Active biomonitoring with wet and dry moss: A case study in an urban area

Environmental Chemistry Letters (Impact Factor: 2.57). 02/2009; 7(1):55-60. DOI: 10.1007/s10311-008-0135-4


Active biomonitoring of the air quality in Belgrade, Serbia, was performed using the moss Sphagnum
girgensohnii. Moss bags were exposed in parallel with and without irrigation for 3 and 6months, respectively, at three different sites.
Twenty-nine elements were determined in the exposed moss samples by INAA. For all exposure periods, higher uptake in the irrigated
moss bags was evident for Al, Cr, Fe, Zn and Sr. Elements such as Cl, K, Rb and Cs were depleted in the moss tissue during
the time of exposure. For most of the elements the accumulation after 6months exceeded that observed after 3months.

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    • "To minimize the influence of possible moss growth on element uptake during the experimental period, Giordano et al. (2009) and Ares et al. (2012) recommended an oven-drying devitalizing pretreatment of moss before its exposure in the field. However, in the previous survey (Aničić et al., 2009b), a poor vitality of moss was evident after exposure, because of dry continental climate conditions in the study area. To test the recommended devitalizing moss pretreatment, one half of the prepared moss bags were oven-dried (dry moss, DM S.g. and DM H.c. ) at 120 °C for 24 h, whereas no devitalizing treatment was applied to another half of the bags (live moss, LM S.g. and LM H.c. ). "
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    ABSTRACT: A database of potentially hazardous substances, necessary for estimating the exposure of humans to air pollutants, may be deficient because of a limited number of regulatory monitoring stations. This study was inspired by undeniably harmful effects of human long-term exposure to intense traffic emissions in urban area. Moss bag biomonitors were used to characterize spatial variation of airborne toxic elements near crossroads and two- and one-lane streets. The Sphagnum girgensohnii and Hypnum cupressiforme moss bags were exposed for 10weeks to 48 sampling sites across Belgrade (Serbia) during the summer of 2014. In addition, oven-drying pretreatment of the moss bags was tested. During the experimental period, traffic flows were estimated at each site by counting the number of vehicles during the rush hours. The concentrations of 39 elements were determined in the moss samples. There was no significant difference between the results obtained for nontreated and oven-dried moss bags. For the majority of elements, the moss bags identified a common pattern of decrease in the concentration from crossroads to two- and one-lane streets. The exposed moss bags were enriched with Sb, Cu and Cr. The correlation coefficients (r=0.65-0.70) between the moss concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe and Sb and the site-counted traffic flows also confirmed a dependence of the airborne element content on traffic emissions. A strong correlation with traffic flows makes Sb, Cu and Cr reliable traffic tracers.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Science of The Total Environment
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    • "Based on our previous studies conducted in different urban microenvironments (Aničić et al., 2009a; Vuković et al., 2013; 2014), we consider RAF values higher than 0.5 to indicate slight elemental enrichment and values higher than 1 to indicate significant elemental enrichment in moss. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, active magnetic biomonitoring of moss for particulate air pollution and an assessment of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed for the entire metropolitan area of Belgrade. Two mosses, Sphagnum girgensohnii (a species of the most recommended biomonitoring moss genus) and Hypnum cupressiforme (a common moss in the study area), were used. During the summer of 2013, moss bags were exposed at 153 sampling sites, forming a dense network of sites. A type II regression model was applied to test the interchangeable use of the two moss species. Significantly higher levels of all measured pollutants were recorded by S. girgensohnii in comparison with H. cupressiforme. Based on the results, the mosses could not be interchangeably used in urban areas, except for the biomonitoring of Cu. Nevertheless, according to the relative accumulation factors obtained for both moss species, similar city zones related to high, moderate and low levels of air pollution were distinguished. Moreover, new pollution hotspots, omitted by regulatory monitoring, were identified. The results demonstrate that moss magnetic analysis represents an effective first step for obtaining an overview of particulate air pollution before more expensive chemical analyses. Active moss biomonitoring could be applied as a pragmatic approach for optimizing the representativeness of regulatory monitoring networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Science of The Total Environment
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    • "Small scaling monitoring present an challenge, considering the interference of many factors, like climatic condition with emphasis on winding, geographical location etc. (Fernández et al., 2007; Balabanova et al., 2010; 2013). Mosses have frequently been used to monitor time integrated bulk deposition of metals as a combination of wet, cloud, and dry deposition, thus eliminating some of the complications of precipitation analysis due to the heterogeneity of precipitation (Ceburnis et al., 1999; Ceburnis and Valiulis, 1999a; Aničić et al., 2009). Additional advantages of using mosses as heavy metal biomonitors include their stationary nature, wide spread geographic distribution , and low genetic variability between populations (Zechmeister et al., 2003; Dolegowska et al., 2013; Harmens et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme, Scleropodium purum and Campthotecium lutescens) were used as suitable sampling media for biomonitoring the origin of heavy metal pollution in the lead–zinc mine and flotation environ near the town of Probištip. The 21 metals contents were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP–AES). Data processing was applied with combinations of multivariate statistical methods: factor analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The main anthropogenic markers in the investigated area were Pb and Zn (maximal values of 200 and 186 mg kg–1, respectively). The factor analysis singled out (in the increasing scale) the following associations: F1/D1: Fe < Mo < Pb < Na < Cd < Mg < Zn < Ag < Cu and F2/D2: Mn < Ni < K < P < Ba < Sr < Ca < As < Cr < Al < V < Li. The anthropogenic elements contents vary independent from the moss species, but depending on the distancing from the pollution source, there are positive correlation. Long distance distribution from the emission source doesn’t occur.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
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