Article

Piracy in the Horn of Africa and its effects on the global supply chain

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

This article explores how maritime piracy impacts international business and disrupts the global supply chain. Piracy has increased exponentially near the Horn of Africa and this article examines the vessels attacked, methods of attack, and the types of weapons used by the Somali pirates. Evaluated are current anti-piracy measures that are used by commercial vessels to prevent and defend against pirate attacks. There is a symbiotic relationship between globalization and technology and if the increase in piracy continues, it will adversely disrupt this dependency.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... These factors contribute to provide a ready supply of young males ripe for recruitment into criminal organisations. The area borders the Suez Canal, one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world ( Sullivan, 2010 ;Vrey, 2010 ;West et al , 2010 ). Trade volumes have increased exponentially over the last decade, with UN economists indicating that shipping traffi c has grown tenfold since 1980, and is (conservatively) set to double from 2007 levels by 2015 ( UNESCAP, 2007 ). ...
... (a) any illegal acts of violence or detention, or any act of depredation, committed for private ends by the crew or the passengers of a private ship or a private aircraft, and directed: (i) on the high seas, against another ship or aircraft, or against persons or property on board such ship or aircraft; (ii) against a ship, aircraft, persons or property in a place outside the jurisdiction of any State; (b) any act of voluntary participation in the operation of a ship or of an aircraft with knowledge of facts making it a pirate ship or aircraft; (c) any act inciting or of intentionally facilitating an act described in sub-paragraph (a) or (b) ' ( Sullivan, 2010 ). ...
... Relatively few attempts have been made to explain the pirate phenomenon using criminological or behavioural-based micro explanations ( Shane and Lieberman (2009) is a notable exception). Rather, much of the literature currently focuses on the political structure (or lack thereof) in Somalia ( Chalk, 2010 ;Sterio, 2011 ;Ramsey, 2011a ), international law and the challenges of prosecution ( Kraska and Wilson, 2009 ;Chalk, 2010 ;Guilfoyle, 2010 ;Sterio, 2011 ;Ramsey, 2011b ), maritime security ( Renwick and Abbott, 1999 ;Myburgh, 2002 ;Nincic, 2002Nincic, , 2005Chalk, 2008Chalk, , 2009Kraska and Wilson, 2009 ;Vrey, 2010 ;West et al , 2010 ;Ewence, 2011 ;Giampaolo and Foster, 2011 ;Little, 2011 ;Pringle, 2011 ) and economic impacts of piracy 2 ( Myburgh, 2002 ;Carney, 2009 ;Gilpin, 2009 ;Bendall, 2010 ;Bowden, 2010 ;Sullivan, 2010 ;Min, 2011 ). ...
Article
Full-text available
The article examines space-time patterns of maritime piracy around the Horn of Africa. Using rational choice theory and optimal foraging theory as the theoretic frame, 6 years of recorded pirate attack data were used to test whether spatial and temporal attack patterns were independent. The results indicate evidence for a communicability of risk; that is, pirate activity clusters in space and time. Incorporating this finding means that forecasting of high-risk areas could be made more effective. The theoretical implication is that pirates’ target selection appears to be consistent with other crime types, such as burglary, car crime and shootings. The results have implications for informing maritime piracy prevention and suppression efforts.
... Reducing the risk of poor customer services, or bad quality of final products within a supply chain is manageable through setting up appropriate processes with a supply chain such as carrying safety stock and using reliable supplies (Tomlin, 2006), using a list of approved or preferred suppliers who have been pre-certified to some degree of reliability (Gosling et al., 2010), or using a risk management process to identify and manage risk levels for inadvertent disruptions which occur within the supply chain. Certain safeguards might be taken such as securing against theft (Sullivan, 2010) (Sullivan, 2010), but in general, there are limited actions that a firm can take to prevent a targeted disruption. Recognizing that the entire supply chain might be exposed in the case of a disruption and strategically developing a balanced supply chain that is not extremely dependent on the contribution from a single firm can alleviate some of the risk, but there is no simple solution to eliminate targeted. ...
... Reducing the risk of poor customer services, or bad quality of final products within a supply chain is manageable through setting up appropriate processes with a supply chain such as carrying safety stock and using reliable supplies (Tomlin, 2006), using a list of approved or preferred suppliers who have been pre-certified to some degree of reliability (Gosling et al., 2010), or using a risk management process to identify and manage risk levels for inadvertent disruptions which occur within the supply chain. Certain safeguards might be taken such as securing against theft (Sullivan, 2010) (Sullivan, 2010), but in general, there are limited actions that a firm can take to prevent a targeted disruption. Recognizing that the entire supply chain might be exposed in the case of a disruption and strategically developing a balanced supply chain that is not extremely dependent on the contribution from a single firm can alleviate some of the risk, but there is no simple solution to eliminate targeted. ...
Article
Full-text available
This work provides a general risk management procedure applied to synchronized supply chains. After conducting a literature review and taking the international standard ISO 28000 and ISO 31000 as a reference. The most important steps that enable organizations to carry out supply chain risk management are described. Steps such as defining the context, identifying and analyzing risks or avoiding them, controlling them and mitigating them are some of the main points of this work. On the other hand, we carried out a practical case in which the execution of this procedure is carried out in a real supply chain located in the city of Jaén. In this specific case study, the most important risks and those that require early treatment will be discussed. In addition, a series of suggestions and ideas will be established, by way of conclusions, that allow said organization to improve the results that we have obtained in risk management.
