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Tumor-inhibitory and liver-protective effects of Phellinus igniarius extracellular polysaccharides

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The tumor-inhibitory and liver-protective effects of crude extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) extracted from the liquid mycelial culture of the mushroom Phellinus igniarius were studied in mice. The mice were injected with murine sarcoma S180 and murine hepatoma H22. Crude EPS at 100, 200, 400mgkg−1 body weight was administered to EPS groups each day in the twelve consecutive days. The result showed that EPS 200mgkg−1 body weight significantly inhibited S180 and H22 at 65.0 and 46.3%, respectively. Moreover, EPS could not only keep the numbers of WBC, RBC, PLT and the concentration of HGB in a normal range, but also normalize the activities of AST, ALT and ALP. For example, in EPS-treated mice, AST significantly reduced with the percentage of A/G reverse in S180 (P<0.05) and H22 (P<0.01) when the mice took EPS 200mgkg−1 body weight. In conclusion, it was remarkable that P. igniarius EPS exhibited antitumor activity related to dosage and protected liver function by sustaining the blood routine as well as keeping the blood biochemical indexes normal.
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ORIGINAL PAPER
Tumor-inhibitory and liver-protective effects of Phellinus
igniarius extracellular polysaccharides
Wei Dong ÆLi Ning ÆWei-dong Lu ÆCui-cui Li Æ
Rui-peng Chen ÆXiao-ning Jia ÆLin Wang Æ
Li-zhong Guo
Received: 15 June 2008 / Accepted: 24 November 2008 / Published online: 30 January 2009
ÓSpringer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009
Abstract The tumor-inhibitory and liver-protective
effects of crude extracellular polysaccharides (EPS)
extracted from the liquid mycelial culture of the mushroom
Phellinus igniarius were studied in mice. The mice were
injected with murine sarcoma S180 and murine hepatoma
H22. Crude EPS at 100, 200, 400 mg kg
-1
body weight
was administered to EPS groups each day in the twelve
consecutive days. The result showed that EPS
200 mg kg
-1
body weight significantly inhibited S180 and
H22 at 65.0 and 46.3%, respectively. Moreover, EPS could
not only keep the numbers of WBC, RBC, PLT and the
concentration of HGB in a normal range, but also nor-
malize the activities of AST, ALT and ALP. For example,
in EPS-treated mice, AST significantly reduced with the
percentage of A/G reverse in S180 (P\0.05) and H22
(P\0.01) when the mice took EPS 200 mg kg
-1
body
weight. In conclusion, it was remarkable that P. igniarius
EPS exhibited antitumor activity related to dosage and
protected liver function by sustaining the blood routine as
well as keeping the blood biochemical indexes normal.
Keywords EPS Phellinus igniarius Antitumor
Blood routine
Abbreviation
A/G The amount percentage of albumin and globulin
ALP Alkaline phosphatase
ALT Alanine aminotransferace
AST Aspartate aminotransferace
CTX Cyclophosphamide
EPS Extracellular polysaccharides
HGB Hemoglobins
NS Normal saline
PLT Platelets
RBC Red blood cells
WBC White blood cells
Introduction
Phellinus igniarius that is often confused with Phellinus
linteus is generally called ‘‘Sanghuang’’ in Chinese, which
is classified into Hymenochaetaceae Basidiomycete, one of
the most famous traditional Chinese medicines (Zou et al.
2006). Amounting to 90% of edible fungi, basidiomycetes
are popular and valuable foods due to high protein, several
vitamins, antibiotics, polysaccharides and minerals in their
fruit bodies at present. It was found that these substances
can prevent and treat diseases, for example, extracts from
fruit bodies and polysaccharides are generally considered
as bioactive compounds modulating the immune activities
of lymphocytes, macrophages and epidermis cells (Kim
et al. 2003; Chen et al. 2006). In recent years, there are
more than 200 kinds of anti-tumor polysaccharides
extracted from Lentinus edodes,Ganoderma lucidum,
Poria cocos,Grifola frondosa,Agaricus baize,Dictyophra
indusiata, etc.
Phellinus igniarius is very close to P. linteus in
genetics, which is considered as one of the most efficient
medicinal fungi to treat cancer due to its antitumor and
immunostimulating activities (Han et al. 1999). Since the
W. Dong L. Ning W.-d. Lu C.-c. Li R.-p. Chen
X.-n. Jia L. Wang L.-z. Guo (&)
Shandong Province Key Lab of Agricultural Applied Mycology,
Qingdao Agricultural University, Changcheng Road 700,
Chengyang, 266109 Qingdao, People’s Republic of China
e-mail: lizhguo963@sohu.com; lzguo963@gmail.cn
123
World J Microbiol Biotechnol (2009) 25:633–638
DOI 10.1007/s11274-009-9967-8
first report of its anti-tumor effect (Ikekawa et al. 1968),
polysaccharides from soybeans fermented with P. ignia-
rius have been shown inhibitory effects on carcinogenesis
and pulmonary inflammation (Shon and Nam 2001,2002,
2004), and extracellular polysaccharides from the sub-
merged culture of P. linteus prevent hyperglycemia in
diabetic patients (Kim et al. 2001). Likewise, extracts
from the fruit body and mycelia could significantly
inhibit S180 sarcoma, soybeans fermented with P. ig-
niarius were reported antimutagenic effects on cancer
(Kim et al. 2000), and natural P. linteus fruit body
powder was found useful to prolong life span by inhib-
itory effect on cancer (Ohno et al. 2007). Besides the
above effects, extracts from Phellinus species not only
had the relaxing effects on rat aortic rings (Hoose et al.
