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The Role of Context in Online Gaming Excess and Addiction: Some Case Study Evidence

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Abstract

Research into online gaming addiction is a relatively new area of psychological study. Furthermore, there are studies that have claimed that online gaming addiction may be addictive because of self-report accounts of very excessive use of up to 80h a week. This study uses data from two case studies to highlight the role of context in distinguishing excessive gaming from addictive gaming. Both of the gamers in this study claimed to be playing for up to 14h a day yet and although they were behaviorally identical in terms of their game playing, they were very different in terms of psychological motivation and the meaning and experience of gaming within their lives. It is argued that one of the players appears to be genuinely addicted to online gaming but that the other player is not based on context and consequences. The two cases outlined highlight the importance of context in the life of a gamer and demonstrates that excessive gaming does not necessarily mean that a person is addicted. It is argued that online gaming addiction should be characterized by the extent to which excessive gaming impacts negatively on other areas of the gamers’ lives rather than the amount of time spent playing. It is also concluded that an activity cannot be described as an addiction if there are few (or no) negative consequences in the player’s life even if the gamer is playing 14h a day.

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... Considering the higher neuroticism and lower extraversion of the at-risk escaper cluster, personality assessment, in association with the motivational background, is relevant to identify at-risk gamers. These results corroborate the view that problematic use can only be assessed if the motivations, personality traits, consequences, and contextual characteristics of the behavior are taken into account Griffiths, 2010;Shen & Williams, 2011). ...
... To conclude, our results are consistent with the view of King, Herd, and Delfabbro (2018) who specified that in order to consider the problematic use of video games in the field of behavioral addictions, it is fundamental that researchers and clinicians focus on the motivations that underlie and maintain the problematic behaviors so as to better understand what problematic gamers really look for in games and to avoid false positives in clinical and research settings. Our work supports those positions and confirms the point made by Griffiths (2010) and Faust and Griffiths (2013), that it is necessary to question the context of the practice, especially if this practice takes place in the context of online competitive gaming. ...
... Cependant, ce type d'usage ne concerne qu'un nombre très restreint d'individus, et peut même exister dans le cadre d'usages non pathologiques (Griffiths, 2010) (entrainements e-sportifs intensifs notamment avant des compétitions, terminer un nouveau jeu en quelques jours…). ...
Thesis
Les travaux relatifs à la pratique intensive des jeux vidéo en ligne soulignent les possibles conséquences négatives associées à ces pratiques, fréquemment décrites en termes de dégradation de la qualité de vie (QdV). La nature et l’intensité de ces conséquences dépendraient de plusieurs déterminants individuels, et notamment des motivations à jouer. Opérationnalisant cette altération du fonctionnement associée à une perte de contrôle de l’activité de jeu, l’Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) a été introduit dans la section 3 du DSM-5 en 2013, faisant l’objet de controverses au sein de la communauté scientifique, dont la résonnance s’est amplifiée après l’inclusion par l’OMS du « trouble du jeu vidéo » (TJV) dans la CIM-11 en 2018. Bien que se distinguant sur le plan définitoire, plusieurs critiques ont été formulées à l’encontre de ces entités, notamment en ce qui concerne les risques de pathologisation et de stigmatisation d’usages normaux. Il est donc crucial de les distinguer des usages pathologiques, ainsi que d’en identifier les facteurs de risque et de protection. L’objectif de ce travail est donc d’identifier les déterminants psychologiques et comportementaux du TJV et de la QdV des joueurs, tant dans le cadre d’une approche transversale visant à identifier l’existence et le rôle de profils motivationnels, que dans une approche longitudinale visant à étudier la nature des liens entre patterns d’usage (symptômes du TJV et temps de jeu objectif) et QdV. Une première étude transversale a été réalisée auprès de joueurs ayant une pratique intensive des jeux vidéo en ligne, une analyse de classification hiérarchique a permis d’identifier 3 profils motivationnels distincts parmi lesquels, deux semblaient non problématiques (récréatif et compétitif), comparativement au troisième profil considéré à risque (évitant). Les résultats suggèrent que les scores d’IGD (critères DSM-5), ne permettent pas de différencier les joueurs à risque (évitants) de ceux dont l’engagement n’était pas associé à une dégradation de leur QdV (compétitifs). Les résultats soulignent l’importance de la prise en compte des motivations à jouer dans le cadre d’une approche centrée sur les personnes et d’une mesure du retentissement fonctionnel pour l’évaluation des problématiques d’usage. Une seconde étude longitudinale, réalisée auprès des joueurs les plus engagés dans un jeu vidéo en ligne, a ensuite proposé d’investiguer les liens inter- et intra-individuels entre patterns d’usage (symptômes du TJV et temps de jeu objectif) et QdV, tout en vérifiant si ces effets étaient différents en fonction des profils motivationnels. Les résultats confirment l’existence des trois clusters identifiés dans la première étude, et montrent la seule présence d’effets interindividuels entre symptômes du TJV et QdV. Ces résultats suggèrent que l’association parfois observée entre QdV et symptômes du TJV s’explique par des causes communes (tels que les traits de personnalité et l'impulsivité). Aucun effet n'a été constaté en ce qui concerne la relation entre temps de jeu objectif et QdV, soutenant la distinction importante entre usages intensifs sains et pathologiques. Enfin, ces résultats ne diffèrent pas selon les profils motivationnels. Nous concluons que les efforts en matière de prévention et de traitement devraient se concentrer sur ces causes communes et sur le profil motivationnel des joueurs. Des analyses ont ensuite été menées afin d’investiguer les déterminants des symptômes du TJV et de la QdV, permettant de montrer l’importance des facteurs psychologiques comparativement à ceux relatifs au comportement de jeu. L’ensemble de ces résultats permet d’envisager l’élaboration et l’évaluation de l’efficacité d’une intervention clinique ciblant les processus psychopathologiques associés aux causes communes identifiées, tout en proposant l’intégration d’outils de prévention au sein des jeux. Enfin, une discussion de l’ensemble de ces résultats est proposée.
... Bunlar sorun odaklı başa çıkma ve işlevsel olmayan başa çıkma tutumları olarak değerlendirilebilir. Özellikle ergenlik dönemindeki bireylerde uygun problem çözme becerilerinin eksikliği ile oyunların sorunlardan kaçmak için kullanılan bir araç haline gelmesi, oyunlara karşı bir süre sonra bağımlılık geliştirmesini daha kolay bir hale getirmektedir (Griffiths, 2010). Çevrimiçi oyun bağımlılığı olan ergenler, problemleriyle aktif olarak başa çıkmaktansa kaçınan başa çıkma ve olumsuz başa çıkma stratejilerini kullanarak geçici ve uzun vadede faydalı olmayan bir kaçış yolu olarak oyun oynama davranışına yöneliyor olabilirler. ...
... In addition, a significant positive relationship was found between online game addiction total score, and avoidant coping and negative coping strategies. Studies in the literature support this finding (Şahin, 2016;Griffiths, 2010). The subscales of negative coping and avoidant coping strategies predicted 6% of the total variance in online game addiction. ...
... Such problematic gaming has been repeatedly shown to correlate with multiple negative psychosocial correlates, including aggressive behaviors, depression, loneliness, poor sleep quality, and lower social competence [18,26]. Nevertheless, the links between the scores on the Game Addiction Scale (GAS) and time spent playing video games as well as negative correlates are also not linear and likely context dependent [27][28][29]. ...
... Generally, those involved in predominantly computer gaming were mostly male, and those involved in predominantly phone gaming were mostly female. problematic gaming behavior [16,27,28]. Nearly half (1728/3970, 43.5%) of the gamers in this study engaged in ≥4 hours of computer gaming a day but reported high well-being. ...
Article
Background The shift in the last decades to screen-based and increasingly web-based gaming activity has raised concerns about its impact on the development of children and adolescents. Despite decades of research into gaming and related psychosocial effects, the question remains how best to identify what degree or context of gaming may be a cause for concern. Objective This study aimed to classify adolescents into gamer profiles based on both gaming behaviors and well-being. Once we distinguished the different gamer profiles, we aimed to explore whether membership to a specific profile could be predicted based on a range of personal characteristics and experiences that could then help identify those at risk. Methods We explored gaming and well-being in an adolescent school population (aged 12-18 years) in England as part of the 2021 OxWell student survey. Self-report measures of time spent playing games on computers or consoles, time spent playing games on mobile phones, the Game Addiction Scale, and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale were used to classify adolescent heavy gamers (playing games for at least 3.5 hours a day) using latent profile analysis. We used multinomial logistic regression analysis to predict the profile membership based on a range of personal characteristics and experiences. Results In total, 12,725 participants answered the OxWell gaming questions. Almost one-third (3970/12,725, 31.2%) indicated that they play games for at least 3.5 hours a day. The correlation between time spent playing video games overall and well-being was not significant (P=.41). The latent profile analysis distinguished 6 profiles of adolescent heavy gamers: adaptive computer gamers (1747/3970, 44%); casual computer gamers (873/3970, 22%); casual phone gamers (595/3970, 15%); unknown device gamers (476/3970, 12%); maladaptive computer gamers (238/3970, 6%); and maladaptive phone gamers (79/3970, 2%). In comparison with adaptive computer gamers, maladaptive phone gamers were mostly female (odds ratio [OR] 0.08, 95% CI 0.03-0.21) and were more likely to have experienced abuse or neglect (OR 3.18, 95% CI 1.34-7.55). Maladaptive computer gamers, who reported gaming both on their mobile phones and on the computer, were mostly male and more likely to report anxiety (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.23-4.12), aggressive behavior (OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.65-4.88), and web-based gambling (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.24-3.81). Conclusions A substantial number of adolescents are spending ≥3.5 hours gaming each day, with almost 1 in 10 (317/3970, 8%) reporting co-occurring gaming and well-being issues. Long hours gaming using mobile phones, particularly common in female gamers, may signal poorer functioning and indicate a need for additional support. Although increased time gaming might be changing how adolescents spend their free time and might thus have public health implications, it does not seem to relate to co-occurring well-being issues or mental ill-health for the majority of adolescent gamers.
... Bazı çalışmalar, İOOB'de sosyal ilişki sorunları veya etkili baş etme becerilerini sergileyememe gibi çeşitli durumlara vurgu yapmıştır. Bu durumda, altta yatan diğer problemlere karşı bir tepki olarak kişilerin çevrim içi oyunları kullanma eğilimine girdiklerini göstermektedir (29). Oyun oynama motivasyonlarını araştıran çalışmalarda ise, önemli durumlardan birinin sosyalizasyon olduğuna dikkat çekilmiştir. ...