... Beyond this, at the same time as it fostered the production of steamships -which were able to navigate the canal on their own -it led to the decline of sailships which, needing to be dragged for the entire canal, became more expensive (Fletcher 1958). And yet, very recently the proliferation of piracy off the Horn of Africa has led a large number of companies to reroute again through the Cape of Good Hope, reducing traffic through the Suez Canal (Sullivan 2010). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This volume covers important ground in bringing the sea back into International Relations scholarship in a way that militates against a land/sea binary. In this concluding chapter we explore how this can productively be taken further through a lens of International Terraqueous Relations, which not only understands land and sea as connected, but also sees their interconnections as the condition of possibility -materially and symbolically – of the international itself. Specifically, we call for three dimensions to be further explored. First, we argue that the study of the sea has been connected, explicitly or implicitly, to a Western thalassodicy, a portrayal of the sea by which the West, and especially an Anglo-American West, rationalises and legitimises its moral, political, and military power over others, and raise the question of how to move beyond it. Second, while most analysis of the sea focus on realities pertaining to states, we draw attention to the need to explore the everydayness of international terraqueous relations. From racialised groups to the study of the ship as a space, it is essential to draw connections between the everyday processes and the emergence, reproduction and transformation of international processes. Finally, we argue that engaging with international terraqueous relations requires designing analytically precise tools recognising the differences, as well as the similarities, between different terraqueous spaces such as oceans, seas and lakes. Doing so, we think, offers a vantage point from which to examine how social imaginaries, practices and ecosystems interact.
... The media tends to focus on kidnappings that result in death (Pires et al. 2014). Since kidnapping for ransom is a venture rooted in monetary gain, and the negotiation process is often little more than a business transaction between shipowners, families, and pirates (Schoeman and Haefele 2013), most pirates do not kill their hostages (Sullivan 2010). While a ransom does produce an obvious short-term benefit, which is releasing the hostages, it also contributes to much larger long-term costs such as insurance premiums that are passed along to consumers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Maritime piracy has been a worldwide problem for decades before starting gradual declines around 2011. Situational crime prevention (SCP) techniques have been shown to reduce successful pirate attacks (Shane and Magnuson 2014; Shane et al. 2015), suggesting that they may also be capable of reducing violent ransom hijackings. This study uses data from the International Maritime Bureau to examine (1) which vessels are most at risk of a pirate attack and ransom demand; (2) the relationship between attacks for ransom and violence; (3) which countries experience the most attacks for ransom; (4) the effect of SCP on injuries during attack; and (5) the effect of SCP on ransom demands. The findings show that SCP is a useful strategy for reducing episodes of ransom and injuries, highlighting how SCP techniques can be adapted in unique environments when other traditional crime control resources are unavailable.
... • Ship traffic management Ship traffic management is used for safety assessment and commonly as part of risk management program. Additionally, this is also applied to ship security assessment in areas of piracy risk as the Indian Ocean or in the Horn of Africa [10]. Moreover, this is also of use within governance structures that manage shipping sectors in areas as the Arctic Canada and provide a critical evaluation of its effectiveness considering recent and rapid growth [11]. ...
Conference Paper
The Automatic Identification System is a Very High Frequency (VHF) radio broadcasting system frequencies (161.975 MHz and 162.025 MHz) that transfers packets of data over the data link (HDLC) and enables AIS-equipment vessels and shore-based stations to send and receive identification information that can be displayed on a computer. It was originally conceived as a navigational aid for ship monitoring and collision avoidance at sea that over time, has evolved into a system with a multitude of additional applications, including experimental systems in academic and research environments.
... The nature and extent of piracy have been examined from a variety of perspectives, but they do not provide an understanding of the micro-level interactions between victims (vessels), offenders (pirates), and the environment (controlling influences). Studies by Ong-Webb (2007, Chapter 3) and Sullivan (2010) provide excellent descriptive analysis of pirate attacks that define some general trends. This helps capture the scope and substance of piracy, but the summary statistics are too generalized to answer questions about specific groups of vessels, uncover factors that contribute to successful and unsuccessful attacks, or uncover hidden trends that are essential for policy-makers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Using concepts drawn from situational crime prevention theory, this study compares successful and unsuccessful pirate attacks (n = 4,638) against ships worldwide and the situational factors that help prevent such attacks. The results show that when a ship’s crew takes proactive self-protective measures that increase the perceived effort (increasing speed, employing evasive maneuvers) and increase the perceived risk (embarking private security, having watchman present, raising alarm, increasing lighting, anti-piracy) of perpetrating an attack, unsuccessful attacks are significantly more likely after controlling for environmental influences. Despite a few common data limitations, the study contributes to the crime prevention literature by analyzing piracy from a micro level instead of a macro level. Future research should examine how the piracy “ecosystem” contributes to the problem and the costs and benefits counter-piracy activities.
... bribery and tax evasion, to include internationally recognized illegal activities such as high-seas piracy (cf. Sullivan, 2010), human trafficking (cf. Todres, 2012) and money laundering (cf. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this paper, we explore the ‘darker’ faces of international business (IB). Over a decade ago, Eden and Lenway (2001) raised the need for examining both the ‘bright’ and the ‘dark’ side of globalization in order to achieve a better understanding of the concept and of its impact on IB activities. In doing this, they posited the multinational enterprise (MNE) as the ‘key agent’ and ‘face’ of globalization and discussed, primarily, the relationship between MNEs and nation-states as the central interface of its impact. Additionally, they posited that, by and large, the communityof IB scholars positioned themselves at the bright end of the globalization spectrum, seeing it as essentially positive, whilst most non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and international political economy (IPE) academics set themselves at the dark end. Whilst they acknowledged their own ‘bright side’ tendencies, they called for a more nuanced consideration of MNEs as what they referred to as the ‘Janus face’ of globalization. Here, adopting the ambivalent frame that Eden and Lenway (2001) advocated, we accept that globalization and IB activity have both beneficial and negative impacts. However, in so doing, we wish to prompt the type of critical thinking on the negative features that these authors identify as largely absent from the mainstream IB academic discourse. Taking a ‘dark side’ standpoint, we might assume that the human desire for power and authority, together with what some consider greed for money and resources, have been major drivers of IB activities over time (cf. Banfield, 1975; Boddewyn and Brewer, 1994). Looking beyond the MNE/nation-state relationship, in the contemporary world of IB, we find many activities that fall outside this domain. These range from questionable sourcing of minerals in Central Africa (cf. Ayres, 2012) to criminal trade in heroin and human trafficking. Throughout history, from the slave trade of ancient times to modern-day trafficking, and from legal trade in arms to the illicit disposal of electronic waste (cf. BAN, 2005), IB has encompassed many contentious activities carried out by a wide range of legitimate, illicit and criminal organizations. Building on concepts of the ‘black economy’ and the ‘black market’, developed to describe some of these endeavours, in this chapter we develop the concept and terminology of ‘black international business’ (‘black IB’) and we define and discuss it from an ethical–legal perspective. Having introduced the concept of black IB and outlined the complexities of ethical–legal deliberation, we offer a taxonomy of black IB typologies which is intended to promote and support more detailed consideration of the full range of actors involved, the impacts of activity by and on them, and ethical deliberation on courses of action in response to these activities. Our framework for ethical consideration is grounded in Aristotle’s (350BC/2004) intellectual virtue of phronēsis – or ‘practical wisdom’. Aristotle outlines phronēsis as moral deliberation to inform action for the good of ‘man’ (sic). Here, we draw upon Flyvbjerg’s (2001, 2003) contemporary social science interpretation of phronēsis and his four ‘value-rational’ questions for interrogating courses of action. These require explicit consideration of the interests of all involved and affected stakeholders and, specifically, of issues of power. We hope that this paper will both prompt and contribute to critical research, deliberation and teaching on the full range of IB activities and their impacts across both the global community of stakeholders and the environment in which they live, both now and in the future.
