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Coteaching/Cogenerative Dialoguing: Learning Environments Research as Classroom Praxis

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Abstract

Critical educators have leveled a methodological critique against traditional forms of classroom research because they both objectify teachers and students and lead to results that do not enhance praxis. Over the past decade, we have developed coteaching as a context for learning to teach and supervising teaching, on the one hand and, on the other, as a method for doing research on and evaluating teaching. Coteaching involves an equitable inquiry into teaching and learning processes in which all members (or representatives thereof) of a classroom community participate – including students, teachers, student teachers, researchers, and supervisors. In this article, we articulate coteaching in terms of activity theory and the associated first-person methodology for doing research on learning environments that is relevant to praxis because it constitutes an integral part of praxis. A detailed case study exemplifies coteaching and the associated research on learning environments.

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... While there has been a body of research on coplanning and coinstructing and coteaching in general during the clinical experience, there are fewer studies on the coassessing component of coteaching. In the coassessing research that does exist, researchers have studied coteaching in light of the cogenerative dialogue that occurs as the teacher candidate learns how to teach (Roth & Tobin, 2004;Roth, Tobin, & Zimmermann, 2002;Tobin & Roth, 2005). Roth and Tobin (2004) define cogenerative dialogue as collaborative discussions focused around improving teacher and student learning (pp. ...
... Prior to viewing the coassessing videos, we developed an initial list of possible coassessing descriptors (e.g., explication of thinking, equal voice) based on our previous research (Guise et al., 2016a(Guise et al., , 2016b(Guise et al., , 2017, facilitation of coteaching workshops, and the research of others (Beers, 2009;Gallo-Fox & Scantlebury, 2015;Gallo-Fox, Scantlebury, & Soslau, 2016;Gallo-Fox & Stegeman, 2019;Murphy, Scantlebury, & Milne, 2015;Pylman, 2016;Roth et al., 2002;Soslau et al., 2018). This approach also embraced the intuitive process for rubric development (Fulcher, 2003) allowing research and experience to inform rubric development. ...
... Engagement in cogenerative dialogue, consisting of collectively posing questions and generating solutions(Beers, 2009;Gallo-Fox & Scantlebury, 2015;Pylman, 2016;Roth et al., 2002;Tobin & Roth, 2005); • Explication of thinking and justification (Gallo-Fox & Scantlebury, 2015; Gallo-Fox et al., 2016; Gallo-Fox & Stegeman, 2019; Pylman, 2016); • Shared analysis and reflection including balanced turn taking and uptake of ideas (Gallo-Fox & Scantlebury, 2015; Gallo-Fox et al., 2016; Gallo-Fox & Stegeman, 2019); • Joint decision making (Gallo-Fox & Scantlebury, 2015; Gallo-Fox et al., 2016; Gallo-Fox & Stegeman, 2019); and • Exploration and resolution of disagreement (Smith, 2005; Thompson & Schademan, 2019). ...
Article
Coteaching, an alternative to traditional conceptions of student teaching in general teacher preparation, may be enhanced if researchers and practitioners achieve consensus with respect to operational definitions and descriptions of practice. The focus of this article is coassessing – one component of coteaching – where coteachers collaboratively analyze the results of student assessments and determine instructional next steps. Through a review of coassessing literature and analyses of coassessing videos, we developed a coassessing rubric to support coassessing implementation. We describe the methods used to develop the coassessing rubric and outline the use of the rubric as a resource for advancing coassessing practice.
... The COVID-19 pandemic caused educational activities to suddenly shift to an emergency remote learning mode, causing teachers to experience numerous challenges. In this work, we aim to present and discuss the proposal of a course entitled "Educational Technologies in Language Teaching" organized by the frameworks of the Formative Didactic Experiment (SFORNI, 2015) and Social Activity (LIBERALI, 2020) in an emergency remote learning context, both offered and conducted based on the principles of co-teaching and co-planning (ROTH et al., 2002; 2000; PASSONI, 2010; EL KADRI, 2014). We also aim to analyze the affordances perceived by the participating students regarding the learning possibilities. ...
... La pandemia de Covid-19 hizo que las actividades educativas migraran súbitamente a un modelo remoto de emergencia, lo que provocó que los docentes experimentaran numerosos desafíos. En este texto, pretendemos presentar y discutir la propuesta de la asignatura "Tecnologías Educativas en la Enseñanza de Idiomas" organizada en el marco del Experimento Didáctico Formativo (SFORNI, 2015) y de la Actividad Social (LIBERALI, 2020) en un contexto remoto de emergencia, ofrecida y conducida en el modelo de co-enseñanza y co-planificación (ROTH et al., 2002; 2000; PASSONI, 2010; EL KADRI, 2014) y también analizar las posibilidades percibidas por los estudiantes participantes sobre el aprendizaje. Los datos se recolectaron a través de un cuestionario a los estudiantes del curso de grado en Inglés que participaban en la asignatura y el análisis se realizó a través de la propuesta de affordances Recebido em: 22 jul. ...
... A pandemia da covid-19 fez com que as atividades educacionais migrassem repentinamente para um modelo emergencial remoto, fazendo com que professores vivenciassem inúmeros desafios. Neste texto, objetivamos apresentar e discutir a proposta da disciplina "Tecnologias educacionais no ensino de línguas", organizada pelo referencial do Experimento didático formativo (SFORNI, 2015) e da Atividade social (LIBERALI, 2020) em contexto emergencial remoto, ofertada e conduzida no modelo de coensino e coplanejamento (ROTH et al., 2002;2000;PASSONI, 2010;EL KADRI, 2014) e também analisar as affordances percebidas pelos alunos participantes sobre as aprendizagens possibilitadas. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário com alunos do curso de Letras Inglês participantes da disciplina e a análise realizada por meio da proposta de affordances ( VAN LIER, 2000). ...
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A pandemia da covid-19 fez com que as atividades educacionais migrassem repentinamente para um modelo emergencial remoto, fazendo com que professores vivenciassem inúmeros desafios. Neste texto, objetivamos apresentar e discutir a proposta da disciplina “Tecnologias educacionais no ensino de línguas”, organizada pelo referencial do Experimento didático formativo (SFORNI, 2015) e da Atividade social (LIBERALI, 2020) em contexto emergencial remoto, ofertada e conduzida no modelo de coensino e coplanejamento (ROTH et al., 2002; 2000; PASSONI, 2010; EL KADRI, 2014) e também analisar as affordances percebidas pelos alunos participantes sobre as aprendizagens possibilitadas. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário com alunos do curso de Letras Inglês participantes da disciplina e a análise realizada por meio da proposta de affordances (VAN LIER, 2000). Os resultados apontam que a disciplina permitiu desenvolver habilidades relacionadas à tecnologia em si, habilidades de uso de tecnologia em sala de aula, desenvolver trabalho colaborativo, desenvolver letramento digital e propiciar mudanças de concepção em relação ao trabalho com tecnologia. Concluímos o texto ressaltando o potencial do experimento didático formativo e da atividade social como possibilitadores de oportunidades de aprendizagem em contexto remoto emergencial.
... To create a constructivist environment for high-school students in our Work With A Scientist Program, we drew on two pedagogical practices: community of practice (Lave and Wenger 1991;Wenger et al. 2002) and cogenerative dialogues (Roth et al. 2002). A Learning Environ Res (2018) 21:267-283 269 community of practice is a productive group of individuals engaged in a common endeavour or goal. ...
... To enhance the community of practice in Work With A Scientist, we also adopted the communication tool of cogenerative dialogues to help students to participate in deep and meaningful dialogues with scientists. Cogenerative dialogues (cogens) are conversations among groups of stakeholders to reflect their collective experiences, with the goal of reaching collective decisions about the rules, roles and responsibilities that govern their shared activities (Roth et al. 2002). Cogens have been shown to be a powerful means of helping students and teachers to address various issues in urban education, which is a difficult environment because of poverty and other social problems (Emdin 2011). ...
... Three central rules guide cogens: (1) participants are given equal turns and times to talk; (2) participants show respect and listen attentively in conversations; and (3) a plan of action for addressing identified issues is generated from the conversations and implemented in further practice (Emdin 2011). (Further details on principles to guide cogens are listed in Roth et al. 2002.) Cogens provide an open-ended space in which to address any issues that emerge in teaching and learning. ...