... Bu aşırı davranışı durdurmak için girişimlerde bulunulduğunda ise, geri çekilme semptomlarına özellikle de sinirlilik ve saldırganlığa yol açabilir.(10) Sonuç olarak, internette oyun oynama olgusu ile ilişkilendirilen faktörler, hem neden, hem de sonuç olarak birbirlerini etkileyen, karmaşık süreçler gibi gözükmektedir (29). Özetle, bu çalışmada, internet bağımlılığı ve fiziksel agresyonun İOOB belirtileri üzerine pozitif yönde yordayıcı; başa çıkma stratejilerinden dış yardım aramanın ise negatif yönde yordayıcı etkisi olduğu bulunmuştur. ...
... Considering the higher neuroticism and lower extraversion of the at-risk escaper cluster, personality assessment, in association with the motivational background, is relevant to identify at-risk gamers. These results corroborate the view that problematic use can only be assessed if the motivations, personality traits, consequences, and contextual characteristics of the behavior are taken into account Griffiths, 2010;Shen & Williams, 2011). ...
... To conclude, our results are consistent with the view of King, Herd, and Delfabbro (2018) who specified that in order to consider the problematic use of video games in the field of behavioral addictions, it is fundamental that researchers and clinicians focus on the motivations that underlie and maintain the problematic behaviors so as to better understand what problematic gamers really look for in games and to avoid false positives in clinical and research settings. Our work supports those positions and confirms the point made by Griffiths (2010) and Faust and Griffiths (2013), that it is necessary to question the context of the practice, especially if this practice takes place in the context of online competitive gaming. ...
Article
Background Online competitive practice of video games has recently known a significant worldwide expansion. However, this practice can be associated to problematic use and deterioration of quality of life depending on multiple determinants, among which motivation is central. The purpose of this study was to identify motivational clusters and to compare them regarding quality of life, problematic use of video game, and personality traits. Methods Participants (N=256) in this cross-sectional study were recruited through specialized websites to complete self-reported questionnaires assessing motivation to play online (MOGQ), personality (BFI-Fr), quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), and problematic use (IGD-Scale). A hierarchical clustering analysis and intergroup comparative analyses were conducted. Findings: Three motivational clusters were identified (“recreational”, “competitive” and “escapers”). “Competitive” and “escapers” players reported higher IGD scores than the “recreational” players (p<.001). However, “escapers” players had lower psychological health scores (p<.001), were more neurotic (p<.001), and less extroverted (p<.001) than the others. Based on IGD scores, “competitive” and “escapers” players were considered as problematic albeit only “escapers” exhibited a functional impairment. Therefore, engaged and problematic players cannot be differentiated with IGD scores. Discussion IGD scores were insufficient to differentiate between players at risk of evolution toward pathological states (i.e., “escapers” players) and those whose strong engagement is not detrimental to their quality of life (i.e., “competitive” players). Consequently, considering both psychological health and motivation is necessary to assess the problematic nature of competitive videogame practice. Better definitions and assessment tools are essential in order to avoid over-diagnosis of non-pathological behaviors.
... Çünkü rekabete dayalı içerikler barındırması, oyunculara hızlı olay akışı ve gelişmiş görsel ve işitsel efektler sunması, giderek daha gerçekçi ve etkileşimli içerikler sunması, bireylerin gerçek hayatlarında gerçekleştiremedikleri şeylerin gerçekleştirilebilmesine izin vermesi gibi durumlar oyuncuların bu oyunlara karşı yüksek motivasyona sahip olmalarına ve bu oyunlara uzun süreler harcamalarına neden olmaktadır. (Griffiths, 2010b;Haagsma, Pieterse, Peters ve King, 2013;Ng ve Wiemer-Hastings, 2005;Shaffer, Squire, Halverson ve Gee, 2005;Yang vd., 2020). Bu durum pek çok endişeyi de beraberinde getirmiştir. ...
... İkinci olarak ise dijital oyunlara uzun süreler harcanması (günlük ortalama 5 saat ve üzeri), çocukların akranları, aileleri ve sosyal bağlantıları ile ilişkilerinin zayıflamasına ve bunun sonucunda da değer algılarının olumsuz yönde etkilenmesi yol açmış olabilir. Çünkü dijital oyunlara (özellikle de şiddet içerikli) uzun zaman harcama ile bağımlılık, akran ve aile ilişkilerinin sekteye uğraması ve toplumsal problemlerin ortaya çıkması arasında pozitif yönde bir ilişki mevcuttur (Anderson, 2004;Bavelier vd., 2011;Cummings ve Vandewater, 2007;Griffiths, 2010b). Nitekim, çocuklara değer aktarımın aile içi "çocuk-yetişkin etkileşiminin" oldukça önemlidir ve bu etkileşim ne kadar güçlü olursa aktarılmak istenen değerler de o kadar etkili ve kalıcı olur (Berkowitz, 2011;Kohlberg ve Hersh, 1977;Özsarı ve Öğretir-Özçelik, 2020;Smetana, 2015). ...
Article
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Türk ve İngiliz çocukların değer algılarını çeşitli değişkenlere göre incelemeyi ve çocuklar tarafından tercih edilen geleneksel ve dijital oyun türlerinin onların değer algılarını ne düzeyde yordadığını belirlemeyi amaçlayan bu araştırmada karma araştırma desenlerinden baskın durum deseninden faydalanılmıştır. Araştırmada nicel yaklaşım ağırlıklı olarak kullanılırken nitel yaklaşım destekleyici görevi görmüştür. Araştırmanın veri toplama süreci iki akademik yıl sürmüştür. İlk yıl Nottingham'da yer alan ilkokullarda öğrenim gören 243 öğrenci ile ikinci yıl ise Ankara'da bulunan ilkokullarda öğrenim gören 267 öğrenci ile çalışılmıştır. Araştırma 9-11 yaş grubu toplam 510 ilkokul öğrencisi ile yürütülmüştür. Araştırma verileri İngilizce olarak geliştirilen ve daha sonra Türkçeye uyarlaması yapılan "Kişisel Bilgiler Formu" ile "Çocuklar İçin Ahlaki İkilem Hikâyeleri Envanteri" aracılığıyla toplanmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda her iki örneklem grubunda yer alan kız çocukların değer algı puanlarının erkek çocukların puanlarından anlamlı olarak daha yüksek olduğu bulunmuştur. Hem Türk hem de İngiliz çocukları en fazla eğlence amaçlı üretilen dijital oyunları, en az ise eğitsel veya beceri öğretimi (ciddi) amaçlı üretilen dijital oyunları tercih ettiklerini belirtmişlerdir. Spor türündeki (futbol, kriket vb.) geleneksel oyunlar İngiliz çocukları tarafından, aksiyon türündeki (yakan top, ebelemece oyunu vb.) oyunlar ise Türk çocukları tarafından daha fazla tercih edilmiştir. Aksiyon-macera ve rol yapma türündeki dijital oyunların çocukların değer algılarını negatif yönde, simülasyon ve puzzle türündeki dijital oyunların ise pozitif yönde yordadığı belirlenmiştir. Bunun yanında hareket temelli geleneksel oyunların (spor, aksiyon) çocukların değer algılarını pozitif yönde, rekabet içerikli yarış oyunlarının ise negatif yönde yordadığı belirlenmiştir.
... Additionally, more attention should be paid to videogames, especially in terms of their effects on children. Because, they contain competitive content, offer players fast event flow and advanced visual/audio effects, offer increasingly realistic and interactive content, and allow individuals to realize things that they cannot achieve in their real lives, can cause players to have high motivation towards these games and spend long periods of time playing these games (Griffiths, 2010b;Haagsma, Pieterse, Peters, & King, 2013;Ng & Wiemer-Hastings, 2005;Shaffer, Squire, Halverson, & Gee, 2005;Yang et al., 2020). This situation has brought many concerns. ...
... Secondly, spending long periods of time playing videogames (5 hours or more per day) may have led to the weakening of children's relationships with their peers, families, and social connections, resulting in a negative impact on their perceptions of value. Because spending a long time playing videogames (especially with violent content) is associated with addiction and social problems as well as disrupting peer and family relationships (Anderson, 2004;Bavelier et al., 2011;Cummings & Vandewater, 2007;Griffiths, 2010b). Moreover, the "child-adult interaction" within the family is very important in transferring values to children, and the stronger this interaction, the more effective and permanent the values to be conveyed (Berkowitz, 2011;Kohlberg & Hersh, 1977;Özsarı & Öğretir-Özçelik, 2020;Smetana, 2015). ...
... To our knowledge, time loss is a game related consequences and the indication of time cost being advantageous to many gamers has been describe also in the literature. This fundamentally means, for somebody playing online game steadily build up the expanse of time they spend online involved in the behavior (Griffiths, 2010). They also debated that players had no other guarantees; they had the time and the elasticity to play online games for much extended stretches of time. ...
... It facilitated them configuration their empty days. Furthermore, to play the online game such as World of War craft for a much extensive time was basically a social movement as has been recognized somewhere else in the literature (Griffiths, 2010). The first segment of our study absorbed on time spent using the internet and playing online games i.e. ...
Article
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The use of mindfulness Apps is expanding worldwide. This paper aims to explore the impact of Smartphone Apps on the Pakistani Online gamers of Player Unknown’s Battle Grounds (PUBG) game during pandemic situation such as COVID-19. In this quantitative study, the 1000 Pakistani gamers has surveyed to gather facts on the practicable outcomes of Smartphone Apps on mental health interventions and stage of social anxiety. Results suggest that Smartphone Apps are conveyance device for mindfulness drill, and it has constructive impact on different features of psychological health. For most players, online video games are elementary enjoyment inactivity, though for a minority; the gaming turns into immoderate and is supplementary by means of some tremendous penalties too. The researchers found that the usage of PUBG has increased during the lockdown. Finally, we find a significantly positive relationship between use of mindfulness Apps and lessening of stress.
... Bir diğer önemli olan konu ise, sık sosyal medya kullanımının sosyal medya bağımlılığına işaret etmediğidir (Griffiths, 2010). Sosyal medya bağımlılığının tanımlanması için herhangi bir yoksunluk hissiyatı, olumsuza doğru giden ruh sağlığı (örneğin, Jelenchick, Eickhoff ve Moreno, 2013) ya da sosyal yaşamın olumsuz etkilenmesi gibi bireyler yaşamında negatif etkilerin ortaya çıkması gerekmektedir. ...