... Cash, personal belongings, and shipboard electronics are usually of secondary interest to modern pirates, an observation supported by data. Both Ong-Webb (2007) and Sullivan (2010) provided descriptive statistics of maritime piracy attacks and generated generalised trends in piracy. Modern piracy tends to be more organisational in nature, rather than performed on an individual attack basis. ...
Article
Maritime piracy has become a core subject in maritime security and safety. Using ICC International Maritime Bureau data from 2002 to 2009, we use binary choice models to estimate the success/failure of pirate attacks as a function of vessel type, flag, vessel operation, number of pirates, boarding methods, and arms type. Rather than forecasting the piracy incidents, the binary models are used to quantify how pirate characteristics and behaviour determine the rate of success and degree of violence of piracy attacks. The results identify three major approaches for pirate attacks, with the different approaches being associated with different levels of violence and arms used and different targets. The study proposes managerial implications for maritime security.
... The political and economic significance of piracy as an international crime is well recognized [20,22,[62][63][64]. While it was necessary to ensure that the perpetrators were duly penalized it was equally important to safeguard the rights of these detainees especially given the potential of them being minors. ...
Article
Forensic age estimation (FAE) was conducted using a multifactorial method on thirteen Somali detainees claiming juvenile status during the anti-piracy trials of the Seychelles Supreme Court in 2014/2015. A multidisciplinary team, comprising of four of the authors covering specialties in forensic medicine, forensic odontology and radiology, conducted the FAE using a five-stage protocol. Each detainee was interviewed with an interpreter and examined for disorders affecting dental/skeletal development and for assessment of genital development through Tanner staging. Dental maturity was assessed clinically and radiologically. Eruption stage was assessed using Olze et al. and mandibular third-molar maturity was assessed using Demirjian's classification. Skeletal maturity was assessed from hand-wrist X-rays according to Greulich & Pyle and from CT-clavicle according to Kellinghaus et al. and Schultz et al. Interpretation of findings was done using reference population data from similar ethnic and social backgrounds wherever possible. Final age-ranges were calculated by combining dental and clavicle maturity stages using the regression formula developed by Bassed et al. followed by a 10% correction factor. The team later testified on their findings under cross-examination.
... For example, stick and defense licensing which different types of relationships with regards to intellectual property controls can protect against certain types of intellectual property risks (Choi et al. 2004). Certain safeguards might be taken such as securing against theft (Sullivan 2010), but in general, there are limited actions that a firm can take to prevent a targeted disruption. Recognizing that the entire supply chain might be exposed in the case of a disruption and strategically developing a balanced supply chain that is not extremely dependent on the contribution from a single firm can alleviate some of the risk, but there is no simple solution to eliminate targeted disruptions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Strategies to mitigate supply chain risk tend to treat disruptive events as homogenous, despite having different causes and requiring different risk management strategies. We develop a framework to understand effective risk management strategies by considering whether a disruption was caused by an intentional or inadvertent act and whether the source of the disruption was endogenous or exogenous to the supply chain. Based on exploring evidence from risk management strategies for specific disruptions, we find that risk detection is important for both intentional and inadvertent disruptions, while effective risk management practices differ in terms of risk mitigation (relational versus process based approaches) and risk recovery (restructuring versus resilience). The resultant theory-based framework provides a new theoretical perspective on supply chain disruptions and posits that understanding intent and the source of the disruption is critical for appropriate risk management strategies.
... Piracy in Somalia and Nigeria alone hinders living situations for many people Nincic (2009). According to Sullivan (2010), "maritime piracy impacts international business and disrupts the global supply chain." Neethling (2010) argued that there is a close interface between both globalisation and maritime trade, further arguing that "most security challenges confronting Africa have their origin in the lack or failure of governance as states are the primary actors and agents of good order at sea." ...
Article
Full-text available
Piracy attacks in the Gulf of Guinea have taken a worrying trend. Unlike the Somali pirates, the pirates in the Gulf of Guinea target the cargoes, especially the oil laden tankers for their cargo. This disruption is impacting negatively on shipping in this sea lane. There are consequences to be suffered due to these pirate attacks on shipping in this region. This study delves into piracy and Maritime Transportation and Maritime Security in the Gulf of Guinea. The aim of this study is to analyse the impacts of piracy on different economic indicators and measurements with shipping as the vector of maritime transport. The economic indicators such as the liner shipping index, gross domestic product growth rate, imports growth rate, exports as a percentage of gross domestic product, and oil production as oil rents as a percent of gross domestic product. An Input-Output analysis to determine the interdependencies between variables. A Fixed Effects Model is used to show the relationship between pirate attacks and the countries distance from the Gulf of Guinea. A Correlation Analysis is conducted in respect of the countries and years based on the research question. A Chi Square test is conducted to test the hypotheses.