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Working with scientists has been suggested as an effective way for high-school students to learn authentic science. However, little research has involved students’ perceptions of science learning environments in a university internship. This study drew on the theoretical framework of community of practice with cogenerative dialogues to design an internship program that aims to build a constructivist internship for students. Students who learned science in the internship program developed stronger constructivist learning perceptions than those who learned science in school. Specifically, students perceived that they had more opportunities to think independently of the instructors and other students. Three effective principles for program design are: (a) high school students conduct open-inquiry projects with the support of scientists; (b) high school students and scientists conduct cogenerative dialogues regularly to address issues and share experiences; and (c) high school students present their project proposals and scientific findings at open house events. Implications of the results are discussed.
... As noted above, cogenerative dialogs (cogens) are conversations among groups of stakeholders to reflect their collective experiences, with the goal of reaching collective decisions about the rules, roles, and responsibilities that govern their shared activities (Roth et al., 2002). In urban education, which is a difficult learning environment due to poverty and other social problems, cogens have been shown to be a powerful means of helping students and teachers address various issues (Emdin, 2011). ...
... For example, when students have questions concerning grades they received, the teacher could use a series of cogens to resolve conflicts with students and enhance mutual trust and respect (Roth et al., 2004). Cogens have been found to produce positive emotional energy, increase participation of stakeholders, give voice to participants, improve relationships among participants, and allow for plans of action to be formulated to modify learning environments in positive ways (Roth et al., 2002). Cogens may also be useful in particular situations that are prone to conflict. ...
Article
Working with scientists has been suggested as an effective way for high school students to learn science more authentically. However, several challenges hinder partnerships between students and scientists, such as intimidation issues, the complexity of scientific language, and communication barriers. The purpose of this phenomenographic study was to introduce a pedagogical tool, cogenerative dialogs (cogens), to improve student–scientist partnerships and to investigate high school students’ experience of cogens with scientists. The analysis of high school students’ and scientists’ experiences of cogens in this study suggested four positive and two challenging experiences that shed light on the use of cogens by two distinctly different groups of stakeholders. This study demonstrates positive evidence that cogens can help students build a stronger bond with scientists to enhance their science learning. Suggestions to improve cogen practices between students and scientists are provided.
... Cogens are conversations among groups of stakeholders to reflect their collective experiences, with the goal of reaching collective decisions about the rules, roles, and responsibilities that govern their shared activities (Roth et al. 2002). Cogens have been shown to be a powerful means of helping students and teachers address various issues in urban education, which is a difficult environment due to poverty and other social problems (Emdin 2011). ...
... Three central rules guide cogens: (1) participants are given equal turns and times to talk; (2) participants show respect and listen attentively in conversations; and (3) a plan of action for addressing identified issues is generated from the conversations and implemented in further practice (Emdin 2011). Other rules and characteristics, such as Bways to participate^and Bdiscussion topics^for conducting cogens can also be found in the heuristics of productive cogens (Roth et al. 2002). ...
Article
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Internships in science research settings have received increasing attention as a means of helping students construct appropriate understandings, practices, tools, and language in scientific activities. To advance student–scientist partnerships beyond the status quo, the study aimed to investigate how cogenerative dialogs (cogens) may help high school students and scientists identify and address challenges collectively. The analysis identified nine major challenges discussed during cogens: (1) the quality and progress of scientific practice in laboratories, (2) the quality of scientists’/assistants’ instructions in classrooms, (3) the quality of student participation in classrooms and homework, (4) students’ absences, including arriving late or leaving early, (5) the quality of administrative support, (6) preparation for scientific presentations, (7) the process of deciding project topics, (8) students’ peer interactions and communication, and (9) students’ physiological needs. The three most salient challenges were “the quality and progress of scientific practice in laboratories” (39%), “the quality of scientists’/assistants’ instructions in classrooms” (20%), and “the quality of student participation in classrooms and homework” (17%). The study shows that cogens allowed students and scientists to agree on teaching modifications that positively influenced teaching and learning processes during the internship, such that issues were reduced from the beginning to the closing stages. Importantly, the challenges and solutions identified by students and scientists in this study provide accounts of first-hand experience as well as insights to aid program directors or coordinators in designing a learning environment that can foster effective practice for internships by avoiding the issues identified in the study.
... Cogenerative dialogues (cogens) appear to have great potential to improve the emotional climate in PBL because of the democratic and empowering interactions associated with participation in cogens. Cogens are conversations among different stakeholders to reflect their collective experiences, with the goal of reaching collective decisions about the rules, roles, and responsibilities that govern their shared activities (Roth, Tobin and Zimmermann 2002). This study sought to investigate how cogens might serve as a tool to dissolve emotional tensions in a PBL science internship. ...
... Cogens are conversations among different stakeholders to reflect their collective experiences, with the goal of reaching collective decisions about the rules, roles, and responsibilities that govern their shared activities (Roth, Tobin and Zimmermann 2002). In particular, cogens exercise "radical listening" (Tobin 2009), where one intends to fully understand others' standpoints without trying to change them or injecting an alternative standpoint. ...
Article
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Research is urgently needed to learn how to improve the emotional climate of science learning by ameliorating excesses of negative emotions, which may lead to students dropping out of school, teachers burning out, and health problems for both groups. This is especially true when teachers and students are situated in highly challenging environments such as project-based learning (PBL) practice. PBL is regarded as an effective way to engage students meaningfully in science learning. However, emotional dissonance between teachers and students can arise because of many challenges in PBL (e.g., difficulty of assessing learning, uncertainty about teacher and student roles). In this study, we investigated how cogenerative dialogues (cogens) served as a pedagogical tool to address emotional issues in a PBL science internship. Data sources included 210 h of video-recorded internship and cogen sessions conducted with one laboratory team. Drawing on polyvagal theory and event-oriented inquiry, this case study shows how educators used cogens as a tool to transform the emotional climate in an internship through respectful communication emphasizing equality, thereby increasing reciprocity, equality, and synchronicity among teachers and students. The findings may help students and teachers regulate their expressions of emotion and enhance the quality of classroom interactions and learning environments.
... What we mean to say is that the ELT Education curriculum and the method of knowledge production are two sides of the same process in the practice we praise: we learn to teach by teaching together beyond normative movements and predefi ned curricula. In other words, we teach at the "elbows of other teachers" (Roth and Tobin 2002) to learn "what is not yet there" (Engeström 1991), what is to come. ...
... More can be read in Mateus (2016). 35.3 (2001, 2004, 2005), Roth, Tobin, Zimmermann (2002), Roth (2005), Tobin (2006), as well in the local experiences (for example, Mateus 2005Mateus , 2009Mateus , 2013Gimenez e Mateus 2009, El Kadri et al. 2017Fiori-Souza and Mateus 2017). ...
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This paper draws on findings from three interrelated research projects to analyze ways of experiencing the practicum, teacher education and development from an interventionist collaborative perspective. The shared fundamentals are 1) learning and development are societal-historical activities inherent to the nature of human beings; 2) being and identifying are functions of our total life, not only of episodic engagement with some task; 3) knowledge and knowing are integral to human active engagement with the world. Results indicate how different forms of participation provide opportunities for colearning and for developing critical reflexivity, ethical attitude, (pre)professional confidence and autonomy.
... Negotiation and dialogue underpin the co-construction of meaning that allows people to journey beyond an individual and therefore more limited view of what is possible (Game & Metcalfe, 2009;Gray, 1989;Roth, Roth, & Zimmermann, 2002). Building on Vygotsky's social constructivist theory, Roschelle (1992) notes that this convergence is achieved through "cycles of displaying, confirming and repairing shared meanings" (p. ...
Chapter
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This chapter outlines an interdisciplinary approach to research and evaluation that accounts for technological innovations, pedagogical shifts and new legislative requirements for inclusion. Utilizing a mixed method multiple case study involving three students with hearing difficulties in one New Generation Learning Environment (NGLE), the research described in this chapter explores issues surrounding the inclusion of students with hearing difficulties in new generation learning environments.
... Negotiation and dialogue underpin the co-construction of meaning that allows people to journey beyond an individual and therefore more limited view of what is possible (Game & Metcalfe, 2009;Gray, 1989;Roth, Roth, & Zimmermann, 2002). Building on Vygotsky's social constructivist theory, Roschelle (1992) notes that this convergence is achieved through "cycles of displaying, confirming and repairing shared meanings" (p. ...