2006), but also expressed vasodilator and antioxidation
activity (Chang et al. 2008). More astonishing was that
Phellinus extracts have been identified anti-tumor effects
in clinical studies, Kojima et al. (2006) reported that
hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with multiple lung
metastases in whom malignancy spontaneously regressed
in a patient by taking extracts from P. linteus mycelium.
However, cultivating fruit bodies is difficult and the
expenditure of isolating and purifying EPS from a liquid
mycelial culture is high.
In regard to this, we used crude EPS from liquid
mycelial culture of P. igniarius to study tumor-inhibitory
effects and liver-protective effects on murine sarcoma
S180 and murine hepatoma H22 mice.
Materials and methods
Organism and culture conditions
Phellinus igniarius was isolated from tissues of fresh fruit
body from the mushroom found in the wild forest in
Northeast of China and artificially cultivated by Shandong
Province Key lab of Agricultural Applied Mycology,
Qingdao Agricultural University. The storage medium was
potato-dextrose-agar slants; the first-class seeds were cul-
tured in the medium including (g l
-1
): potato (200),
glucose (20), KH
2
PO
4
(1), MgSO
4
7H
2
O (1). The second-
class liquid seeds were fermented in the medium consisted
of (g l
-1
): saccharose (40), yeast extract (10), KH
2
PO
4
(1),
MgSO
4
7H
2
O (1), and Vitamin B
1
(0.0003). The slants
mycelia prepared for first-class seed culture were incubated
at 26°C for 15 days. The first-class seeds were cultured in a
250 ml shaking flask containing 70 ml of liquid medium
and incubated at 26°C on a rotary shaker (130 rev/min) for
6 days. The second-class liquid seeds were inoculated at
15% (v/v) of the first-class seed culture medium and kept at
26°C and 130 rev/min for 8 days.
Extraction and determination of EPS
Culture broths were firstly filtrated through eight layers of
gauzes, and then the filtrate were centrifuged at 10,0009g
for 20 min. The acquired supernatant was added four vol-
umes of 95% (v/v) ethanol, stirred vigorously overnight at
4°C. After centrifugation at 10,0009gfor 20 min, crude
EPS was precipitated and purged with aether or acetone
several times, and then lyophilized and estimated in
weight. The dry crude EPS dissolved in distilled water was
measured by the phenol–sulphuric acid method (Dubois
et al. 1956). EPS =total sugars -reducing sugars.
Experimental models
The mice with ascites tumor were purchased from Institute
of Materia Medica, Shandong Academy of Medical Sci-
ence. Kunming mice about 22 ±2 g in average purchased
from Center for New Drugs Evaluation of Shandong Uni-
versity were inoculated with sarcoma S180 and H22 cancer
cells (5 910
5
cells per mouse) subcutaneously in the right
armpit, respectively. All the experimental mice care was in
accordance with institutional guidelines. Mice were housed
in an aseptic room (at 21 ±2°C) with a 12 h photoperiod,
and body weights were recorded everyday.
Anti-tumor assays
The mice inoculated subcutaneously with murine sarcoma
S180 and murine hepatoma H22 were randomized into five
groups, and treatments were initiated 24 h after injecting
tumor cells. Drugs were administrated once a day for
consecutive 12 days. Normal saline (NS) intake mice
(20 ml kg
-1
) were used as control group while cyclo-
phosphamide (CTX, Jiangsu Hengrui Co., China, CTX
were dissolved in normal saline) were administrated
20 mg kg
-1
body weight as positive control, crude EPS
100, 200, 400 mg kg
-1
body weight were administered to
EPS groups by intra-gastric each day, respectively. Tested
mice were sacrificed and tumor weights were recorded.
Tumors were dissected and weighed at 12th day. Body
weights and tumor weights were recorded to calculate the
tumor-inhibition rate. Inhibitory rate (%) =(mean tumor
weight of NS group -mean tumor weight of treated
group)/mean tumor weight of NS group 9100%.
Blood physiochemical assays
Mice were treated 12 h limosis before killed, then blood
samples were acquired from sinus by picking the eyes out
and collected in heparinized tubes, WBC, RBC, HGB and
PLT were recorded by Shenzhen Mindray BC-2300 semi-
auto blood cells counting apparatus with matching enzyme
634 World J Microbiol Biotechnol (2009) 25:633–638
123
kits. Blood serum were separated by centrifugation at
3,0009gfor 10 min, physiochemical indexes, including
AST, ALT, ALP and the percentage of A/G were recorded
by Shenzhen Mindray BC-2300 Semi-auto biochemical
analyzer using reagents purchased from Beijing Biosino
Bio-Technology and Science Incorporation.