... Undoubtedly, piracy is embedded into Somalia's broader political/conflict and socio-economic environments (Dua and Menkhaus, 2012). However, the piracy issue and the resulting security and logistics implications (Sullivan, 2010) do not seem to totally fit into the model as presented in L'Hermitte et al. (2013). Therefore, the 'conflict' situational factors have been renamed and a more overarching term used, namely 'security' environmental factors. ...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to use a theory-based approach to develop a new classification model for disasters that reflects their logistics implications, and to contextualise the findings by applying the model to a particular disaster situation. Design/methodology/approach – A widespread literature review was conducted in order to conceptualise the proposed disaster classification model and a case study (the 2011-2012 Somali food crisis) was used to provide a practical illustration and an initial validation of the conceptual approach. Findings – The new classification model proposes a set of four categories of disasters based on two generic dimensions, whilst simultaneously integrating five situational factors that reflect the impact of the external environment on the logistics operations. The case study confirms that this systemic approach is necessary since, from a logistics perspective, a disaster should be considered in its entirety and within its contextual environment. Research limitations/implications – Further research is needed to establish the operational characteristics of each disaster type in order to determine the applicability of business logistics practices to each scenario. In addition, this paper highlights the opportunity to validate or refine the model by using a more varied range of case studies. Originality/value – This paper proposes a new classification model for disasters based on their logistics implications and, by integrating the key environmental factors, it moves beyond the traditional 2×2 model found in the literature.
... Piracy in Somalia and Nigeria alone hinders living situations for many people Nincic (2009). According to Sullivan (2010), "maritime piracy impacts international business and disrupts the global supply chain." Neethling (2010) argued that there is a close interface between both globalisation and maritime trade, further arguing that "most security challenges confronting Africa have their origin in the lack or failure of governance as states are the primary actors and agents of good order at sea." ...
Article
Abrupt climate change is a reformulation of climate change theory that must be taken seriously. Building upon the speedy melting of the Arctic, the emergence of massive methane emissions and constantly increasing Keeling curve, the time span for global warming has been considerably reduced. This calls for a strong policy response from global coordination efforts in order to avoid Hawking irreversibly time point. Thus far, the UN bodies have done investigations into and conferences onto climate change. Faced with abrupt climate change, rapid policy implementation and management is the priority.
... Assessing economic impacts caused by the disruption of MGCI is one of the approaches to understand one aspect of such externality. For example, it is the good example that Sullivan (2010) addresses the importance of the Horn of Africa in terms of the supply chain impacts due to piracies. The result gives a rough image on how much who should pay for safety investments against piracy. ...
Article
Globally shared and intensively used maritime infrastructures such as ports and straits have the potential to cause trans-boundary and multi-sector impacts on our society in case of disruption. This type of infrastructure can be called a “maritime global critical infrastructure (MGCI)”; its disruption can be caused by various types of hazards. IRGC (2011) was first to focus on this issue, identifying critical deficits of risk governance in anMGCI and making recommendations for improvement. However, a detailed impact assessment of a major disruption to an MGCI has not been fully conducted due to various factors including the complex interrelations and mechanisms of MGCI activities and processes and their cascading impacts, the limited availability and difficulty of access to the necessary data sets at regional and global scales, the need to combine modeling approaches from various fields. In an effort to overcome some of the above challenges, this paper presents the results of a prototype economic impact assessment of an MGCI disruption scenario. The Straits of Malacca and Singapore have been selected as a representative MGCI, and an oil refinery fire and explosion in the Singapore Strait as an initiating disruption event. The impact assessment and associated sensitivity study presented here, including the scheme of price changes as a result of the increase of transportation costs, reveal the value of the Straits and ports and the requirements of a relatively fair governance scheme.
... The nature and extent of piracy have been examined from a variety of perspectives, but they do not provide an understanding of the micro-level interactions between victims (vessels), offenders (pirates), and the environment (controlling influences). Studies by Ong-Webb (2007, Chapter 3) and Sullivan (2010) provide excellent descriptive analysis of pirate attacks that define some general trends. This helps capture the scope and substance of piracy, but the summary statistics are too generalized to answer questions about specific groups of vessels, uncover factors that contribute to successful and unsuccessful attacks, or uncover hidden trends that are essential for policy-makers. ...
Chapter
International and Transnational Crime and Justice - edited by Mangai Natarajan June 2019
... bribery and tax evasion, to include internationally recognized illegal activities such as high-seas piracy (cf. Sullivan, 2010), human trafficking (cf. Todres, 2012) and money laundering (cf. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We seek a climate where the global economy and open trade are growing, where democratic norms and respect for human rights are increasingly accepted and where terrorism, drug trafficking and international crime do not undermine stability and peaceful relations.
... In addition to costing shipping companies hundreds of millions of dollars in ransoms, this negatively affected IO shipping by causing rerouting of ships, increasing shipping insurance premiums, and disrupting petroleum shipments (Chalk, 2010). It was concerning, too, that this piracy would also contribute to funding terrorist organizations like Al-Shabaab (Sullivan, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Oceans cover roughly two-thirds of our Earth’s surface, and contribute to poverty reduction by creating sustainable livelihoods and jobs, food, generating oxygen, absorbing greenhouse gases and mitigating the impacts of climate change, determining weather patterns, and providing international trade routes (World Bank, 2017). With an estimated 80% of the volume of world trade carried by sea, international shipping and ports provide crucial linkages in global supply chains and are essential for the ability of all countries to gain access to global markets (UNCTAD, 2014). The European Commission estimates that the Blue Economy globally represents over 5 million jobs and contributes €500 Billion per year – a figure which is roughly equivalent to 4% of the EUs total economic output – to global Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The Blue Economy (BE) concept has come to particular prominence for coastal Indian Ocean (IO) countries, as well as Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the region such as Seychelles and Mauritius. It has gained traction in recent years, primarily due to the recognition of the vital role the Indian Ocean plays in the region’s economic growth; increased globalization and interconnection of nations will only increase the future prominence of Blue Economy industries. While there is significant interest in better understanding the Blue Economy and opportunities for growth, to date there is no comprehensive review of academic literature focused specifically on Indian Ocean Blue Economy activity. This paper aims to address this gap by reviewing the comprehensive body of literature available in this area.