Chapter
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For teachers, the arrival of new generation learning environments (NGLEs) may offer the chance to do something that the predominant built infrastructure has discouraged ? the opportunity to work together. Learning environment designs that deliberately group teachers, students and learning settings together signal a spatially inbuilt intentionality for teacher collaboration.
... In cogenerative dialogues (cogens), the dynamic interactions of cultural, social and symbolic capital are concurrently examined through sociocultural theoretical lenses (Bourdieu, 1986;Roth, Tobin, & Zimmermann, 2002). A sociocultural framework addresses the salient features of social life. ...
... The first group accepted the learning sequence through the transmission teaching approach and the second through team teaching. Students that accepted learning material through team teaching were more cooperative, the teachers were more active, there was more communication, and teachers could do more experiments (Roth, Tobin and Zimmermann 2002). ...
Article
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Teamwork is enacted in the Slovenian educational environment in the first grade of primary school, but it is advisable to encourage it throughout the entire primary education. We studied some of the characteristics of teamwork in the first triad. We were particularly interested in teamwork in primary science classes. The study shows that educational workers in the first triad believe that teamwork is most justified in teaching primary science, where it is also most frequently used. Team planning is the most frequently used stage of teamwork in which teachers of the first cycle of primary school and educators collaborate the most. In primary science classes, teamwork is most often used in the subject topic called "What I can do". Most of the teaching personnel describes its team as effective. The biggest advantage of teamwork is the diversity of ideas, solutions, opinions, and experiences of participating in a team, while disadvantages pertain to the organization and interpersonal relations.
... Cogenerative Dialogue: The primary goal of cogenerative dialogues (cogens) is to make collective decisions about the responsibilities, roles, and rules that preside over students' classroom lives [12]. Cogens are discussions with students about what inhibits their engagement in the classroom. ...
... According to Stith and Roth (2008), involving students in co-generative dialogue helps them to engage and contribute to their learning which, in turn, leads to classroom transformation. Co-teaching and co-generative dialogue have been used for teacher evaluation (Roth and Tobin 2001), for classroom praxis (Martin 2006;Roth et al. 2002), for transforming classroom culture (Lehner 2007) and for transforming teachers' beliefs and practices (Carambo and Stickney 2009). In addition, co-teaching and co-generative dialogue provide opportunities for teachers to sustain the transformation process (Martin 2006). ...
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The paper reports a study of the effectiveness of co-teaching and co-generative dialogue in science learning and teaching in lower secondary science classes. The idea of co-teaching and co-generative dialogue—first proposed by two leading educationists, Roth and Tobin, in early 2000—made an international impact in educational research. In the context of the research, co-teaching and co-generative dialogue were applied for transforming teacher interpersonal behaviour. The pre-validated Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) was administered to all the year nine classes at three selected secondary schools to investigate existing teacher interpersonal behaviours and to further validate the QTI. This was followed by the implementation of co-teaching and co-generative dialogue in three selected science classrooms, one from each school. Multiple research methods (interview, students’ reflective journals, and questionnaire) were used to develop in-depth understanding of the participants. Co-teaching and co-generative dialogue helped in transforming teacher interpersonal behaviour and teachers’ pedagogical praxis. This process also had implications for improving students’ engagement, achievement and behaviour.
... Four university scientists, representing chemistry, neurology, biology, and immunology, were involved in the programme. Each scientist, assisted by 1-3 teaching assistants (TAs) and 1-2 educational research assistants (RAs), guided 9 high school students to learn scientific practices and conduct openinquiry research followed by cogenerative dialogues (Roth, Tobin, & Zimmerman, 2002) to reflect on those practices. The dialogues included identifying issues and then generating solutions to address the issues and improve their scientific practice. ...
Article
Science internships where students work with scientists have been suggested to have many positive impacts on students’ science learning. However, little research has been conducted to investigate the types of interactions that are beneficial for the development of science knowledge through an authentic internship experience. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the key features of dynamic interactions and activities involved in an open-inquiry-based internship programme for high school students. Drawing on cultural-historical activity theory, we aimed to describe the features of the internship activity system in terms of the moments of subject, object, tools, community, rules, division of labour, and outcome. Our analysis suggests that the activity system of the university internship has unique features that promote optimal science learning opportunities. The implications of these unique features are discussed and suggestions are made to improve K–12 science education.
... Literatura koja podržava informalno učenje u 54 PSIHOLOŠKA ISTRAŽIVANJA VOL. XXI 1 prirodnim naukama u značajnom je razvoju (Aikenhead, 2006;Banks i sar., 2007;Bell i sar., 2009;Brown i Kloser, 2009;Duguid, Mündel, i Schugurensky, 2013;Kimonen i Nevalainen, 2017;Lee i Roth, 2003;Rahm, 2010;Roth i Tobin, 2001;Roth, Robin, i Zimmermann, 2002;Roth i Calabrese Barton, 2004;Ryder, 2001). Oni koji uče prirodne nauke u informalnom kontekstu mogu da: iskuse uzbuđenje, interesovanje, motivaciju za učenje o fenomenima prirodnog i fizičkog sveta; budu u situaciji da generalizuju, razumeju, zapamte i primenjuju naučne pojmove; manipulišu objektima, testiraju, istražuju, predviđaju, postavljaju pitanja, posmatraju, stvaraju smisao i značenje prirodnog i fizičkog sveta; prave refleksije o nauci, o načinu saznanja, o procesu, o pojmovima, institucijama, o svom vlastitom načinu učenja o fenomenima; participiraju u naučnim aktivnostima i praksama učenja sa drugima, uz upotrebu naučnog jezika i oruđa (instrumenata); razmišljaju o sebi kao onima koji uče nauku i razvijaju identitet nekoga ko zna, koristi a nekad i doprinosi nauci (Bell i sar., 2009). ...
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The modern educational theory, policy and practice share the dominant interest for the formal learning contexts. However, if learning is defined as a transformation of participation in socio-cultural activities within the community, all learning situations become significant. This includes the learning contexts beyond the formal school environment, e.g. informal learning. If learning is defined as a dynamic, undetermined, contextual social construction, responsible for person's transformation but also for modifying the context of learning, various kinds of informal learning situations should be brought into focus. In the present paper, the relationship between learning in two contexts, formal and informal, is investigated. The most relevant aspects of these teachings/learning processes were compared with respect to their potentials and limitations in preparing the developing person for full participation in the society. Since each person transmits all of his/her experiences through learning contexts, the boundaries between these learning environments are not so clear and stable from the perspective of the one who learns. On the other hand, the boundaries are more visible and relevant for different providers of teaching practice. In the second part of the paper, we proposed some directions as to how to bridge the two contexts of learning effectively and in a planned way.
... Cogenerative dialogues (cogens) are conversations held among different stakeholders to reflect their collective experiences, with the goal of reaching collective decisions about the rules, roles, and responsibilities that govern their shared activities (Roth, Tobin, & Zimmermann, 2002). In each of the four laboratory teams, cogens involved four groups of stakeholders: the lead scientist, science RAs, 9 high school students, and one education RA as a cogen mediator. ...
Article
Project-based learning (PBL) has been suggested as an effective way to engage students meaningfully in science learning. However, there are many challenges when implementing PBL in teaching and learning (e.g., difficulty of assessing learning, students' hesitation to seek help). This qualitative study investigated how cogenerative dialogues (cogens) can serve as a pedagogical tool to enhance the quality of teaching and learning in a PBL-styled student-scientist partnership program. Data sources included video recording of the internship and cogen activities, field notes, pictures, student journals, and individual interviews. Drawing on cultural-historical activity theory, we identified contradictions tangled with the complex interactions in activities that promoted changes and new developments in teaching and learning. Our analysis of two case studies suggests that cogens help students transform the contradictions in their activity systems into opportunities for becoming active learners, critical thinkers, and collaborative researchers. For transformation to occur, the contradictions must be recognized, reflected, and acted upon. The purposeful discussion about various contradictions in cogens allows participants to deeply reflect on their understandings about learning, teaching, and scientific practice and to disrupt their existing paradigms in order to negotiate new meanings and understandings to support students' science learning.
