Article

Somatic Markers and Response Reversal: Is There Orbitofrontal Cortex Dysfunction in Boys with Psychopathic Tendencies?

University College London
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.48). 11/2001; 29(6):499-511. DOI: 10.1023/A:1012277125119

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the performance of boys with psychopathic tendencies and comparison boys, aged 9 to 17 years, on two tasks believed to be sensitive to amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex functioning. Fifty-one boys were divided into two groups according to the Psychopathy Screening Device (PSD, P. J. Frick & R. D. Hare, in press) and presented with two tasks. The tasks were the gambling task (A. Bechara, A. R. Damasio, H. Damasio, & S. W. Anderson, 1994) and the Intradimensional/Extradimensional (ID/ED) shift task (R. Dias, T. W. Robbins, & A. C. Roberts, 1996). The boys with psychopathic tendencies showed impaired performance on the gambling task. However, there were no group differences on the ID/ED task either for response reversal or extradimensional set shifting. The implications of these results for models of psychopathy are discussed.

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Available from: Derek G V Mitchell
    • "Research into associations between psychopathy and IGT performance has received only limited attention, which has reported mixed results. Three studies reported that psychopathic individuals made less advantageous choices than non-psychopathic individuals (Blair, Colledge, & Mitchell, 2001;Boulanger, Habib, & Lan aon, 2008;Mitchell et al., 2002). Three other studies, however, did not find performance differences between psychopathic and non-psychopathic individuals (Blair & Cipolotti, 2000;Losel & Schmucker, 2004;Schmitt, Brinkley, & Newman, 1999). "
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    ABSTRACT: Psychopathy is a complex developmental personality disorder. Recent theories have linked psychopathy to impairment in the frontostriatal circuitry linking the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Similar neural regions have been implicated in decision-making. Given the importance of decision-making in the context of personal and societal problems, together with the convergence of brain regions important in both decision-making and psychopathy, the study of decision-making in psychopathy has the potential to illuminate important cognitive and neurobiological bases for psychopathy. In this review, we synthesise past research on psychopathy and decision-making, and then describe three decision-making tasks that we predict would be useful for understanding cognitive decisional processes in psychopathy. © 2015 The Australian and New Zealand Association of Psychiatry, Psychology and Law
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Psychiatry Psychology and Law
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    • "Les écrits scientifiques démontrent que les liens entre la mentalisation et la présence des TC chez l'enfant ont maintes fois été étudiés (Allen et collab., 2008; Blair et collab., 2001; Fonagy et collab., 2002; Sharp, 2006; Sharp et collab., 2007). Les liens entre l'empathie et les manifestations des TC ont également fait l'objet de plusieurs recherches (Arsenio et Fleiss, 1996; Hugues, Dunn et White, 1998; Hugues, White, Sharpen et Dunn, 2000). "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
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    • "The consistency of findings is remarkable given the wide age ranges used in the studies and the diverse methods for assessing emotional responsiveness. Of particular relevance to whether CU traits may be important for designating an etiologically distinct subgroup of children and adolescents with severe conduct problems is that several studies reported that children or adolescents with severe conduct problems but normative levels of CU traits show no deficits in their recognition of emotions in others (Blair, Colledge, Murray, & Mitchell, 2001; Dadds, El Masry, Wimalaweera, & Guastella, 2008; Dadds, Perry, et al., 2006; Fairchild, Stobbe, Van Goozen, Calder, & Gooyer, 2010; Stevens, Charman, & Blair, 2001) and show an enhanced emotional responsiveness to distress cues in others (Kimonis et al., 2006; Kimonis, Frick, Muñoz, & Aucoin, 2008; Loney et al., 2003). Such findings suggest that CU traits distinguish among subgroups of children and adolescents with severe conduct problems who show very different emotional characteristics. "
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    ABSTRACT: This article provides a comprehensive review of the research on the use of callous and unemotional (CU) traits for designating an important subgroup of children and adolescents with severe conduct problems. It focuses on the etiological significance of recognizing this subgroup of youths with severe conduct problems, its implications for diagnostic classification, and the treatment implications of this research. The review highlights limitations in existing research and provides directions for future research. The available research suggests that children and adolescents with severe conduct problems and elevated CU traits show distinct genetic, cognitive, emotional, biological, environmental, and personality characteristics that seem to implicate different etiological factors underlying their behavior problems relative to other youths with severe conduct problems. Recognizing these subgroups could be critical for guiding future research on the causes of severe conduct problems in children and adolescents. Further, children and adolescents with both severe conduct problems and elevated CU traits appear to be at risk for more severe and persistent antisocial outcomes, even controlling for the severity of their conduct problems, the age of onset of their conduct problems, and common comorbid problems, which supports the clinical importance of designating this group in diagnostic classification systems. Finally, although children and adolescents with both severe conduct problems and elevated CU traits tend to respond less positively to typical interventions provided in mental health and juvenile justice settings, they show positive responses to certain intensive interventions tailored to their unique emotional and cognitive characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Psychological Bulletin
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