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Abstract

Cooperative and competitive processes result primarily from two basic types of goal interdependence: positive (where the goals are linked in such a way that the amount or probability of a person's goal attainment is positively correlated with the amount or probability of another obtaining his goal) and negative (where the goals are linked in such a way that the amount or probability of goal attainment is negatively correlated with the amount or probability of the other's goal attainment). To put it colloquially, if you're positively linked with another, then you sink and swim together; with negative linkage, if the other sinks, you swim, and if the other swims, you sink.

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... According to Deutsch (2006) the psychological processes that are involved in positive interdependence through cooperation are: ...
... 2. Positive attitudes: The evaluation of responses of self and others as favorable, with a belief that "we are for each other, we benefit one another" (Deutsch, 2006). ...
... Such a method of teaching in which students cooperate to constructively discuss; resolve conflicts and controversies and develop shared mental models has been strongly advocated by Deutsch (2006). These dialogues clearly give a good instance of cooperation among students regarding the drawing task to reach a constructive solution. ...
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Inclusive Science Education in Elementary and Secondary Schools With a Focus on Strategies for Teaching Science to Students With Visual Impairments Short abstract This study is an effort to first scrutinize the need for inclusive science education for students with disabilities (SWDs) and then developing some strategies for inclusion of students with visual impairments (SVIs), after getting an indication of a dire need for the same. This has been done through a mixed research methodology, that used both qualitative and quantitative methods. The surveys done during this study inform about the high aspirations of SWDs for science education and about the attitudes of teachers, parents and students towards inclusive education. The attitudes of teachers, students and parents towards inclusive education indicate that inclusive settings were more effective in developing positive attitudes among the teachers and peers towards the inclusion of SWDs. During the intervention phase of the study, the strategies of- cooperative learning among SVIs and students with diverse abilities; use of analogy to compare unknown objects with known; use of multiple representations in form of raised lined diagrams, models, descriptions and discussions and; representing the learning through drawings have been tried for giving learning experiences to SVIs in science classrooms. Among the research findings, the instances of mutual learning among SVI as well as students with vision, from each other suggest that these strategies (especially the cooperative learning) are beneficial to all. Also, an equivalence in the abilities of students with and without vision to manipulate mental images (visual or spatial) while observing and drawing diagrams in the inclusive settings, gives good reasons to raise expectations from SVI in science. Through these findings, this thesis has tried to fill the gaps in literature regarding the inclusion of SWDs in science.
... Conflict is expressed as a struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources and rewards, and potential interference from the other party in achieving their goals (Baron, 1997;Boulding, 1963;Deutsch, 1962Deutsch, , 1973Hocker & Wilmot, 1985;Rubin, Pruit, Kim, 1994). People are in conflict when the actions of one person are interfering, obstructing, or in some other way making another's behavior less effective (Tjosvold, 1997, p. 24). ...
... They make choices, sometimes consciously and thoughtfully, other times in the heat of moment, reacting without intention out of fear and anger. Deutsch (2000) analyzed these common responses and organized them across six continua, reflecting a number of choices people make in response to a given conflict. ...
... Whether conflict holds promise or peril depends in part on the context in which it takes place and the fit between the context and the conflict resolution strategies employed. In a competitive context, individuals work against each other to achieve a goal that only one or a few can attain (Deutsch, 1973;Johnson & Johnson, 1996). Communication tends to be avoided, and it frequently contains misleading information and threats along with misperceptions and distortions of the other person's motivations and position. ...
Article
Conflict, though often unsettling, is a natural part of collective human experience. It can leave participants ill at ease, so it is often avoided and suppressed. Yet conflict, when well managed, breathes life and energy into relationships and can cause individuals to be more innovative and productive. Conflict is present within our schools whether we like it or not. Educators must find ways to legitimize critique and controversy within organizational life. This article examines constructive conflict within the context of a comprehensive Midwestern high school engaged in significant reform efforts. Here conflict is employed as a means to promote individual and organizational learning and growth.
... Cooperation and competition are interactions between two or more people towards a goal with interdependent results (Pepitone, 1985). Competitive behavior occurs when there is a goal that not all participants can achieve equally, and cooperative behavior occurs with a shared goal by all participants, ideally enhancing the efforts of those involved (Deutsch, 2006). In Deutsch's socialpsychological theory of cooperation and competition (1949), he proposed that what encourages one form of behavior over the other is largely based on how individuals believe their goals are related. ...
... Even in one's own mind, with an imaginary partner, the prevalence of competition was more than 90%. Congruent with Deutsch's theory of cooperation and competition (Deutsch, 1949(Deutsch, , 2006 as previously discussed, very few participants seemed to realize that their goals could be positively correlated even though the instructions for Formats A and B indicated that there would be two rounds-"we will play the game two times"and thus, two opportunities to earn prizes, one for each participant. ...
Article
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Choosing to cooperate or to compete is a regular and important social decision. Certain scenarios call for one over the other, but people do not always behave logically. The present study describes trends to irrationally compete when cooperation is the means to success. A paradigm similar to the Kagan and Madsen (1971) checkers-style game was used in which cooperation resulted in mutual benefit and competition resulted in nothing. The participants in this 25-year observational study were adult university students and coaches, and though they are presumed to be rational thinkers, the large majority of them contradictorily competed. In the rare cases of cooperation during these games, at least one person in the pair tended to come from a rural or community-oriented background; this is a phenomenon worth acknowledging. To be successful, it is essential to understand the full context of a situation in order to recognize mutually beneficial situations. It is necessary to understand cooperative and competitive behaviors to meaningfully advance societal activities as well as maximizing individual benefits.
... First, our findings provide support to Deutsch's "simple" and crude law of social psychology Deutsch (1973Deutsch ( , 2006, which argues that antecedents and outcomes predict each other, indicating negative reciprocity (Greco et al., 2019;Mitchell and Ambrose, 2007). We provide some evidence for the predictive role of unfairness dimensions for conflict types. ...
... This could have led to lower effect sizes. Regarding relationship and process conflict, which are typically considered negative workplace outcomes (De Dreu, 2008), unfairness should be more related than the absence of fairness (Deutsch, 2006). ...
Article
Purpose Teams often cannot fulfill their managers’ expectations due to unfairness issues and dysfunctional conflicts with teammates. This paper aims to create a fair team environment, it is important to analyze the interrelationship between unfairness and conflict. However, only a few studies have done this and reported inconsistent results. Using negative reciprocity research as a theoretical foundation, this paper analyzes the interconnection between unfairness and conflict dimensions in the team context. This paper further integrates conflict management research to show employees and managers how to handle unfairness and conflict in teams. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a longitudinal survey study (three points in time) with 237 employees from different German organizations. Findings The results of cross-lagged structural equation modeling provide some evidence that interpersonal, procedural and informational unfairness predict relationship conflict and process conflict. Several of these effects become non-significant over time. Further, relationship and process conflict have several significant relationships with the unfairness dimensions, while task conflict did not have any significant relationship. The results also suggest that employees can break up the vicious cycle of unfairness and conflict by using a cooperative conflict management approach. Research limitations/implications This paper focuses on members of autonomous, interdependent and existing teams and the interpersonal relationship of a team member with her or his teammates. Future research could analyze leader-member relationships in different team types. Practical implications The application of cooperative conflict management enables employees to break up the vicious cycle of unfairness. Originality/value This paper clarifies the interrelationship between unfairness and conflict and shows that a team member can apply a cooperative conflict management style to handle effectively unfairness and conflict.