Hepatic index assays
Livers were aseptically isolated from experimental mice
and recorded in weight to calculate hepatic index. Hepatic
index =mean liver weight of each group/mean body
weight of each group.
Statistical analysis
Data were expressed as mean ±SD. The statistical differ-
ence between mean values was examined by Student’s t-test.
P\0.05 was considered to be significant in difference.
Results
Content of EPS in culture broths
After 8 days growth crude EPS were extracted from culture
broths and their content was measured, the result showed
that EPS production reached about 1.6 g l
-1
, accounting
for 68.7% of total sugars.
Tumor-inhibitory effect of EPS against S180 and H22
All the animals survived during the experiment. After
treatment the average tumor weight in NS control group
was 1.23 ±0.35 g in S180 model and 1.03 ±0.23 g in
H22 model. In EPS (100, 200 and 400 mg kg
-1
) group, the
average tumor weights reached 0.81 ±0.25, 0.43 ±0.23
and 0.76 ±0.27 g in S180 model, 0.69 ±0.22,
0.55 ±0.16 and 0.65 ±0.15 g in H22 model, respec-
tively. All the average tumor weight in experimental
groups attained a high significance versus NS control group
(P\0.01). Although CTX inhibited S180 and H22 highly
in 70.70 and 67.80%, respectively, the body weight of CTX
group significantly decreased. However, EPS guaranteed
the normal life of mice and exhibited inhibitory effect on
tumor. Especially when given EPS 200 mg kg
-1
body
weight each day, the inhibitory effect on S180 and H22 was
highly significant (P\0.01) and the rate amounted to
65.00 and 46.30%, respectively (Tables 1,2).
Effect of EPS on WBC, RBC, HGB and PLT
Liver is one of the most important organs to proliferate
blood cells, and the blood analysis is key index to indicate
Table 1 Effect of EPS on body weight, tumor weight and inhibitory rate on S180
Group Body weight (g)
a
Tumor
weight (g)
Tumor inhibition
rate (%)
Start End
Control (NS20 ml kg
-1
) 22.12 ±1.28 24.25 ±2.04 1.23 ±0.35 –
CTX20 (mg kg
-1
) 21.91 ±0.55 20.14 ±3.24** 0.36 ±0.06** 70.70
EPS100 (mg kg
-1
) 22.0 ±0.70 24.61 ±3.25 0.81 ±0.25** 34.10
EPS200 (mg kg
-1
) 22.15 ±1.39 25.62 ±3.74 0.43 ±0.23** 65.00
EPS400 (mg kg
-1
) 22.40 ±1.20 25.86 ±2.02 0.76 ±0.27** 38.20
*P\0.05, ** P\0.01 compared with NS group
a
Data represent mean ±SD of 10 mice in each group
Table 2 Effect of EPS on body weight, tumor weight and inhibitory rate on H22
Group Body weight (g)
a
Tumor
weight (g)
Tumor inhibition
rate (%)
Start End
Control (NS20 ml kg
-1
) 22.46 ±1.72 23.87 ±3.29 1.03 ±0.23 –
CTX20 (mg kg
-1
) 22.37 ±2.28 19.86 ±3.26* 0.33 ±0.18** 67.80
EPS100 (mg kg
-1
) 22.52 ±2.03 25.35 ±3.10 0.69 ±0.22** 32.70
EPS200 (mg kg
-1
) 21.94 ±2.51 27.22 ±4.26 0.55 ±0.16** 46.30
EPS400 (mg kg
-1
) 22.38 ±0.83 24.57 ±2.05 0.65 ±0.15** 36.60
*P\0.05, ** P\0.01 compared with NS group
a
Data represent mean ±SD of 10 mice in each group
World J Microbiol Biotechnol (2009) 25:633–638 635
123
whether immune systems are normal or not. As shown in
Tables 3and 4, in contrast with NS group, either the
amounts of WBC, RBC and PLT in CTX group decreased
in highly significant difference (P\0.01), or did HGB
(P\0.05). In addition, the counts of WBC, RBC were
beyond routine range indicating that CTX caused harm to
WBC, RBC, HGB and PLT. However, there was no sig-
nificant difference between EPS groups and NS group,
which suggested that EPS possibly stimulated the prolif-
eration of blood corpuscles and synthesis of HGB, so the
analysis results of blood routine in each EPS group was as
normal as NS group.