... It is economically significant in terms of its positioning along an important maritime trade route that links Europe and Asia, coupled with the access it provides to emerging markets with low labor costs. At the same time, the region is highly "fragile," having witnessed significant conflicts including the "failure" of Somalia and the reality of piracy off its coast (Sullivan, 2010) which, according to Beijing, would help China to better fulfill its international anti-piracy obligations in Somali waters as well as safeguard peace and security in the region (Kuo, 2017). The Horn's location at the crossroads of commerce and conflict has undoubtedly transformed the region into some sort of a "theatre of global competition," or, in the words of Alex de Waal (2009), a "political market place" in which China is increasingly becoming an important "merchant." ...
Book
Full-text available
The Zambakari Advisory is pleased to publish its Summer 2020 Special Issue: “Courting Africa: Asian Powers and the New Scramble for the Continent.” To produce a quality perspective and shine a nuanced light on this “scramble,” we invited prominent scholars to think about Africa’s relationship with one of its biggest trading partners in Asia. We asked scholars, researchers, policymakers, advocates and business leaders to consider the growing relationship between Africa and Asian powers and to assess and qualify the rise of Asia’s involvement and the implications for Africa. This collection features eight original articles contributed by such respected voices as Celine Sui, Matthew Edwards, Lina Benabdallah, Ibrahim Sakawa Magara, Hubert Kinkoh, Daniel N. Mlambo, Victor H. Mlambo, Stephen Blank, Akok Manyuat Madut and Prakash Paudel. The rise of Asian powers raises questions of historic significance for Africa and the world. Can the reemerging Asia-centered ascension provide solutions to the problems left behind by European and American hegemony? What does the rise of Asian powers mean for emerging African countries? What are the prospects, challenges and lessons of Asia’s ascension for Africa? How can African countries benefit from the growing social, political, cultural and economic ties with Asian powers? How can Asian powers benefit from social, political and economic collaboration, partnerships and investments into African economies?
... However, from a technical perspective internal GPS signal of AIS could be interrupted with low-cost jammers available at a price of $20 (DiRenzo et al. 2015). Despite these vulnerabilities the most significant threat is that pirates could use several websites that publish real time ship positions for evaluation of their targets (Sullivan 2010;Kessler et al. 2018;Lee et al. 2019). The unencrypted AIS format available on internet could potentially be used for spoofing, hijacking and jamming (Venables 2017;Kessler et al. 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
New information technologies are beneficial for ship operations in terms of safety and utilisation of company resources. However, new cybercrime threats have emergedaffecting, both ship safety and security that need to be assessed and evaluated. At the moment, actions of the maritime industry to keep pace dealing with such threats are slow when compared with other business sectors. As a high concern, maritime pirates could take advantage of cybersecurity breaches to monitor ship activity and gain information for potential protective failures. In 2021 companies and seafarers should be able to demonstrate knowledge and safeguard policies of their companies. Nevertheless, there is limited discussion on how companies will educate seafarers for existing threats. Therefore, in this study, a risk-based methodology is proposed for evaluation of cybersecurity threats in the context of a piracy attack. STPA-SafeSec’s analysis is used to identify security threats, and FAHP is utilised for evaluating the severity of each security constraint. Audits on 15 ships with 315 seafarers indicated that there are significant security gaps mainly due to lack of awareness from operators and seafarers. However, physical security and network protection that already apply to ships are significant security strengths
... Despite the opportunities presented by the maritime sector, the last two decades have witnessed an increasing piracy that threatens the security of the waterways within the GoG in general and Nigeria's South-South in particular. This has drawn attention of scholars to security threats posed by piracy to petrodollar businesses (Akpabio and Akpan 2010;Idelhakkar and Hamza 2010;Onuoha 2010Onuoha , 2013; Africa Center for Strategic Studies 2015; Adibe 2016; Adibe et al. 2018), commercial vessels of established international maritime businesses (Hamza and Priotti 2018;Sullivan 2010) and large-scale fishery (Okafor-Yarwood 2017). However, the impact on informal maritime transportation, especially those dealing with commercial motor-or speed-boats is yet to be given attention in literature. ...
Article
Full-text available
There are several crimes considered minor but which usually result in other serious crimes when left unchallenged. This is the nature of the threats against informal maritime transportation system within the South-South region of Nigeria, which has evaded the attention of scholars in literature. Utilizing a mixed-method approach and the broken window theory, this article makes a case for the growing security concern against commercial motorboat operators on account of negligence of piracy against the major stakeholders of the informal maritime transportation system in Nigeria. The implication is that the South-South region has become a hotspot for various heinous crimes made possible because piracy against less privileged groups such as the commercial motorboat operators (considered as minor crime) was left almost unaddressed by the Nigerian state. As Nigeria strives to combat maritime insecurity in the Gulf of Guinea (GoG), mending its broken windows that permit for heinous crimes is central for achieving a stable economy that factors in the place of the less privileged in the society.
Article
The purpose of this paper is to analysis and present that antagonistic threats against supply chain activities are wicked problems. The research is based on a system-theoretical approach, which emphasizes a holistic view instead of the characteristics of the different parts. The research method used in this paper is deductive desk research. This research is mainly theoretical, and the findings are contributions to the development of theoretical models and understanding in order to further move the scientific understanding about antagonistic threats against supply chain activities. The main reason behind this is the relationship between threats and countermeasures that are complex and contextual depended. There are several types of crime that can be linked to the logistics function and processes. This paper does not address the problems from a legal viewpoint. This paper presented descriptions of four different antagonistic threats, namely theft, terrorism, smuggling and piracy. The nature of these four different antagonistic threats is then analyzed with regards to the wicked problem description, which leads to the conclusion that antagonistic threats are better described as wicked problems.
Chapter
The scourge of modern maritime piracy is expensive for the international community, ocean carriers, insurance companies, and other entities that participate in and benefit from global trade. This chapter surveys the nature and scope of modern maritime piracy, summarizes the key impacts and costs of piracy for global supply chain operations, and discusses strategies that can be employed to evade, deter, and mitigate this threat. Implications of piracy and armed robbery for supply chain partners include seafarer abuse, injury, or death; the need for premium crew compensation; the payment of hostage ransoms; elevated insurance premiums; delayed cargo delivery; reduced cargo value; higher fuel costs; security equipment expenses; and the need for embarked security teams. Strategies that can be used to address the threat of piracy that are discussed include the implementation of Best Management Practices; enhanced training, drills, and exercises; naval intervention; the use of transit corridors and group transits; and supply chain reconfiguration.
