefits of utilizing biocomposite material, its eco-accommodating nature and its future in the business have been shown with lucidity.
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In this paper, we have studied the effect of thermal stress on the damage of fiber-matrix interface of a hybrid biocomposite composed of two natural fibers, Hemp, Sisal, and Starch matrix. Our genetic modeling used the nonlinear acoustic technique based on Cox’s analytical model, Weibull’s probabilistic model, and Lebrun’s model describing the thermal stress by the two coefficients of expansion. The stress applied to our representative elementary volume is a uni-axial tensile stress. The numerical simulation shows that the Hemp- Sisal/Starch hybrid biocomposite is most resistant to thermal stresses as compared with Hemp/Starch biocomposite. It also shows that hybrid biocomposite materials have a high resistance to applied stresses (mechanical and thermal) compared to traditional materials and biocomposite materials. The results obtained in our study coincide perfectly with the results of Antoine et al ., which showed through experimental tests that natural fibers perfectly improve the mechanical properties of biocomposite materials.
Article
Conditions for obtaining continuous coatings of copper (thickness range 1.5 to 5 μm) on coir fibres have been reported. Activation of the surface of coir fibres was achieved by treating the surface of the fibres with NaOH-HCHO/ammoniacal AgNO3 solution. Copper was deposited on the activated surface of coir fibres from Fehling-formaldehyde solution. The effects of variation in formaldehyde and sodium hydroxide concentrations and pressures inside the coating vessel on deposition rates were determined. The minimum concentrations of NaOH and HCHO required for maintaining a maximum rate of deposition of copper from a solution contaning 10g l⁻¹ copper sulphate were found to be 6.6 g l⁻¹ and 2.5 to 3.5 g l⁻¹, respectively. Optical and scanning electron microscope studies show that relatively more uniform and non-porous copper coatings were obtained when deposition was carried out under reduced pressures. A 5 μm thick copper coating on coir fibre prevents the propagation of flame as was shown by flammability tests. Copper coating on coir fibre decreases its electrical resistivity from 2.55×10⁶Ωcm to 4.68×10⁻³Ωcm with 1.5 μm thick coating and 3.76×10⁻⁵Ωcm with 5 μm thick coating. Reinforcement of polyester with copper-coated coir fibre leads to an increase of about 25% in tensile strength and flexural strength as compared to polyester reinforced with plain coir fibre.
Article
Many researchers in the past have developed composites with natural fibres such as of sisal, henequen, jute and palm; but the work on the bamboo-fibre reinforced com posites is not available in the literature published so far. In the present work, an effort has been made to develop bamboo-fibre reinforced plastic (BFRP) composites using a simple casting technique. These composites have been tested for tensile strength, impact strength and Young's modulus of elasticity. It has been observed that these composites possess high strength and ductility and are useful for many structural applications. The ultimate tensile strength of some BFRP composites is more or less equal to the ultimate tensile strength of mild steel, while their density is approximately one eighth of the density of mild steel. The mechanical behaviour of these composites is similar to other commonly used composites such as Glass fibre reinforced plastics.
Article
Results obtained when investigating the fracture behaviour of wood have suggested the possibility of making composite materials with high work of fracture and low density, at the expense of moderate loss of stiffness. The reinforcing elements of the composite are made in the form of cylindrical tubes with helically wound walls of glass or carbon fibres, simulating, to a certain extent, the structure of wood cells. The hollow tubes, under tensile stress and in certain circumstances, are capable of deforming pseudo-plastically absorbing large amounts of energy in a manner which is effectively similar to that of ductile fibres Work of fracture in excess of 4 × 105 J/m2 has been obtained, comparable to that of ductile metals. The dependence of the work of fracture on various parameters will be discussed together with some suggestions for compensating for the loss of stiffness without reducing the energy absorbing capacity of the system.
Article
The paper presents the mechanical properties of epoxy and polyester resins reinforced unidirectionally by jute and glass fibres singly and in combination as a hybrid. The results show that the jute-reinforced laminates have much better properties than the resins alone; but the properties are inferior to those of glass-reinforced plastics. The most appropriate role for the jute fibres is, perhaps, to use them as ‘filler’ fibres in combination with glass fibres where the strength and modulus requirements are not very demanding.
Article
An attempt is made in this paper to arrive at an empirical relationship between the structure and properties of lignocellulosic fibres through computer analysis. Significant regression equations for ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and percentage elongation of these fibres with structural parameters such as chemical composition, microfibril angle etc., have been arrived at using best fit. The results clearly indicate a narrowing down of the deviations between the observed and derived values of mechanical parameters reported earlier. This is attributed to (a) consideration of several structural parameters in the regression equation and (b) the analysis being free from any assumptions. Finally the fracture modes observed in these fibres have been classified and this is explained in terms of structure-property relationships.