Effect of EPS on blood biochemical indexes
Compared with NS, CTX caused the activity of AST, ALT
and ALP to increase in highly significant difference while
the value of A/G decreased, yet EPS caused aminotrans-
ferases activity of EPS groups decreased. AST and ALP
decreased in high significance when S180 mice were
treated with EPS 200 mg kg
-1
body weight (P\0.01)
(Table 5). Similarly, ALT and ALP was in highly signifi-
cant reduction in H22 (P\0.01) (Table 6). In EPS groups
all the percentage of A/G tended to increase, of which EPS
200 mg kg
-1
body weight made the percentage of A/G
Table 3 Effect of EPS on WBC, RBC, HGB, and PLT in S180 mice
Group Concentration of blood cells
a
WBC (10
9
l
-1
) RBC(10
12
l
-1
) HGB (g l
-1
) PLT(10
9
l
-1
)
Control 8.70 ±2.89 8.02 ±0.71 138.3 ±09.45 459.50 ±70.53
CTX20 (mg kg
-1
) 4.31 ±1.21** 5.93 ±0.98** 121.78 ±16.28* 315.78 ±53.99**
EPS100 (mg kg
-1
) 8.10 ±2.97 8.25 ±0.53 130.00 ±7.72 499.60 ±108.15
EPS200 (mg kg
-1
) 8.33 ±2.36 8.08 ±0.98 130.67 ±17.55 461.56 ±36.43
EPS400 (mg kg
-1
) 8.84 ±2.17 8.43 ±1.03 143.00 ±19.87 494.75 ±68.28
*P\0.05, ** P\0.01 compared with NS group
a
Data represent mean ±SD of 10 mice in each group
Table 4 Effect of EPS on WBC, RBC, HGB, and PLT in H22 mice
Group Concentration of blood cells
a
WBC (10
9
l
-1
) RBC(10
12
l
-1
) HGB (g l
-1
) PLT(10
9
l
-1
)
Control 10.16 ±2.75 8.27 ±0.60 148.00 ±10.01 581.89 ±77.48
CTX20 (mg kg
-1
) 3.58 ±0.23** 7.05 ±0.67** 131.20 ±15.25* 420.40 ±65.35**
EPS100 (mg kg
-1
) 9.79 ±3.11 8.31 ±0.80 148.80 ±14.97 543.80 ±62.69
EPS200 (mg kg
-1
) 11.64 ±2.38 8.24 ±1.00 160.67 ±20.08 616.33 ±85.21
EPS400 (mg kg
-1
) 8.69 ±1.34 8.18 ±1.38 144.89 ±24.27 591.22 ±61.07
*P\0.05, ** P\0.01 compared with NS group
a
Data represent mean ±SD of 10 mice in each group
Table 5 Effect of EPS on blood biochemical indexes in S180 mice
Group Enzyme activity (IU l
-1
)
a
Percentage
of A/G
ALT AST ALP
Control 103.00 ±24.57 232.00 ±71.41 110.96 ±23.10 0.94 ±0.07
CTX20 (mg kg
-1
) 156.00 ±67.90** 413.00 ±113.53** 150.81 ±49.61** 0.87 ±0.06
EPS100 (mg kg
-1
) 97.04 ±32.25 224.79 ±70.57 107.34 ±32.18 1.15 ±0.08
EPS200 (mg kg
-1
) 84.12 ±35.10 173.55 ±71.57** 67.45 ±36.45** 1.19 ±0.07*
EPS400 (mg kg
-1
) 98.71 ±30.65 213.77 ±68.49 100.85 ±45.35 1.03 ±0.09
*P\0.05, ** P\0.01 compared with NS group
a
Data represent mean ±SD of 10 mice in each group
636 World J Microbiol Biotechnol (2009) 25:633–638
123
significant difference in S180 (P\0.05) and H22
(P\0.01), respectively (Tables 5,6). In this way, the
blood biochemical indexes were kept in a normal level for
the protection of the liver function.
Effect of EPS on hepatic index
Hepatic index in EPS group increased in different extent
when CTX group decreased in S180 and H22 versus con-
trol, and the hepatic index was significantly different
(P\0.01) in EPS 400 mg kg
-1
body weight group and
high to 6.50 ±1.30 vs. 4.88 ±0.40 in control group when
treating S180 (Fig. 1). Although it was not significant that
EPS caused the hepatic index increased in H22, the hepatic
index was dose-dependent with EPS which were presumed
to promote the growth of hepatic organs normally.
Discussion
Cyclophosphamide as the chemotherapy drug plays an
important role to inhibit tumor, yet it caused much harm to
mice. Though the highest inhibitory rate of EPS on S180
(65.00%) and H22 (46.30%) was lower than CTX
(Tables 1,2), EPS significantly inhibit S180 and H22 in
model mice where less toxicity was brought, and the result
confirmed as represented that inhibition rate was higher
than 60% (Han et al. 1999). However, a significant dif-
ference between our result and previous reports was that
the former was not a dose-dependent antitumor effect,
because the middle dosage of 200 mg kg
-1
body weight
each day was best to treat S180 and H22.
As documented, aminotransferases, WBC, RBC and
HGB are such primary parameters reflecting liver function
that inspection of blood routine test is always used in
clinic. In this experiment, compared with NS group, EPS
caused no change on the experimental groups while CTX
exhibited the harmful effect on blood cells and caused
WBC to reduce (Tables 3,4), so EPS could not disturb
proliferation of blood corpuscles and synthesis of HGB.
Bursch and Schulte-Hermann (1986) found that liver dys-
function leads AST and ALT level to increase, as shown in
Tables 5and 6, level of aminotransferases varied much
between CTX group and NS group, and the former
increased a lot to show CTX brought much harm to liver.