Article
Full-text available
Recently, piracy attacks occurred off the coast of Somalia and threaten the ships and vessels navigating on the sea lane between Asia and Europe. The purpose of this study is to analyze the change of geographic distribution of piracy attacks around Somalia. To achieve this purpose, we plotted the points of piracy attacks from 2005 to 2013 using Geographic Information System and analyze the distance from coast of Somalia and transit corridor in the Gulf of Aden, and Kernel Density Method.
Article
Full-text available
Relying on situational crime prevention perspective, this study compares successful and unsuccessful pirate attacks reported to the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) from the year 2000 through 2013 (n = 4,902). The study builds upon the recent work of Shane and Magnuson in Justice Quarterly, pp 1–26 (2014), which found various SCP techniques effectively prevented piracy attacks on a global level. The current study builds upon these findings by testing whether the global effect of SCP is consistent across individual continents. A series of mixed-effects logistic regression models and follow-up likelihood ratio tests were incorporated to explore the research question. In each model, SCP techniques were associated with unsuccessful piracy attacks on a global level. When considered individually, SCP techniques were equally effective in each continent. However, the use of multiple techniques classified within the increased effort technique of SCP was associated with increased likelihood of unsuccessful attacks in only 3 (South East Asia, Far East, and Rest of the World) of the 6 continents included in this study. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
Inter-organizational knowledge sharing is the key research of knowledge management within supply chains. In this study, we empirically investigate the relationship between the similarity of organizations within the supply chain and the efficiency of inter-organizational knowledge sharing. Specifically, the fractal theory is employed to analyze the issues of knowledge sharing, and to both the similar characteristics and efficiency of knowledge sharing, it builds up the evaluation index systems. Moreover, the interview method is adopted to elaborate the partnership among three organizations in the supply chain with a manufacturing firm as the core. Also the corresponding sharing efficiency is analyzed comparatively among them. Empirical results indicate that a positive relation is existed as we predicted.
Chapter
The global piracy concern in Somalia has forced governments to field warships to protect one of the world’s busiest maritime routes. During the past 6 years, over 200 ships were hijacked and ransoms of millions of US dollars have changed hands, with incrementally growing risks, reflecting the ineffectiveness of currently pursued strategies. Combating piracy in the African Horn should essentially include concerted actions on the underlying socio-economic and governance challenges that nourish these incidents. Through field visits, interviews and case studies, this paper explores the impact of piracy in Puntland and illustrates the detrimental effects caused to educational intuitions; the increasing risk behaviours among youth and the overburdening of the fragile law enforcement efforts. For fear of being branded pirates, the fishing industry has come to a standstill, rendering this important livelihood redundant. To build an in-land anti-piracy response in a country in complex emergency, the Puntland state should be assisted to sponsor robust post-emergency recovery and development programmes, as these hold a great deal of importance in eradicating this danger. This paper focuses on the neglected root causes and recommends the enhancement of government capacity and community based socio-economic intervention to effectively fight the piracy off the African horn.
Book
Full-text available
Denizler üzerinde kurulan hakimiyet ulusların tarihinde gücün simgeleşmesi anlamına gelmektedir. Denizlere egemen olmak karalara egemen olmanın bir gerekliliği aynı zamanda sonucudur. Okyanusların uçsuz bucaksız genişliği sayesinde, çok sayıda nakliye rotasına sahip olmak mümkündür. Ancak bu sular üzerinde gemilerin çoğunluğu bazı sabit rotaları yoğun bir şekilde kullanmaktadır. Bu rotalar tarihsel süreçte özellikle Coğrafi Keşifler sonrasında değişime uğramıştır. Zaman içerisinde rotalar fiziki, beşerî, ekonomik ve siyasi coğrafyanın ortaya çıkardığı sonuçlardan etkilenmişlerdir. Rotaların belirlenmesinde; kanallar, boğazlar, kıyılar, rüzgarlar, deniz akıntıları, derinlikler, adalar, resifler, buzullar, deniz haydutluğu, yükün arz ile talebi, nüfusun yoğunluğu ve sınırlar (Karasular ve kıta sahanlığı) gibi birçok faktörün büyük önemi bulunmaktadır. Geçmişten bugüne denizler devletlerin jeopolitiği, askeri gücü, zenginliği, refahı ve büyümesi üzerinde çok önemli etkileri olmuştur. Devletler kendi faydasına olacak şekilde kimi zaman barışçıl yollarla kimi zaman da şiddete başvurarak deniz gücünü kullanmıştır. Deniz ticaretinde çıkarların çatışması, ticari avantajlardan faydalanma arzusu ve hırsı çeşitli girişim ve yatırımların gerçekleşmesine neden olmuştur. Deniz rotalarına sahip olmanın jeopolitik, jeostratejik ve jeoekonomik öneminin farkında olan devletler bu coğrafyalarda egemenlik kurmak amacıyla her zaman birbirleriyle mücadele içerisinde bulunmuşlardır. Bu mücadeleler sırasında boğaz ve kanallar her zaman büyük stratejik öneme sahip olmuştur. Bir boğaz veya kanalı egemenliği altına alıp kontrol eden devletlerin, tüm bölgenin denizini ve nakliye yollarını kontrol ettiği tarihsel süreç içerisinde görülmüştür.