... When disputants first enter a mediation session, the experienced lack of trust in each other and a poor understanding of each other's perceptions and feelings might make them feel unable to reach a solution for their conflict. Locked in their own perception of the situation, disputants often find themselves unable to reflect on how their behavior contributed to the conflict and are, therefore, often unwilling to view the problem from their counterpart's perspective (e.g., Deutsch 2006). This makes it challenging for disputants to negotiate a solution that is mutually beneficial and satisfying. ...
... Finally, future studies might investigate the role the mediator's and disputants' affective feelings and displays play in disputants' rapport building during both offline and online interventions. Ample research has shown that the expression and perception of emotion can influence negotiation processes (e.g., Anderson and Thompson 2004;Hine et al. 2009;Kopelman et al. 2006;Van Kleef et al. 2004, 2006, thereby influencing communicators' ability to engage in perspective-taking (e.g., Todd et al. 2015). Since we did not examine the effect of the circular question on these types of (non-)verbal displays, it is interesting to investigate whether the mediator's communicative style influences the emotional display of disputants and the extent to which these displays influence disputants' rapport building. ...
Article
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This research investigates the perspective taking process in online and face-toface mediations. In particular, it addresses the question whether a perspective taking technique—being asked circular questions—helps the establishment of mutual understanding and interpersonal trust between negotiators in online and face-to-face mediation settings. This question was studied in an experimental setting in which disputants had to solve a conflict face-to-face or online by the help of a professional mediator. During the interventions, the mediator either posed mainly circular (perspective-taking) or linear questions. It was expected that mediations in which circular questions were used would lead to a higher level of mutual understanding and interpersonal trust between the disputants, and—as a result—to a more satisfying, integrative agreement. Furthermore, this study examined whether the communication mode of the intervention (online, face-to-face) affected the re-establishment of disputants’ interpersonal trust and understanding. The results of the study show that disputants’ feelings of trust in and understanding of their interaction partner improved more in the face-to-face mediations than in the online mediations. These improved feelings of understanding and trust also predicted how satisfying and integrative disputants perceived the agreement to be. Moreover, disputants perceived their mediator to be more trustworthy and more professional in the face-to-face than in the online interventions. No effect was found for mediators’ questioning style on disputants’ improved interpersonal trust and mutual understanding. We discuss the effects of the questioning style of a mediator and conclude with reflections on reasons why these effects did not lead to differences in mutual understanding and interpersonal trust between the disputants.
... Two main theories, the Cooperation Theory (Deutsch, 1949(Deutsch, , 2006 ...
... Additionally, the findings supplement existing literature suggesting that motivation's crucial role in shaping negotiation outcomes depends on the negotiator's role (Beersma & De Dreu, 1999;De Dreu, 2004;Deutsch, 1949Deutsch, , 2006Elfenbein, 2015;Pruitt, 1983Pruitt, , 2002). The study found that only the seller's motivation significantly influences negotiation outcomes. ...
... This would also mean an active effort on adults' part to reexamine the values that we hold, or we risk hypocrisy. For example, while competition among individuals is not necessarily problematic, we should not be assigning greater worth and dignity to the winners while thinking less of those who are not as successful (Deutsch, 2011). ...
Article
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This article outlines how dignity theory could be used to better understand bullying behaviors. Dignity is defined here as the inherent worth of every human being and it allows us to trace the motivations behind bullying behaviors to broader social values that are rarely the primary focus of bullying research, as well as prevention and intervention efforts. In this manner, the theory could elucidate the cultural patterns which contribute to not only child bullying and cyberbullying, but to workplace bullying, and to similar abusive behaviors among adults. We give special attention to cyberbullying and illustrate how dignity theory can clarify why this behavior is not only about online safety but about relational issues, which are reflective of social values. We argue that seeing cyberbullying through the lens of online safety can limit the scope of artificial intelligence–based solutions whose development is gaining momentum at this time. We provide suggestions about dignity-based considerations that collaborations between computer and social scientists could take into account in order to pave the way towards innovation that upholds dignity and children’s rights.
... Bireyler arasında karşılıklı güven ortamı olduğunda ilişkilerdeki bağlılığın daha güçlü olacağını vurgulayan bazı yazarlar (örn. Yang, Kuria ve Gu, 2020;Deutsch, 2011;Porter ve Lilly, 1996), bu sayede takım içinde ortaya çıkabilecek işlevsel anlaşmazlık ve çatışmaların daha kolay çözümlenebileceğini ve yıkıcı değil nispeten yapıcı sonuçlar üretebileceğini bildirmişlerdir. Güven ve bağlılığın iş birliğini de beraberinde getireceği açıktır. ...
... Az előbbi esetében a cél a fontos, a versenytárs személye másodrendű, míg az utóbbi esetében a cél maga a rivális legyőzése.3 Kései írásaiban Deutsch is elismerte, hogy a versengés lehet konstruktív is(Deutsch [2012]). ...
Article
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Ebben a tanulmányban két reprezentatív felmérés segítségével azt vizsgáltuk meg, hogy egyéni szinten hogyan viszonyul egymáshoz a versengés és az együttműködés, illetve ezek hogyan függenek össze a végzettséggel. Egyrészt az találtuk, hogy a versengés és az együttműködés pozitívan és szignifikánsan korrelál, még akkor is, ha figyelembe vesszük a válaszadó korát, nemét, a lakhelyének településtípusát és a régióját. Másrészt arra jutottunk, hogy a versengés és az együttműködés nemlineárisan függ össze a végzettséggel. A versengés és az együttműködés alacsony értékeiről indulva, eleinte a nagyobb fokú versengés és együttműködés több oktatásban töltött évvel jár együtt, azonban e növekedés mértéke csökken a versengés és az együttműködés egyre magasabb szintjein. Továbbá az együttműködés és a versengés legmagasabb értékeivel a végzettség alacsonyabb szintje jár együtt.
... Social interdependence theory suggests that the way in which goals and rewards are structured determines how people interact with one another, which then influences performance and relational outcomes of the collective (Kelley and Thibaut 1978, Deutsch 2000, Johnson 2003. Goal and reward interdependence can be positive or negative depending on the nature of the relationship among individuals' goals. ...
Article
Despite substantial scholarly attention to workforce demographic diversity, existing research is limited in understanding whether or in what contexts firm-level racial diversity relates to performance and workforce outcomes of the firm. Drawing on social interdependence theory along with insights from social exchange and psychological ownership theories, we propose that the use of broad-based stock options granted to at least half the workforce creates the conditions supporting a positive relationship between workforce racial diversity and firm outcomes. We examine this proposition by analyzing panel data from 155 companies that applied for the “100 Best Companies to Work For” competition with responses from 109,314 employees over the five-year period from 2006 to 2010 (354 company-year observations). Findings revealed that racial diversity was positively related to subsequent firm financial performance and individual affective commitment and was not significantly associated with subsequent voluntary turnover rates, when accompanied by a firm’s adoption of broad-based stock options. However, under the nonuse of broad-based stock options, racial diversity was significantly related to higher voluntary turnover rates and lower employee affective commitment, with no financial performance gains. By documenting the beneficial effects of financial incentives in diverse workplaces, this paper extends theory asserting the value of incentives for performance.
... Typically, organizations in similar industries either cooperate or compete and may consider the simultaneous pursuit of both cooperation and competition, that is, coopetition (Bengtsson & Kock, 2000), illogical or even absurd as the underlying logics seem to be contradictory. While cooperation centers on joint value creation in a positive-sum game (i.e., "we benefit one another"), competition may spur opportunistic behavior in a value capturing, zero-sum game (i.e., "only one of us will win the race") (Das & Teng, 2000;Deutsch, 2006). ...
