The importance of human needs during peacetime, retrospective peacetime, and the Persian Gulf War

Article (PDF Available)inInternational Journal of Stress Management 4(1):47-62 · January 1997with88 Reads
DOI: 10.1007/BF02766072
Study 1 investigated the importance of human needs during peacetime in 1993 using a sample of 137 full-time workers in several industries in the United States. Study 2 examined the importance of needs in 1990 (retrospective peacetime) and in 1991 (during the Persian Gulf War)(both measured during the war) using a sample of 564 college students in the United States. In both studies, two levels of needs (higher-order and lower-order needs) were identified during peacetime. Study 2 revealed that during the war, all needs were rated as more important and only one factor was identified. During peacetime, the safety of one’s own life was significantly more important than the safety of the country which was rated as the least important need. During the war, the safety of the country was as important as the safety of one’s own life. Students who had spouse, family members, and friends in the Middle East during Desert Storm differed significantly from those who did not in war-related stress and the importance of several needs.
    • "For example, (1981) found that children have higher physical needs than other age groups, love needs emerging in the transitional period from childhood to adulthood; esteem needs are the highest among adolescents; the highest self-actualization levels are found with adults; and the highest levels of security are found at older ages. As another example, researchers (Tang and Ibrahim, 1998; Tang et al., 2002; Tang and West, 1997) have found that survival (i.e., physiological and safety) needs dominate during wartime while psychological needs (i.e., love, self-esteem, and self-actualization) surface during peacetime , which is in line with our expectations. For computational implementation, however, these sorts of studies provide very limited evidence , since only a few aspects are typically explored. "
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