Diatom Flora of the Grand River, Ontario, Canada

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This paper describes the diatom flora of the Grand River, Ontario, Canada. Samples were collected systematically from the river over a period of several years at tweleve stations. The diatom flora of the river is typical of temperate alkaline rivers. The flora is rich in species and variaties, and is similar to that from many parts from North Eastern United States. A total of 273 taxa of diatoms were identified. There is a tendency for the number of species per sample to increase downstream. The flora of the estuary in characteristic with a great variety of taxa occuring in small numbers. Most of the species are alkaliphilous and indifferent in the halolian spectra.

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... Excellent habit photomicrographs of raphid diatoms are available (e.g., Canter-Lund and Lund, 1995), illustrating their growth habits. Floras and checklists exist for certain localities, states, or regions of North America (Patrick, 1945;Sovereign, 1958;Woodhead and Tweed, 1960;Patrick and Freese, 1961;Hohn and Hellerman, 1963;Bright, 1968;Stoermer and Yang, 1969;Foged, 1971;Sreenivasa and Duthie, 1973;Clark and Rushforth, 1977;Collins and Kalinsky, 1977;Stoermer et al., 1999;Czarnecki and Blinn, 1978;Camburn et al., 1978;Prescott and Dillard, 1979;Johansen and Rushforth, 1981;Kaczmarska and Rushforth, 1983;Bahls et al., 1984;Bateman and Rushforth, 1984;Poulin, 1990;Douglas and Smol, 1993;Kociolek, 2005;Bahls, 2010), and hundreds of specific papers document North American diatom species and their relationship to ecological conditions. Continental-scale monitoring programs such as EMAP and NAWQA, and statewide programs in places such as California, Kentucky, and New Jersey aim to relate diatom species and community responses to environmental variables. ...
... For North American freshwater diatoms, particularly useful publications include the publications of Potapova Ponader and Potapova, 2007;Potapova and Hamilton, 2007;Enache and Potapova, 2012;Potapova, 2012) and Patrick and Reimer (1966), all primarily based largely on rivers in the eastern United States. Other publications are useful for dilute lakes (Camburn et al., 1984(Camburn et al., -1986, Utah (Johansen and Rushforth, 1981;Kaczmarska and Rushforth, 1983), Arizona (Czarnecki and Blinn, 1978), the Pacific Northwest (Sovereign, 1958(Sovereign, , 1963 the Laurentian Great Lakes (Stoermer and Yang, 1969;Kreis and Stoermer, 1979;Stoermer, 1980), Ontario (Sreenivasa, 1971;Duthie and Sreenivasa, 1972;Sreenivasa and Duthie, 1973), Hawaii (Lowe et al., 2009), and Alaska (Patrick and Freese, 1961;Foged, 1971). Some ecological works document the diatoms observed, though they are not primarily systematics studies (Cumming et al., 1995). ...
This monophyletic group of diatoms has the evolutionary innovation of a raphe system, which has afforded its members the ability to move longer and faster, relative to their body size. Species within the 105 genera treated here occupy a wide range of habitats, including living adnate on substrates, being motile in benthic environments, living attached or in mucilaginous tubes, and even creating colonies to live in the plankton. We treat the following major groups of raphid diatoms: Eunotiales (6 genera), Achnanthales (11 genera), Naviculales (72 genera), Bacillariales (9 genera), Rhopalodiales (2 genera), and Surirellales (5 genera). For each group, we present scanning electron microscope images to illustrate valve morphology. For genera in each group, we provide original light microscope images, descriptions, and comments on ecological preferences.