... There are numerous examples of analyses of five-minute episodes in school classrooms (e.g. Roth, Robin, and Zimmermann 2002;Rusk, Pörn, and Sahlström 2016;Sahlström 2011). Classroom events can also be analyszd on larger time scales, such as in Livingstone and Sefton-Green (2016), where the authors describe how young people move between school, home, activities, and friends during a year, or as Thomson, Hall, and Jones (2010) do in 'Maggie's Day' (2010), shadowing Maggie through one whole school day. ...
Article
The use of video recordings as a data source in qualitative research presents challenges when it comes to selecting time scales. Here, we discuss the implications of selecting time scales with regard to the interpretations and conclusions of a classroom event. The analysis draws on data from the PISA+ project, a large-scale video study of six ninth-grade math, science, and reading classrooms in Norway. Our data include video recordings of three lessons from one of the recorded classrooms. We examine how five 15-year-old students prepared for and performed an oral presentation. The first analysis, time scale 1, focuses exclusively on the students’ oral presentations, while the second analysis, time scale 2, includes the students’ oral presentations as well as their work during the preparation phase. We compared the results of the two analyses and found that the length of the video footage (the chosen time scale) impacted the findings of the study. © 2019
... Thus, in the following findings section, I present two episodes (Roth & Tobin, 2001) to illustrate how the participating teachers learned about students in a cogenerative dialogue and then used this new knowledge of students to enact adaptive practices. In research on cogenerative dialogues, episodes are commonly employed to depict how teacher and/or student learning within a dialogue later spurs developments in teaching (e.g., Roth, Tobin, & Zimmerman, 2002). An episode generally consists of a raw datum from a cogenerative dialogue (typically a transcript excerpt from the recorded conversation among members), along with analysis and interpretation of the datum, a raw datum from or a vignette describing later classroom practice, and an analysis and interpretation of this teaching. ...
... Both high school students and science professionals were invited to participate in weekly cogenerative dialogues in January to May and twice-weekly dialogues in June and July. Cogenerative dialogues (cogens) are guided conversations between the students, scientists, research assistants, and mediators to reflect on their shared experiences within a classroom or, in this case, a laboratory [39]. Cogen follows three central principles: (1) participants are all given equal time and space to share; (2) participants actively listen to each other and respect others' points of view; and (3) a plan of action is generated for improving any identified issues [40]. ...
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Learning science in authentic settings, such as science internships in university laboratories, has been suggested as an effective way to enhance students’ scientific knowledge and skills, expand their views on the nature of science inquiry, and inspire them to pursue science careers. However, little research has been done to study how high school students position themselves in science internships while working at the elbows of scientists. According to positioning theory, how students view and position themselves may greatly shape how they participate in educational activities. Thus, the purpose of this ethnographic study was to investigate high school students’ emergent positions from their interactions with scientists in science internships. By analyzing students’ cogenerative dialogues about their internship experiences, we identified ten categories of high school students’ positions that emerged in science internships. Moreover, how each science laboratory team made unique contributions to high school students’ positionalities and how these students positioned themselves during follow-up interviews eight months after their internships were further discussed. Science educators may model classroom environments that can promote and support the positions identified in this study as students learn how to research and experiment to answer scientific questions in an authentic science learning environment.
... In co-teaching, professional responsibility is shared and widens management of the whole learning environment. Professional co-teaching enables collective actions and dialogue spanning a zone of proximal development for teachers (Roth, Robin, & Zimmermann, 2002) and timely support for pupils in developing their innovation competencies. In CDT education, co-teaching allows teachers to learn from one another (e.g. ...
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Finland has its own version of a "makerspace": craft class. Originally, there was one craft class for boys and one for girls. Later, there were classes for different materials, especially for wood and textiles, which are deep-rooted concepts in the Finnish crafts mindset. To reclaim craft class for pupils, or "makers", we must determine teachers' and pupils' mindsets concerning collaboration, differing interests and sharing. Craft is a compulsory learning-by-doing subject for pupils in grades one through seven, with activities based on craft expression, design and technology (CDT). This research is part of a national endeavour to develop innovative CDT as a basic education subject. The paper explores two pilot case studies in which technical and textile work teachers taught together in a shared learning environment, rather than in traditionally separate learning environments. The aim was to develop criteria for a new kind of learning environment that would promote learning to develop innovations and pupil's innovation competencies. The first study used a mixed methods approach, including systematic observation, inquiry and pair interviews of five co-teaching teams in primary school, to test the new teaching culture. The second study used an experience sampling method in the form of a mobile application to reveal various parts of pupils' design and making processes in a school setting. The key finding is that collaborative teams can support teachers' and pupils' innovative learning activities when the work is supported by shared spaces, practices and new tools. The paper concludes by relating preconditions for implementing makerspaces in the context of formal comprehensive education to learning outcomes, traditional workshops, learner differences and pedagogical innovation processes.
... This interaction often improves the sense of feeling secure so that they can express needs and concerns (Hsu, 2020). The goal of cogenerative dialogues is to STRATEGIES TO MEET THE NEEDS OF STUDENTS WITH TRAUMA 14 reach collective decisions about the rules and responsibilities of group activities (Roth et al., 2002). Cogenerative dialogues can also be used to resolve conflicts between students and teachers (Emdin, 2007). ...
... Cogenerative dialogues (cogens) are conversations among groups of stakeholders to reflect their collective experiences, with the goal of reaching collective decisions about the rules, roles, and responsibilities that govern their shared activities (Roth, Tobin, & Zimmerman, 2002). ...
... Cogenerative dialogues (cogen) are conversations among different stakeholders to reflect their collective experiences, with the goal of reaching collective decisions about the rules, roles, and responsibilities that govern their shared activities [17]. In cogen, participants are encouraged to speak up equally, listen to each other attentively, and respect opinions that might differ from their own. ...
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Open inquiry learning and student–scientist partnerships are two effective ways of enhancing students’ science learning; however, due to their challenging and intimidating nature, students might encounter emotional breakdowns when engaging with them. To address communicative and emotional issues in high school students’ internships with scientists, this ethnographic case study integrated a pedagogical tool called cogenerative dialogues (cogen), which are conversations cogenerated by different stakeholders to reflect on participants’ experiences and help them reach collective decisions about the rules, roles, and responsibilities that govern their partnerships. Data sources include video recordings of internship activities, video recordings of cogenerative dialogues, students’ journals and interviews, and researchers’ field notes, pictures, and artifacts collected during the internship. Drawing on the emotion regulation framework, I demonstrate how cogen could be used as a powerful tool to reveal emotion suppression, share emotion regulation strategies, and transform negative emotions into positive emotions. The results of this case study show that cogen played an important role in addressing specific issues one at a time and sustaining student engagement throughout the internship program. The implications of cogen for sustainability and organizational health are discussed.
... Na busca pela construção de uma postura reflexiva e crítica, surge o conceito de ensino colaborativo (co-teaching) que vem ganhando força nos contextos educacionais. Roth (1999Roth ( , 2002 advoga que os professores que se socializam, interagem, enfim, que se envolvem com o ensino colaborativo, percebem mudanças significativas em suas práticas docentes, sentem-se mais confiantes, aprendem a dividir/transferir responsabilidades e constroem/reconstroem sua identidade, dentre outros aspectos. E ainda que o ensino colaborativo (co-teaching) tenha ganho um número significativo de adeptos no ensino especializado, visando principalmente beneficiar os alunos de inclusão (COOK; FRIEND, 1995), essa prática docente tem colaborado significativamente para o processo de ensino e aprendizagem em diversos contextos, incluindo o ensino de língua estrangeira/adicional para alunos de inclusão ou não. ...
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Este artigo pretende descrever e analisar o Programa “Formação compartilhada de professores no Brasil: UFPR – OTTERBEIN”. A formação continuada de professores atrelada ao processo de co-teaching (ensino colaborativo) é uma tendência que vem ganhando muitos adeptos recentemente. Promover integração e formação compartilhada entre professores de escolas públicas de Curitiba e do Condado de Olentangy em Ohio/EUA não foi apenas uma iniciativa inovadora e de interesse pedagógico atual, mas também se tornou um grande incentivo para que melhores práticas docentes pudessem ocorrer nos diferentes contextos envolvidos. Assim, este artigo propõe, na primeira seção, apontar algumas considerações iniciais acerca do processo de co-teaching e formação compartilhada; na segunda seção,descrever o programa desde seu início em novembro de 2017 até a finalização em julho de 2018; na terceira seção, relatar e analisar algumas experiências compartilhadas por três professoras participantes do programa; na quarta e última seção, tecer algumas considerações finais acerca desta iniciativa promovida em parceira com o NAP/UFPR, DELEM/UFPR, DTPEN/UFPR e Universidade de Otterbein em Ohio/EUA.