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Sosyal medya yirmi yıldan uzun bir süre önce ortaya çıkmış olup özellikle son yıllarda dünyanın herkesle iletişim kurmasının ana yollarından biri haline gelmiştir. Sosyal medya araçlarının amaçlarından biri, dünyanın dört bir yanındaki arkadaşlarınızla, ailenizle ve diğer görüşmek istediğiniz herkesle bağlantı kurmak ve/veya uygulama aracılığıyla pek çok bilgi, video ve resim paylaşmaktır. Şu anda sosyal medya uygulamalarını sıklıkla ve temel iletişim kaynağı olarak kullanan üç ana nesil vardır. Bu üç nesil, 1965-1979 doğumlu X Kuşağı (Alwin, 2002), 1980-1995 doğumlu Y Kuşağı (Lower, 2008) ve 1996 yılı ve sonrasında doğanlar Z Kuşağıdır (Küçükyazıcı, 2021). Bu çalışmada X ve Z kuşağı mensubu olan kişiler seçildiği için çalışma içerisinde bu iki kuşak ayrıntılı bir şekilde ele alınmıştır. 2018 yılında ABD‘de yapılmış olan bir araştırma kuşak farklarına bağlı olarak sosyal medya kullanım alışkanlıklarının belirlenebileceğini ifade etmiştir. Bu araştırmaya göre, Z kuşağındakilerin %88‘i X kuşağındakilerin de %37‘si aktif bir şekilde sosyal medyayı kullanmaktadır (Smith & Anderson, 2018). Bu bağlamda Z kuşağının X kuşağına kıyasla sosyal medya ortamında daha fazla vakit geçirdiğinin söylenmesi mümkündür. Bu durum teknolojiye yakınlıkla ve alışkın olmakla ilişkilendirilebilir. X kuşağı dijital dünyaya uyum sağlamaya çalışmaktadır, çoğunun Facebook'u var, birkaçının Instagramı ve / veya Twitter'ı var, ancak bazen ne yaptıklarına dair sosyal medya araçlarında bir bakıma tahmin oyunu oynuyorlar ve çocukları adeta onların IT (Bilgisayar teknolojileri) desteğini sağlamaktadır. Z Kuşağı söz konusu olduğunda ise durum bu şekilde değildir. Onların dünyası pratik olarak Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat, Pinterest, YouTube, Tumblr ve diğer pek çok sosyal medya platformunun etrafında dönmektedir. Ancak, Z kuşağını diğerlerinden ayıran sadece çeşitli sosyal medya araçlarını kullanmak için harcadıkları zaman değil, aynı zamanda onları nasıl kullandıklarıdır (Newton, 2019). Z kuşağı sosyal kaygılara, iletişim sorunlarına ve akranlarından daha izole edilmiş gibi hissetmeye daha yatkındır. Buna karşılık X kuşağı da her ne kadar sosyal medya araçlarıyla başlangıçta Z‘ler kadar iç içe olmasa da zaman içerisinde oldukça yakınlaşmıştır. Dolayısıyla X kuşağı içerisinde de bağımlılık davranışı gösteren kişiler olabileceği varsayılmaktadır.
... The results showed that CIG players had a higher level of PVG compared to CDG players, which was opposite to Hypothesis 2. It seems probable that some other factors, which were not taken into account in this study, could have an impact on these observations. For example, time spent playing (frequency) is positively related to PVG (Columb et al., 2019;Griffiths, 2010;Kuss & Griffiths, 2012;Mihara & Higuchi, 2017). This variable was not controlled in the present study, and it is possible that the compared groups differed in the frequency of playing. ...
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Several reports on the potential relationship between immersion experienced by gamers and problematic videogames use (PVG) have recently appeared in the literature but their results often vary. This discrepancy may be due to the fact that games can be chance-dependent (CDG) or chance-independent (CIG). This may also be due to the nature of the relationship between immersion and PVG with a personality trait (conscientiousness), which is an antecedent of both variables. We decided to check whether conscientiousness and PVG relationship will be mediated by immersion and whether this relationship is dependent on the game type. The survey was addressed to board game club members who represented professional players, based on the time spent playing games as well as the ranking criterion. Ninety-four CDG and CIG players responded to the survey. The model proposed in this pilot study showed that conscientiousness explains PVG directly in CIG players, whereas in CDG players this mechanism is mediated by the immersion they experience. This discovery sheds new light on the potential motivational causes of PVG, which depend on both immersion and the chance type of game.
... Bazı araştırmacılar bu olumsuzlukları normal oyuncular ve bağımlı oyuncular olmak üzere iki farklı grupta ele almışlardır (Yalçın Irmak & Erdoğan, 2016). Aşırı oyun oynama sonucunda bireylerde sosyal ve psikolojik sağlıksızlık ifadeleri olan depresyon, kaygı bozukluğu, çevreye uyum sağlayamama, saldırgan tutum ve davranış problemleri ile birlikte akademik başarıda da olumsuzluklar tespit edilirken, oyun oynamayı azaltan bireylerde ise bu durumun düzelme yönünde eğilim gösterdiği ortaya konulmuştur (Anderson & Bushman, 2001;Ayas vd, 2011;Ayas & Horzum, 2013;Aydın & Horzum, 2015;Chiu vd., 2004;Çakır Balta & Horzum, 2008;Griffiths, 2010;Horzum, 2011;Madran & Çakılcı, 2014;Randler vd, 2014;Şahin vd, 2014;Taş vd, 2014;Vollmer vd, 2014;Yalçın Irmak & Erdoğan, 2016). ...
Article
Araştırmanın amacı, Spor Bilimleri Fakültesi öğrencilerinin Oyun Bağımlılığı (OB) düzeyinin cinsiyet, sınıf düzeyi, ekonomik durum algısı ve başarı durumuna göre anlamlı bir farklılık gösterip göstermediğini belirlemektir. Genel tarama modelinde tasarlanan bu çalışmada veriler 27’si kadın ve 114’ü erkek olmak üzere toplam 141 gönüllü katılımcıdan elde edilmiştir. Veri toplama aracı olarak Ilgaz tarafından Türk diline uyarlanan, yedi alt boyut ve 21 maddeden oluşan Ergenler İçin Oyun Bağımlılığı Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Ölçeğin geri çekilme alt boyutu ile ilgili olarak hesaplanan iç tutarlılık katsayısı düşük olduğundan (.42) bu alt boyutla ilgili bulgular analizlere dâhil edilmemiştir. Diğer alt boyutlarla ilgili hesaplanan iç tutarlılık katsayıları .73 ile .88 arasında değişmektedir. Parametrik test koşullarını sağlamaması sebebiyle toplanan veriler Kruskal Wallis H ve Mann Whitney U testleri kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Öğrencilerin OB puanlarının orta düzeyde olduğu belirlenmiştir. Analiz sonuçlarına göre OB düzeyi puan sıra ortalamalarının cinsiyete göre anlamlı bir farklık göstermediği tespit edilmiştir. Sınıf düzeyine göre durum değiştirme alt boyutunda birinci sınıf öğrencilerinin OB düzeyi üçüncü sınıf öğrencilerinin OB düzeyinden yüksek bulunmuş, diğer alt boyutlarda anlamlı farklılık tespit edilmemiştir. Ekonomik durum algısına göre OB düzeyi puan sıra ortalamaları arasında nüksetme ve çatışma alt boyutlarında anlamlı farlılıklar bulunmuştur. Ekonomik durumunu orta ve kötü olarak algılayanların OB puan sıra ortalamaları daha yüksektir. Akademik başarı durumuna göre durum değiştirme alt boyutu dışındaki diğer tüm alt boyutlarda OB puan sıra ortalamaları arasında anlamlı farlılıklar tespit edilmiş, akademik başarısı düşük olan öğrencilerin puan sıra ortalamaları daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Mevcut çalışmada, aile ekonomik durumu ile akademik başarının OB puanlarında önemli bir değişken olduğu anlaşılmıştır. Bu çalışmadan elde edilen bulgular akademik başarıyı olumsuz yönde etkileyen hususların tespit edilmesi ve giderilmesinin yanı sıra oyun bağımlılığını azaltamaya da katkı sağlayabilir.
... Oyun oynama bozukluğunun varlığında oyun oynamak için geçirilen sürenin uzun olması tek başına tanı açısından belirleyici bir kriter olarak yeterli görülmemiştir. Oyun oynama ile ilgili kontrolün kaybedilmesi, sürecin zorlayıcı bir durumda olması gerektiği açıklanmıştır (77). Egzersiz bağımlılığında da egzersiz sürelerinin uzun olması tek başına bir ölçüt olarak düşünülmeyebilir. ...
Article
Exercise provides important contributions to the development of physical, mental and psychosocial health and the treatment of psychopathological processes. Addiction is process that disrupts the quality of life of individuals with repetitive patterns. Exercise addiction is the loss of control over exercise habits that will impair personal, social and professional adaptation. It is expected that related symptoms will be observed along with excessive exercise. It is behavioral addiction. There are biopsychosocial models proposed to contribute to the explanation and evaluation of exercise addiction. Although there are differences in the studies, its prevalence is accepted to be at the level of 3%. Exercise addiction has not been included as a psychological disorder in official classification systems until now, as there is insufficient evidence to establish the diagnostic criteria. The Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) and Exercise Addiction Scale-21 (EDS-21) were developed to reach the evidence. Discussions on the subject continue for various reasons such as conceptualization, research method and sampling. Considering personality traits and possible psychopathological features may contribute to a better understanding of exercise addiction. As the discussions continue, it has been evaluated that there are processes that need clarification
... What is accompanied by this is the problem of online game addiction that had attracted the attention of many researchers. Although there are currently many different expressions about the concept of online game addiction, such as problematic online game use, excessive online gaming, and pathological online game use (POGU) (1)(2)(3), most researchers agree to view online gaming overuse as a potential addiction, which may impair attention and academic performance, cause interpersonal problems, produce a range of emotional problems such as increased loneliness and reduced psychological well-being, and even lead to depression and suicide (4)(5)(6)(7). This study adopts Gentile's definition of pathological online game use (POGU), which focuses on one's inability to control his excessive use of online game and the negative impact it has on emotion and school performance, either to escape difficulties or lower their intensity (1). ...
Article
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... Technology addictions are defined as behavioral addictions that involve human-machine interactions (10). Although there are concepts such as social media addiction, game addiction, and internet addiction in the literature, in DSM 5, only internet gaming disorder is included (11)(12)(13)(14). It has been defined as a disorder characterized by the presence of at least five of signs of mental preoccupation with internet games, signs of withdrawal and tolerance, inability to control entering internet games, loss of interest in hobbies other than internet games, continuing excessive use despite the presence of psychosocial problems, deceiving others about the amount of playing, using games to alleviate or eliminate a negative mood, endangering job, education, or career opportunities (14). ...
