Determination of bromocriptine in plasma: Comparison of gas chromatography, mass fragmentography and liquid chromatography

ArticleinJournal of Chromatography A 174(2):341-9 · August 1979with18 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9673(00)86007-0 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Gas chromatographic, mass fragmentographic and liquid chromatographic techniques for the determinations of bromocriptine (2-bromo-alpha-ergocriptine; Parlodel) in human plasma are described. These methods were found to be suitable for determining concentrations of bromocriptine down to 0.5, 1.0 and 10.0 microgram/l, respectively. Accuracy, specificity and analytical capacity were satisfactory for all three methods. Gas chromatography was compared with liquid chromatography, and the two methods were demonstrated to give identical results in patients treated with bromocriptine for Parkinson's disease. Gas chromatography was also compared with mass fragmentography, and the results from these two assays were also in agreement.
    • To analyze the distribution of BC in sensitive and resistant prolactinomas and explore the possible mechanism of resistance, a sensitive bioanalytical method is therefore needed for the quantitative determination of BC in prolactinoma tissue. Several bioanalytical methods have previously been described for the determination of BC in biological samples using radioimmunoassay [14,15], HPLC [16] and gas chromatography (GC) [17]. These methods, however, suffer from a number of drawbacks such as limited sensitivity and specificity besides timeconsuming and laborious sample pretreatment, particularly when applied to samples in complex biological matrices.
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Usually, insufficient intratumoral concentration of therapeutic drugs is one of the reasons for tumor treatment failure. However, little is known about intratumoral distribution of bromocriptine in non-responding prolactinomas because of extremely low drug concentration and small prolactinoma tissue samples. In this study, a sensitive, rapid and high-throughput quantitative bioanalytical method has been established by using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of bromocriptine at trace level in human prolactinoma tissue. As little as 20mg (wet weight) tissue sample was required and total analysis time was 6min in this method. The assay quantifies over a linear range of 50fg/mg to 5pg/mg, and has a 25fg/mg limit of detection at a signal/noise ratio of 3. This validated method was successfully used to quantitatively determine bromocriptine in clinical post-operative bromocriptine-sensitive and -resistant prolactinomas. The results revealed bromocriptine concentration in resistant prolactinomas (0.49-1.25pg/mg) was significantly higher than that in sensitive prolactinomas (0.057-0.47pg/mg). These results provided direct evidence to demonstrate the reseaon for failure of bromocriptine treatment in some patients with prolactinoma was "intrinsic" tumor (cell) resistence, rather than insufficient drug concentration in tumor tissue. Additionaly, this HPLC-MS/MS method has been shown to be suitable for bromocriptine analysis in small amount tissue sample and could be adapted for therapeutic drug monitoring of other clinical medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
    • Liquid–liquid extraction with 70 : 30 (v/v) hexane : chloroform provided the highest recovery for simultaneous analysis of all three compounds from previously reported extraction methods (Larsen et al., 1979; Walter et al., 1998; Titier et al., 2003; Yasui-Furukori et al., 2004; Singh and Sharma, 2005). It was also determined that a second extraction step recovered more of the compounds from the plasma than a single, organic extraction.