... Two studies are particularly interesting as they show the effect of collaborative practice on the emotional aspects of teachers. Hsu (2019) study, in a US university context where a university scientist and teaching assistants helped nine high school students to learn scientific practices, found that when teachers and students are engaged in cogenerate dialogue, that is, conversation among different stakeholders to reflect collective experience (Roth, Robin, & Zimmermann, 2002), they can manage their emotional concerns through respectful communication. However, in Hsu's study, teachers were trained to use cogenerate dialogue, which arguably made the research context artificial. ...
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This study investigated how teachers in a rural primary school in Bangladesh understood collaboration, how it was exercised in a daily routine context and the factors that influenced their collaborative activities in a school setting. Teachers’ collaboration in such a Low- and Middle-Income Country (LMIC) context is underexplored. Moreover, collaborative professional development is a policy imperative in this country, and it was assumed that findings of this study may inform teachers, policymakers and teacher educators when designing and implementing School-Based Teacher Development (SBTD) programmes. A Critical Realist (CR) philosophy was adopted which calls for an understanding of the deep social structure and human agency to understand a social event. It allowed an in-depth understanding of the social context of the school and the agency of the teachers. An ethnographic approach adopted in this study helped to obtain authentic data about teachers’ day-to-day collaborative practice in the school context. A range of data collection methods including the audio recording of staffroom conversations, participant observations and interviews was undertaken for two months. A thematic analysis of the data showed that teachers understood collaboration as a matter of their day-to-day activities, which are not restricted to formal professional works but also include a range of informal, professional, social and emotional activities. Teachers were involved in planned and unplanned collaboration with the majority of them being unplanned social conversations. Yet, the collaborative activities seemed to have little impact on teachers’ professional development. Teachers’ understanding of collaboration and the nature of their collaborative activities were very much shaped by the wider culture and organisational norms and regulations. This study concluded that teachers need to be supported to use the collaborative spaces for their professional development. Further research is needed to identify the way teachers can be supported to utilise their collaboration.
... While teaching is often depicted as independent and isolated, academic developers have long recognized a clear link between faculty development and the presence of a significant network where honest and trustful conversations about teaching take place (Roxå & Mårtensson, 2009). Others have used the term co-generative dialogue to describe significant conversations between teachers (Roth et al., 2002;Scantlebury et al., 2008). These dialogues involve teachers' willingness to listen to each other and integrate each other's views into their teaching practice. ...
Article
Co-teaching and student-faculty partnerships are two approaches that independently facilitate significant conversations about teaching and learning. Written reflections from a module involving both approaches suggest that these conversations took place not only backstage (between co-teachers), but also on the front stage (with student partners). The interaction between co-teaching and student-faculty partnerships encourages the sharing of authority, resulting in shared decision-making (between co-teachers and with student partners) being a frequent topic of significant conversations. Our findings suggest significant conversations at the intersection of co-teaching and student-faculty partnership facilitate shared cognition and mutual trust and have important implications for academic development.
... Co-generative Dialogue is one of the teaching and learning strategies, as students and researchers gather to examine and reflect on the lecture of the day after the class (Roth, Robin, Zimmermann, 2002;Tobin, 2006). These cogenerative dialogue helped the instructor understand the difficulties that participants faced, and we reflected on that and immediately improved the next lectures. ...
Conference Paper
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Technology is affecting not only our lives but also education. As the use of technology in education has increased, educators are required to have a high level of computer skills. Without the proper ability to develop technology, there are considerable restrictions because the instructional design is possible only within the range of the existing platforms. However, for non-engineering-based learners, because these fields are often quite unfamiliar, they easily give up learning these fields. Therefore, the specialized curriculum for them is needed to be developed. In this study, we developed the specialized curriculum of app making for novices and applied this program to science educators. This study consists of three steps. First, we had a co-generative dialogue time to share their experiences after the class with participants. Second, through the results of co-generative dialogue, we identified problems in the class and revised the curriculum. Third, to see whether the class improved, we again had a co-generative dialogue time. The understanding of participants will give us great implications for teaching skills of app-making for science educators who must live in an age where technology is pervasive.
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In the last decade, the emerging trends of Islamic education have been widely elaborated with the number of initiatives, one of which comes to take a benefit of digitalization. In this view, the instructional model has shifted to the new paradigm, while staying on the main foundation of the characteristics, philosophical point of view, moral and spiritual parts and application basis. As such, this played a role model in making Islamic education extensively with determining the particular concern about theoretical and practical stage within the instructional style. Through bringing along with the unique virtue Islam encourages to expand the knowledge inquiry and transfer, attempts to maintain the traditional part of foundational co-existence together with adopting new instructional side of technology advancement could be taken into consideration in enhancing the moral and spiritual qualities while also elevating the cognitive skills. With this regard, the personal and social personality’s empowerment might sustain the wide integration of nurturing the Islamic values along with redesigning the curriculum construction. The technology advancement within a new shift paradigm from live to virtual basis of social activities would lead to bring an insightful value in a wise basis as an attempt to respond in enhancing the balance between ethical and professional engagement in underlying the human performance. It is mainly in the learning and teaching style to concisely transmit into the universal basis in the sense that can be viewed referring the conditional circumstance. As such, it is useful to have a look at the global perspectives on the practical and theoretical discussion of Islamic education in bringing along with wide range of approaches and ways undertaken in the society and personality trait basis. This book Global Perspectives on Teaching and Learning Paths of Islamic Education with all the chapters with the most recent studies including theoretical articles, conceptual frameworks, and review papers for Islamic education provides the wide range of points of view in developing the curriculum design, philosophical foundation and contemporary application amidst the emerging trends on digital age. These new analytical methods and emerging trends in digital age would be the significant references in giving insights on developing curriculum with the nature, and unique feature continuously enhanced in the operation in designing new operations research methods of teaching and learning on Islamic education. The wide combination of unique tradition on Islamic education curriculum and emerging trends of digital age would be appropriately engaged into the references useful for subsequent research and educational sector in the attempts to build curriculum development. The target audience of this book includes professionals, researchers, faculty, and graduate students with an interest in the research and application of Islamic education in both school programs and tertiary education. Public and private sector education institution will get a tremendous benefit through the wide applications including process, implementation stage, and evaluation analysis committed into strategic operations together with decision making in committing tradition of Islamic education and adopting the valuable insights of emerging trends on digital age. Those include stakeholder; local, state and federal governments who manage the educational institution from school to tertiary education level. The entirely valuable process of curriculum development in Islamic education refers to the attempts on the significant condition in making the transfer process of knowledge into the learners more comprehensive including moral, spiritual and cognitive side. Transmitted into the digital age, the chances will be good opportunities to transform the valuable insights to help disseminate the values within the learners. Both content and material subject in Islamic education curriculum could be fitted into the global demands along with community’s needs and demands in order to guide them to run the process well and appropriately. The book is coverage into the number of topics from Historical glance of Islamic education, Prophetic foundation style for teaching and learning, Educating Muslim pious personality, Traditional text as the curriculum resource, Islamic leadership, Curriculum development, Islamic values in ritual tradition, Reflective teaching of Islamic education, Islamic education and affinities, Arabic education, Learning strategy of Nasheed (Religious song), moral responsibility for learning quality, ethical strategy for learning, and also Islamic character education. The following is about the summary of each chapter.