... Several countries across the globe have faced the same crisis with some cases dating several centuries back. 23 Among these were: ...
Chapter
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This chapter suggests the adoption of Libya's Desert-to-Forest Scheme as a panacea to the perennial resource wars in Nigeria.
... Positive interdependence will support the attainment of a group goal, while negative interdependence will hinder it. Deutsch (2006) stated, positive interdependence occurs when the goals are linked in such a way that amount or probability of an individual attaining his/her goal is positively related with the amount or probability of another reaching his/her goal. Negative interdependence occurs when the goals are linked in such a way that the amount or probability of an individual attaining his/her goal is negatively related with the amount or probability of another reaching his/her goal. ...
Article
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Education is changing rapidly. Schools are gradually shifting away from the traditional mode of instruction and toward a more active model of learning, in which students are collaborating on projects in small groups and then sharing their work with the class. Africa cannot afford to be left behind in this change. Though collaborative teaching and learning are quite popular in Africa, its variants/forms, consensus group and cooperative reflective journal writing are not. The effect of collaborative instructional strategies (consensus group and cooperative reflective journal writing) on students' achievement in biology as moderated by verbal ability was determined in this study. Three hundred five senior secondary school II students from two local governments' area within Ibadan Metropolis participated in the study. The Students' Biology Achievement Test (SBAT) and the Students' Verbal Ability Test (SVAT) were the main data collection tools used for this study. Data generated were analysed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Bonferonni post hoc test. Results show that both forms of collaborative instructional strategies improved students' achievement in biology. Results showed that students exposed to the cooperative reflective journal writing achieved more in biology followed by students in the consensus group strategy. Collaborative strategy can be a feasible alternative approach to teaching biology as it fairly addresses issues of interaction in the classroom. This has helped students develop their communication and also improve their socialisation skills in the classroom and beyond.
... Team members' interactions within the RT developing the research process can result in an internal conflict that needs to be managed by PIs. The manner in which PIs manage conflicts that arise within the RT could be key, and it is conditioned by their leadership style (Deutsch, 2006). TFL is applied by those PIs who seek to encourage their supporters to go beyond their limits, not only to reach their own goals, but also to further the achievement of the team's objectives (Bass, 1985). ...
Article
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The lack of consensus about overcoming the negative impact of conflict on team performance within research teams has become a challenge. Based on the complex context of knowledge-intensive teams, this study examines the effect that a transformational leadership style of the Principal Investigator has on the relationship between team conflict and team performance. We propose an inverted U-shaped relationship between research team conflict and research team performance, and examine the impact that the Principal Investigators’ transformational leadership has on this curvilinear relationship. Using survey data from 205 research teams, our results confirm both hypotheses. Actually, those PIs who apply the transformational leadership style will extend the positive conflict area, so, they will be able to manage a higher level of conflict in the research team. Our findings contribute to enhancing the understanding of the impact of conflict and the principal investigator’s transformational leadership style on team performance. Both theoretical and practical considerations are discussed.
... Bireyler arasında karşılıklı güven ortamı olduğunda ilişkilerdeki bağlılığın daha güçlü olacağını vurgulayan bazı yazarlar (örn. Yang, Kuria ve Gu, 2020;Deutsch, 2011;Porter ve Lilly, 1996), bu sayede takım içinde ortaya çıkabilecek işlevsel anlaşmazlık ve çatışmaların daha kolay çözümlenebileceğini ve yıkıcı değil nispeten yapıcı sonuçlar üretebileceğini bildirmişlerdir. Güven ve bağlılığın iş birliğini de beraberinde getireceği açıktır. ...
Article
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Purpose-The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of team perception and learning orientation on firms' research and development performance. Methodology-The data which were collected by a survey from 407 people working in the R&D departments of firms which operate across various industries in Turkey, were analysed. While the theoretical adequacy of the relationships between variables were tested by confirmatory factor analysis, the impact of team perception and learning orientation on R&D performance was examined by regression analysis. Findings-The study found significant and positive impact of both team perception and learning orientation on firms' R&D performance. When team perception and learning orientation were regressed on R&D performance together, a stronger link between dependent variables and R&D performance was observed. Conclusion-Strong support from top management for team-based work and encouragement for continuous learning through HR policies, empowerment and job enlargement were suggested. The study provided empirical evidence about the predictors of R&D and innovation performance which is scant in the extant literature. ÖZET Amaç-Bu araştırmanın amacı takım algısı ve öğrenme yöneliminin araştırma ve geliştirme (Ar-Ge) faaliyetlerinin performansına olan etkilerinin incelenmesidir. Yöntem-Türkiye'de Ar-Ge merkezi belgesine sahip farklı sektörlerde faaliyet gösteren işletmelerde çalışan 407 kişiden anket yöntemi ile veri toplanmıştır. Takım algısı ve öğrenme yönelimi boyutlarının Ar-Ge performans değişkenleri arasındaki ilişkilerin teorik olarak uygunluğu doğrulayıcı faktör analizi (DFA) ile incelenirken, değişkenler arasındaki ilişkinin değerlendirilmesi için regresyon analizleri kullanılmıştır. Bulgular-Takım algısı ve öğrenme yönelimi ile Ar-Ge proje performansı arasında ayrı ayrı istatistiki olarak anlamlı ve pozitif ilişkiler bulunurken, öğrenme yönelimi ve takım algısının birlikte hareket etmesi halinde Ar-Ge proje başarısındaki değişime ait açıklayıcılığın arttığı görülmüştür. Sonuç-İşletmelerin özellikle yönetici ve liderler vasıtası ile takım çalışmasını desteklemeleri yanında yetkilendirme, daha geniş iş yapıları ve iş tasarımları yoluyla çalışanlarını sürekli öğrenmeye teşvik etmeleri, Ar-Ge proje performansının arttırılması yolunda önemli uygulamalar olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Literatürde takım etkinliği ve bireylerin öğrenme yönelimleri gibi faktörlerin Ar-Ge performansına olan etkilerinden bahsedilirken bu ilişkiyi ölçen ampirik araştırma sayısının azlığı dikkat çekmektedir. Araştırma bulgularının bu eksikliğin giderilmesine katkı sağlaması beklenmektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Takım algısı, öğrenme yönelimi, Ar-Ge performansı, doğrulayıcı faktör analizi, regresyon analizi. JEL Kodları: L19, M10, O31, O32
... The fundamental principle in cooperation is that individual goals will only be achieved if the goals of others are also achieved [1]. This is what can encourage the emergence of mutual trust, exchange of resources, and mutual assistance in ongoing efforts [2]. From this process a relationship is formed that characterizes openness, positive things and productivity [3]. ...
Conference Paper
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Focus of this research was the exploration of the dynamics of cooperation at the individual level at work. A qualitative method with a constructive realism approach was chosen for this research to find and construct the realities (the world of life) in lay community groups related to their understanding of cooperation in workplace. Data collection was carried out using the open questionnaire method for 140 employees from various sectors and the data were analyzed using content analysis techniques. The results showed that cooperation at the individual level in workplace settings is a dynamic relation among the dimensions of relationship quality, competence, consequence, work facilitation and emotions. Cooperation at the individual level started from the relationship between individuals which is manifested in the form of togetherness, involvement, understanding of others, reciprocal behavior and respect. These positive behaviors can encourage the emergence of self-competencies that support the achievement of consequences in the form of task accomplishments and material achievements. Through these achievements cooperation can facilitate work to be light, easy and run smoothly. In this research, the end of the dynamics of cooperation is the emergence of emotional aspects, namely positive emotions, emotional regulation and emotional stability. This aspect arised because it is influenced by work facilitation and consequences.