However, AST and ALP of experimental groups were
markedly reduced. Further more was that the percentage of
A/G reversed remarkably implying EPS protected liver
function by adding albumins or reducing globulins in
serum (Tables 5,6).
Kim et al. (2001) reported that EPS might play a cor-
rective role in liver by reducing the blood glucose level,
and Jeon et al. (2003) studied that extracts of P. linteus
grown on germinated brown rice had the liver-protective
activities, but the mechanism is different from each other.
In present study, we signified that EPS could protect the
liver function by keeping the blood indexes normal. The
hepatic index indeed increased when EPS were treated to
model mice (Fig. 1), which emphasized liver-protective
effect of EPS to figure out one possible relationship
between anti-tumor effect and immunity. Chang et al.
(2007) reported that polysaccharides isolated from Phelli-
nus baumii significantly enhanced both B lymphocyte
proliferation and T lymphocyte proliferation. Therefore,
our studies should be furthered on the tumor-inhibitory
Table 6 Effect of EPS on blood biochemical indexes in H22 mice
Group Enzyme activity (IU l
-1
)
a
Percentage
of A/G
ALT AST ALP
Control 134.00 ±37.77 224.31 ±81.93 111.00 ±38.13 0.86 ±0.06
CTX20 (mg kg
-1
) 182.00 ±62.54** 389.25 ±97.25** 176.23 ±55.95** 0.79 ±0.05
EPS100 (mg kg
-1
) 115.34 ±28.78 210.15 ±68.59 107.85 ±31.32 0.88 ±0.05
EPS200 (mg kg
-1
) 98.75 ±33.54** 183.24 ±51.24* 73.54 ±49.43** 1.06 ±0.07**
EPS400 (mg kg
-1
) 110.21 ±31.47 205.31 ±59.59 126.43 ±43.82 0.88 ±0.06
*P\0.05, ** P\0.01 compared with NS group
a
Data represent mean ±SD of 10 mice in each group
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
H22S180
Hepatic index (mg/g)
NS
CTX 20mg/Kg
EPS 100mg/Kg
EPS 200mg/Kg
EPS 400mg/Kg
* *
Fig. 1 Effect of EPS on hepatic index in S180 and H22 mice.
** P\0.01 vs. NS group
World J Microbiol Biotechnol (2009) 25:633–638 637
123
effect related with immune mechanism of EPS by esti-
mating the blood level of leucocytes and lymphocytes, the
percentage of CD4
?
/CD8
?
T cells and the density of
lymphocytes, etc.
In summary, crude EPS from P. igniarius when used to
treat S180 and H22 could significantly inhibit tumor and
protect liver without toxicity. Crude EPS were easily col-
lected from liquid mycelial culture in a short time.
Considering medicinal effect and economic value of EPS,
there is a potential of using the liquid culture fermentation
technology to produce EPS as therapeutic agents.
Acknowledgments We thank the Association for Science and
Technology Consultant Management of Shandong Province (AST-
CMSD) for the financial support (No. 620427).
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... Park et al. [114] investigated antitumor activity of the ethyl acetate extract of PL parasitizing on Panax ginseng and the reults indicated pronounced anti-proliferative activities were exhibited at the concentrations of 1, 10, 100 and 500 μg/mL through inducing apoptosis and cellular differentiation, which increased a sub-G1 cell population by inducing p53/p21 and activated caspase-8 protein expression in B16F10 cells. Furthermore, Lee et al. [115] found that the aqueous extract of Cambodian PL did not only significantly induce cytotoxicity against B16BL6 cells (125,250, 500, 1000 μg/mL) but also inhibited the pulmonary metastatic colonies in C57BL/6 mice intravenously injected by B16BL6 cells when oral administration was given at the dose of 2, 20, and 50 mg/kg. Also, down-regulated expression of urokinase type plasminogen activator was observed. ...
... A study was performed to compare the antitumor activity of water extracts from The results showed all three species of PL possessed a slight antitumor effect on sarcoma-180 and P388, and Phellinus linteus was the most effective one against sarcoma-180 with a statistical significance [124]. Besides that, PL was shown to have an inhibitory effect on sarcoma S180 and H22, modulate immune as well as anti-oxidation [123,125]. Recent investigations indicated that PL might be a potential candidate for treating leukemia. Anti-leukemia effect of PL ethanolic extracts was evaluated on human leukemia cell line K562 in vitro. ...
... Mice were injected with murine sarcoma S180 and murine hepatoma H22 and the effect of EPS was evaluated showing that EPS at 200 mg kg −1 body weight significantly inhibited S180 and H22 at 65.0 and 46.3%, respectively. With these results, it can be concluded that P. igniarius EPS exhibited antitumor activity related to dosage and protected liver function by sustaining the blood routine as well as keeping blood biochemical indexes normal (Dong et al., 2009). Moreover, the in vivo experiments showed that the over sulphated-EPS derivative had no effect on the primary osteosarcoma tumor induced by osteosarcoma cell lines but was very efficient to inhibit the establishment of lung metastases in vivo (Heymann et al., 2016). ...