Article
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Amaç: Teknolojinin gelişmesiyle birlikte, hem siber zorbalığı uygulama hem de siber istismara uğrama, ergenler arasında giderek artan önemli bir problem haline gelmiştir. Siber zorbalığın ortaya çıkmasında birçok faktör olduğu ileri sürülmektedir. Bu çalışmada siber zorbalık ve istismar ile sosyal medya bağımlılığı ve oyun bağımlılığı arasındaki ilişkinin değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Çalışma kesitsel nitelikli olup, çalışmaya 10-18 yaş aralığında toplam 537 ergen dahil edilmiştir. Katılımcılar sosyodemografik veri formu, sosyal medya bağımlılığı ölçeği, oyun bağımlılığı ölçeği ve siber zorbalık ölçeğini doldurmuştur. Bulgular: Çalışmamızda kızlarda hem siber zorbalık (p=0.021) hem de siber mağduriyet (p<0.001) daha sıktı. Siber zorbalığa uğrayanlarda sosyal medya bağımlılığı skoru daha yüksek olup (p=0.020), siber istismar için cinsiyet (OR [Odds Ratio]= 0.09 GA [güven aralığı]: [0.04-0.23]) ve oyun bağımlılığı puanı yordayıcı olarak bulunmuştur. (OR=1.09 GA: [1.03-1.16] ). Sonuç: Sosyal medya ve oyun bağımlılığı özellikle siber istismar ile ilişkili görünmektedir. Çalışmamızda nedensel bir ilişki ortaya konulamamakla birlikte, ergenlerin yaşamlarında önemli bir yere sahip olan sosyal medya kullanımı ve oyun oynama sırasında siber zorbalığa karşı farkındalıklarının artırılmasının ve bağımlılık saptanan grupların siber istismar açısından değerlendirilmesinin yararlı olacağı düşünülmektedir.
... Additionally, extreme outliers (n = 4) were identified based on reported average hourly game play time, using 80 hours as the upper fence. This yielded a similar range of acceptability to the standard rule of 3 + 3 * for extreme upper outliers, was aligned with the upper bound of weekly game play credibly reported in other studies (Griffiths, 2009;Williams & Skoric, 2007) and has been used elsewhere as a threshold for reported weekly usage of video games and the Internet ( Barke et al., 2013). Other variables were not used as a basis for outlier detection, since most other measures included in the analysis (e.g., ITQ, PANAS) had a constrained range, and thus were less susceptible to overestimation. ...
Conference Paper
This study explores motivations for the use of video games, using the twin theoretical lenses of mood management and stress response theory, as well as how individual differences in motivational orientation moderate emotional regulation. The role of genres in selective exposure and the extent to which this overlaps with individual motivations for play are also addressed. An exploratory survey (N = 348) was conducted to gather data on respondents’ personalities, gameplay habits, motivations, genre preferences, coping strategies, and emotional states. Gameplay as coping was found to be quite widespread, and associations were found between this behaviour and respondents’ motivations for gaming in general, as well as with individual differences related to immersion. Motivational orientations towards narrative involvement, social interaction, and escapism were likewise associated with using games to cope with stress, while the regulatory effects of gameplay were found to be moderated by players’ orientation towards autonomy and exploration.
... A large body of research has focused on exploring screen exposure time in preschool children [3,7,16], while little research has been conducted on screen addiction. Nevertheless, the excessive screen exposure time should not be equated with problematic screen media use [17]. Furthermore, screen addiction in adolescents is of wide interest, but little is known about screen addiction in young children [8,18]. ...
Article
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Preschool children are immersed in screen media, yet little study has been conducted on screen addiction among them. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between parental screen addiction and young children’s screen addiction and to verify factors that mediate this relationship. A total of 477 parents of kindergarteners (3–6 years old) were recruited via six kindergartens in Henan province, China. They completed the Problematic Media Use Measure Short Form of Children, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, the Child–Parent Relationship Scale, and the Parental Screen Addiction Scale. The results showed that the relationships between each pair of parental screen addiction, parental anxiety, and children’s screen addiction were significantly positive, but the parent–child relationship was negatively correlated with the other variables. Parental screen addiction can directly and indirectly affect children’s screen addiction through parental anxiety and the parent–child relationship. The findings contribute to the development of family protection mechanisms against screen addiction in children.
... What is accompanied by this is the problem of online game addiction that had attracted the attention of many researchers. Although there are currently many different expressions about the concept of online game addiction, such as problematic online game use, excessive online gaming, and pathological online game use (POGU) (1)(2)(3), most researchers agree to view online gaming overuse as a potential addiction, which may impair attention and academic performance, cause interpersonal problems, produce a range of emotional problems such as increased loneliness and reduced psychological well-being, and even lead to depression and suicide (4)(5)(6)(7). This study adopts Gentile's definition of pathological online game use (POGU), which focuses on one's inability to control his excessive use of online game and the negative impact it has on emotion and school performance, either to escape difficulties or lower their intensity (1). ...
Article
Full-text available
Secondary Vocational School Students are particularly susceptible to online game addiction due to adolescent characteristics and superimposed pressures of academic and employment. Based on the theoretical framework of self-identity and self-esteem, the present research conducted a questionnaire survey using samples of secondary vocational school students to investigate the relationship between pathological online game use (POGU), self-esteem and self-identity. The results showed that 15.56% of secondary vocational students' level of POGU met the diagnostic criteria, and POGU and self-esteem appeared significant differences in gender and family types. Moreover, lower self-esteem and self-identity were associated with higher POGU and self-esteem played a partial mediating role in the relationship between self-identity and POGU. We briefly discussed practical implications of our findings and the future research.
... As it stands today, Instagram only provides an activity dashboard to help users monitor their amount of Instagram use. Considering that time duration alone is not a good indicator of media addictions (Griffiths, 2010), its effectiveness in preventing problematic Instagram use is questionable. Thus, we suggest that Instagram redesign their addiction prevention function by considering limiting the use of broadcasting-related features after a certain number of posts. ...
Article
The popularity of Instagram among young adults has raised concerns about the excessive use of Instagram. Is it the kind of problematic media use that takes over one’s life or just habitual ritualized use characterized by mindless scrolling? How can we differentiate between the two based on the use of Instagram features and perceived gratifications from the technology itself? Drawing on the theoretical framework of Uses and Gratifications (U&G) and U&G 2.0, we conducted a survey study ( N = 482) to answer these questions. Our findings show that habitual Instagram use is positively related to the use of lurking- and connection-related features and the gratification of play. By contrast, problematic Instagram use is positively correlated with the use of broadcasting-related features and the gratification of novelty. Theoretical implications for differentiating problematic from habitual Instagram use and practical implications for designing ethical interfaces, which consider the digital well-being of users, are discussed.
... Jak opisać gracza problemowego online? Przede wszystkim taka osoba spędza na graniu znacznie więcej czasu niż przeciętny gracz, mimo iż to nie czas spędzany na grze jest wyznacznikiem uzależnienia (Griffiths, 2010). Jeśli taka osoba nie może grać (np. ...
... The association of the Habit/Boredom higher-order motive and gaming time was weak, suggesting that this motive is related to less timeconsuming gaming activities. Finally, the weak correlation between gaming time and GD symptoms supports previous findings, which suggest that gaming time alone is not a good predictor of gaming problems; in other words, intense video gaming in the majority of cases is not problematic (Griffiths, 2010;Király, Tóth, et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Background and aims The popularity of video gaming has generated significant interest in research methods to examine motivations for gaming. Current measures of gaming motives are limited by lack of scope and/or their applicability to specific game genres only. We aimed to create a comprehensive motivation inventory applicable to any gaming genre and to evaluate its psychometric properties in a large sample of highly engaged video gamers. Methods Stage 1 of this project involved a systematic review that generated the items for the Gaming Motivation Inventory (GMI). Stages 2–4 involved an evaluation of the psychometric properties of the GMI. A sample of 14,740 video gamers (89.3% male; mean age 24.1 years) were recruited via an online survey promoted by a popular gaming magazine. Results In Stage 2, twenty-six gaming motives were identified, which clustered into six higher-order dimensions (Mastery, Immersion/Escapism, Competition, Stimulation, Social, Habit/Boredom). In Stage 3, construct validity of the six higher-order motives was assessed by associations with gaming-related, personality, and psychological variables. In Stage 4, the relationships between motives and depression symptoms and gaming disorder symptoms were explored. Although gaming motives had weak associations with gaming genres, they were moderately related to variables such as competitiveness, sociability, and positive and negative affect. Gaming disorder symptoms were directly predicted by depression symptoms and indirectly via Immersion/Escapism, Habit/Boredom, and Competition motives. Discussion and conclusions These findings support the notion that motives are one of the primary causes of gaming behavior and play an important role in predicting its problematic nature. The GMI is a psychometrically valid tool that will be useful for gaining insights into factors underlying gaming behaviors.
... Andreassen (2015) has also stated that excessive and compulsive behaviors on SNSs can be regarded as an addiction. It should be noted here that excessive usage an activity alone is not enough to accept any behavior as an addiction (Griffiths, 2010). There are many people who use Internet for more than 10 hours a day but have few negative consequences. ...
Chapter
Popularity of social media is increasing day by day and there are thousands of social media platforms on the internet with different features. This chapter discusses the term social media in general and examines its evolution in detail from the beginning of the first e-mail to today. Authors explore the terms pertaining to the domain of Social Network Sites (SNS) which are considered as one of the most used forms of social media. Authors present a discussion about a popular topic “SNS addiction” and examine its characteristics with a brief literature review. Accordingly, despite the fact that excessive use of social network sites cannot be formally accepted as a behavioral addiction; shy and young, extroverted, and neurotic women with no relationship are more likely to develop addictive behaviors towards social media.
... Analyzed that regular use of Weibo like Twitter in China also has hazardous effects on sharing of information which is under control. It is perceived that normal use of social networking does not lead to excess (Griffiths, 2010) and that's fact that it cannot lead to mental disturbance in addition to academic wastage (Jelenchick, Eickhoff, & Moreno, 2013) or educational waste of time (Pasek & Hargittai, 2009). The uncontrolled and imbalanced use of social engagement is a clear comparison between proper use and misuse that conclusively will lead to proper working based on proper utility (Andreassen, 2015). ...