... Ils ont également proposé une théorie du raisonnement du jeu 13 (Shields & Bredemeier, 2009. Issue de la théorie de l'interdépendance sociale (Deutsch, 2000 ;Johnson & Johnson, 1989) et basée sur le principe de métaphore conceptuelle (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980Landau, et al., 2010), la théorie du raisonnement du jeu développée par Shields & Bredemeier propose qu'il y ait deux orientations possibles pour interpréter la situation de compétition, qui ne peuvent être activées en même temps : la coopération ou la guerre. La première orientation ferait concevoir l'opposition comme un moyen de devenir meilleur et de s'amuser alors que la seconde ferait concevoir l'opposition comme l'affrontement d'un perdant et d'un gagnant qui accèdera à des récompenses symboliques. ...
Thesis
Ce travail doctoral s’intéresse aux comportements antisociaux des acteurs du sport. Ce phénomène est abordé au travers des théories liées à la catégorisation sociale, et plus précisément, l’approche de l’identité sociale et les partitions sociales. A la suite de ce développement théorique, deux études principales ont été menées. La seconde s’appuyant sur les conclusions de la première. Une troisième étude a ensuite été mise en place pour réinjecter les connaissances amassées dans le terrain.La première étude, s’articulant autour de cinq sous-études, avait pour objectif de déterminer le contenu, les causes perçues, ainsi que les conséquences perçues, des comportements antisociaux des acteurs du sport. Vis-à-vis du contenu des comportements antisociaux, les aspects de nuisance et de désavantage ressortent. En plus de ces deux aspects, d’autres semblent émerger : la relation entre les acteurs, ainsi que des états spécifiques. Par ailleurs, les causes perçues font référence à l’environnement sportif étouffant de compétitivité et de recherche de valorisation par ses acteurs, aux affects, et aux caractéristiques stables des individus. Enfin les conséquences perçues renvoient aux affects de colère pour les cibles ou observateurs, aux jugements de valeurs négatifs et d’incompréhension pour les observateurs, et à une envie de s’opposer pour les cibles et observateurs, en plus d'un désir de désengagement de l'activité pour la cible. S’appuyant sur l’aspect relationnel dégagé, la seconde étude propose, à l’aide de l’outil RepMut, une cartographie des relations intergroupes parents – entraîneurs et sportifs – entraîneurs, ainsi qu’une cartographie de cette dernière relation lorsque les catégories sociales sont identitairement menacées, ou soutenues. Les résultats révèlent une structure relationnelle solide, et ambigüe, où les normes des groupes sont porteuses de conflits identitaires, alors que les individus cherchent à se rapprocher de l’exogroupe. Lorsque les entraîneurs ou sportifs sont menacés ou soutenus, la structure est toujours visible, et les résultats indiquent que les relations normales sont très proches de la condition menaçante pour les catégories. Enfin, les relations sont teintées de forts affects agréables, et de faibles affects désagréables, dont les deux groupes sont responsables, soulignant l’ambiguïté des relations dans un contexte sportif. Finalement, la troisième étude évaluait l’efficacité d’une intervention sur les entraîneurs concernant les comportements antisociaux. Cette étude a été perturbée par les évènements liés à la COVID-19, mais nous la présentons tout de même, ainsi que les outils pensés pour ce protocole.En conclusion, ce travail montre que dans le cadre de la pratique sportive, l’aspect relationnel entre les acteurs du sport est important vis-à-vis du phénomène des comportements antisociaux. Dans ce contexte de pratique sportive, l’entraîneur semble posséder une place avantageuse.
... The project sought to reduce tensions between villagers and former child soldiers by using the well-established psychological principle that cooperation toward the achievement of shared goals is one of the best ways to reduce conflict and improve relations between former adversaries (Deutsch 2000;Sherif et al. 1961). To enable cooperation between village youths and former child soldiers, the CDCs formed work teams composed of former soldiers and village youths, in a 60-40 ratio. ...
... Partners may serve as relational catalysts who help embrace challenges and pursue opportunities for growth, ultimately facilitating goal accomplishment (Feeney et al., 2017;Tomlinson et al., 2016). Partnerships offer the potential for pooling goal-relevant resources and collaborative problem-solving, thus enabling what may not be possible alone (Deutsch, 2000;Hoppmann & Gerstorf, 2013;Wilensky, 1983). Of note, there may also be circumstances under which spouses compete for goal-relevant resources that give rise to goal conflict, as shown by the work and family literature and more recently during the pandemic (Hooker et al., 1996;Salmela-Aro et al., 2000;Vowels & Carnelley, 2021). ...
Article
Objectives: This study focuses on the role of spouses for facilitating goal progress during a phase in life when individual resources for goal pursuit are particularly limited. Specifically, we examined the moderating role of relationship characteristics in old age for time-varying partner involvement-goal progress associations as couples engaged in their everyday lives. We also assessed time-varying associations between everyday goal progress, effectiveness of partner contributions, and spousal satisfaction with this contribution. Methods: We used multilevel modeling to analyze data from 118 couples (Mage = 70 years, SD = 5.9; 60-87 years, 50% women; 57% White). Both partners reported their personal goals and provided information on relationship satisfaction, conflict, and support. They also provided simultaneous ratings of everyday goal progress, effort, partner involvement as well as effectiveness of and satisfaction with partner contribution up to three times daily over 7 days. Results: In line with expectations, higher relationship satisfaction and support and lower conflict were associated with higher goal progress when the partner was involved in goal pursuit. Both effectiveness of and satisfaction with partner contributions were positively associated with everyday goal progress. Discussion: Whether partner involvement is beneficial for goal progress depends on characteristics of the relationship as well as what partners actually do in everyday life. This highlights the importance of considering both stable person characteristics as well as time-varying processes to capture the complexity of goal pursuit in older couples.
... A recent experimental study explained the causal role of prosocial motivation in flu vaccination (Li et al., 2016). Prosociality requires individuals to think in terms of cooperation (Deutsch, 2006) and may take the form of willingness to help others who suffer from coronavirus, to make personal sacrifices to prevent the spread of coronavirus or to support collective action by, for instance, signing petitions on disease control. Prosociality can also be manifested in a subjective sense of solidarity with a broader group. ...
Article
Understanding the determinants of COVID-19 vaccine uptake is important to inform policy decisions and plan vaccination campaigns. The aims of this research were to: (1) explore the individual- and country-level determinants of intentions to be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2, and (2) examine worldwide variation in vaccination intentions. This cross-sectional online survey was conducted during the first wave of the pandemic, involving 6697 respondents across 20 countries. Results showed that 72.9% of participants reported positive intentions to be vaccinated against COVID-19, whereas 16.8% were undecided, and 10.3% reported they would not be vaccinated. At the individual level, prosociality was a significant positive predictor of vaccination intentions, whereas generic beliefs in conspiracy theories and religiosity were negative predictors. Country-level determinants, including cultural dimensions of individualism/collectivism and power distance, were not significant predictors of vaccination intentions. Altogether, this study identifies individual-level predictors that are common across multiple countries, provides further evidence on the importance of combating conspiracy theories, involving religious institutions in vaccination campaigns, and stimulating prosocial motives to encourage vaccine uptake.
... e) Conflict processes: can be at the intra-or inter-group level and relate to how conflict arises within and between groups, how it is dealt with, and the subsequent effects of such conflict. Relevant theories may include those relating to: cooperation and competition (Deutsch, 2006); reciprocity (Falk & Fischbacher, 2006); conflict resolution (Deutsch et al., 2011); and social identity (Tajfel & Turner, 1979). f) Context processes include environmental, social, and political circumstances that may influence groups. ...