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There is currently a constant search for ecofriendly bioproducts, which could contribute to various biomedical applications. Among bioproducts, exopolysaccharides are prominent contemporary extracellular biopolymers that are produced by a great variety of bacterial species. These homo- or heteropolymers are composed of monomeric sugar units linked by glycosidic bonds, which are secreted to the external medium. Bacillus spp. are reported to be present in different ecosystems and produce exopolysaccharides with different biological properties such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral anti-inflammatory, among others. Since a great diversity of bacterial strains are able to produce exopolysaccharides, a great variation in the molecular composition is observed, which is indeed present in some of the chemical structures predicted until date. These molecular characteristics and their relations with different biological functions are discussed in order to visualize future applications in biomedical section.
... The liver is the most sensitive organ for peroxidative damage. Rats which given Spirulina plus lead acetate revealed a significant decreases of elevated liver enzymes levels AST and ALT which is an important tool of the biomarker in the diagnosis of hepatic damage because they conducted with the circulation after cellular damage (Dong et al., 2009). ...
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Lead is considered one of the wide spread environmental pollutants in Iraq. Nowadays, some types of algae can be the solution by utilizing them as natural medications to cure many diseases. This scientific article is intended to examine spirulina action as an antioxidant to cure lead acetate induced injury in rats. The total numbers of rats used were (48), the rats were divided into eight groups, (42 rats) represented the treated group and 6 rats represented the control group. 36 Rats of treated groups were injected initially with different concentrations of lead acetate; while the rest 6 rats were only fed with Spirulina. All our samples were examined by biochemical, hematological and immunohistological methods. Our experiments proved that Spirulina had an antioxidant action which can support the body defense system. Malondialdehyde (MAD), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) were increased in lead injected group; while they decreased in the spirulina fed group. There was a significant enhancement in lipid profile values of treated group that were fed spirulina. In addition, it noticed that the values of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in rats injected by lead, then fed spirulina were decreased; this decrement was evidence in the histological results. Moreover, the hematological results of rats fed with spirulina appeared that the leukocyte and platelet numbers also decreased; while the erythrocyte, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels were increased, unlike, rats injected with only lead. The conclusion was that Spirulina ability to do obvious decrement in the poisonous action of lead was done by its scavenger free radical activity and its effective antioxidant activity.
... 16 In Europe, 38 phellinoid Hymenochaetaceae species are known 17 ; however, Ph. igniarius is almost exclusively mentioned as being used in traditional Western medicine. Several relatively recent tic effects of Ph. igniarius 16,[18][19][20] ; nevertheless, Ph. igniarius sensu stricto belongs to a taxonomically wide and 8 in Europe. 21 In this study, 10 representative Central European phellinoid Hymenochaetaceae species from 6 genera (Fomitiporia, Fuscoporia, Phellinopsis, Phellinus sensu stricto, Phellopilus, and Porodaedalea) were examined for their potential antimicrobial, antioxidant, and xanthine oxidase (XO)-inhibitory properties. ...
Article
Ten representative Central European phellinoid Hymenochaetaceae species (Phellinus sensu lato) were selected to examine their potential pharmacological activity. In this study 40 organic (n-hexane, chloroform, 50% methanol) and aqueous extracts with different polarities were analyzed for their antimicrobial, antioxidant, and xanthine oxidase (XO)−inhibitory properties. Fomitiporia robusta, Fuscoporia torulosa, Phellopilus nigrolimitatus, and Porodaedalea chrysoloma showed moderate antibacterial activity; Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, and Moraxella catarrhalis ATCC 43617 were the strains most susceptible to the examined fungal species. The in vitro antioxidant and XO assays demonstrated that most of the selected species possess remarkable antioxidant and XO-inhibitory activities. The water extracts in general proved to be more active antioxidants than organic extracts. In the case of F. torulosa, Ph. Nigrolimitatus, and P. chrysoloma, the results of DPPH tests correlate well with those obtained by oxygen radical absorbance capacity tests; these mushrooms presented high antioxidant activities in both assays. Future studies involving phellinoid Hymenochaetaceae species are planned, which may furnish novel results in terms of the species' pharmacological activity and the specific compounds responsible for the observed activity.
... Polysaccharides from soybeans fermented with P. igniarius showed inhibitory effects on carcinogenesis and pulmonary inflammation [30]. It was also shown that crude extracellular polysaccharides from P. igniarius when used to treat S180 sarcoma and H22 hepatoma inhibited tumor growth and protected the liver without toxic effects [31]. Kang and others [32] reported that a butanol extract of P. igniarius induces endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of isolated rat aorta. ...
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Mushrooms have been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Today, their therapeutic value is scientifically studied and appreciated. Research indicates that polypores - a large group of fungi of the phylum Basdiomycota - exhibit antiviral, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-allergic, anti-atherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities. Phellinus igniarius, a polypore mushroom, is one of the most used in traditional Asian medicine. Its potent anticancer activity has been repeatedly reported. In the past two decades, numerous pharmacologically active metabolites have been isolated and identified from P. igniarius. Among the large number of compounds, the most active group are polysaccharides. They modulate immune responses and inhibit tumor growth.