... The ecological characteristics of the revealed species were obtained from the database compiled for freshwater algae from multiple analyses of algal biodiversity ( Barinova et al., 2006) with additions ( Bahls et al., 1984;Dell'Uomo, Torrisi, 2011;Kharitonov, 2010;Odland, Norway, 2005;Pankow, 1976;Salden, 1978;Soininen et al., 2004;Sreenivasa, Duthie, 1973;Ter Braak, Van Dam, 1989;Van Dam et al., 1994;Van de Vijver et al., 2004;W?hlin, 1970;Whitmore, 1989) according to substrate preference, temperature, streaming and oxygenation, pH, salinity, organic enrichments, N-uptake metabolism, and trophic states. ...
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The Arctic region is very important for its diversity study because represent stressed environment with long winters, constant low temperatures, extremes of irradiance and short vegetation periods. The algal diversity research in the Arctic region of European Russia are less advanced than in Canada (Michelutti et al., 2003), Greenland (Cremer et al., 2005a), and Asian Arctic (Cremer et al., 2005b; Kharitonov, 1993, 2010). At this initial stage we focused on diatom diversity of the European Russia Arctic lakes (Barinova, Stenina, 2013; Denisov, 2007, 2008a,b; Denisov, Kashulin, 2007; Kashulin et al., 2008; Stenina, Patova, 2000; Stenina, 2005a,b,c, 2009; Ylikörkkö et al., 2015) formed under strong climatic as well as variable anthropogenic impacts. The present work was aimed at inventory of algal diversity in the Kola Peninsula lakes and its environmental variables. We intended to reveal trends of algal diversity under high-latitude climatic impacts which combined with anthropogenic impact.
... Hardwater species such as Clado- phora glomerata, Phormidium incrustatum and Schizothrix calcicola (Blum, 1959 ;Pentecost, 1982) were not found, further substantiating the fact that Rhode Island streams contain a macroalgal flora associated with acidic-to-neutral habitats . The most widespread and abundant species, Eunotia pectinalis, is cosmopolitan in flowing waters which are low in pH and dissolved ions (Patrick & Reimer, 1966 ;Cholnoky 1968 ;Sreenivasa & Duthie, 1973 ;Eloranta & Kunnas, 1979 ;van Dam et al., 1981 ;Johansson, 1982) . In addition, this species has been reported to be a dominant component of the stream flora in coastal plain streams of North Carolina, U .S .A . ...
Forty stream segments in Rhode Island, U.S.A., were examined seasonally from June 1979 to March 1982. Thirty-nine species of macroalgae were collected, respresenting 25 genera. The composition of the lotic flora was 54% green algae, 31% red algae, 5% blue-green algae, 5% xanthophytes, 3% chrysophytes and 3% diatoms. The majority of these taxa (85%) were filamentous. From a biweekly examination of five stream segments, macroalgal communities could be grouped according to light regime. Species in unshaded streams exhibited little seasonality, whereas in streams shaded by one or more layers of riparian canopy, maxima in species numbers and abundance occurred during colder seasons. The most widespread and abundant species were the blue-green alga Phormidium retzii, the green alga Draparnaldia acuta, and the diatom Eunotia pectinalis. P. retzii and E. pectinalis were aseasonal annuals, while D. acuta was primarily a winter-spring form. It appears that pH is a major factor affecting broad geographic distribution patterns of stream macroalgae, whereas the light regime established by overhanging canopy is an important factor which influences localized abundance and seasonality of lotic macroalgal communities. Niche pre-emption appears to be a common mode of resource space division among stream macroalgae in Rhode Island. E. pectinalis is the strongly developed dominant in this drainage system.
... In addition, many studies exist concerning the taxonomy of river diatoms (e.g. Sreenivasa and Duthie 1973, Wujek and Rupp 1980, Zalocar de Domitrovic and Maidana 1997, and several others (e.g. De Sève and Goldstein 1981, Juggins 1992, Hay et al. 1997) have considered the relationships between diatoms and environmental conditions in rivers. ...