Thesis
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Gangs are associated with a range of social, criminal, and economic harms. Yet, after almost a century of dedicated research, the development of effective and ethical responses to such harms has proven difficult. Recent attempts to address this have seen the establishment of the Eurogang Program; an international group of gang researchers and practitioners coordinated around a consensus definition of gangs. Since its recent inception, the Eurogang Program has quickly become the dominant framework of research and practice. While much is being staked on the success of the Eurogang Program, the suitability of such a programme for progressing gang research is yet to be thoroughly examined. In this thesis I therefore conduct a meta-theoretical examination of the state of gang research and particularly the Eurogang Program and its associated practices. By examining the frameworks underpinning gang research and drawing upon insights from the philosophy of science, I characterise the Eurogang approach as an attempt to coordinate gang research through means of unification (i.e., through the privileging of particular research perspectives and strategies to achieve coordination through consensus). I draw attention to some major limitations of these unificatory attempts and emphasise how the consensus Eurogang definition does not appropriately set up researchers to be able to develop the various kinds of conceptual and theoretical understandings of gangs required to improve gang policy and practice. Instead, I make the case for a framework known as epistemic pluralism, in which researchers do not pursue consensus but rather cultivate multiple systems of knowing to serve a variety of different research purposes. After establishing the benefit of epistemic pluralism, I examine how such a framework may be applied to the gang field. This involves specific discussion of the various aims of gang researchers and the roles that conceptual strategies (i.e., definitional, classificatory, and explanatory approaches) play in providing the pragmatic and epistemic (i.e., knowledge-related) insights required to meet them. These discussions offer a novel perspective on the roles of conceptual strategies in the process of knowledge production and justification. Having established the general kinds of strategies required for different research purposes, I then consider some specific examples of conceptual strategies that are relevant to meeting the various needs of gang researchers. This takes the form of the Conceptual Framework for Gang Research (CFGR). This novel approach offers greater opportunities for more meaningful kinds of research coordination and maximises the likelihood of establishing the conceptual and theoretical understandings of gangs required to improve gang policy and practice. The value of this thesis as a case study for pursuing epistemic pluralism in the sciences is also discussed.
... That is, they experience more social support from those with identical values. Indeed, according to Deutsch (2006), competition involves decreased perceived similarity of values among competitors and increased awareness of conflicting interests. On the other hand, increase in perceived similarity produces and is produced by cooperation. ...
Conference Paper
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keywords: transphobia, assault, trauma, coping,psycho-social factors,LGBTIQ
... In 1973, Deutsch introduced his conflict theory of cooperation and competition to understand the effects of conflict. Conflict management research, which adopted Deutsch's ideas, has shown that it is appropriate to differentiate between cooperative conflict management and competitive conflict management style (Deutsch, 2006;Tjosvold et al., 2014). Applying a cooperative conflict management style, a person tries to integrate different opinions to solve the conflict and to achieve a beneficial outcome for all involved conflict parties (Deutsch, 1973). ...
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Purpose A dynamic and changing international business environment and higher needs for innovation have increased the importance of creativity in organizations. Organizations need creative employees to develop new methods and procedures that stimulate innovation. However, prior research indicates that employees are sometimes passive and avoid engaging in creative behavior. To promote individual creative behavior, this study aims to better understand the role of task conflict and conflict management. More specifically, the authors draw on Deutsch’s conflict theory of cooperation and competition to test whether an employee’s conflict management moderates the indirect relationship between task conflict and creativity through cooperation. Design/methodology/approach To test the hypotheses, the authors conducted a three-phase survey study with 428 employees from different German organizations. Findings The results suggest that task conflict has only a positive indirect relationship with creativity through cooperation with teammates when employees avoid a competitive conflict management style. Originality/value The authors draw on Deutsch’s conflict theory of cooperation and competition to integrate research on task conflict and conflict management, allowing them to explain why and when task conflict with teammates influences an employee’s creativity. The findings show that task conflict is particularly beneficial for cooperation and creativity if employees avoid closed-minded discussions and competitive interactions with coworkers.
... For this reason, increasing efforts have been devoted to determining the extent to which mutually cooperative behavior between individuals is regulated by the nature of their competitive relationships (Deutsch, 2011;Fehr & Schmidt, 1999). ...
Preprint
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There is growing evidence that cooperative behavior between individuals is regulated by their experience of previous interactions with others. However, it is unclear how a relationship that stems from the evaluation of outcomes from competitive interactions can affect subsequent cooperation between these individuals. To address this issue, we examined how participants cooperated with a partner having just competed with them. While competing, participants ( N = 164) were randomly assigned to receive one of four types of outcome feedback regarding their performance (win vs. loss vs. uncertain vs. control). We found that both the experience of loss and of uncertainty as competitive outcomes exerted a negative impact on the extent to which participants then engaged in mutually cooperative behavior toward their opponents. Moreover, these effects operated in a context-dependent manner: they were only found when we manipulated the relational context to imply a high potential for incurring personal costs rather than imply no risk for incurring personal costs and mutual gains. Finally, our mediation analysis further revealed that the effect of the loss outcome was mediated by the intention of participants to cooperate and their level of interpersonal trust, while the effect of uncertain competitive outcome was mediated only by the extent to which participants intended to cooperate. This suggests the presence of distinct psychological processes underlying the effects of these two types of competitive outcome. Taken together, these finding offer novel insight into how risky cooperation may cascade from previous exposure to competitive settings.
Chapter
The world over, there is a love-hate perspective to university ranking. It is applause when the university is well ranked and rejection when not so favoured. The group with positive disposition to ranking (“rankingphilic”) is quick to cite its ranks on websites and annual reports. The negatively disposed (“rankingphobic”), on the other hand denounces the methodology and emerging league tables. This chapter reviewed developments in higher education ranking/rating in Africa with special focus on Nigeria and the African Quality Rating Mechanism. It addressed accountability issues and the uses to which ranking/rating should be put in bolstering the quality of the higher education system in the region. It presents the findings of an Africa regional study which addressed two questions: What is the perception of African scholars, university managers and students on ranking? What are the arguments in favour or against ranking by stakeholders in the university community in Africa? It concludes with several future scenarios on ranking/rating in the region.
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Research Question/Issue We review the literature on the relationship between strategic leadership and technological innovation. Research Findings/Insights We identify the theoretical lenses that researchers apply when studying strategic leadership and innovation, most notably agency theory and upper echelons theory. We review the innovation constructs and measures that scholars employ, and we survey the links among strategic leaders’ characteristics and technological innovation. Ultimately, we organize the literature into an integrative framework that provides a concise overview of the extant knowledge and we outline an agenda for future research. Theoretical/Academic Implications First, we offer scholars a discipline‐spanning overview of the extant knowledge on the topic. Second, by integrating important aspects of corporate governance, such as the role of the board of directors, incentives for the chief executive officer or the top management team, and firm ownership, into the context of technological innovation, we highlight the vital role it plays in the realm of technological innovation. Third, we provide a useful guide for scholars and direct their work towards fruitful avenues for future research. Practitioner/Policy Implications We offer insights for practitioners interested in better understanding the bidirectional relationship between strategic leadership and technological innovation. In particular, our framework and our detailed analysis of the impact of strategic leaders on technological innovation can guide shareholders and board members in matters related to board composition as well as top executive selection and compensation.