... Similar blood cholesterol and triglyceride reducing effect of green tea has been reported by others also (Imai and Nakachi [38]; Yang and Koou [39]). The levels of liver enzymes such as ALP, ALT and ALP were increased in EAC bearing mice (group II) compared with normal mice (group I) which indicate hepatocellular damage [40]. However, pre-and post-treatment of EAC bearing mice with TPP-SLN (groups IV and VI) decreased the levels of these liver enzymes. ...
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Tea polyphenols (TPPs) comprise preventive and therapeutic potentials against cancer, cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Chemical instability of TPP which leads to low bioavailability is the major constrain to its use as therapeutic agent. The authors prepared TPP encapsulated solid lipid nanoparticles (TPP-SLNs) to increase its stability and bioefficacy. Comparison of Fourier transformed infrared spectra of unloaded SLN, free TPP and TPP-SLN indicated encapsulation of TPP. Sustained release of TPP from TP-SLN was observed. TPP-SLN showed prolonged free radical scavenging activity compared with free TPP indicating protection of TPP. TPP-SLN showed activation of Caspases-9 and -3 cascades in breast cancer cell line (Michigan cancer foundation (MCF)-7) at in vitro conditions. Biochemical parameters were altered in Ehrlich ascetic carcinoma (EAC) cell bearing mice compared with normal (uninduced) mice which were ameliorated significantly by oral feeding of TPP-SLN. Oral administration (pre- and post-treated) of TPPSLN in EAC bearing mice resulted in significant increase of plasma haemoglobin, glucose, superoxide dismutase and catalase when compared with EAC bearing control mice. Other biochemical parameters (cholesterol, bilirubin, triglyceride, urea, total protein, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and aspertate transaminase were significantly decreased on oral administration (pre- and post-treated) of TPP-SLN in EAC bearing mice.
... Polysaccharides extracted from P. linteus are reported to stimulate cell-mediated and humoral immunity, and to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis (Kim et al., 1996). Although the study of polysaccharides from P. igniarius has been dropped behind that of P. linteus, over the past decades, multiple biological activities of polysaccharides from fruit body of P. igniarius have been reported, antiinflammatory, antioxidative and antitumor activities (Lee et al., 2013;Wang, Li, & Yuan, 2009;Dong et al., 2009;Chen, Ma, Liu, & Zhao, 2012). And the polysaccharides from P. igniarius mycelia have also showed antioxidant, antitumor and cancer chemopreventive activities (Yang et al., 2007;Lung & Tsai, 2009;Wu, Jiang, Liu, & Zhang, 2006;Shon & Nam, 2001). ...
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With the rising trend of incidence of cancers, effective therapies are urgently needed to control human malignancies. However, the chemotherapy drugs currently on the market cause serious side effects. Polysaccharides belong to a class of biomacromolecules, which have drawn considerable research interest over the years as it possess anti-cancer activities or can increase the efficacy of conventional chemotherapy drugs with fewer side effects. The antitumor activity of many polysaccharides was significantly increased after modification. Based on these encouraging observations, a great deal of effort has been focused on discovering anti-cancer polysaccharides and modified derivatives for the development of effective therapeutics for various human cancers. This review highlights recent advances on the major chemical modification methods of polysaccharides, and discusses the effect of molecular modification on the physicochemical properties and anti-tumor activities of polysaccharides. Meanwhile, the underlying anti-tumor mechanisms of polysaccharide and its modified derivatives were also discussed.
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It was discussed that the apoptosis product of H22 hepatocarcinoma cells induced by cartilage polysaccharide (CP) could activate the body immune system to antitumor. The mice's survival time, life extension rate (LER) and livability were measured by animal experiment. Lymphocyte proliferation was determined by MTT. The immune serum titer was identified by ELISA. The tumor protein antigen was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blot, 2-D, and mass spectrometry analysis (MS). Compared with the model group, there was a significant improvement on the survival time, LER, livability, thymus index, spleen index, and stimulation index in immune group. The serum had high antibody titer which was up to 1: 6,400. The tumor-specific antigen was tubulin alpha chain by MS and molecular weight is 50 KDa. The apoptosis product of H22 induced by CP had immunogenicity and could activate the immune system of the mouse to antitumor.
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Edible and medicinal fungi (mushrooms) are widely applied to functional foods and nutraceutical products because of their proven nutritive and medicinal properties. Phellinus sensu lato is a well-known medicinal mushroom that has long been used in preventing ailments, including gastroenteric dysfunction, diarrhea, hemorrhage, and cancers, in oriental countries, particularly in China, Japan, and Korea. Polysaccharides represent a major class of bioactive molecules in Phellinus s. l., which have notable antitumor, immunomodulatory, and medicinal properties. Polysaccharides that were isolated from fruiting bodies, cultured mycelia, and filtrates of Phellinus s. l. have not only activated different immune responses of the host organism but have also directly suppressed tumor growth and metastasis. Studies suggest that polysaccharides from Phellinus s. l. are promising alternative anticancer agents or synergizers for existing antitumor drugs. This review summarizes the recent development of polysaccharides from Phellinus s. l., including polysaccharide production, extraction and isolation methods, chemical structure, antitumor activities, and mechanisms of action.
