The importance of human needs during peacetime, retrospective peacetime, and the Persian Gulf War

Article (PDF Available)inInternational Journal of Stress Management 4(1):47-62 · December 1996with78 Reads
Impact Factor: 1.28 · DOI: 10.1007/BF02766072
Abstract
Study 1 investigated the importance of human needs during peacetime in 1993 using a sample of 137 full-time workers in several industries in the United States. Study 2 examined the importance of needs in 1990 (retrospective peacetime) and in 1991 (during the Persian Gulf War)(both measured during the war) using a sample of 564 college students in the United States. In both studies, two levels of needs (higher-order and lower-order needs) were identified during peacetime. Study 2 revealed that during the war, all needs were rated as more important and only one factor was identified. During peacetime, the safety of one’s own life was significantly more important than the safety of the country which was rated as the least important need. During the war, the safety of the country was as important as the safety of one’s own life. Students who had spouse, family members, and friends in the Middle East during Desert Storm differed significantly from those who did not in war-related stress and the importance of several needs.

Full-text (PDF)

Available from: Thomas Li-Ping Tang
Page 1
Page 2
Page 3
Page 4
Page 5
Page 6
Page 7
Page 8
Page 9
Page 10
    • "For example, (1981) found that children have higher physical needs than other age groups, love needs emerging in the transitional period from childhood to adulthood; esteem needs are the highest among adolescents; the highest self-actualization levels are found with adults; and the highest levels of security are found at older ages. As another example, researchers (Tang and Ibrahim, 1998; Tang et al., 2002; Tang and West, 1997) have found that survival (i.e., physiological and safety) needs dominate during wartime while psychological needs (i.e., love, self-esteem, and self-actualization) surface during peacetime , which is in line with our expectations. For computational implementation, however, these sorts of studies provide very limited evidence , since only a few aspects are typically explored. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we described possible directions for deeper understanding, helping bridge the gap between psychology / cognitive science and computational approaches in sentiment/opinion analysis literature. We focus on the opinion holder's underlying needs and their resultant goals, which, in a utilitarian model of sentiment, provides the basis for explaining the reason a sentiment valence is held. While these thoughts are still immature, scattered, unstructured, and even imaginary, we believe that these perspectives might suggest fruitful avenues for various kinds of future work.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
    • "justice has the weakest but interactional justice has the strongest relationship with OCB. These findings reflect not only the culture and the human interactions in organizations and the society but also the importance and satisfaction of human needs in the geographic region (Tang and West 1997; Tang and Ibrahim 1998). First, Kyrgyzstan became an independent country in 1991. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here is the link to our paper: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10551-015-2553-0 Abstract Research suggests that organizational justice (procedural, distributive, and interactional justice) has important impacts on work-related attitudes and behaviors, such as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In this article, we explore the extent to which individualism moderates the relationship between organizational justice and OCB (organizational obedience, participation, and loyalty) among citizens in Kyrgyzstan. We make additional contributions to the literature because we know very little about these constructs in this former Soviet Union country, Kyrgyzstan, an under-researched and under-represented region of the world. Results of our data collected from 402 managers and employees in Kyrgyzstan offer the following new discoveries. All three justice constructs are related to OCB. Individualism moderates only the distributive and interactive justice to OCB relationships. We develop an intricate theory with provocative implications: Procedural justice produces obedience. For “individualists”, interactional justice inspires loyalty and, interestingly, distributive justice “can only buy” participation, but “can’t buy” loyalty. Therefore, for individualists, interactional justice outweighs distributive justice for organizational loyalty. Based on Kyrgyz citizens’ justice, OCB, and individualism, our theory reveals novel insights regarding culture, money attitude, and intrinsic motivation and provides critical and practical implications to the field of business ethics.
    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2015
    • "There are some reasons for this approach. From the perspective of motivation theories, globalization, outsourcing, mergers and acquisitions, downsizing, and technological and economic changes have displaced numerous employees around the world, caused instability, fear, stress, and impermanence (Pfeffer 2010), and threatened people's basic survival or existence needs (Maslow 1954; Alderfer 1969; Doyle 1992; Mason 1992; Poduska 1992; Tang and West 1997; Tang, Ibrahim and West 2002). People have the need to belong (Baumeister and Leary 1995), be recognized for their achievement (Herzberg 1987), and make Grouzet et al. (2005) arranged 11 goals across 15 cultures in a circumplex with 2 dimensions: (1) intrinsic vs. extrinsic, and (2) self-transcendent vs. physical. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article briefly summarizes selected theory and research related to money and the meaning of money. Research shows that money is considered as a tool and as a drug. People are subject to all kinds of temptation in the environment that trigger them to act ethically or unethically. Thinking about money enhances one’s feeling of “self‐sufficiency,” but reduces one’s willingness to help others. The mere presence of abundant money incites the feeling of “envy” toward wealthy others that provokes unethical behavior. Having control over money and spending money on others promote happiness. High love‐of‐money individuals have low pay satisfaction, low quality of life, low ethical intentions, and low intention to help others and become Good Samaritans. Since money is the direct opposite of spirituality and one cannot serve both God and money, spirituality and religion help people live fulfilling, meaningful, and purposeful lives. There is hope that our understanding of spirituality and religion through the lens of money may help researchers and practitioners move to further research and improved practice.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · Journal of Management Spirituality & Religion
Show more