Article
In response to the COVID-19 outbreak, sustainable forms of collective resilience help societies coping cohesively with unprecedented challenges. In our empirical contribution, we framed collective resilience and cohesion in terms of prosociality. A study carried out in the midst of the COVID-19 outbreak in the UK (N = 399) articulated basic individual values, ideological orientations (i.e., authoritarianism and social dominance orientation), and core political values in a comprehensive framework to predict bonding and bridging forms of prosocial intentions, and prosocial behaviors directed towards vulnerable groups. According to our findings, people whose worldview incorporates collective and collaborative principles cared more about others' welfare. Jointly, self-transcendence, equality, and accepting immigrants predicted more prosociality, whereas social dominance orientation predicted less prosociality. Over and beyond all other predictors, self-transcendence uniquely predicted prosocial intentions and behaviors alike. To conclude, we suggest interventions to promote and sustain prosociality among people motivated by a larger array of life goals and worldviews.
Article
Purpose This study aims to explore how team task-related social media usage (TSMU) and social-related social media usage (SSMU) affect employees' perceptions of intra-team cooperation and competition and further individual creativity. Design/methodology/approach This study conducted a questionnaire survey on enterprises in China that have implemented social media and obtained 348 useable questionnaires from 55 work teams. Findings The results revealed that employees' perceptions of intra-team cooperation and competition can promote employees' creativity. Employees' cooperation perception can be significantly positively affected by TSMU and SSMU, whereas employees' competition perception can be significantly positively affected by TSMU. Regarding congruence, the results indicated that the more balanced between TSMU and SSMU, the stronger the competition perception. Practical implications Managers should pay critical attention to the role of team social media usage (SMU) in shaping employees' perceptions of their team environments. They should realize the different outcomes and the joint effects of the different types of SMU. Originality/value This study contributes to the social media literature by explaining the impact of team SMU on employees' perceptions and evaluations of team environments based on the social information processing theory. The study presents the relationships among team SMU, employees' perceptions of cooperation and competition and employee creativity. Moreover, this study expands research on the trade-off of SMU by exploring the impact of balanced and imbalanced SMU in a work team.
Chapter
The world over, there is a love-hate perspective to university ranking. It is applause when the university is well ranked and rejection when not so favoured. The group with positive disposition to ranking (“rankingphilic”) is quick to cite its ranks on websites and annual reports. The negatively disposed (“rankingphobic”), on the other hand denounces the methodology and emerging league tables. This chapter reviewed developments in higher education ranking/rating in Africa with special focus on Nigeria and the African Quality Rating Mechanism. It addressed accountability issues and the uses to which ranking/rating should be put in bolstering the quality of the higher education system in the region. It presents the findings of an Africa regional study which addressed two questions: What is the perception of African scholars, university managers and students on ranking? What are the arguments in favour or against ranking by stakeholders in the university community in Africa? It concludes with several future scenarios on ranking/rating in the region.
Presentation
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This paper begins with a short historical context of ranking of universities in Africa and presents a Nigerian national example while the section that follows describes the emergence of the African Quality Rating Mechanism. The findings of a study on the perception of African university managers and scholars on the issue of ranking is then reported. It concludes with a future glimpse of ranking of universities in Africa.
Article
A key element of democracy is citizens exchanging viewpoints on political matters. Yet, we know little about how individuals respond to interpersonal political disagreement with peers: do they avoid it or yield, try to dominate others, or seek compromise? Based on two surveys with random assignment to different political statements, we study how individuals respond to interpersonal political disagreement on party choice and issue disagreement. The results from both surveys show that individuals are more likely to yield and dominate when the level of political disagreement is at a respectively low and high level. Citizens are more willing to seek compromise at low and moderate levels of disagreement, while avoiding is unrelated to the level of political disagreement.
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This article investigates the relationship between policy conflict and trust‐erosion. It concludes that in a context of trust‐erosion, practices to deal with conflict may backfire and lead to further conflict escalation. The article draws on an in‐depth analysis of 32 interviews with key actors in the conflict over a contested multibillion‐euro highway project in Antwerp (Belgium). It concludes that while all actors draw on the policy repertoire of “managing public support” to explain the conflict, their perspectives of what it means for a policy to have public support differ. Practices to “manage public support” that made sense from one perspective, contributed to the erosion of trust from those holding a different perspective, thus further escalating the conflict. Practices intended to end conflict proved to be fatal remedies.
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The sustainability agenda has evolved around a set of interconnected dilemmas regarding economic, social, and environmental goals. Progress has been made in establishing thresholds and targets that must be achieved to enable life to continue to thrive on the planet. However, much work remains to be done in articulating coherent theoretical frameworks that adequately describe the mechanisms through which sustainability outcomes are achieved. This paper reviews core concepts in the sustainability agenda to develop four propositions on integrated sustainability that collectively describe the underlying mechanisms of sustainable development. We then advance a framework for integrated sustainability and assess its viability through linear regression and principal components analysis of key selected indicators. The results provide preliminary evidence that countries with institutions that enable cooperation and regulate competition perform better in attaining integrated sustainability indicators. Our findings suggest that institutional design is important to sustainability outcomes and that further research into process-oriented mechanisms and institutional characteristics can yield substantial dividends in enabling effective sustainability policy. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11625-021-00925-y.
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Purpose The ethics literature has focused on the influence of self-construal dimensions on unethical decision-making. However, the literature is unclear about why these self-construal dimensions (Independent-self, Relational-self, Collective-self) impact differently on unethical decision-making. Based on the theory of cooperation and competition, this study empirically examines the mediating role of competitive orientation and addresses the theoretically unexplained question of why self-construal dimensions influence differently on unethical decision-making. Design/methodology/approach Based on the deductive approach, a quantitative research study was conducted on the Sri Lankan banking industry because there have been many instances of unethical behavior reported in this sector lately. Data were collected from 305 bank branch managers using a structured survey questionnaire. Findings The findings revealed that competitive orientation mediates the self-construal dimensions and explained that competitive orientation is one reason why independent-self, relational-self and collective-self influence differently on unethical decision-making. Originality/value This paper addresses the unanswered question of why self-construal dimensions relate to unethical decision-making differently.
Chapter
Leadership is a function in social systems and aims to reduce (social) complexity and contingency. Hierarchy as the predominant leadership model is seen gradually superseded by more egalitarian approaches, due to the fact that in nowadays organizations the full potential of humans is needed, while cascading instructions top-down is not anymore sufficiently functional in many cases. The associated power shift leads to new tasks for leadership, as well as for those taking over leadership roles, which are reflected by facilitating and maintaining cooperation, where cooperation is a deliberate act of “free” individuals. We will argue for two forms of cooperation a weak form (compliance) and a strong form (considering the interests of all). The theory of cooperation is being discussed from an ethical point of view, based on the moral philosophy by Morton Deutsch and James Tufts. Major implications on the principles and practices of leadership will be shown. Ultimately suggestions for the implementation of a corresponding leadership ethics are given. The findings are important for building sustainable work units on an ethical foundation.
Article
In the context of international events, the relations between Russia and Turkey remain complex, although they are based on mutual recognition of security and other interests and cooperation that is mutually beneficial. The strained relations between Turkey and the United States, caused by disagreements in Syria and Turkish purchase of the S-400 missile system, have shown Turkey's growing commitment to a more independent foreign policy. Russia is under sanctions due to the annexation of Crimea and is an actor in the crisis over Ukraine due to the NATO threat of expansion to the Russian western borders, which escalated after the Russian recognition of the independence of the People's Republic of Donetsk and Lugansk (Donbas) and launching a "special military operation" in Donbas. In the foreign policy of Russia and Turkey and acting towards the third parties, their conflicting interests and providing direct or indirect support to parties to the conflict, without a direct conflict, are often present, which shapes their specific "competitive cooperation". The engagement of Turkey and Russia in Syria has proven to be effective, both in military operations and in mediating negotiations, which has reduced the influence of the United States and NATO in this area. The crisis management model implemented in Syria has not been successful in the Libyan crisis due to the Russian more passive attitude and greater influence of the Western powers and the UN mission. The common engagement in energy and military projects and technology transfer is an indicator of cooperation focused on the industries of strategic importance. The Russian interests in the NATO non-expansion and Turkey in entering the European Union markets can also have a positive effect on the current economic, political and security position of Serbia and the countries of the region.