Chapter
Most educational decision making concerning the organisation of learning (environments) and assessment does not involve students. However, it has been shown in a number of situations characterisable as difficult educational contexts, that involving students in curricular planning and enactment improves the working conditions of students and teachers alike. As part of our work on school change, we investigated the praxis of cogenerative dialoguing, a decision-making praxis that involves students, teachers, area and school administrators, and even university supervisors and researchers. Cogenerative dialoguing, based on the principle of solidarity (Roth, Cultural Stud Sci Educ 2:721–745, 2007), aims at identifying problems and areas of difficulty for the purpose of generating solutions that are in the general interest rather than serving the particular interest of specific stakeholder groups (e.g., students, [unionised] teachers, or administrators) (Ritchie et al, J Curric Stud 39:151–175, 2007). In this approach, “shared” responsibility does not mean dividing up tasks and taking charge of one part of the total effort but it means that everyone is responsible for every aspect of the change project. In this chapter, we articulate the theoretical and historical underpinnings of this praxis that enacts collective curriculum leadership; and we exemplify this praxis with concrete materials gathered in a teacher education program in Londrina, Brazil.
Chapter
There is a growing body of literature that recognizes the importance of proper approach to transmission of learning. This is because an effective method teaching always goes a long way in helping to understanding what is being taught. Contemporary discourse on teaching style often stresses either a teacher-centered or student-centered approaches. This chapter takes a critical look at the Prophet Muhammad's methods of teaching Islam to the Companions (Sahaba). This study attempts to understand the intent of these methods used by the Prophet Muhammad and investigates their possible implications. Through historical and descriptive methods examines the primary sources in Islam – the Qur'ān and the life case of the Prophet Muḥammad as presented in his sayings and teachings (Ḥadīth). The study reveals that the prophetic approach, apart from being very effective, is also a very practical method that can be used in our contemporary times and provides a better understanding of the message of Islam and prophetic heritage.
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Cultural‐historical activity theory, an outcrop of socio‐psychological approaches toward human development, has enjoyed tremendous growth over the past two decades but has yet to be appropriated into science education to any large extent. In part, the difficulties Western scholars have had in adopting this framework arise from its ontology, which is materialist dialectical and, hence, does not allow easy absorption into non‐dialectical (classical logical) thinking underlying much of Western scholarship. Cultural‐historical activity theory has tremendous potential because it sublates traditional dichotomies in everyday teaching‐learning situations including individual/collective, body/mind, intra‐/inter‐psychological, cognitive/emotive and psychological/sociological. In this contribution, we not only review the existing literature that uses or develops this non‐dualistic approach, but also articulate an intelligible explication of the theory that is more accessible to Western scholars and describe possible future curriculum work and research in science education as an expression of the fruitfulness of the theory.
Article
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Coteaching, like any student teaching method, is filled with ethical questions and communicative problems. With the metalogue presented in "Warts and all: Ethical dilemmas in implementing the coteaching model" as the base this paper focuses on the experience of Matt, the student teacher, and the ethically issues he faced as a coteacher. In line with the experiences of Matt I reanalyze the question of how change can be implemented given the variety of philosophies of education inherent in a large-scale project. Finally, the cogenerative dialogue is presented as an ethical tool to increase the quality and frequency of communication between participants. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0604228
Chapter
In this chapter, the authors, as teacher educators, present a narrative account of the professional learning they gained from their involvement in a school-university partnership, which focused on the provision of the professional experience component of an undergraduate initial teacher education (ITE) course. The authors outline the context and aims of this ‘third space’ partnership, then recall significant events/moments that triggered deep reflection and learning about what it is to be a teacher educator involved in collaborative partnerships with schools to provide innovative professional experiences for pre-service teachers. They found that the collaborative nature of the partnership helped them to reassess the purposes of professional experience in ITE, and their role in its provision. The collaboration was generative in terms of the structure and organisation of the practicum, the pedagogical strategies developed, and the professional relationships that were established. The authors argue that, despite the challenges, school-university partnerships are essential to the successful implementation of productive and sustained professional experience for pre-service teachers.
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A shared research object between teachers and researchers in Developmental Work Research (DWR) aims at development of teaching practices and forming of subject-specific knowledge. Currently, design experiments, action research, and formative interventions are used in educational research. A multitude of approaches show an overarching interest in developing teaching and learning practices. Action research and formative interventions include and empower teachers. However, in many DWR projects, teachers and researchers have different objects. In a tradition where teachers are regarded as learners, a shared research object is of interest. This chapter problematizes the relationship between teachers and researchers with the help of three DWR projects. It is challenging to establish a DWR project in which teachers and researchers aim at realising the same object. However, when this is a case, such projects may contribute to new knowledge that enhances student learning and educational, clinical, and subject-matter research.
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In literature, co-teaching is mostly defined as an instrumental and pedagogical means delivered by collaborating special and regular teachers, from which students with and without special educational needs benefit in regular schools. The importance of a shared vision on the part of members of co-teaching teams as to what they consider as good education for students is not mentioned in definitions of co-teaching. The authors argue that sense-making by reflection about what can be considered as good education – good teaching and good learning – is essential when co-teachers want to understand or change their practice or relationship with their partner. We reviewed 17 articles about co-teaching teams’ professional development and identified that challenges to co-teachers’ professionalisation mostly were directed to interpersonal and normative aspects of development in co-teaching teams. We elaborate on five distinguished movements that can bring about change in teacher professionalism. These movements correspond to the challenges retrieved from the literature review and can be used to contribute to move toward a new perspective on professionalism of co-teachers. A contemporary definition of co-teaching is proposed because former definitions do not suffice to express the value of constructing a shared vision on good teaching and learning. We argue that team-reflection is the missing link in terms of enhancing normative professionalism of co-teaching teams and recommend that further research should be conducted to value team-reflection as a means to overcome challenges of co-teaching teams.
Chapter
Addressing the challenges that emerge within science classrooms as a result of the diversity in language, culture, and varying general backgrounds of learners, requires ongoing attention, energy and commitment. In this chapter, we explore how working with a class of recent immigrant English language learners (ELLs) in whole class cogenerative dialogues can shed light on what students need to be successful both with learning science content and with understanding what it means to work together in order to achieve individual and collective goals.
Chapter
In this chapter we document and advocate for the use of cogenerative dialogues as both a methodology and method to be employed for the purposes of improving teaching and learning in settings such as informal science institutions. We describe why such dialogues are useful tools, and why they are critical in revealing key ideas that are particular to informal science institutions.
Chapter
Context is commonly equated to the setting in which events take place. Researchers often capture this place in their descriptions of participants, physical surroundings, and artifacts relevant to the phenomenon under investigation. In this chapter, context is treated as part of the researched phenomena. The first treatment of context considers factors internal and external to the individual. This conceptualization of context is illustrated via research on middle school science teachers’ views about students in relation to their life experiences situated within the sociopolitical milieux of the societies in which they occurred. Fields, sites that are separated both temporally and spatially constitute the second conceptualization of context. Fields have resources that promote structure; agency within a field enables access to and appropriation of these resources. Social life within a field is mediated by a dialectical relationship between agency and structure and this second view of context examines this relationship by way of cogenerative dialogues (Roth et al., Learn Environ Res 5(1):1–28, 2002). Cogenerative dialogues (or cogens) are fields within which participants engage in critical reflection by making meaning of shared experiences through multiple understandings and opportunities.
Article
Project-based learning has been suggested as an effective student-centered practice to teach science. However, how to assess students’ learning in project-based learning activities remains challenging because of its open-ended nature. In this study of high school students’ science internships, we demonstrated that cogenerative dialogs can serve as a formative assessment to improve teaching and learning in project-based learning activities. Cogenerative dialogs provided a safe and supportive space for respectful and equitable dialogs. In cogenerative dialogs, both instructors and students identified areas for improvements and brainstormed solutions as a team. As a result, students were empowered to speak up their voices and willing to take on the responsibility for their learning. The regular cogenerative dialogs became an effective form of formative assessments to improve both the teaching and learning involved in the science internships. By analyzing these cogenerative dialogs, we identified eight key strategies used by participants in cogenerative dialogs to justify and assess the internship teaching and learning. These key strategies may serve as a framework to observe how instruction revolutions and feedback are intertwined and how students become engaged in assessing themselves and their peers in formative assessments.
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This article reports one of the case studies in a 3-year longitudinal study in environmental science education. This case explores the process of teaching about ecosystems through co-teaching and co-generative dialogue in a Year-9 science classroom in Western Australia. Combining with co-teaching and co-generative dialogue aimed at transforming classroom practices and stimulating students’ awareness of ecosystems and bio-diversity. The research employed mixed-methods methodology with multiple research methods. The results show that the teachers and the students were engaged and enjoyed the activities. The fieldwork experiences stimulated student critical voice, group cohesiveness, and student involvement. © 2016, Western Australian Institute for Educational Research Inc. All rights reserved.
