Study 1 investigated the importance of human needs during peacetime in 1993 using a sample of 137 full-time workers in several
industries in the United States. Study 2 examined the importance of needs in 1990 (retrospective peacetime) and in 1991 (during
the Persian Gulf War)(both measured during the war) using a sample of 564 college students in the United States. In both studies,
two levels of needs (higher-order and lower-order needs) were identified during peacetime. Study 2 revealed that during the
war, all needs were rated as more important and only one factor was identified. During peacetime, the safety of one’s own
life was significantly more important than the safety of the country which was rated as the least important need. During the
war, the safety of the country was as important as the safety of one’s own life. Students who had spouse, family members,
and friends in the Middle East during Desert Storm differed significantly from those who did not in war-related stress and
the importance of several needs.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite of numerous studies, scant literature was found on the relationship of distributive justice with OCB via mediating role of LMX especially in educational setting of Pakistan. In this context, the main purpose of this study is to examine whether or not leader-member exchange (LMX) act as mediating variable in the relationship of distributive justice – organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) of the faculty members. Data was collected from 452 faculty members serving in different public and private sector universities / degree awarding institutes accredited by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. Baron and Kenny (1986) regression model was to assess the role of mediating variable. Results showed that LMX partially mediates the relationship of distributive justice – OCB. Implication for researchers and policy makers of public and private sector universities were discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the importance of needs during the retrospective peacetime in 1990 and the Persian Gulf War in 1991 using a sample of 378 employees in the Middle East. Results of factor analyses identified three levels of needs during peacetime and wartime. Factor structures of needs did change from peacetime to wartime and were different. The patterns of needs identified in this study were different from needs theories developed in the U.S. Results were discussed in light of cultural differences, available resources in the environment, and the Persian Gulf War.
Full-text · Article · Dec 1997 · International Journal of Stress Management
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 10-item Service Ethic Scale was developed and its relationship to personal and demographic variables was analyzed using a sample of secondary school administrators. Ninety-two usable surveys were obtained from a sample of 150 secondary school administrators randomly chosen from the 1994-1995 Louisiana Directory of Schools (Bureau of School Accountability, 1994). Results of exploratory factor analysis showed that the scale had 1 factor that explained 63.2% of the variance, and showed excellent reliability. The scale was significantly correlated with endorsement of the Protestant work ethic and the desire to implement an ethical values curriculum. However, the scale was not related to participants' gender, age, job tenure, or school location (i.e., rural or urban).
Full-text · Article · Jan 1999 · The Journal of Social Psychology