Article
The current research addresses the issue of student academic performance while identifying its potential predictors. social media addiction is predicting variable and student performance is dependent variable whereas student engagement is mediating variable. Current research proposes following research hypotheses; firstly to examine the direct impact of Social Media addiction on the student academic performance and student engagement while checking the direct impact of social media addiction on the student engagement respectively. Secondly, current research examines mediating effect of student engagement in relation between social media addiction and student academic performance. Students of Govt. universities are the target population. 250 university students were selected with the help of the snowball sampling technique. Results reveal that all three hypotheses are accepted over significant outcomes of statistical procedures. In future research, other potential predictors of student academic performance like use of Facebook, use of Twitter may include in addition to target students of private universities along with students of Govt. universities and compare the results.
... To measure gaming motivation, we used two subscales from Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (MOGQ), developed by Demetrovics and colleagues [14]: escape (escaping from reality), and coping (coping with stress and distress). We selected the escape subscale because some studies have shown that escape is a dominant factor in predicting IGD [18,20,36] and others have reported it to be a primary motive [37,38]. Another coping subscale was included in the study because we wanted to explore how gaming was a coping method to deal with problems caused by COVID-19. ...
Article
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A heightened interest in online gaming has emerged during COVID-19, and people have become increasingly vulnerable to internet gaming disorder (IGD). However, playing video games can also have a positive effect; gaming has been recognized as an efficient coping strategy. Currently, relatively little is understood about how online gaming can turn from an efficient coping strategy into an addiction disorder. This study investigated the mediating roles of social cynicism, escape and coping motives on the association between daily disruption during COVID-19 and IGD, seeking to reveal the underlying mechanism that influences the effects of gaming. A total of 203 participants in Hong Kong who reported having played electronic games during COVID-19 were surveyed. We conducted three hierarchical multiple regressions, then tested a serial mediation model using path analysis with structural equation modeling. The results revealed that escape motives significantly mediated the relationship between daily disruption related to COVID-19 and IGD, but no such effect was found for coping motives. Social cynicism alone was not a significant mediator, but social cynicism and escape motives in series mediated the relationship between daily disruption and IGD. These difference outcomes suggested different underlying mechanisms of escape and coping motives.
... İki türden oyuncu her gün aynı saatlerde oyun oynayabilir, ancak psikolojik motivasyonları ve oyunun yaşamları içindeki anlamı çok farklı olabilir. Dijital oyun bağımlılığı, oyun için ne kadar zaman harcandığına değil, oyunun diğer yaşam alanlarını ne kadar olumsuz etkilediği ile tanımlanmalıdır (Griffiths, 2010). DSM-5'in mevcut tanı sistemlerine göre ise dijital oyun bağımlılığı henüz bir hastalık olarak kabul edilmemiş, "internette oyun oynama bozukluğu" olarak ele alınmış ve el kitabına eklenmesi için ruhsal bir hastalık olduğunu tanımlayan daha fazla araştırma yapılması önerilmiştir (APA, 2013). ...
... As highlighted by Bányai et al. (2017), this manner of problematic use of media and Internet addiction stems from a mixture of factors with underlying currents. The best example of this misuse is behavioral and obsessive compulsive behavior related to substance addiction (Griffiths, 2005;Griffiths, 2010). Problematic social media addiction is described as: a psychological problem developing from cognition, emotional and behavioural pattern and affecting a person's private, work/academic and social life. ...
Article
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As technology has advanced, daily interpersonal communication has also altered and shifted to a different level. With the widespread use of the internet and personal technological gadgets hitting the market, social web and social media settings became the essential field of communication for humankind. Now, mostly people use internet-based social communication webs to communicate instead of having face-to-face interaction. This study will focus on the subject of social media addiction in North Cyprus. Our main focal point is the purposes of social media usage, the habits of social media usage and addiction of social media, ranging from the vast majority of the current population, who have experienced technology from a young age, Y generation, and those born into technological innovations, Z generation. During the research it has been used Aylin Tutgun-Ünal’s “Social Media Addiction Scale” (SMAS) in order to analyze the social media addiction of Y and Z generations. SMAS consisted of 41 articles and was approved as constituting validity and authenticity in 2015. Besides Facebook, SMAS measured other addictive social media applications in use. It has attempted to find answers for our research questions by comparing and analyzing Y and G generations scores. By the end of this research, results enabled to determine that the Y and Z generations were on a low-scale addictiveness to social media. In any case, it has been noticed how the socially addictive scale was low with occupation, mood adjustment and differentiation on the levels of repetition and conflict. According to the research findings, participants' social media engagement was on a medium level of addictiveness; women spend more time on social media than men, receiving emotional support; social media is mostly used for interpersonal communication; and Y generation has passing more time on social media compared with the Z generation.
... However, a distinction must be made between use and addiction. According to Griffiths (2010), excessive use should not be equated with problematic use. In this context, there is a need to separate the actual pathological uses and profiles of these users from the frequent and excessive use of digital technologies. ...
Article
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During the COVID-19 period, individuals who physically isolated themselves from the social environment increased their screen time compared to before, and the time spent in the family environment increased. Increasing screen time is considered a factor that increases addiction. In this context, the purpose of this study was to examine the profiles of university students according to multiple screen addiction, mobile social online gaming addiction, and general mattering. The participants of this study are 588 university students. Personal information form and four different scales were used in the study. The latent profile analysis was used to analyze the data. As a result of the research, four different sets of participants were formed. The variables excessive behavior, compulsive behavior, and loss of control increase the likelihood that students will be clustered in the average profile. It was observed that all variables except gender and age increased the probability of clustering in the medium multiple screen addiction low gamers profile. It was observed that excessive behavior, compulsive behavior, and loss of control variables increased the probability of clustering in the high multiple screen addiction high gamers profile. As a stronger predictor than other profiles, it was determined that the probability of students performing high multiple screen addiction high gameplay activities was approximately 3 times more than the students in profile 1.
... Regarding the withdrawal component, most instruments (n = 13) assess the psychological effects of withdrawal, and only two instruments (EES and the Exercise Beliefs Questionnaire [EBQ]) additionally assess the physical effects of exercise cessation. Not surprisingly, psychological withdrawal appears as a core component in problematic exercise instruments, since research has shown that this component is present in other clinically recognized behavioral addictions (i.e., gambling, video gaming) (36)(37)(38). However, the low frequency of the physical withdrawal component could be viewed as surprising, especially because (i) some instruments are based on substance dependence criteria, where the physical effects of withdrawal is a defined component, and (ii) literature has previously indicated physical withdrawal effects (e.g., fatigue, heart rate, pain) for potential behavioral addictions, including exercise addiction (2). ...
Article
Full-text available
Backgrounds The range of theoretical conceptualizations of problematic exercise in psychometric assessment instruments makes it difficult to identify the components that define this phenomenon. A better understanding of the underlying components of problematic exercise may contribute to progress toward providing scientific evidence that allows for deciding whether problematic exercise should be considered a substantive mental health disorder. The objective of the present review was to examine and compare, through a content analysis of their items, the components of problematic exercise in psychometric assessment instruments identified in a recent systematic review. Methods A total of 33 components of problematic exercise were identified in the 17 assessment instruments included in the present review. Results The results show that, despite the lack of consensus in the operational definition of their factors and the variety of ways of wording their items, the instruments reflect some common components that might indicate core criteria (i.e., salience, withdrawal, and mood modification) or candidate components (i.e., conflict, and continuance despite problems) of problematic exercise. However, other components of different nature were shown to be specific to some of the problematic exercise conceptualizations on which the assessment instruments are based. Conclusion In the interest of reaching a consensus that allows to advance in this research field, further studies are needed to resolve which components are inherently problematic.
... Empirical studies have consistently reported that higher levels of psychological distress were positively associated with IGD [3,[23][24][25]. In particular, escapism or avoidance, which are positively associated with IGD tendency [26,27], are often reported as a major motive for online gaming among addicts [28,29]. In order to break the vicious cycle of psychological distress and IGD, this study aimed to investigate the protective effect of coping resources on the relationship between psychological distress and IGD tendency among Asian youth within the framework of Lazarus and Folkman's [30] transactional theory of stress and coping. ...
Article
Full-text available
The high prevalence of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) among Asian youth indicates an urgent need to identify protective factors and examine their consistency across Asian cultures in order to facilitate cost-effective interventions. Based on the transactional theory of stress and coping, this study collected data of 1243 online gamers (45% males; 18–25 years) through an anonymous survey from universities in China and Japan and investigated whether three coping resources (i.e., mindfulness, coping flexibility, and social support) serve to protect Chinese and Japanese youth from the impact of psychological distress on IGD tendency. After adjusting for the measurement non-invariance across samples, we found that Japanese students reported higher levels of IGD tendency and psychological distress than Chinese students. The results of multiple-group SEM analyses showed that, after controlling for other predictors, mindfulness served as the strongest protective factor against IGD across samples. Moreover, the buffering effect of mindfulness on the association between psychological distress and IGD tendency of female (but not male) students was observed. Our findings highlighted the cross-cultural invariance of the impact of psychological distress and coping resources on IGD in Chinese and Japanese youth, which can be considered in future IGD prevention programs.
... Kecanduan gadget memberikan dampak negatif pada remaja seperti berperilaku buruk terhadap keluarga dan prestasi di sekolah (Griffiths, 2010). Sedangkan menurut penelitian Candra dan Masya (2016) dampak negatif dari kecanduan gadget remaja akan timbulnya rasa kebosanan saat belajar. ...
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Kecanduan gadget menggambarkan perilaku seseorang yang berlebihan atau kompulsif dalam menggunakan gadget. Perilaku ini dapat berpengaruh pada kehidupan sehari-hari, serta memungkinkan terjadinya masalah aspek sosial, emosional, mental, dan kultural. Diantara faktor yang dapat memengaruhi terjadinya kecanduan gadget adalah kebosanan akademik. Kebosanan akademik adalah keadaan gairah yang tidak optimal dalam dunia pendidikan, kurangnya minat dan motivasi belajar, tuntutan melebihi kemampuan individu dan kelelahan akibat kurangnya keterlibatan dengan rangsangan di lingkungan. Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara kebosanan akademik dengan kecanduan gadget selama pandemic Covid-19 pada remaja. Subjek yang terlibat dalam penelitian ini diperoleh menggunakan teknik purposive sampling sehingga menghimpun sebanyak 306 remaja yang berusia 13-17 tahun (106 laki-laki dan 200 perempuan) di Pekanbaru. Dua buah skala digunakan dalam pengumpulan data, yaitu skala kebosanan akademik dan skala kecanduan gadget. Hasil yang signifikan ditemukan dalam penelitian ini yaitu adanya hubungan antara kebosanan akademik dengan kecanduan gadget pada remaja di Pekanbaru, yang berarti bahwa tinggi atau rendahnya kebosanan akademik memiliki korelasi dengan kecanduan gadget, dengan demikian hipotesis penelitian diterima.
