Étude de l’activité antimicrobienne de l’huile essentielle d’une plante sauvage Prangos asperula Boiss

Phytotherapie 07/2007; 5(3):129-134. DOI: 10.1007/s10298-007-0238-2


Prangos asperula (Pa) pousse à l’état sauvage sur les pentes des montagnes entre 1200 et 1500 mètres d’altitude au Liban et en Syrie. Plusieurs
échantillons ont été collectés de trois régions libanaises. L’extraction des huiles a été effectuée par hydrodistillation.
Nos résultats ont montré des propriétés antibactériennes de l’huile essentielle de Pa plus significatives que celles des antibiotiques communs utilisés à titre comparatif dans nos tests. L’huile essentielle
extraite de la plante a été testée contre les bactéries suivantes: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus fecalis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi; et contre la levure: Candida albicans. Nos résultats ont également montré un effet inhibiteur très important contre Staphylococcus aureus (de 98 à 100 %), Streptococcus fecalis (de 94 à 100 %), Escherichia coli (de 92 à 100 %), Salmonella typhi (de 91 à 100 %) et Candida albicans (100 %). Cette propriété antibactérienne contre certains gram (+) positifs et gram (−) négatifs et contre la levure Candida albicans offrent de grandes possibilités d’application dans le domaine médical.

Prangos asperula (Pa) grows wild in vast areas of Lebanon and Syria at altitudes between 1200 and 1500 m. Samples of Pa were collected from three regions of Lebanon. The extraction of oil was performed using hydrodistillation. Our results demonstrated
that Pa oil has much stronger antibacterial properties than the common antibiotics used in comparative tests. The essential oil extracted
from the plant was tested against bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi), and yeast Candida albicans). Our results showed a strong inhibitory effect against S. aureus (98 to 100%), S. faecalis (94 to 100%), E. coli (92 to 100%), S. typhi (91 to 100%) and C. albicans (100%). Its remarkable activity against some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria demonstrates enormous potential for
medicinal use.

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    ABSTRACT: This research concerns the antimicrobial properties of an essential oil of a wild plant, Prangos asperula Boissier, and the determination of its toxicity threshold. Antimicrobial properties were tested against five germs Streptococcus fecalis, Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive bacteria) Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli (gram negative bacteria) Candida albicans (yeast). The toxic effect of this essential oil was tested on mice in a laboratory. Different concentrations of the essential oil were used, ranging from 20 to 160 μl/ml. Each was tested on a series of five mice. After essential oil solution injection, the behavior of the mice was documented. The lethal dose (LD50) was deduced from the straight line describing the death rate in relation to the concentration of injected essential oil solution. The LD50 found was about 1,05 μmL/g.
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    ABSTRACT: The volatile fractions isolated from Prangos peucedanifolia Fenzl leaves and flowers were investigated for their phytochemical composition and biological properties. Flower and leaf hydrodistillation afforded 3.14 and 0.49 g of yellowish oils in 1.25 and 0.41% yields, respectively, from dry vegetable materials. According to the GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, 36 (99.35% of the total oil composition) and 26 compounds (89.12%) were identified in the two oils, respectively. The major constituents in the flower volatile fraction were β-pinene (35.58%), α-pinene (22.13%), and β-phellandrene (12.54%), while m-cresol (50.38%) was the main constituent of the leaf volatile fraction. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against several bacterial and fungal strains, on the basis of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by the micro- and macrodilution methods. The two volatile fractions showed moderate antifungal and antibacterial activities, especially against Trichophyton rubrum (MIC of 2×10(3) μg/ml), Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC≤1.9×10(3) μg/ml for all).
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. (Apiaceae) is a perennial plant found in the Middle-East, where it is commonly used as an antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory agent. It is a rich source of coumarins. Objective: To purify several coumarins from P. ferulacea and to screen their cytotoxicity and anti-herpes activity. Materials and methods: Acetone extract of roots of P. ferulacea was subjected to several chromatographic separations to render pure coumarins (1-8). Anti-herpes virus effects of 1-7 were evaluated at concentration 2.5, 5, and 10 µgmL(-1), on a confluent monolayer of Vero cells infected with 25 PFU of HSV1. Cytotoxic effects of 1 and 2 were evaluated on an A2780S cell line using the MTT assay. The cells were exposed to a series of concentrations of coumarins (0.01-2.5 mM, 37°C, 72 h). Results: Compounds 1-8 were identified as osthole, isoimperatorin, oxypeucedanin, psoralen, oxypeucedanin hydrate, gosferol, oxypeucedanin methnolate, and pranferol. This is the first report of occurrence of 4 and 7 in this plant. Compound 1 showed a viability of 9.41% ± 2.4 at 2.5 mM on A2780S cells (IC50 = 0.38 mM). The cell survival of 2 at 2.5 mM was 46.86% ± 5.5 with IC50 equal to 1.1 mM. Discussion and conclusion: Compound 1 shows cytotoxic effects on the A2780S cell line. Compound 2 is a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor and the A2780S cell line does not express COX-2 which may interpret the non-toxic effect of the compound on this cell line. None of the tested compounds showed an anti-HSV effect at non-toxic concentrations.
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