Article
Full-text available
The Paper examines the insurance and liability issues resulting from the use of armed guards on board vessels. The study begins with an overview of the available data on key economic fi gures representing the projected overall annual costs of modern piracy. The focus is then shifted to the issue of public versus private security, where possible dangers of private-based security options are discussed in general. After explaining why the Somalia region deserves a closer attention when compared to other pirate-infested waters, a brief summary of the international effort to combat piracy threat is presented, followed by a structured overview of the use of private maritime security options in the maritime sector in general. One security option is the use of armed guards on board vessels. This option is explored both from the political (the acceptance by stakeholders) and legal standpoint (legal issues arising from the use of armed guards). An important remedy for the shipping companies/ operators threatened by the piracy hazard is the existence of affordable and effective (specialized) marine insurance. A study of available piracy insurance policies is presented, followed by an analysis of case law and other legal issues arising from piracy attacks, which could prove important when considering the legal implications of armed guards employment. Finally, a simplifi ed economic analysis of available security options is presented, followed by the final assessment of benefi ts derived from the use of armed guards.
Technical Report
Full-text available
This Risk Assessment was submitted by Group 1 (Daniel Hadfield, Michael Naughton, Matthew Lowe, Alexa Bridges and Melissa Ho) for assessment as part of 6SSW3002 Pirates Off the Starboard Bow 3rd Year BA War Studies/International Relations Module, Dept. of War Studies, King's College London. The aim of the exercise was to demonstrate our understanding of modern piracy by conducting a fictional risk assessment for the owners and operators of the vessel the MV Faina when travelling between Odessa, Ukraine and Mombasa, Kenya via the Suez Canal.
Chapter
After the Cold War was over during the last decade of the twentieth century, there was a brief period during which there were hopes for a better future in the world. Various organizations and several countries replaced the term of “threat assessment” with “risk analysis.” Alas, it was not very long before this concept became outmoded in a relatively brief period. Risks, such as terrorism, proliferation of mass destruction weapons and their delivery means, extremism, trans-national illegal arms, narcotic and people trafficking, uncontrollable refugee crisis have led to a dangerous uncertainty in international relations. On top of all these, growing number and magnitude of unstable areas especially in the Middle East has become a major concern for the global community. This concern is exacerbated by the mere fact that almost all these alarming events take place in and around the areas of hydrocarbon-based energy sources as well as their transportation routes.
Article
Today, modern pirates operate both in ports and on the open sea and use state-of-the-art equipment. Their crimes range from simple robbery to murder and hijacking of entire ships for ransom demand. It is the purpose of this paper to investigate the modern piracy trends and the effect of preventive actions taken by the crew of the attacked vessels. By analysing the available statistical material from the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) monthly piracy reports during the period 2000–2009, it is shown that the attack rates on specific vessel segments and the recorded incidents for each geographical area develop their own trends. Incidents off and around the African continent have resulted to fewer deaths as compared to those in South China Sea and Malacca strait indicating that this area is dominated by more violent attacks against seafarers. However, the African attacks have bigger threatening potential in terms of the weapons used, whereas the inclusion of light weaponry in Asian attacks characterises them ancestors of historical piracy. Over the 10-year investigation period, a shift is observed from acts of robbery to acts of hostage taking and hijacking particularly around and off the East African coast. Estimates of the probability of an attack are provided through logistic regression modelling indicating that the success rate decreases with vessel size. It is also shown that the attacks are emphasised on specific vessel types for example chemical and oil tankers. The importance of a heightened vigilant crew in reducing the probability of a successful attack is pointed out by the analysis’ results. It is found that pirates are aiming at successful attacks regardless of their tactics and the success rate becomes higher as the pirates’ capability is improved. Additionally, the success probability of an attack is decreased as the act’s difficulty is increased, i.e. less success for hijacking rather than robbery.
Article
Full-text available
The past decade has witnessed a remarkable expansion and globalisation of the private security sector. These developments mark the emergence of public—private, global—local security networks that play increasingly important roles in global governance. Rather than representing a simple retreat of the state, security privatisation is a part of broad processes in which the role of the state — and the nature and locus of authority — is being transformed and rearticulated. Often presented as apolitical, as the mere effect of market forces and moves towards greater efficiency in service delivery, the authority conferred on private actors can alter the political landscape and in the case of private security has clear implications for who is secured and how. The operation and impact of public/private, global/local security networks is explored in the context of security provision in Cape Town, South Africa.
Article
Many analysts are concerned about territories subject to state failure becoming safe havens for terrorists. In this article, I apply this logic to maritime piracy syndicates and their ship hijacking operations, and argue that a focus on the geographies of state failure can help us explain why pirates' behavior varies between failed and weak states. Analysis of a dataset of hijacking incidents suggests that state failure is associated with less sophisticated attacks, while state weakness encourages more sophisticated attacks. Through case studies of the process by which pirates carry out their attacks in East Africa and Southeast Asia, I argue that it is the differences in political and economic landscapes that influence how pirates embed their operations across territory, and thus how they carry out their operations. Notably, because they do not have to worry about enforcement, pirates in failed states can engage in time-intensive kidnappings for ransom, while only weak states provide the markets and transportation infrastructure necessary for operations where ships and cargo are seized and sold for profit. These findings suggest that weak states might actually be more problematic for international security in some respects than failed states.