... Bireyin oyun oynama nedenleri arasında psikolojik veya kişilerarası faktörlerden can sıkıntısı, yalnızlık, düşük benlik saygısı, düşmanlık, dürtüsellik, öz kontrol ve motivasyon eksikliği yer almaktadır. Bunun yanında eğlence, rekabet, başka bir etkinliğin olmaması, sosyalleşme, hayal ortamı oluşturma, bulunulan zaman ve mekandan kaçma gibi nedenler de sıralanabilir (9). Kontrolsüz ve uzun zaman oynanan dijital oyunlar çocuk ve ergenlerin uyku alışkanlıklarının değişmesine, olumsuz alışkanlıklar kazanmalarına neden olmaktadır (7,10). ...
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Objective:This study aimed to assess the digital game addiction and sleep quality in adolescents and examine the relationship between them.Materials and Methods:This descriptive study was conducted with 312 students from three high schools located in a district center in the Eastern Black Sea Region, who agreed to participate in the study. Data were collected using the descriptive information form, the digital game addiction scale, and the Pittsburgh sleep quality index.Results:The mean age of the participants was 15.99±0.85 years. Of the participants, 78.5% played digital games on computers, mobile phones, tablets, or game rooms. The mean score of the participants on the digital game addiction scale was 12.46±5.57; 16.3% were game addicts. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index mean score was 4.72±2.53, with a score range of 0-13; 34.9% had poor sleep quality.Conclusion:In conclusion, a positive, low-level, statistically significant relationship was found between the digital game addiction scale and Pittsburgh sleep quality index scores (r=0.157, p≤0.001). As the digital game addiction scores increase in adolescents, their sleep quality scores also increase. Game addiction and sleep-related problems in adolescents can negatively affect their physical and psychological health and academic success. Adequate supervision and protective measures are required to reduce the problems faced by adolescents when using digital technology.
... However, the effect size of the relationship between higher loot box spending and increased positive mood was small. Excessive gaming was also found to have an association with loot box spending, although excessive gaming is not necessarily indicative of problematic gaming (Griffiths, 2010). Overall, risky loot box engagement was associated with spending higher amounts of money, more so than any other variable examined. ...
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Background Micro-transactions are an increasingly popular form of monetisation for videogame companies. The similarities between specific micro-transaction types and forms of gambling have been identified in literature. However, the relationship between all forms of micro-transaction and both problem gaming and gambling is currently unclear. Purpose The present review assessed the outcomes of studies investigating the relationship between videogame micro-transactions, problem gaming, and problem gambling. Method A systematic review was conducted searching for relevant literature since 2010. Four databases were searched. These were PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, and Pubmed. Results A total of 19 cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria and were categorised into three groups, (i) loot boxes, problem gaming and gambling, (ii) pay-to-win micro-transactions, problem gaming and gambling, and (iii) multiple micro-transaction types, problem gaming and gambling. Links between loot boxes and problem gambling were identified. The reviewed studies also indicated demographic differences in micro-transaction preference. Frequency of payment for micro-transactions was suggested as a key factor in the relationship between micro-transactions, problem gaming and problem gambling. Conclusion Further research is necessary to provide further evidence for and to understand the causality of these relationships. It is recommended that purchasing loot boxes is classified as a form of gambling and that frequency of micro-transaction purchase is regulated in videogames.
... Aunque todavía no hay consenso sobre la cantidad de síntomas necesarios para el diagnóstico de adicción (Gunuc, 2015) o sobre si todos los síntomas tienen la misma importancia (Blinka y Smahel, 2011), se observa que el uso problemático de videojuegos comparte algunos puntos comunes con respecto a la sintomatología, prevención y el tratamiento de otras adicciones conductuales (Griffiths, 2008a;Griffiths, 2008b;Griffiths, 2010;Gunuc, 2015;Keepers, 1990;Kuczmierczyk et al., 1987), como por ejemplo, alteraciones del estado de ánimo, preocupación excesiva por el juego, presencia de mentiras o acciones de ocultación sobre el uso de videojuegos, perdida de interés en otras actividades, actitudes de defensa y enfado, retraimiento social y psicológico, tolerancia (aumento progresivo de la necesidad de jugar más o por más tiempo), abstinencia (irritabilidad, ansiedad o tristeza ante la retirada del videojuego sin origen farmacológico), uso de videojuegos como vía de escape de otras situaciones, uso excesivo, o consecuencias negativas en la vida diaria (DSM-V, 2013). ...
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El uso excesivo de los videojuegos y la adicción a los mismos entre los deportistas es una preocupación reciente que va en aumento. La sensibilidad a la ansiedad es un factor de riesgo para las conductas adictivas, del mismo modo que la dureza mental, ampliamente asociada a los deportistas, es un elemento protector. El presente trabajo examina las relaciones entre la sensibilidad a la ansiedad, la dureza mental y la adicción a videojuegos en este contexto. La muestra estuvo compuesta por deportistas (n = 98) de entre 19 -51 años (M edad = 23.94; DT = 7.72) de los cuales 64 fueron hombres y 34 mujeres. Aplicando instrumentos descriptivos sobre sensibilidad a la ansiedad, dureza mental y adicción y dependencia a los videojuegos los resultados indicaron que un aumento de la sensibilidad a la ansiedad física o social correlacionó con una disminución de la dureza mental y la reducción de ésta se asoció con un aumento de la tolerancia a los video juegos. La sensibilidad a la ansiedad social y física tuvo efectos indirectos en el abuso y tolerancia a los videojuegos mediante la dureza mental de los deportistas. Los resultados se discuten entorno al papel de la dureza mental en la comprensión de los problemas de adicción a los videojuegos en deportistas.
... Aunque todavía no hay consenso sobre la cantidad de síntomas necesarios para el diagnóstico de adicción (Gunuc, 2015) o sobre si todos los síntomas tienen la misma importancia (Blinka y Smahel, 2011), se observa que el uso problemático de videojuegos comparte algunos puntos comunes con respecto a la sintomatología, prevención y el tratamiento de otras adicciones conductuales (Griffiths, 2008a;Griffiths, 2008b;Griffiths, 2010;Gunuc, 2015;Keepers, 1990;Kuczmierczyk et al., 1987), como por ejemplo, alteraciones del estado de ánimo, preocupación excesiva por el juego, presencia de mentiras o acciones de ocultación sobre el uso de videojuegos, perdida de interés en otras actividades, actitudes de defensa y enfado, retraimiento social y psicológico, tolerancia (aumento progresivo de la necesidad de jugar más o por más tiempo), abstinencia (irritabilidad, ansiedad o tristeza ante la retirada del videojuego sin origen farmacológico), uso de videojuegos como vía de escape de otras situaciones, uso excesivo, o consecuencias negativas en la vida diaria (DSM-V, 2013). ...
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Video game overuse and addiction among athletes is a recent and growing concern. Anxiety sensitivity is a risk factor for addictive behaviors, just as mental toughness, widely associated with athletes, is a protective element. The present study examines the relationships between anxiety sensitivity, mental toughness and video game addiction in this context. The sample was composed of athletes (n = 98) aged 19-51 years (M age = 23.94; SD = 7.72) of whom 64 were male and 34 females. Applying descriptive instruments on anxiety sensitivity, mental toughness and video game addiction and dependence, the results indicated that an increase in physical or social anxiety sensitivity correlated with a decrease in mental toughness that in turn was associated with an increase in video game tolerance. Sensitivity to social and physical anxiety had indirect effects on video game abuse and tolerance through mental toughness in athletes. The results are discussed around the role of mental toughness in understanding video game addiction problems in athletes.
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This research is motivated by the observations of researchers in a gaming environment where some online game players interact less with each other. This study aims to determine the description of the social adjustment of online game players in the Sananwetan sub-district, Blitar city. This research is a quantitative research problem with a descriptive approach with a single variable, namely the social adjustment variable. This research was conducted on gamers of the internet cafe manscave net and micophile net with a sample size of 150 players as permanent players in the cafe, which was taken using a simple random sampling technique which means that it provides equal opportunities for all elements (members) of the population to be selected as members of the population. sample members. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistical techniques using the SPSS 20 for windows program. The results of this research show that out of 150 online game players, 20.7% of online game players have good adjustment, 57.3% are sufficient, and 22% are less.
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Elméleti háttér : Manapság a videójátékok számos ember életének fontos részét képezik. 2020-as hazai adatok szerint a videójátékosok száma legalább 3,8 millió fő, a jellemző játékidő hétköznapokon 2–3 óra. A játékosok (angolul „gamers” vagy magyarosan gamerek) egy része profi módon, szervezett versenyeken játszik, napjában több órát fordítva játékra és képességei fejlesztésére; őket e-sportolóknak nevezik. A videójátékokkal való rend-szeres időtöltés – mint minden szokás – befolyással van a játékosok lelki működésére. Cél : kvalitatív módszertannal, valós időben, strukturált online interjúkkal feltárni a videójátékkal rendszeresen játszók pszichés jellemzőit. Módszerek: A 18 éven felüli interjúalanyok hólabda módszerrel kerültek azonosításra ( n = 22; 77% férfi, átlagéletkor: 24,9 [SD = 3,8] év). Eszközök: az alanyok 5 témakörbe tartozó kérdésekre válaszoltak: 1. demográfiai adatok, 2. általános játszási szokások, 3. a játék (gaming) jelentősége az alany számára, 4. a játékra való motivációk, 5. a játékos társas kapcsolatai. A hangrögzített interjúk átgépelésével kapott szövegeket tartalomelemzésnek vetettük alá. Eredmények: Összesen 22 fővel készült interjú, amelyek teljes időtartama 598 perc (átgépelés után 51 193 szó) volt. Az interjúalanyok többségükben húszas éveik elején járó fiatalok voltak, akik átlagosan 10,7 éves (SD = 5,5 év) korban kezdtek el játszani. A válaszadók átlagosan napi 5,2 órát (SD = 2,3 óra) töltenek játékkal; nagy részük (91%) gamernek vallja magát, de többségük az ellenőrző kérdések eredményei alapján e-sportolónak tartható. A tevékenység kialakulását vizsgálva 64% vallotta, hogy társas kapcsolatai hatására, illetve 41% az unaloműzés miatt kezdett játszani, és ezek, valamint a fejlődés lehetősége ösztönözte a tevékenység folytatására. A motivációk közül kiemelt jelentőségű a győzelem és a vereség, valamint a fejlődés igénye. A válaszadók 32%-a problémásnak („toxikusnak”) vélte saját játékát, habár ezt a viselkedést másnál elítélte. Az alanyok barátainak java része a gamerek szubkultúrájából kerül ki; a játéktevékenységet nem végző környezetük pedig többségében negatívan vélekedik a játékos hobbijáról vagy általában a videójátékokról. Következtetések: A káros következményekkel járó videójátszás legfontosabb megelőzési lehetősége a társas készségek fejlesztése, a valóságos társas kapcsolatok minél korábban kezdődő építése és erősítése.
