Determination of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins in dietary supplements by application of a new HPLC/FD method
Universitätsklinikum Jena, Jena, Thuringia, GermanyEuropean Food Research and Technology (Impact Factor: 1.56). 11/2006; 224(2):147-151. DOI: 10.1007/s00217-006-0302-4
Over the past years the importance of food additives and the development of so-called novel food increased permanently. Especially, the application of dietary supplements was on the rise. Then, more and more new products based on plants hitherto not used for human consumption were launched. Algae products containing valuable amounts of essential nutrients such as amino acids and trace elements play a decisive role. On the other hand, some algae including the blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) are capable of synthesizing harmful substances depending on species and provenience. Therefore, methods must be available to evaluate possible risks caused by toxins in algae-based dietary supplements. There are different groups of toxins related to marine algae and cyanobacteria. However, both marine algae and cyanobacteria are able to produce Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins which are potential neurotoxins. Hence, analytical methods for PSP determination have to be developed. The method for PSP toxin determination described below is based on ion-pair chromatography of the underivatized PSP toxins followed by post-column oxidation and fluorescence detection (FD). The determination of very low amounts of PSP toxins in different matrices of novel food is possible. In addition, the method allows to compare PSP profiles of various algae-based dietary supplements.
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- "The aqueous extracts were analyzed for PSP toxins by reverse-phase ion-pair liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) and post-column derivatization following minor modifications of previously published methods (Diener et al., 2006; Krock et al., 2007). The LC-FLD analysis was carried out on a LC1100 series liquid chromatography system consisting of a G1379A degasser, "
ABSTRACT: Alexandrium ostenfeldii is an emerging harmful algal bloom species forming a global threat to coastal marine ecosystems, with consequences for fisheries and shellfish production. The Oosterschelde estuary is a shallow, macrotidal and mesotrophic estuary in the southwest of The Netherlands with large stocks of mussels, oysters, and cockles. These shellfish stocks were threatened by a recent A. ostenfeldii bloom in the Ouwerkerkse Kreek, which is a brackish water creek discharging water into the Oosterschelde. Little is yet known about the characteristics of the A. ostenfeldii population in this creek. We therefore isolated 20 clones during an A. ostenfeldii bloom in 2013, and characterized these clones on their growth and toxin profile in their exponential growth phase. The cyclic imines were identified by comparison of A. ostenfeldii extracts with the retention time and CID spectra of standard solutions, or with published CID spectra. We furthermore assessed the allelochemical potency and phylogeny of a selection of 10-12 clones. Morphology and molecular phylogeny showed that all clones belong to Group 1 of A. ostenfeldii. All clones showed comparable growth rates of on average 0.22±0.03d-1. During exponential growth, they all produced a unique combination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, spirolides and gymnodimines, of which particularly the latter showed a high intra-specific variability, with a 25-fold difference between clones with the lowest and highest cell quota. Furthermore, the selected 12 clones showed high allelopathic potencies with EC50 values based on lysis assays against the cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina between 212 and 525 A. ostenfeldii cellsmL-1. Lytic activities were lower for cell extracts, indicating an important extracellular role of these compounds. A high intra-specific variability may add to the success of genotypically diverse A. ostenfeldii blooms, and make populations resilient to changes in environmental and climatic conditions.
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- "2.2.1. Ion-pair HPLC with post-column oxidation and fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) The post-column oxidation HPLC-FLD analyses were carried out according to the methods described by Oshima (1995) and Diener et al. (2006) with some modifications. A Merck Hitachi LaChrom HPLC-system (Tokyo, Japan) consisting of a quaternary pump (L- 7100), an autosampler (L-7200) and a thermostated column compartment (L-7360) was used. "
ABSTRACT: Harmful cyanobacteria are a globally growing concern. They produce a large variety of toxic compounds, including saxitoxin and its many structural variants, a group of potent neurotoxins collectively called paralytic shellfish toxins or PST. Nucleic acid based detection methods, such as qPCR, have been proposed as potential screening and monitoring tools for toxic cyanobacteria, but it is not clear how well the presence and quantity of saxitoxin biosynthesis (sxt) genes can be used to predict the production of PST in the environment. In this study, the prevalence of three sxt genes and their co-occurrence with paralytic shellfish toxins in the environment was investigated. The sxtA, sxtG and sxtB genes were present on average in 31% of the samples collected from lakes and brackish coastal waters on Åland Islands, Finland, during the three-year monitoring period. PST detection frequency varied from 13% to 59% from year to year, and concentrations were generally low. On average higher sxtB copy numbers were associated with PST detection, and although a positive correlation between gene copy numbers and toxin concentrations was observed (Spearman rank correlation, ρ = 0.53, P = 0.012), sxt gene presence or quantity didn’t reliably predict PST production. Sequencing of sxtA fragments and identification of main cyanobacteria indicated that the likely candidate responsible for PST production in the samples belonged to the genus Anabaena.
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- "GTXs in extracts were determined by comparison of chromatograms of sample and reference standards. Peak areas were calculated and toxin concentrations were determined from the areas obtained with known concentrations of reference standards (Diener et al., 2006). Overall toxicities of the samples were computed as STX equivalents based on the amount of toxin and its relative toxicity compared to STX (Asp et al., 2004; Usup et al., 2004). "
ABSTRACT: Aphanizomenon flos-aquae secretes paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs), termed aphantoxins, and endangers environmental and human health via eutrophication of water worldwide. Although the molecular mechanism of neuronal PSP toxicity has been well studied, several issues remain unresolved, notably the in vivo hepatic antioxidative responses to this neurotoxin. Aphantoxins extracted from a natural isolate of A. flos-aquae DC-1 were resolved by high performance liquid chromatography. The primary components were gonyautoxins 1 and 5 and neosaxitoxin. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were treated intraperitoneally with either 5.3 or 7.61 (low and high doses, respectively) μg saxitoxin (STX) equivalents (eq)/kg of A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins. Antioxidative responses in zebrafish liver were examined at different timepoints 1-24h post-exposure. Aphantoxin administration significantly enhanced hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content 1-12h post-exposure, indicative of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. By contrast, levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in zebrafish liver declined significantly after 3-24h exposure, suggesting that GSH participates in MDA metabolism. A significant upregulation of the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was observed, suggesting that aphantoxins induce lipid peroxidation in zebrafish liver and are likely to be hepatotoxic. Hepatic levels of MDA and GSH, and of the three enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx), therefore provide potential biomarkers for studying environmental exposure to aphantoxins/PSPs from cyanobacterial blooms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.