Article

Immunomodulating and antistress activity of ecdysterone and turkesterone under immobilization-induced stress conditions in mice

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Abstract

The phytoecdysteroids ecdysterone and turkesterone isolated from Rhaponticum integrifolium and Ajuga turkestanica herbs, respectively, increase the adaptation capacity of mice under immobilization-induced stress conditions. These compounds prevent involution of the thymicolymphatic system, decrease trophic disorders in gastric mucosa, prevent an increase in the weight of adrenal glands and a decrease in them of the content of ascorbic acid and cholesterol (to a much greater degree than does T-activin), and stimulate immunogenesis in animals with experimental immune deficiency developed on the background of immobilization-induced stress. Key wordsecdysterone-turkesterone-T-activin-immobilization-induced stress-immobilization.

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... (Lamiaceae) is rich in biologically active substances the leaves and stems contain up to 3.76% flavonoids, iridoids, phytoectisteroids and up to 0.1% of the plant leaves contain a compound called turkesterone (Baltaev 2000;Ramazanov 2005). The medicinal plant A. turkestanica contains biologically active substances with high pharmacological effects, such as ecdysterone, turkesterone, cyasterone, ajugasterone, ajugalactone, cyasterone-22 acetate and phytoecdysteroid used in the treatment of cancer, malaria, gastrointestinal, in cardiovascular problems (Mamatkhanov et al., 1998;Syrov, 2001;Abdukadirov et al., 2005;Shakhmurova et al., 2010). ...
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This research work aims to isolate endophytic bacteria from the Ajuga turkestanica plant that have plant growth promoting properties. The microscopic, enzymatic and biochemical properties of the isolated endophytic bacteria are described. Twelve isolates of endophytic bacteria were isolated by standard microbiological methods. Isolated endophytic bacteria were identified by (MALDI-TOF MS). Endophytic bacteria isolated from the plant were detected in MALDI-TOF MS. Bacterial isolates were dominated by endophytic bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Siccibacter. When the growth-enhancing properties of cultivated plants used in sustainable agriculture were studied, the isolated bacterial strains showed positive results in siderophor, ammonia, indole acetic acid production, and nitrogen fixation properties. Numerous endophytic bacteria have been found to have the enzymatic activity of oxidase, catalase, amylase, lecithinase and lipase. The results showed that endophytic bacteria isolated from the plant A. turkestanica are have plant stimulating properties which can be shown as a candidate for the production of bioinoculants individually or as part of a consortium.
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... Rodgers & di Zerega, 2013;Rodgers et al., 2013Syrov et al., 1997Nakada et al., 2014 Liver protective Lubel et al., 2009 ;Pereira et al., 2007;Li, 2013Suski et al., 2012Shakhmurova et al., 2010aXia et al., 2013bTian et al., 2012 Lung protective Imai et al., 2008;Klein et al., 2013;Uhal et al., 2013;Shenoy et al., 2015 ;Cao et al., 2019Klein et al., 2013Rodrigues-Machado et al., 2013;Cao et al., 2019Wu et al., 1998Li et al., 2013;Xia et al., 2016;Song et al., 2019Hamidi et al., 2011Breithaupt-Faloppa et al., 2013 Kidney protective Zhou et al., 2012;Xu et al., 2013;Barroso et al., 2012;Suski et al., 2013 ;Silveira et al., 2010Silveira et al., , 2013Pinheiro et al., 2004. Syrov et al., 1992Zou et al., 2010;Hung et al., 2012Iran-Nejad et al., 2015Wu et al., 2016 Gastric protective Zhu et al., 2014;Pawlik et al., 2016Pawlik et al., 2016Shakhmurova et al., 2010bDu et al., 2010Liu et al., 2010 Bone protective Krishnan et al., 2013 ...
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20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) is a steroid hormone that plays a key role in insect development through nuclear ecdysone receptors (EcRs) and at least one membrane GPCR receptor (DopEcR) and displays numerous pharmacological effects in mammals. However, its mechanism of action is still debated, involving either an unidentified GPCR or the estrogen ERβ receptor. The goal of our study was to better understand 20E mechanism of action. A mouse myoblast cell line (C2C12) and the gene expression of myostatin (a negative regulator of muscle growth) was used as a reporter system of anabolic activity. Experiments using protein-bound 20E established the involvement of a membrane receptor. 20E-like effects were also observed with Angiotensin-(1-7), the endogenous ligand of Mas. Additionally, the effect on myostatin gene expression was abolished by Mas receptor knock-down using small interfering RNA (siRNA) or pharmacological inhibitors. 17β-Estradiol (E2) also inhibited myostatin gene expression, but protein-bound E2 was inactive, and E2 activity was not abolished by angiotensin-(1-7) antagonists. A mechanism involving cooperation between Mas receptor and a membrane-bound palmitoylated estrogen receptor is proposed. The possibility to activate the Mas receptor with a safe steroid molecule is consistent with the pleiotropic pharmacological effects of ecdysteroids in mammals and indeed this mechanism may explain the close similarity between angiotensin-(1-7) and 20E effects. Our findings open a lot of possible therapeutic developments by stimulating the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) with 20E.
... Ecdysteroid-enriched extracts of A. turkestanica (or pure turkesterone) display anabolic effects on muscles Syrov et al., 2001;Zubeldia et al., 2012), even in a sarcopenia context (Lawrence, 2012). In addition, turkesterone and 20-hydroxyecdysone have antistress and immunostimulating effects (Shakhmurova et al., 2010). Extracts of A. turkestanica are already marketed for all these symptoms (e.g. ...
Article
Ajuga turkestanica is a plant used in traditional medicine for its high ecdysteroid content, including the presence of the particularly active turkesterone, which possess efficient anabolic activity. To isolate and identify minor ecdysteroids present in a semi-purified plant fraction containing ca. 70% turkesterone. Multi-step preparative HPLC (combining RP- and NP-HPLC systems) was used to purify the different components present in the turkesterone fraction. Isolated compounds were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and 2D-NMR. Fourteen ecdysteroids (including turkesterone and 20-hydroxyecdysone) were isolated. Seven of these, all bearing an 11α-hydroxy group, were previously unreported. Ajuga turkestanica ecdysteroids are characterised by the abundance of 11α-hydroxylated compounds and by the simultaneous presence of 24C, 27C, 28C and 29C ecdysteroids. It is expected that even more ecdysteroids are to be found in this plant since the starting material for this study lacked the less polar ecdysteroids. The simultaneous presence of 20-hydroxyecdysone and turkesterone (its 11α-hydroxy analogue) as the two major ecdysteroids suggests that every ecdysteroid is probably present in both 11α-hydroxy and 11-deoxy forms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... The adaptogenic activity of ecdysterone was proven by tests on rats either after immobilization or swimming; a decrease in the involution of the thymicrolymphatic apparatus was observed, but hypertrophy of adrenal glands, decrease of ascorbic acid content, and stomach ulceration did not occur [49,50]. By comparison of the ecdysterone effect on thymocyte energy metabolism with that of nerobol, more distinctive positive energy changes were observed in mitochondria of cells in suspension culture [51]. ...
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