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The purpose of the study is to identify the risk factors that predict online gaming addiction based on psychological factors. A sample of 150 respondents, who play online games or played in the past, were the respondents. Structured questionnaire is used to understand gaming behavior and other psychological factors. The following factors were found to be a predictor of online gaming addiction: emotional dependence, social withdrawal, detachment from other activities, and long hours spent playing games. Confirmatory factors analysis was used to identify critical factors and discriminant analysis was used to classify respondents as active and non-active online gamer based on their level of addiction and time spent in playing. The result shows a significant gap in the perception of active and non-active gamers with respect to the above-mentioned factors. The study brings valuable insights to medical practitioners and researchers in the context of defining problematic gaming behaviour.
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Objectives: Little is known about the extent of video gaming among elite athletes, specifically under stressful conditions like those induced by the current COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intensity and extent of video gaming in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, during which the usual daily routine of many athletes was disrupted. Methods: Overall, 203 elite athletes from Switzerland who participated in Olympic sports or in “International Olympic Committee”—approved disciplines were interviewed using an online questionnaire. They were questioned on their video game consumption during the first Swiss lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as on their athletic performance and economic circumstances. Additionally, mental and physical health were assessed by standardized questionnaires. From this questionnaire data, predictors of gaming time were evaluated using multivariable analysis. Results: Before the lockdown, 21% of the participating athletes played video games regularly. The average playing time was 15.8 h per month within the gamer group. During the first lockdown, 29% of athletes reported gaming regularly, and within the gamer group the average gaming time increased significantly, by 164%. The mental health burden showed significant differences between gamers and non-gamers regarding existential fears during the lockdown, the ability to cope with governmental measures due to COVID-19 and total sleeping time. However, there was no statistical difference in respect to standardized scales for depressive symptoms, sleep behavior, and anxiety. Higher video gaming time during the lockdown was significantly associated with male gender and previous gaming before the COVID-19 lockdown. Conclusion: Video gaming time increased significantly during the first lockdown. Whether video gaming among elite athletes hereby functions as an effective coping behavior remains to be shown and requires more research.
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Games played on mobile phones or tablets have become a serious game platform. In the new International Classification of Diseases in 2019, the WHO now includes video game disorder as a mental disease, this highlights the seriousness of game addiction which has now become a global problem. Game design may be one of the factors that affect game addiction. Game playability can be used to evaluate the game design and to determine the features that can cause game addiction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between playability and game addiction, and a comparison of the difference in playability among healthy players ( N = 1286) and problematic players ( N = 278) that allows game developers to design games in ways that may reduce addiction while maintaining or improving playability. In this study, 1564 valid questionnaires that collected data about the Game Playability Scale and the Game Addiction Scale showed that (1) The level of playability in the problematic players was significantly higher than in healthy players. (2) The degree of correlation between playability and game addiction in the problematic players was lower than in healthy players. (3) Some playability factors and addiction factors are negatively correlated.
Chapter
The main objective of this chapter is to gain an in-depth understanding of the social media addiction construct. For this purpose, prior studies on social media addiction are reviewed. Based on this review the influence of several personal, social, and situational factors on social media addiction are examined. Firstly, personal factors such as demographic characteristics, personality traits, self-esteem, well-being, loneliness, anxiety, and depression are studied for their impact on social media addiction. Next, the social correlates and consequents of social media addiction are identified, namely need for affiliation, subjective norms, personal, professional, and academic life. Lastly, situational factors like amount of social media use and motives of use are inspected. Following the review of literature an empirical study is made to analyze factors that discriminate addicted social media users from non-addicted social media users on the basis of these different factors.
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Research has shown mixed results in studies of online gaming and its effects, including aggression. The purpose of the current study is to examine the effects of a violent and non-violent game on aggression levels and brain activity. Forty-seven participants completed online questionnaires during pre- and post-gaming. During gaming, participants were randomly assigned to play either an action survival game or puzzle game. A mobile electroencephalography (EEG) recording device was used to record brain activity. Questionnaire results show significant positive correlations between problematic online gaming and aggression. The sub-dimensions of immersion, overuse and physical aggression showed a tendency to increase in the violent condition, while social isolation decreased in the non-violent condition. EEG data revealed some distinctions between the conditions. Frontal asymmetry analyses showed withdrawal-related activation throughout the experiment. Findings obtained suggest a behavioral and neurological distinction in playing different types of games.
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This study aims to investigate how cognitive antecedents impact on social game addiction and virtual properties purchase among Generation Y players in Malaysia. Using a quantitative method with 341 Generation Y gamers and analysed via structural equation modeling through a two-step analysis approach, the results demonstrate that social game addiction is influenced by enjoyment, play intensity and self-control. The purchase intention of virtual goods is affected by flexibility and play intensity. However, social game addiction has no impact on a gamer’s intentional purchase of virtual items. A player’s income level interacts with the relationship between flexibility and likelihood of virtual property purchase, which could be insightful for gaming publishers and vendors.
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Purpose Social networking sites (SNS) are heavily used by university students for personal and academic purposes. Despite their benefits, using SNS can generate stress for many people. SNS stressors have been associated with numerous maladaptive outcomes. The objective in this study is to investigate when and how SNS use damages student achievement and psychological wellbeing. Design/methodology/approach Combining the theoretical perspectives from technostress and the strength model of self-control, this study theoretically develops and empirically tests the pathways which explain how and when SNS stressors harm student achievement and psychological wellbeing. The authors test the research model through a two-wave survey of 220 SNS using university students. Findings The study extends existing research by showing that it is through the process of diminishing self-control over SNS use that SNS stressors inhibit achievement and wellbeing outcomes. The study also finds that the high use of SNS for academic purposes enhances the effect of SNS stressors on deficient SNS self-control. Originality/value This study further opens up the black box of the social media technostress phenomenon by documenting and validating novel processes (i.e. deficient self-control) and conditions (i.e. enhanced academic use) on which the negative impacts of SNS stressors depend.
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Aim The study explores IGD withdrawal-related presentations, including autonomic reaction, affective symptoms, anhedonia, and gaming urge during abstinence from gaming. We prospectively evaluated these withdrawal-related symptoms (WRS) and gaming craving during abstinence from gaming. Methods We examined 69 individuals with IGD and 69 regular gamers and evaluated their WRS (using an exploratory questionnaire), affective and behavioral WRS (using the Questionnaire on Gaming Urge-Brief Version gaming disorder questionnaire), and heart rate. All the participants attempted to abstain from gaming before our assessment. Subsequently, some participants’ WRS and gaming craving before they engaged in gaming were prospectively evaluated. Results In the IGD group, 85.5% experienced gaming WRS, including affective, anhedonia, and gaming urge symptoms. They could relieve these symptoms through gaming. The IGD group experienced more severe gaming WRS, gaming craving, and a higher heart rate than the regular gamer group. Gaming urge was most associated WRS of IGD. Participants with IGD experienced more severe gaming cravings when their gaming abstinence before the assessment was shorter. WRS attenuated at night and the following morning when they maintained their gaming abstinence after assessment. Conclusion Individuals with IGD experience withdrawal-related affective, anhedonia, and gaming urge symptoms and a higher heart rate during abstinence. The WRS attenuated in 1 day. Most participants agreed that these symptoms could be relieved through gaming. Further prospective evaluation by objective assessment in an adequate sample was required to understand gaming withdrawal symptoms comprehensively.
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For many, the concept of video game addiction seems far-fetched particularly if their concepts and definitions of addiction involve the use of drugs. Despite the predominance of drug-based definitions of addiction, there is now a growing movement that views a number of behaviors as potentially addictive including many behaviors that do not involve the ingestion of a psychoactive drug (e.g., gambling, computer game playing, exercise, sex, Internet use). Such diversity has led to new all encompassing definitions of what constitutes addictive behavior.
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Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are one of the most interesting innovations in the area of online computer gaming. This pilot study set out to examine the psychological and social effects of online gaming using an online questionnaire with particular reference to excessive and ‘dependent’ online gaming. A self-selecting sample of 119 online gamers ranging from 18 to 69 years (mean = 28.5 years) completed the questionnaire. The results showed that 41% of gamers played online to escape and 7% of gamers were classified as ‘dependent’ individuals who were at risk of developing a psychological and behavioural dependence for online gaming using an adapted ‘addiction’ scale. Further analysis showed that excessive online gaming was significantly correlated with psychological and behavioural ‘dependence’. It was also found that ‘dependent’ gamers appear to possess some core components of addiction to MMORPGs (e.g., mood modification, tolerance and relapse).
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The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale to measure computer and videogame addiction. Inspired by earlier theories and research on game addiction, we created 21 items to measure seven underlying criteria (i.e., salience, tolerance, mood modification, relapse, withdrawal, conflict, and problems). The dimensional structure of the scale was investigated in two independent samples of adolescent gamers (N = 352 and N = 369). In both samples, a second-order factor model described our data best. The 21-item scale, as well as a shortened 7-item version, showed high reliabilities. Furthermore, both versions showed good concurrent validity across samples, as indicated by the consistent correlations with usage, loneliness, life satisfaction, social competence, and aggression.
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Based on data collected through 40 in-depth interviews, it is found that (a) the balance between perceived challenges and skills, and (b) the types of in-game social interactions can both facilitate and impede the enjoyment of game playing. Through these two factors, a conclusive link was also found between game enjoyments and a gamer’s engagement level. Engaged gamers experience optimal enjoyment more frequently and value the importance of social interactions more than non-engaged gamers. In addition, game enjoyment can be enhanced through game design and it can also be adversely affected by real world contextual factors and technical difficulties. More importantly, the study underlines the importance of social interaction. Social interaction is the key factor that determines the level of engagement of gamers. For engaged gamers, social interaction is essential in this gaming experience. For non-engaged gamers, social interaction is not important and they have little tolerance of negative social interaction within the game. KeywordsMMORPG-engagement-enjoyment
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Addiction to online role-playing games is one of the most discussed aspects of recent cyberpsychology, mainly for its potentially negative impact on the social lives of young people. In our study, we focus on some aspects of youth and adolescent addiction to MMORPGs. We investigated connections between players and their game characters and examined if, and in what ways, player relationship to their character affected potential addiction. Players attitude to their characters seems to play a specific role, since players who tend to be addicted view their characters as being superior and more often wish to be like their characters in their real lives. Our research also confirmed that younger players are generally more prone to addiction.