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À luz da perspectiva sócio-histórico-cultural que ancora o conceito de colaboração (JOHN-STEINER, 2000a, 2000b e outros) a presente pesquisa objetivou, primeiramente, a um levantamento bibliográfico acerca de estudos no contexto de ensino e aprendizagem de língua inglesa na perspectiva de colaboração. Em segundo lugar, a proposta foi investigar como as pesquisas constroem o campo semântico que se coaduna com os pressupostos da colaboração, para dessa forma, compreender como o tema é abordado nos estudos selecionados. Assim, uma revisão da literatura foi conduzida resultando em 43 estudos. Os resultam apontam que a maioria das produções encontra-se nas regiões brasileiras sul e sudeste e os princípios de colaboração mais recorrentes dizem respeito à interação, participação ativa do indivíduo no processo de construção de conhecimento, construção conjunta de conhecimento e negociação.
Chapter
The learning environment is defined as “external stimulants” that is exposed or reinforced in learners as a means to challenge their learning experiences. These reinforcements may include physical settings, teaching and learning endeavours, and even cultural and social determiners. This empirical study focuses on the perceived experiences that undergraduates from Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia experienced in their Arabic and English language learning environments. This qualitative study employed in-depth interviews with 60 informants that were selected through criterion sampling, snowballing technique. The analysis utilised template analysis. Emerging themes were compared and contrasted, to find similarities and differences. This chapter does not aim to seek the superiority of one learning environment over another but to appreciate the diversity and concord of these institutions. The findings illustrated overlapping, differentiated themes, which included the abovementioned.
Article
Working with scientists can be an effective way of engaging high school students in science inquiry. The communication gap between scientists and students, however, can be a barrier to teaching and learning. This qualitative study introduced cogenerative dialogues (cogens), which, due to their emancipatory and democratic nature, appear to be a useful tool to improve communication between scientists and students. Drawing on Mikhail Bakhtin's concept of addressivity in dialogism, this study investigated the effective strategies used by an exemplary mediator. Ten effective strategies are identified and illustrated with examples. The findings of this study are a useful reference for educators to train dialogue mediators to enhance learning in different educational settings.
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p> A prominent challenge, at times under-addressed in the science education literature, is considering what types of learning accommodations science teachers should employ for students with disabilities. Outside of science education, researchers have consistently outlined how Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is one efficient means by which to engage students with disabilities in the curriculum. This paper presents the results of a research study in which teachers employed co-generative dialogue as a learning space where UDL was used to differentiate and individualize instruction in an inclusive biology class. The data originated from a larger, ongoing, longitudinal ethnography of science learning in several New York City special education classrooms. This ethnographic work presents a case study where teachers and a student used co-generative dialogue to develop learning accommodations which conformed to the principles of UDL. This research demonstrates how co-generative dialogue can provide biology teachers and special education co-teachers with an opportunity to collaborate with students to create learning accommodations that connect to the broader biology curriculum. </p
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This article focuses on relations between a new teacher and a teacher educator. It draws on the zone of proximal development (ZPD) studies, and the data is analyzed through conversation analysis. Ordinarily, the ZPD is used to theorize the learning that occurs in such a relation in asymmetrical terms. Our case study shows, however, that learning occurs for both participants in the relation, and that the very question of who becomes “the more competent peer” arises from the relation that constitutes a ZPD. Therefore, there are dialectical inversions, whereby the actual roles of teacher and learner no longer coincide with the institutionally designated positions of particular individuals. This then requires an approach to the ZPD that allows for the changes in the relation such that who teaches and who learns is itself the result of the social relation.
Article
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This article focuses on critical reflections on my teaching identity when I engaged as a co-teacher with three science teachers and their students from different social and cultural backgrounds. I am a university based chemistry teacher educator from Indonesia who worked in a 3-year longitudinal co-teaching project in lower secondary schools in Western Australia. As the research involved critical reflection on my own professional praxis, I adopted a multi-paradigmatic research approach with critical auto/ethnography as the research methodology. Over time, critical reflection enabled me to develop difference awareness, empathy and rapport, sharing of control and power, mutual understanding and negotiation. However, I found myself struggling to engage deeply with the science teachers and their students, due in part to socio-cultural factors. In this article, I investigate my autobiographical self as a science teacher educator facing the dilemma of aspiring to become increasingly empowered whilst simultaneously being controlled by external socio-cultural forces. As I worked with the 3 science teachers I found within their characters a mirror of my own history as a science teacher. I came to realise the power of meaning making for students’ learning and also that in my own teaching history I had ignored it when the power of the technical interest strongly controlled the science classroom. The journey of working closely with the three science teachers invoked in me continuous reflection on my own evolving teaching identity as a science educator who is committed to transformative learning theory, who has faith in constructivism as a pedagogical referent, who envisions better teacher-student relationships, and who is trying to establish the wisdom of dialectical thinking; a set of beliefs that I hope will help me to stay on the pathway of increasing empowerment for better education. Key Words: Co-teaching, teaching identity, auto/ethnography, transformative learning
Article
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An important task for the preschool teacher is to create meaningful learning situations where children have opportunities to experience science. However, many teachers have both weak subject knowledge and a lack of confidence to teach science. The aim of the project presented in this article was to capture how nine preschool teachers developed their learning of and self-confidence in teaching science during a two-year professional development (PD) project while coplanning, coteaching, and coreflecting on their teaching activities. During the project, the preschool teachers’ self-confidence and attitudes played an important role for the their approach to science activities. Their collaborative learning and reflection became important for their PD and for the way science phenomena were included in the preschool context. As such, the project is based on opportunities for preschool teachers to develop their ideas about science and to reframe their work with the aim to stimulate children’s curiosity for science.
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Article
Both preservice and seasoned teachers experience a considerable gap between theory and prescriptions for teaching and their day-to-day practice. We concep- tualize this gap in terms of the difference between descriptions of practice and practice itself. Descriptions cannot include the tacit understanding against which specific acts of teaching become meaningful; thus, they are inherently out of syn- chrony with practice. We illustrate how Bourdieu's notion of habitus (a set of dispositions) accounts for appropriate actions in situations where there is no "time out" for deliberation and how coteaching can support preservice teachers' development of this habitus. Les étudiants-maîtres comme les enseignants chevronnés ressentent l'écart considérable entre la théorie et les règles de l'enseignement et leur pratique quotidienne. Les auteurs conceptualisent cet écart en termes de différence entre les descriptions de la pratique et la pratique elle-même. Les descriptions ne peuvent inclure la compréhension tacite par rapport à laquelle des activités pré- cises d'enseignement prennent un sens; aussi ces descriptions en elles-mêmes ne concordent pas avec la pratique. Les auteurs illustrent comment la notion d'habitus de Bourdieu (un ensemble de dispositions) explique la pertinence des actions effectuées dans des situations où il n'y a pas de temps pour délibérer et comment le coenseignement peut favoriser de développement de cet habitus chez les stagiaires.
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Although Schön's reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action have been important advances in understanding teaching, they do not capture important, tacit dimensions of the experience of teaching and being-in-the-classroom. These tacit dimensions of teaching cannot be acquired through didactic methods, but have to be enacted in lived experience. Teacher development can therefore be viewed as a becoming-in-the-classroom. In this paper, we show how coteaching provides a context in which novice teachers can come to embody this dimension of teaching which is essential to mastery.
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In a summary of the studies presented in this theme issue, it is suggested that educational mythology presents an unrealistic picture of the efficacy of schooling. It should be considered that organization of schools contributes to their ineffectiveness-on the job training if incorporated into present educational structures could produce educational success. (Author/JB)
Article
To estimate the sign and size of correlations between student perceptions of social‐psychological environments of their classes and learning outcomes, 734 correlations from 12 studies on 823 classes in eight subject areas were analyzed. These represented a total of 17,805 students in four nations. A total of 31 of 36 hypotheses, theoretically‐derived in 1969 were supported. Learning outcomes and gains are positively associated with Cohesiveness, Satisfaction, Task Difficulty, Formality, Goal Direction, Democracy, and the Material Environment and negatively associated with Friction, Cliqueness, Apathy, and Disorganization. Jack‐knifed regression equations show that the magnitudes of the correlations depend on specific scales, level of aggregation, and nation but not on sample size, subject matter, domain of learning outcome (cognitive, affective, or behavioral), or statistical adjustments for ability and pretests.