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Water quality degradation is a serious concern for the St. Lawrence River. While some environmental data are available for the St. Lawrence ecosystem, long-term monitoring data are generally lacking. To infer past environmental changes, we undertook a paleolimnological assessment of diatom assemblages preserved in four 210Pb- and 137Cs-dated sediment cores from two fluvial lakes in the river, and used diatom transfer functions to infer past shoreline habitat characteristics. At sites in Lake Saint-François, a fluvial lake downstream from Cornwall, water quality decreased this century in response to human impacts (e.g. macrophyte density and nutrient levels increased). These trends were apparent from an increase in epiphytic diatom taxa, followed by an increase in eutrophic planktonic taxa. Water quality, however, appears to have improved somewhat in response to rehabilitation measures during the last two decades. From a sediment core near Montréal (Lake Saint-Louis), we also noted a large proportion of eutrophic and epiphytic taxa, but less evidence was recorded of a recent improvement in water quality. The diatom-based inference model for habitat characteristics appeared to reconstruct environmental conditions in the St. Lawrence River during the last century. The most notable shift has been an increase in diatom taxa commonly associated with macrophyte substrates. Trends in some of the planktonic diatoms were similar to those recorded in paleolimnological investigations from Lake Ontario, but cores from the river also may be reflecting local environments. This study shows that diatom-based paleolimnological studies are possible in large river systems, if coring sites (e.g. fluvial lakes) are carefully selected.
... The Grand River (south western Ontario, Canada) has been thoroughly characterized, with studies ranging from nutrient uptake (BARLOW-BUSCH et al., 2006), species composition along seasonal and nutrient gradients (METCALFE-SMITH et al., 2000;ROTT et al., 1998;SREENIVASA and DUTHIE, 1973), nitrogen cycling (ROSAMOND et al., 2011), fish ecology (COOKE and BUNT, 1999) to health risks from livestock rearing (DORNER et al., 2004) and human activities (LISSEMORE et al., 2006). The Grand River receives agricultural and urban inputs from both point (sewage plants, tile drainage) and non-point sources (agriculture, chiefly from manure spreading). ...
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Epilithon is a complex community of autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms that includes inert, organic and inorganic material and is attached to the surface of submersed rocks. Water samples collected in the Grand River (southwestern Ontario) in April 2011 showed that ammonium concentrations decreased downstream, whereas nitrate varied, largely dependent on weather conditions (concentrations of both chemical species were higher during winter). Epilithon δ15N-TN downstream from the Kitchener wastewater treatment plant oscillated between 0.4 to 23.2‰, and δ13C-TC around -27‰. The wastewater treatment plant effluent consisted of δ15N-NO3- between 12 and 16‰, with a decreasing trend as it traveled downstream; δ15N-NH4+ became enriched downstream (as high as 31‰). Average values for δ13C-DIC were -10.1‰ and δ13C-DOC -26.8‰. It is proposed that the nitrogen and carbon isotope composition of epilithon could be used as a short- or medium-term environmental archive, as it reflects in-stream processes, such as ammonia oxidation, in a river impacted by treated wastewater. The interpretation provided here was limited due to the ample range of events and potential sources, specifically when the nitrogen isotopic composition of nitrate and ammonium was similar. Epilithon is easily collected, processed and analysed and proved to be valuable tool to describe changes in river and stream geochemistry.
... The present work is focused on the morpho-taxonomic investigation of the fresh water diatom flora of the class Bacillariophyceae from Hooghly district, West Bengal, India. Few taxonomic works had been reported earlier from India (Venkataraman 1939, Biswas 1949, Gonzalves & Gandhi 1952, Gandhi 1958, Sreenivasa & Duthie 1973, Anand & Kant 1976, Sarode & Kamat 1979, 1980, Barhate & Tarar 1981, Das & Santra 1982, Patel & Patel 1982, Venkateswarlu 1983, Prasad et al. 1984, Somshekar 1983, 1984, Chaturvedi 1985, Roy & Sen 1985, Pal et al. 1986, Maity et al. 1987, Shukla & Shukla 1987, Santra et al. 1989, Pal & Santra 1990, Banerjee & Santra 2001, Misra 2005, Bhakta et al. 2011, Das & Adhikary 2012, Tripathi et al. 2012, Dwivedi & Misra 2014. Except a single report (Halder & Sinha 2015) there is no work in relation to exploration of diatom flora from this locality of West Bengal. ...