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As computer and Internet use become a staple of everyday life, the potential for overuse is introduced, which may lead to addiction. Research on Internet addiction has shown that users can become addicted to it. Addiction to the Internet shares some of the negative aspects of substance addiction and has been shown to lead to consequences such as failing school, family, and relationship problems.
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Many studies showed the ability of movies and imagery techniques to elicit emotions. Nevertheless, it is less clear how to manipulate the content of interactive media to induce specific emotional responses. In particular, this is true for the emerging medium virtual reality (VR), whose main feature is the ability to induce a feeling of "presence" in the computer-generated world experienced by the user. The main goal of this study was to analyze the possible use of VR as an affective medium. Within this general goal, the study also analyzed the relationship between presence and emotions. The results confirmed the efficacy of VR as affective medium: the interaction with "anxious" and "relaxing" virtual environments produced anxiety and relaxation. The data also showed a circular interaction between presence and emotions: on one side, the feeling of presence was greater in the "emotional" environments; on the other side, the emotional state was influenced by the level of presence. The significance of these results for the assessment of affective interaction is discussed.
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The present case study illustrates the successful treatment of compulsive video-game playing in an 18-year old college student. On entering therapy the patient presented with a 5-month compulsion to play video-games with an average playing time of 3—4 hours per day and at an average cost of $5 per day. Treatment components included self-monitoring, GSR biofeedback-assisted relaxation training, in vivo exposure and response prevention, and follow-up at intervals of 6 and 12 months. A 90% reduction in the patient's compulsive behavior was achieved and maintained at follow-up indicating the potential effectiveness of behavioral intervention in the treatment of compulsive video-game playing.
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There is now a growing movement that views a number of behaviours as potentially addictive including many that do not involve the ingestion of a drug (such as gambling, sex, exercise, videogame playing and Internet use). This paper argues that all addictions consist of a number of distinct common components (salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict and relapse). The paper argues that addictions are a part of a biopsychosocial process and evidence is growing that excessive behaviours of all types do seem to have many commonalities. It is argued that an eclectic approach to the studying of addictive behaviour appears to be the most pragmatic way forward in the field. Such commonalities may have implications not only for treatment of such behaviours but also for how the general public perceive such behaviours.
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Over the last few years there has been an increasing interest in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs). These represent the latest Internet-only computer gaming experience consisting of a multi-player universe with an advanced and detailed world. One of the most popular (and largest) of these is Everquest. The data for this study were taken from a range of online gaming forums where individuals shared their experiences of playing EverQuest. Data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), a method for analyzing qualitative data and meaning making activities. The study presents an IPA account of online gamers who perceive themselves to play excessively. The aim of the study was to examine how individuals perceived and made sense of EverQuest in the context of their lives. It is clear that the accounts presented by players and ex-players appear to be ‘addicted’ to EverQuest in the same way that other people become addicted to alcohol or gambling. Most of the individuals in this study appear to display (or allude to) the core components of addiction such as salience, mood modification, tolerance, conflict, withdrawal symptoms, cravings, and relapse.
Article
The introduction of video games has met with mixed reviews. In the US, an ongoing debate focusing on the potential problems of video game playing has been taken up by parents, politicians and social scientists. A number of the concerns that have been raised about the playing of video games in the US are very similar to the concerns raised about the playing of fruit machines (slot machines) in the UK. This paper attempts to put the on-going US and UK amusement machine debates into an empirical perspective and attempts a comparative analysis of video games and fruit machines by examining: incidence of play, sex differences and psychological characteristics of machine players, observational findings in arcade setting, the alleged negative consequences of amusement machine playing (i.e. increased aggression and addiction), and an appraisal of amusement machines' positive aspects. Future directions and an expanded version of Brown's (1989) developmental model of a pathology of man-machine relationships are also discussed.
Article
Controversy continues concerning the harmfulness of video game use by children. The author encountered clearly pathological preoccupation with video games in a preadolescent. The child had stolen, forged checks, and skipped school to continue using video games. He and his mother were physically abused by his father. Placement of the child in a residential treatment center with marital and family therapy resulted in resolution of the patient’s pathological use of video games. © 1990 by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
Article
As computer game playing is a popular activity among adolescents, a questionnaire study was undertaken with 387 adolescents (12-16 years of age) to establish their "dependence" using a scale adapted from the DSM-III-R criteria for pathological gambling. Analysis indicated that one in five adolescents were currently "dependent" upon computer games. Boys played significantly more regularly than girls and were more likely to be classified as "dependent." The earlier children began playing computer games it appeared the more likely they were to be playing at "dependent" levels. These and other results are discussed in relation to research on other gaming dependencies.
Article
Despite the growing popularity of online game playing, there has been no primary survey of its players. Therefore, an online questionnaire survey was used to examine basic demographic factors of online computer game players who played the popular online game Everquest (i.e., gender, age, marital status, nationality, education level, occupation). The survey also examined playing frequency (i.e., amount of time spent playing the game a week), playing history (i.e., how long they had been playing the game, who they played the game with, whether they had ever gender swapped their game character), the favorite and least favorite aspects of playing the game, and what they sacrifice (if anything) to play the game. Results showed that 81% of online game players were male, and that the mean age of players was 27.9 years of age. For many players, the social aspects of the game were the most important factor in playing. A small minority of players appear to play excessively (over 80 h a week), and results suggest that a small minority sacrifice important activities in order to play (e.g., sleep, time with family and/or partner, work, or schooling).
Article
Despite the growing popularity of online game playing, there have been no surveys comparing adolescent and adult players. Therefore, an online questionnaire survey was used to examine various factors of online computer game players (n = 540) who played the most popular online game Everquest. The survey examined basic demographic information, playing frequency (i.e. amount of time spent playing the game a week), playing history (i.e. how long they had been playing the game, who they played the game with, whether they had ever gender swapped their game character, the favourite and least favourite aspects of playing the game, and what they sacrifice (if anything) to play the game. Results showed that adolescent gamers were significantly more likely to be male, significantly less likely to gender swap their characters, and significantly more likely to sacrifice their education or work. In relation to favourite aspects of game play, the biggest difference between the groups was that significantly more adolescents than adults claimed their favourite aspect of playing was violence. Results also showed that in general, the younger the player, the longer they spent each week playing.
Article
This paper reviews the many similarities and commonalities between video-game playing and slot machine gambling in response to Johansson and Gotestam in 2004.
Article
Obviously, the negative impact of online games has received much attention as well as having become a popular research topic. This research explored, from flow theory and humanistic needs theory, the psychological motivations of Taiwanese adolescents who are addicted to online games. The purpose of Study 1 was to investigate the relationship between players' flow state and their online games addiction. The results indicated that flow state was negatively correlated with addictive inclination and it was not a significant predictor for players' subsequent additive inclination. Findings also revealed that the addicts' flow state was significantly lower than the nonaddicts. Thus, flow state might not be the key psychological mechanism of players' addiction. In Study 2, the results showed that the psychological needs of players of online games were close to the two-factor theory which depicts satisfaction and dissatisfaction dimensions. Addicted players' need-gratification was similar to the feature of dissatisfactory factor. That is, the absence of playing online games is more likely to generate sense of dissatisfaction; the addicts' compulsive use of online games seems to stem from the relief of dissatisfaction rather than the pursuit of satisfaction. In contrast, online games tend to provide the nonaddicts with a sense of satisfaction rather than a sense of dissatisfaction.
Article
The purpose of this study was twofold: to investigate the conscious and unconscious psychological motivations of online game addicts, and to further discuss the relationship between surface and source motivations. Ten Taiwanese adolescents with online game addiction were selected for in-depth interviews. Through sentence completion test and semi-structured interviews, data were collected and analyzed from the following four realms: (1) surface motivations, (2) source motivations, (3) self-conception, and (4) interpersonal relationships in real life. After content analysis, five categories with distinct themes were formed: (1) addicts' psychological needs and motivations; (2) online games as the everyday focus of the addicts; (3) the interplay of real self and virtual self; (4) online games as the compensatory or extensive satisfaction for addicts' needs; and (5) addicts' self-reflections. The implications of the present study are discussed.
Article
Playing videogames is now a major leisure pursuit, yet research in the area is comparatively sparse. Previous correlational evidence suggests that subjective time loss occurs during playing videogames. This study examined experiences of time loss among a relatively large group of gamers (n = 280). Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through an online survey. Results showed that time loss occurred irrespective of gender, age, or frequency of play, but was associated with particular structural characteristics of games such as their complexity, the presence of multi-levels, missions and/or high scores, multiplayer interactions, and plot. Results also demonstrated that time loss could have both positive and negative outcomes for players. Positive aspects of time loss included helping players to relax and temporarily escape from reality. Negative aspects included the sacrificing of other things in their lives, guilty feelings about wasted time, and social conflict. It is concluded that for many gamers, losing track of time is a positive experience and is one of the main reasons for playing videogames.
Article
Computer games have become an ever-increasing part of many adolescents' day-to-day lives. Coupled with this phenomenon, reports of excessive gaming (computer game playing) denominated as "computer/video game addiction" have been discussed in the popular press as well as in recent scientific research. The aim of the present study was the investigation of the addictive potential of gaming as well as the relationship between excessive gaming and aggressive attitudes and behavior. A sample comprising of 7069 gamers answered two questionnaires online. Data revealed that 11.9% of participants (840 gamers) fulfilled diagnostic criteria of addiction concerning their gaming behavior, while there is only weak evidence for the assumption that aggressive behavior is interrelated with excessive gaming in general. Results of this study contribute to the assumption that also playing games without monetary reward meets criteria of addiction. Hence, an addictive potential of gaming should be taken into consideration regarding prevention and intervention.
Article
This study examined the reasons players help others in the virtual space of online games. Results of an online empirical survey indicated that both altruism and reciprocity influence prosocial behavior simultaneously. Additionally, the study found that male players are more likely than female players to seek friendship of opposite sex.
Pathological computer game use Located at: http:// www. psychiatrictimes . com/ display
  • J Block