Article
The increasing board densities resulting from increased final platten pressure applied during production (or maximum moulding pressure) provides the reason for observations of similar increases in the Young's modulus and the tensile strength, when two phenol formaldehyde bonded boards which are reinforced with 80% and 90% by volume of bagasse fibres are examined. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out on the fracture zones to differentiate between the effects of varying formaldehyde content. However, even with differences in the sizes of the cavities formed at fracture and in the board densities, the observed modulus versus density and strength versus density curves follow exponential trends. By using the exponential trends, a single best linear tensile strength versus Young's modulus relationship is deduced for these varying fibre to matrix combinations.
Article
Annual crop fibres are rich in cellulose and they are a cheap and rapidly renewable source of fibres with potential for polymer reinforcement. Straw fibres have been incorporated in a polyester resin matrix and the properties of the fibre and composite determined. The fibres have a Young's modulus of approximately 8 GN m–2 and an effective density of 5.1 kN m–3 when combined with resin. Useful composites can be formulated with an optimum fibre volume fraction of about 0.61, resulting in a flexural stiffness of 7.3 GN m–2 and flexural strength of 56 MN m–2. The specific flexural stiffness is about 2.5 times greater than that of polyester resin and about half that of softwoods and GRP. The work of fracture measured in impact is about half that of softwoods. It is envisaged that alternative methods for processing the fibres and the use of a phenolic resin matrix will improve the composite properties further. Straw-based composites are suitable as core material for structural board products.
Article
Conditions for obtaining continuous coatings of copper (thickness range 1.5 to 5m) on coir fibres have been reported. Activation of the surface of coir fibres was achieved by treating the surface of the fibres with NaOH-HCHO/ammoniacal AgNO3 solution. Copper was deposited on the activated surface of coir fibres from Fehling-formaldehyde solution. The effects of variation in formaldehyde and sodium hydroxide concentrations and pressures inside the coating vessel on deposition rates were determined. The minimum concentrations of NaOH and HCHO required for maintaining a maximum rate of deposition of copper from a solution contaning 10g l–1 copper sulphate were found to be 6.6 g l–1 and 2.5 to 3.5 g l–1, respectively. Optical and scanning electron microscope studies show that relatively more uniform and non-porous copper coatings were obtained when deposition was carried out under reduced pressures. A 5m thick copper coating on coir fibre prevents the propagation of flame as was shown by flammability tests. Copper coating on coir fibre decreases its electrical resistivity from 2.55106cm to 4.6810–3cm with 1.5m thick coating and 3.7610–5cm with 5m thick coating. Reinforcement of polyester with copper-coated coir fibre leads to an increase of about 25% in tensile strength and flexural strength as compared to polyester reinforced with plain coir fibre.
Article
This paper describes the tensile and impact behaviour of polyester composites reinforced with continuous unidirectional sunhemp fibres of plant origin. The tensile strength and Young's modulus of sunhemp fibre were found to be 389 MPa and 35.4 GPa, respectively. Tensile strength of composites containing up to 0.4 fibre volume fraction (V f) were found to increase linearly with (V f) and the results showed good agreement with the rule of mixtures. The work of fracture, as determined by Izod impact test, was also found to increase linearly with (V f) and the work of fracture for 0.24 (V f) composite was found to be approximately 21 kJ m–2. The analysis of various energy absorbing mechanisms during impact fracture showed that fibre pull out and interface fracture were the major contributions towards the high toughness of these composites. The results of this study indicate that sunhemp fibres have potential as reinforcing fillers in plastics in order to produce inexpensive materials with a high toughness.
Article
It has been shown that conventional techniques can be used to prepare epoxy resin composites incorporating ultra-high-modulus polyethylene (UHMPE) fibres as the reinforcing phase, either as continuous filament yarn or woven fabric. These composites showed very satisfactory values of stiffness and strenght, and very good energy absorption in Charpy impact tests. The interlaminar shear strength of the composites could be significantly increased by plasma etching of the fibres in oxygen gas. This treatment reduced resin cracking in flexural and impact tests, but did not reduce the impact energy absorption very greatly because the latter is primarily associated with plastic deformation of the fibres. The composites were also subjected to preliminary environmental tests, with very encouraging results.
  • T Fujii
  • T. Fujii