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Polysaccharides isolated from Phellinus baumii (PBP) significantly enhanced both lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced B lymphocyte proliferation and concanavalin A (Con A)-induced T lymphocyte proliferation. However, PBP (12.5–100μgml−1) significantly suppressed the LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The maximal inhibition of PBP on NO production was 37.5% at 100μgml−1. These results provide useful in vitro information to explain the immunostimulating activity and anti-inflammatory activity of PBP.
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Mycelial growth and extracellular polysaccharide production of Phellinus linteus were optimal at pH 5 and 25 C. Maximum biomass production (14.2 g l–1) was after 15 d of cultivation, whereas, extracellular polysaccharide was maximal (3.5 g l–1) after 21 d. The hypoglycemic effect of the polysaccharide, investigated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, decreased plasma glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations by 49%, 32%, and 28%, respectively, and aspartate aminotransferase activity by 20%. The results indicate the potential of this polysaccharide to prevent hyperglycemia in diabetic patients.
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Soybeans fermented with either Phellinus igniarius or Agrocybe cylindracea inhibited the mutagenicity of the directly-acting mutagens: 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine on Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and NaN3 on S.typhimurium strain TA100; and indirectly-acting mutagens, 2-aminofluorene using strain TA98 and benzo[a]pyrene using strain TA 100, in the presence of a supernatant solution from mammalian hepatic microsomes.
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The organic extract of the basidiomycete Phellinus gilvus TMC-1117 showed biphasic vasodilator activity on rat aorta with endothelium. Two lanostane-type triterpenes, eburicoic acid (1) and trametenolic acid B (2), were isolated from the organic extract as major constituents. Compound1 showed a moderate vasorelaxant effect on rat aorta.
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In the present study, the immunotherapeutic activity of oral intake of natural Phellinus linteus fruit body (nPF) against growth and pulmonary metastasis of injected B16/BL6 melanoma cells has been examined. The nPF powder was orally administered to B16/BL6-bearing mice, a model for the pulmonary metastasis of melanoma, at doses of 83, 415 and 2,075mg/kgday in their diet. The dietary intake of nPF powder significantly prolonged the survival time of the B16/BL6-bearing mice. Furthermore, ingestion of nPF dose-dependently enhanced NO production by macrophages prepared from the tumor-bearing, nPF-treated animals. Simultaneously, nPF did not induce direct cytotoxicity against B16/BL6. These results suggest that the oral intake of nPF powder may be useful in immunochemotherapy for cancer because of its life prolongation through the inhibitory effect on growth and metastasis of cancer.
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The in vitro anti-platelet and antioxidant activities of various solvent extracts from Phellinus gilvus (PG), and the effects of hot water extract from PG (PGW) on murine cellular immunity were investigated. Chloroform extract (CE), methanol extract (ME) and butanol extract (BE) from PG could significantly inhibit platelet aggregation induced by thrombin. Ethyl acetate extract (EAE), BE, ME from PG had significant 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity compared with the control, and the EAE showed the highest effect with IC50 values of 13.34μg/ml, which is higher than that of ascorbic acid (40μg/ml). In addition, EAE displayed the inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO) activity with IC50 value of 2.45μg/ml. As to the cellular immunity activity, PGW could enhance both the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced B lymphocyte proliferation and concanavalin A (Con A)-induced T lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. The phagocytosis of both peritoneal macrophages and RAW264.7 macrophage cells were also increased by the addition of PGW. Moreover, PGW was found to inhibit the nitric oxide (NO) production of RAW264.7 macrophages induced by LPS in a concentration-dependant manner.
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The effect of NaCl on cell growth and polysaccharide biosynthesis in the medicinal mushroom Phellinus linteus was studied. With the increase of NaCl concentration between 1g/l and 7g/l in the culture medium, the cell growth and intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) accumulation were decreased; extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) concentration was enhanced, with an increase of NaCl concentration from 1g/l to 3g/l. Under the optimum NaCl concentration of 3g/l, the maximum EPS and IPS production reached 2.2±0.15g/l and 53.6±2.45mg/g DW on day 12, which improved 32.27% and decreased 16.89% compared to the control, respectively. Both EPS and IPS showed new polysaccharide components by fractionation with DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography compared to the control. The results presented in this study are considered helpful for further investigation on the diversity of polysaccharide biosynthesis of this medicinal fungus under NaCl environments.
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In a two-stage skin carcinogenesis model, mice initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and promoted with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for 12 weeks developed an average of 15.8 skin tumours per mouse with 100% tumour incidence. Topical application of polysaccharides from soybeans fermented with either Phellinus igniarius or Agrocybe cylindracea together with TPA twice weekly for 12 weeks inhibited the number of skin tumours per mouse by 70 or 88%, respectively, and the percentage of mice with tumours was lowered by 70 or 30%, respectively.