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple and rapid RP-HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of the dopamine antagonists haloperidol, its diazepane analog, and the dopamine agonist bromocriptine in rat plasma, to perform pharmacokinetic drug-interaction studies. Samples were prepared for analysis by acetonitrile (22.0 microg/mL) plasma protein precipitation with droperidol as an internal standard, followed by a double-step liquid-liquid extraction with hexane : chloroform (70:30) prior to C-18 separation. Isocratic elution was achieved using a 0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid in deionized water, methanol and acetonitrile (45/27.5/27.5, v/v/v). Triple-wavelength diode-array detection at the lambda(max) of 245 nm for haloperidol, 254 nm for the diazepane analog and droperidol, and 240 nm for bromocriptine was carried out. The LLOQ of DAL, HAL, and BCT were 45.0, 56.1, and 150 ng/mL, respectively. In rats, the estimated pharmacokinetic parameters (i.e., t(1/2), CL, and V(ss)) of HAL when administered with DAL and BCT were t(1/2) = 16.4 min, V(ss) = 0.541 L/kg for HAL, t(1/2) = 28.0 min, V(ss) = 2.00 L/kg for DAL, and t(1/2) = 24.0 min, V(ss) = 0.106 L/kg for BCT. The PK parameters for HAL differed significantly from those previously reported, which may be an indication of a drug-drug interaction.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2009
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The plasma kinetics of bromocriptine (BCT), a long-acting dopamine agonist, was studied in twelve patients with Parkinson's disease, using a newly developed gas chromatographic method of analysis. Each patient received BCT for at least three weeks in a constant but different dose regimen. Concomitant treatment with 1-DOPA was not allowed. During a 6-day hospitalization period, a blood sample was taken immediately before the afternoon dose at 14.00 h (Cmin) to determine the steady-state level. On the 6th day blood samples were collected every hour during two 8 h dose intervals. The results showed a significant correlation between the mean values of the AUC and the Cmin. First order elimination kinetics appeared to be followed by BCT, at least for the plasma concentrations commonly found. Considerable inter-individual variation was demonstrated both for the dose/plasma concentration ratio and for calculated plasma clearances. No serious side-effects were observed during the investigation.
    Article · Jun 1979
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salivary and plasma concentrations of bromocriptine (BCT), a dopamine agonist, were measured by gas chromatography in four patients with Parkinson's disease. All the patients had been on mono-therapy with BCT for years, and during the 3 weeks prior to the investigation they received constant but individually different dosage regimens. Paired samples of pure, parotid, serous saliva and of blood were collected hourly during one eight hour dose interval. The concentrations of BCT in saliva were very low and there was a ten-fold range in the areas under the salivary and plasma concentration/time curves. It is concluded that in clinical practice measurement of BCT in saliva is not suitable for exact estimation of the plasma concentration of BCT. Using the measured salivary pH and the plasma BCT concentration, calculations based on the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation showed that the assumption of about 99% plasma protein binding of BCT best fited the observed concentrations of BCT in saliva.
    Article · Sep 1980
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The disposition and biotransformation of bromocriptine were investigated in mouse, rat, dog, rhesus monkey and man following administration of the drug substance labelled with either tritium or carbon-14. The enteral absorption of bromocriptine was incomplete and amounted to 30–40% of the dose as estimated directly from the sum of biliary and urinary excretion of radioactive compounds in bile duct cannulated rats and monkeys. The main route of elimination was the bile (80–93% of the absorbed dose). Only 1 to 6% of the radioactive dose was recovered in urine of intact animals and man. Extensive biotransformation of bromocriptine is reflected by very complex metabolite profiles in all tested body fluids and by the almost complete absence of parent drug in urine and bile. Of the numerous drug-derived radioactive components seventeen could be identified. In animals the major urinary metabolites were 2-bromo-lysergic acid (7), its amide (3), and the respective isomers at position 8, metabolites6 and1. Bromolysergic acid (7) and bromoisolysergic acid (6) accounted for half of the radioactivity in human urine. In rat and monkey bile up to 40% of the radioactivity was associated with metabolites derived from the oxidation (hydroxylation, ring-opening) of the proline fragment (4, 5, 21–24, 29–31). The hydroxylated compounds were present in the form of conjugates with glucuronic acid. These were subsequently deconjugated in the intestine and recovered in the faeces as the free forms. The presence of the parent drug as a major component in rat plasma following intravenous administration and its absence after oral administration indicated that the elimination of bromocriptine proceeded almost entirely by metabolism in the liver.In vitro studies with isolated rat hepatocytes and 10.000 g supernatant of human liver confirmed thein vivo findings. Based on the structures of the identified metabolites it could be concluded that the biotransformation of bromocriptine in man occurred through the same principal pathways as in all investigated animal species.
    Article · Feb 1983
  • Article · Feb 1983
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