Article
Sensorimotor signaling is a key mechanism underlying coordination in humans. The increasing presence of artificial agents, including robots, in everyday contexts, will make joint action with them as common as a joint action with other humans. The present study investigates under which conditions sensorimotor signaling emerges when interacting with them. Human participants were asked to play a musical duet either with a humanoid robot or with an algorithm run on a computer. The artificial agent was programmed to commit errors. Those were either human-like (simulating a memory error) or machine-like (a repetitive loop of back-and-forth taps). At the end of the task, we tested the social inclusion toward the artificial partner by using a ball-tossing game. Our results showed that when interacting with the robot, participants showed lower variability in their performance when the error was human-like, relative to a mechanical failure. When the partner was an algorithm, the pattern was reversed. Social inclusion was affected by human-likeness only when the partner was a robot. Taken together, our findings showed that coordination with artificial agents, as well as social inclusion, are influenced by how human-like the agent appears, both in terms of morphological traits and in terms of behaviour.
Chapter
This chapter outlines several philosophical approaches to morality and discusses research relevant for considering school bullying as a moral issue. Children learn about morality from others, in terms of both justice and caring. Moral emotions such as empathy help to regulate behaviour and drive prosocial actions, but breaking a moral code may lead to moral disengagement. Competitiveness can reduce prosociality, and Eastern philosophy that focuses on the needs of the other is now being advocated in the increasingly individualist West. Witnesses of victimisation often face moral dilemmas about intervening. The morality of bullying involves complex social and cognitive processes that unfold over time in a dynamic manner in relation to context. There is some evidence that it is possible to promote empathy and prosociality, though the relationship with bullying is not straightforward.
Chapter
The evolutionary theme continues in this chapter, drawing on evidence that while humans are mainly peaceable and cooperative, there is also competition for resources and status, which may sometimes play out in the form of bullying and other forms of unkindness. Smaldino has made an evolutionary argument that humans strive to find others with whom to coordinate, in order to reach their goals. This process involves presenting different aspects of the self, according to context. Through the display of markers of identity, such as dress and language, some people are included in a group and others excluded. This is consistent with a paradigm 2 perspective on bullying that such exclusion is ‘normal’ and often harmless, but that it can sometimes constitute bullying.
Article
While voice contributes to improved organizational functioning, employee ideas and opinions can be diverse and at cross-purposes. Despite voice pertinence, there is little scholarly work on how group composition influences members’ voice behavior. Drawing on the categorization-elaboration model (CEM) perspective of faultline theory and the value-in-diversity paradigm, we examine the effect of team diversity faultlines on members' upward voice. The research model is tested across two time-lagged studies in India. The results of study 1 reveal that gender diversity strengthens the positive influence of age diversity on team communication. Built on study 1, study 2 demonstrates that team communication mediates the link between team diversity faultlines and upward voice, with psychological safety as a boundary condition. We discuss the findings and implications for theory and practice.
Article
This article reports a study investigating the effects of guided group work and teacher participation on students’ perceptions of individual and collaborative success. One hundred and fifty-two eighth graders joined a teaching intervention involving various learning activities, including concept debate, review of arguments, presentation and reflection tasks. The results of questionnaire-based surveys revealed that the students who engaged in group work with teacher guidance exhibited the strongest sense of collaborative success. Whilst the students who participated in independent learning expressed a preference for individual success, dichotomous results were obtained amongst the students who engaged in self-directed group work. Findings from classroom excerpts and follow-up interviews highlight the prominent role of the teacher in facilitating students’ joint construction of conceptual knowledge, which in turn exerts a notable impact on students’ awareness of achieving collaborative success. The study's broad implications for the promotion of peer collaboration and guided group work in classroom learning activities are discussed.
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Tak terhitung berapa rupiah materi dan pengorbanan lainnya yang dihabiskan untuk menanggulangi perkara terorisme melalui program deradikalisasi, sampai-sampai Polri dan BIN dituding berbagai kalangan sebagai lembaga yang sengaja membikin ‘proyek terorisme’ demi kelangsungan anggaran anti-terorisme milyaran rupiah/tahun. Harus disadari, dicamkan dan ditekankan bahwa dalam membasmi terorisme, negara dan masyarakat mesti seayun langkah dan bersatu. Tulisan ini menawarkan gagasan humanisasi sebagai bagian dari upaya deradikalisasi untuk menambal lubang-lubang yang bocor dari program yang sudah dilaksanakan. Dalam hal ini, humanisasi adalah respon untuk mencegah eskalasi kekerasan. Humanisasi mengakui martabat yang melekat pada manusia, mengakui kemanusiaan lawan-lawannya dan hak-hak asasi semua anggota keluarga manusia. Humanisasi memungkinkan orang mengenali karakteristik manusia yang dianggap musuh atau lawannya, sehingga dapat membantu orang untuk membatasi eskalasi kekerasan yang ekstrim. Humanisasi juga dapat membuka jalan bagi hubungan timbal balik dan keyakinan dalam kesetaraan manusia, menciptakan norma-norma bersama yang membatasi cara konflik tersebut dilancarkan.
Chapter
Global and local studies indicate that multigrade teaching remains a challenge to quality education, especially in developing countries. The purpose of this chapter is to explore four South African multigrade teachers’ views regarding the use of cooperative learning strategies and how they implement such strategies in their class. This study used a qualitative research approach to answer the research questions. Telephone interviews and open-ended email responses were analysed to understand the patterns in multigrade teachers’ experiences during their daily praxis. Teacher participants were introduced to cooperative learning in their teacher education course and most were eager to plan and adapt cooperative learning approaches for their multigrade classes. However, it emerged from this research that multigrade teachers may not apply cooperative learning strategies extensively because of several challenges previously identified in the literature, such as a lack of resources and infrastructure, and lack of time because of having to teach several grades simultaneously. Participants emphasised the critical importance of planning how to implement the cooperative learning strategies in a multigrade classroom in order to achieve lesson objectives.
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Internal evaluators can lead positive, helpful, promotive interactions among colleagues to make evaluation more appropriate, understandable, and accessible. As the motivations and abilities of non-evaluator colleagues are highly varied, interpersonal skills help facilitate cooperation and promote evaluation. Social interdependence theory from social psychology can assist with understanding teamwork and developing interpersonal competence. While the literature links social interdependence theory with evaluation, there is limited understanding of its application in practice. In this article, we share our internal evaluation experiences in three Australian nonprofit organizations to elucidate how we harnessed social connections and interpersonal dynamics to achieve cooperative goals. The purpose of this article is to share our process for using theory and literature to assist with reflecting, planning, and acting, around the way we interact with colleagues. Evaluators may find this process useful when considering how to personalize professional development around interpersonal competencies for evaluation.