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Discusses Vygotsky's (1934 [1962]) ideas about the zone of proximal development (ZPD) and extends them by inclusion of the theoretical constructs of situation definition, intersubjectivity, and semiotic mediation. Vygotsky's notion of the ZPD has recently spurred much interest among developmental and cognitive psychologists. His ideas have been incorporated into studies on a variety of issues, including intelligence testing, memory, and problem solving. It is argued that several conceptual issues must be clarified to understand and use Vygotsky's insightful but somewhat cryptic claims about the ZPD. The fundamental theoretical construct that is needed in this connection is that of situation definition. It must be recognized that one and the same setting can be represented or defined in several different ways. Such notions as object representation and action pattern should be used to analyze situation definitions. It must also be recognized that in the ZPD, more than one situation definition is involved. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
It is a common lore among teachers that teaching (as it happens in their classrooms) and talk about teaching (as it happens in universities) are incommensurable. This study was designed to learn about teaching as practice by investigating what two teachers learned from each other as they engaged, over a period of 3 months in coteaching an engineering curriculum to a grade 4–5 class. The data sources for this interpretive study included ethnographic and videotaped records of lessons, planning and debriefing meetings, and staff development efforts. This study provides direct and indirect evidence for teachers' knowledgability; that is, their knowing and learning in and about practice, including tacit and explicit aspects of teaching practice. Coteaching afforded experiences that have been shown to arise from coparticipation in other domains: learning as changing participation in a changing practice. There is evidence that science content and content pedagogical knowledge fully unfolded only when embedded in and supported by appropriate practical pedagogical knowledge (which often resisted teachers' own efforts in formalizing it). ©1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Sci Ed82:357–377, 1998.
Article
In recent years, reflection-in-action has been a major concept for taking account of the craft and practical aspects of teaching. Yet in the everyday teaching praxis, reflection is largely absent. In this paper, we argue that this absence is due to the fact that reflection requires objects of thought that have to be constructed. Both the construction and manipulation of these objects requires “time out” from acting in real time. Taking time out is frequently impossible in the praxis of teaching, unless we want to miss the “teachable moments.” We propose Spielraum, room to maneuver, as a concept that describes the reality of teaching much better than reflection-in-action, especially when there is no time out for reflection. We use two extended classroom episodes to exemplify situations that are better described by the notion of Spielraum than by reflection-in-action.
Article
Learning environments research is generally premised on an assumption that something like an environment independent of the individual can be identified. However, research in many disciplines questions this assumption. I outline here a phenomenological perspective of theorizing the environments in which we act and to which we react, our individual lifeworlds. Lifeworld analysis requires a sense of solidarity. Because it allows an understanding of the world of the Other, it constitutes a lens particularly important and useful in teaching as praxis.
Article
In this study, we report on our learning as we engaged in a four-month experience of coteaching a water unit in a Grade 7 classroom. Working at each other's elbows, in praxis, provided many opportunities to learn together: teaching and about teaching. We use two examples, learning to ask productive questions and struggling to enact an orderly curriculum to show how coteaching affords colearning, and how the lack of coteaching leads to struggling. Our work also suggests that coteaching allows for a mode of learning that is not captured by Schön's notions of reflection-in-practice and reflection-on-practice. We conclude that coteaching, as colearning, is praxis.
Article
The study examines the teaching and learning of science in an urban high school characterised by African American students from conditions of relative poverty. An interpretive study was undertaken involving a research team that included the teacher in the study and a student from the school. Despite the teacher's effort to enact a curriculum that was transformative the students resisted most of his efforts to enhance their learning. The study highlights the difficulties of engaging students when they lack motivation to learn and attend sporadically. In an era of standards-oriented science in which all students are expected to achieve at a high level, it is essential that research identify ways to tailor the science curriculum to the needs and interests of students.
Article
This study was designed to investigate how perceptions of the learning environment in a Year 12 physics class mediated students' learning about rotational motion. Data sources included observation and video recordings of each lesson for five weeks, transcriptions of classroom interactions, responses to a learning environment survey and interviews with the teacher and selected students. The study suggests that there are multiple learning environments experienced by students and that these environments are not always recognized by the teacher.
Article
In this article, we propose coteaching as a viable model for teacher preparation. Coteaching, working at the elbows of someone else, allows beginning teachers to experience appropriate action at the right time. Coteaching provides beginning teachers with shared experiences that become the topic of their professional conversations with other coteachers (including peers, cooperating teacher, and university supervisors). We articulate our model within a phenomenological framework and exemplify each concept with vignettes from our ongoing research on coteaching. A teacher preparation program that is situated in two urban schools provides the context for our research.
Article
Our usual representations of the opposition between the “civilized” and the “primitive” derive from willfully ignoring the relationship of distance our social science sets up between the observer and the observed. In fact, the author argues, the relationship between the anthropologist and his object of study is a particular instance of the relationship between knowing and doing, interpreting and using, symbolic mastery and practical mastery—or between logical logic, armed with all the accumulated instruments of objectification, and the universally pre-logical logic of practice. In this, his fullest statement of a theory of practice, Bourdieu both sets out what might be involved in incorporating one’s own standpoint into an investigation and develops his understanding of the powers inherent in the second member of many oppositional pairs—that is, he explicates how the practical concerns of daily life condition the transmission and functioning of social or cultural forms. The first part of the book, “Critique of Theoretical Reason,” covers more general questions, such as the objectivization of the generic relationship between social scientific observers and their objects of study, the need to overcome the gulf between subjectivism and objectivism, the interplay between structure and practice (a phenomenon Bourdieu describes via his concept of the habitus ), the place of the body, the manipulation of time, varieties of symbolic capital, and modes of domination. The second part of the book, “Practical Logics,” develops detailed case studies based on Bourdieu’s ethnographic fieldwork in Algeria. These examples touch on kinship patterns, the social construction of domestic space, social categories of perception and classification, and ritualized actions and exchanges. This book develops in full detail the theoretical positions sketched in Bourdieu’s Outline of a Theory of Practice . It will be especially useful to readers seeking to grasp the subtle concepts central to Bourdieu’s theory, to theorists interested in his points of departure from structuralism (especially fom Lévi-Strauss), and to critics eager to understand what role his theory gives to human agency. It also reveals Bourdieu to be an anthropological theorist of considerable originality and power.
Article
Over the last three decades, the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu has produced one of the most imaginative and subtle bodies of social theory and research of the post war era. Yet, despite the influence of his work, no single introduction to his wide-ranging oeuvre is available. This book, intended for an English-speaking audience, offers a systematic and accessible overview, providing interpretive keys to the internal logic of Bourdieu's work by explicating thematic and methodological principles underlying his work. The structure of Bourdieu's theory of knowledge, practice, and society is first dissected by Loic Wacquant; he then collaborates with Bourdieu in a dialogue in which they discuss central concepts of Bourdieu's work, confront the main objections and criticisms his work has met, and outline Bourdieu's views of the relation of sociology to philosophy, economics, history, and politics. The final section captures Bourdieu in action in the seminar room as he addresses the topic of how to practice the craft of reflexive sociology. Throughout, they stress Bourdieu's emphasis on reflexivity—his inclusion of a theory of intellectual practice as an integral component of a theory of society—and on method—particularly his manner of posing problems that permits a transfer of knowledge from one area of inquiry into another. Amplified by notes and an extensive bibliography, this synthetic view is essential reading for both students and advanced scholars.
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First published in 1987, Learning by Expanding challenges traditional theories that consider learning a process of acquisition and reorganization of cognitive structures within the closed boundaries of specific tasks or problems. Yrjö Engeström argues that this type of learning increasingly fails to meet the challenges of complex social change and fails to create novel artifacts and ways of life. In response, he presents an innovative theory of expansive learning activity, offering a foundation for understanding and designing learning as a transformation of human activities and organizations. The second edition of this seminal text features a substantive new introduction that illustrates the development and implementation of Engeström's theory since its inception.
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