Piracy and armed robbery against ships. http://www.imo.org/Facilitation/mainframe.asp?topic_id=362
  • International
  • Organization
Supply chain security and international terrorism
  • J Harrison
Barbary Coast revisited: international maritime law and modern piracy In: Thomas A (ed) Supply chain security, volume 2
  • Bumstead
Loaded: freighters ready to shoot across pirate bow
  • Miller
Miller J (2010) Loaded: freighters ready to shoot across pirate bow. Wall Street J. http://online.wsj.com/ article/SB126265833983415885.html. Accessed 6 January 2010
Logistics management. http://www.logisticsmgmt.com/article/333207-Logistics_Management_Update.php. Accessed 15
  • Logistics
Somali pirates demand $1 m ransom for French couple seized on yacht. Times Online
  • Crilly R Bremner
Crilly R, Bremner C (2008) Somali pirates demand $1 m ransom for French couple seized on yacht. Times Online. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/africa/article4677006.ece. Accessed 15 March 2010
Different types of ship in the world merchant fleet
  • Marisec
Marisec (2009) Different types of ship in the world merchant fleet. http://marisec.org/shippingfacts/ worldtrade/types-of-ship.php. Accessed 28 December 2009
Cybersecurity: everybody's imperative. A Global Public Sector Report, Deloitte Ports and Maritime Trade (2010) The encyclopedia of geography
  • G Pellegrino
  • Mcalum
Pellegrino G, McAlum G (2009) Cybersecurity: everybody's imperative. A Global Public Sector Report, Deloitte Ports and Maritime Trade (2010) The encyclopedia of geography. http://people.hofstra.edu/jean-paul_rodrigue/downloads/Ports%20and%20Maritime%20Trade.pdf. Accessed 15 March 2010
Prospects for 2009. World Trade Organization Secretarist
  • Thompson
Thompson M (2009) Is there a sound defense against the Somali pirates? http://www.time.com/time/ world/article/0,8599,1940536,00.html. Accessed 3 March 2010 Transparency International (2009) 2009 corruption perceptions index UN Review of Maritime Transport (2009) MaritimeLink.com, 2009. http://www3.marinelink.com/Story/ ShowStory.aspx?StoryID=217592. Accessed 15 March 2010 World Trade (2008) Prospects for 2009. World Trade Organization Secretarist, 2009. http://www.wto.org/ english/news_e/pres09_e/pr554_e.htm. Accessed 15 March 2010 Piracy in the Horn of Africa and its effects on the global supply chain
FBI called in as U.S. tries to rescue captain held by Somali pirate
  • Sanders E Barnes
Sanders E, Barnes J (2009) FBI called in as U.S. tries to rescue captain held by Somali pirate. http:// articles.latimes.com/2009/apr/10/world/fg-pirates-somalia10. Accessed 10 January 2010
Combating maritime piracy. Council on Foreign Relations
  • S Hanson
Hanson S (2010) Combating maritime piracy. Council on Foreign Relations. http://cfr.org/publication/ 18376/. Accessed 1 March 2010
A rundown of anti-piracy tactics employed by bulk cargo ships
  • J Cowhig
Cowhig J (2010) A rundown of anti-piracy tactics employed by bulk cargo ships. http://insurancejournal. com/news/international/2010/03/01/107748.htm. Accessed 15 March 2010
Definitions. Maritime Terrorism Research Center
  • Lorenz
Lorenz A (2010) Definitions. Maritime Terrorism Research Center. http://www.maritimeterrorism.com/ definitions/. Accessed 29 March 2010
Maritime terrorism and piracy: security challenges in South East Asia. SSPC Paper, Society for the Study for Peace and Conflict Salam M (2010) Egypt: Suez Canal has stronger December
  • Sakhuja
Sakhuja V (2005) Maritime terrorism and piracy: security challenges in South East Asia. SSPC Paper, Society for the Study for Peace and Conflict Salam M (2010) Egypt: Suez Canal has stronger December. http://bikyamasr.com/?p=7496. Accessed 15 March 2010
Managing the twenty-first century piracy threat
  • R Abeyratne
Abeyratne R (2010) Managing the twenty-first century piracy threat. In: Thomas A (ed) Supply chain security, volume 1. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, pp 123
Pirates don't like loud noises. Salon
  • Rossmeier
Rossmeier V (2008) Pirates don't like loud noises. Salon. http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2008/12/03/ pirates. Accessed 1 March 2010
Supply chain security Geographies of state failure and sophistication in maritime piracy hijackings Piracy and armed robbery against ships annual report 2009 International Maritime Organization (2010) Piracy and armed robbery against ships
  • Harrison
  • Santa Barbara Abc-Clio
Harrison J (2010) Supply chain security and international terrorism. In: Thomas A (ed) Supply chain security, volume 1. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, pp 53 Hastings JV (2009) Geographies of state failure and sophistication in maritime piracy hijackings. Polit Geogr. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2009.05.006 ICC International Maritime Bureau (2010) Piracy and armed robbery against ships annual report 2009 International Maritime Organization (2010) Piracy and armed robbery against ships. http://www.imo.org/ Facilitation/mainframe.asp?topic_id=362. Accessed 29 March 2010
Barbary Coast revisited: international maritime law and modern piracy Supply chain security Suez Canal Aids Shipping Market With Revenue Freeze In 2010
  • C Bumstead
  • Santa Barbara Abc-Clio
Bumstead C (2009) Barbary Coast revisited: international maritime law and modern piracy. In: Thomas A (ed) Supply chain security, volume 2. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, pp 144–145 Business Monitor International (2010) Suez Canal Aids Shipping Market With Revenue Freeze In 2010. http://store.businessmonitor.com/article/322285/#http://store.businessmonitor.com/article/322285/. Accessed 15 March 2010
Most companies don’t have a social media policy
  • S Axon
Barbary Coast revisited: international maritime law and modern piracyed) Supply chain security
  • C Bumstead
Is there a sound defense against the Somali pirates?
  • M Thompson
Cybersecurity: everybody’s imperative. A Global Public Sector Report
  • G Pellegrino
  • G Mcalum
The encyclopedia of geography
  • Maritime Ports
  • Trade
Pirates. http:// globalsecurity. org/ military/ world/ para/ pirates. htm
  • Globalsecurity
  • Org
Piracy’s impact on insurance
  • R Siemens
  • J Pollack
  • J Freiheit
For a greater Horn of Africa Sea Patrol: a strategic analysis of the Somali pirate challenge. The Danish Institute for Military Studies
  • L B Struwe
Safety and security in the Malacca and Singapore Straits: an agenda for action. RSIS Policy Papers
  • S Bateman
  • J Ho
Captain’s rescue revives debate over arming crews. The New York Times
  • K Bradsher
Pirates don’t like loud noises
  • V Rossmeier
Egypt: Suez Canal has stronger December
  • M Salam
Maritime terrorism and piracy: security challenges in South East Asia. SSPC Paper, Society for the Study for Peace and Conflict
  • V Sakhuja
World Trade Organization Secretarist
  • World Trade
Somali pirates demand $1 m ransom for French couple seized on yacht
  • R Crilly
  • C Bremner
FBI called in as U.S. tries to rescue captain held by Somali pirate
  • E Sanders
  • J Barnes
Service aiming to calm pirate fears
  • The Sentinel
Central Intelligence Agency
  • The World Factbook