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Integrating theorizing across the mindfulness and negotiation literatures, we hypothesize that mindfulness increases cooperation in negotiations. We further propose that processes of self-transcendence, self-regulation, and self-awareness mediate this effect. We test these hypotheses in five studies across different forms of cooperation, in both distributive and integrative negotiation contexts, and for both measured and experimentally induced mindfulness. In Study 1a, individuals higher on measured state mindfulness displayed greater cooperative orientation measured as preference for pareto-optimal agreements. In Study 1b, experimentally induced mindfulness led to greater cooperative orientation measured as the recall of cooperative heuristics. In Study 2, a distributive (fixed-sum) negotiation, dyads who engaged in a mindfulness practice before the negotiation were more likely to reach cooperative agreements with more equal distribution of the bargaining zone than control condition dyads. In Study 3, an integrative negotiation, dyads who engaged in a mindfulness practice before the negotiation were more likely to reach win–win agreements than control condition dyads. Finally, in Study 4, another integrative negotiation, we found that mindful dyads achieved greater joint gains and the effect was mediated by self-transcendence. Overall, results provide substantial evidence that mindfulness is an effective intervention for increasing cooperation in negotiations.
Article
The positive peer relations arising from cooperative learning can contribute to the development of affective empathy, which in turn can reduce bullying (Van Ryzin & Roseth, 2019). However, from a theoretical perspective, the direction of effects between peer relations and empathy could be in the opposite direction, or bi-directional. In the current paper, we employed a process-oriented approach (i.e., cross-lag difference score modeling; McArdle, 2009) to investigate the longitudinal relationship between positive peer relations and affective empathy as well as their joint effect on bullying. Using four waves of data from a cluster randomized trial including 15 middle schools (7 intervention and 8 control schools; N = 1,890 students, 47.1% female, 75.2% White), we found a bi-directional or reciprocal relationship between peer relations and affective empathy, and change in both constructs predicted lower levels of bullying. Cooperative learning predicted positive change in peer relations and affective empathy, as well as lower levels of bullying. These results suggest that the structured social interactions that occur during cooperative learning can enhance student interpersonal relations, and simultaneously the experiential skill building of cooperative learning can contribute to a more profound understanding of the emotional states of others. These effects amplify one another and, in turn, significantly reduce bullying in middle school. Given that cooperative learning has already been demonstrated to enhance academic motivation and achievement (Roseth et al., 2008), we argue that cooperative learning offers an effective, attractive alternative to traditional curriculum-based bullying prevention programs.
Thesis
Human connection is an innate human need. More than that, it is a rich source of life satisfaction, the purest expression of our humanity, and only in moments of human connection do we fully come into being. Such moments of connection are acutely familiar and recognizable, and yet profoundly mysterious and inarticulable. Increasingly, organizational scholars are recognizing the benefits associated with human connection. Jane Dutton and colleagues developed a conceptualization of moments of human connection, termed high quality connections (HQCs), which are characterized by the experience of positive regard, vitality, and mutuality. As research increasingly demonstrates the value of HQCs at work, my aims are twofold: 1) understanding the conditions and practices that cultivate HQCs, and 2) gain a deeper understanding of the nature of human connection, examining and perhaps refining the HQC depiction of human connection. To achieve this, I conducted two inductive, qualitative studies of a university lacrosse team and a set of six community theatre productions. I chose sports and theatre because in those contexts moments of human connection are prevalent, intense, and central to the purpose of the activity. I draw on ethnographic observations and semi-structured interviews to observe and hear accounts of moments of human connection. In Chapter 1, I start by describing the importance of human connection. I adopt the HQC conceptualization as a theoretical starting point, and review the literature on the value of HQCs at work. I then describe some of the challenges organizations face in cultivating HQCs, such as competitive dynamics and depersonalizing role structures. This theoretically and practically motivates my overarching research question: how do people achieve HQCs? In Chapter 2, I present my study of the lacrosse team. In this study, I observe how competition among teammates is a source of HQCs on the team. I identify mutuality as the central mechanism by which moments of competition become HQCs, which fosters positive regard. I also present conditions that enable players to achieve mutuality in competition. From these findings, I develop a view of competition as a form of mutuality-inducing play. I draw on philosophy of sport to conceptualize competition as a cooperative relational process. In Chapter 3, I present my study of six community theatre productions. Because study 1 revealed mutuality as the driving mechanism for HQC in competition, I turn my focus to how mutuality is achieved. I specifically examine the influence of roles, which have long been thought to inhibit human connection in organizations. I find instead that roles enable authenticity and responsiveness, which lead to mutuality. I also find, as in the lacrosse paper, that moments of play are when mutuality is achieved. After two studies pointed me toward play, Chapter 4 examines more deeply the concept of play—what it is, why it is central to sports and theatre, and whether it can similarly be integrated with work. Chapter 5 concludes the dissertation by developing a theoretical model of mutuality that connects mutuality to several related concepts in other fields. My primary conclusions are that mutuality is the driving mechanism of moments of human connection (the other two aspects of HQC are outpourings from mutuality), and that play enables mutuality. Bringing the focus to mutuality provides a clearer understanding of the nature of these moments of connection, as well as how they can be cultivated.
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to move toward a comprehensive understanding of revolution by transcending boundaries among academic disciplines as well as conceptual dichotomies such as objective-subjective, structure-agency, collective-individual, macro-micro, and conflict resolution-social revolution. This transcending move can be made through the application of the concepts of multi-dimensionality, continuum, and dialectics. The chapter shows that this comprehensive approach is advocated in the literature because it transcends both disciplinary boundaries and conceptual dichotomies encountered in the literature.
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On the basis of various matching procedures introductory psychology students at MIT were separated into 4 cooperative and 4 competitive groups. Puzzle and human relation problems were given to the groups for solution. The members of the 4 cooperative groups received final grades in the course which in part depended upon which group, as a group, turned in the best solutions. In the competitive groups the final grade was in part determined by how much each individual contributed to his group's solution. The findings may be summarized by saying that greater productivity occurs when the members of a group are organized in terms of cooperative activities rather than competitive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Social interdependence theory is a classic example of the interaction among theory, research, and practice. The premise of the theory is that the way in which goals are structured determines how individuals interact, which in turn creates outcomes. Over 750 research studies have been conducted in the past 11 decades on the relative merits of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic efforts and the conditions under which each is appropriate. These studies have validated, modified, refined, and extended the theory. Social interdependence theory has been widely applied, especially in education. The applications have resulted in revisions of the theory and the generation of considerable new research.
Article
Conflict is a natural and inevitable part of our personal and social lives. In this volume Morton Deutsch, the distinguished social psychologist, explores the factors that determine whether the outcome of conflict will be fruitful or destructive. He examines conflict at the intrapsychic, interpersonal, and intergroup levels and formulates meaningful cross-level generalizations about the determination of conflict resolution.
Article
"In this article an attempt has been made to sketch out a theory of cooperation and competition and apply this theory to the functioning of small groups… , (i) social situations of cooperation and competition were defined; (ii) some of the logical implications inherent in the definitions were pointed to; (iii) with the introduction of psychological assumptions, some of the definitions of the two objective social situations were then drawn; (iv) the psychological implications, with the aid of additional psychological assumptions, were then applied to various aspects of small-group functionings to develop a series of hypotheses about the relative effects of co-operation and competition upon group processes; and (v) finally the concept of group was defined and linked with the concept of cooperation, thus making all of the preceding theoretical development with respect to cooperation relevant to group concepts." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
We have written this book with an eye and ear toward a variety of audiences, ranging from practitioners and professionals to researchers like ourselves. The vantage point from which we have approached the material is that of the experimental social psychologist who wants to formulate theory and research in ways that have practical applications. Students and professionals in other areas, however, will find the content of this book interesting and germane. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)