... The Grand River is a case in point for studying these parallel effects, since the cities are concentrated in the central part of the catchment area whereas the intensively cultivated land extends mainly from the middle to the lowest reaches. This was the background to earlier investigations of the benthic and planktonic diatom flora of the Grand River (Fraser 1966; Sreenivasa and Duthie 1973). Diatom analysis is proposed as a valuable diagnostic tool for quantifying stream ecosystem conditions in Canada in the sense of Kilgour et al. (1996) . ...
Diatom analysis discriminates between the impacts on river water quality of treated urban wastewaters and diffuse nutrient sources from farmland. Evaluation of organic pollution and trophic levels in the Grand River, Ontario, using two diatom indices shows a clear differentiation among 10 sampling sites over a distance of 214 km. Sites in the central reaches that are influenced by both urban discharges and agricultural runoff have the lowest water quality. The ranking of sites according to both diatom indices is consistently independent of substratum and seasonality. Ordination of samples by multivariate analysis results in a primary separation of the spring and summer communities and a secondary separation of upper, central, and lower reaches. Substratum differences are only apparent at the tertiary level, and mainly for midsummer samples from the upper reaches. Canonical correspondence analysis shows that the largest portion of the observed variability in species composition can be explained by a seasonal gradient related to temperature and by longitudinal gradients of nitrate-nitrogen, conductivity, and chloride. Differences in species composition between nutrient-rich sites and polluted sites are identified. Compared with a study conducted in the 1960s, the Grand River shows clear signs of increased eutrophication.
Metapopulations of macroscopic organisms tend to be geographically restricted, but free-living pro-tists and other microbial eukaryotes present a different picture. Here we show that most organisms smaller than 1 mm occur worldwide wherever their required habitats are realised. This is a consequence of ubiquitous dispersal driven by huge population sizes, and the consequently low probability of local extinction. Organisms larger than 10 mm are much less abundant, and rarely cosmopolitan. The supporting data, together with the discovery that the 1–10 mm size range accommodates a transition from cosmopolitan to regionally-restricted distribution, were derived from extensive inventories of eukaryotic species in a freshwater pond (1278 species), and a shallow marine bay (785 species). All accessible records were examined to establish the extent of global coverage by these species. Some groups of microbial eukaryotes are severely undersampled (e.g. naked amoebae; marine meiofauna in the southern hemisphere) but this fails to weaken evidence that metapopulations of microbial eukaryotes are cosmopolitan.
The sediment and diatom stratigraphy of a small pond on The Pas moraine, near Grand Rapids, Manitoba, reveals a change in sedimentary environment related directly to the last stages of Glacial Lake Agassiz. Beach sands were replaced by clay 7300 14C y. a., then by organic silt and, at 4000 14C y. a. by coarse organic detritus; the corresponding diatom assemblages were (I) a predominantly planktonic spectrum in beach sands, (II) a rich assemblage of nonplanktonic forms, and (III) a distinctly nonplanktonic acidophilous spectrum. These results confirm Elson's (1967) reconstruction of the extent and chronology of the final (Pipun) stage of Glacial Lake Agassiz. The sedimentary environments change from a sandy beach of a large lake at 7300 BP to a small, shallow eutrophic pond with clay and silt deposition from 7000 to 4000 BP. From 4000 BP to the present, organic detritus was deposited in a shallow pond that tended toward dystrophy.
Molluscs, ostracodes, diatoms, pollen, plant macrofossils, peat, and wood have been found in glacial Lake Algonquin sediments, and estuarine-alluvial sediments of the same age, in southern Ontario. Molluscs and ostracodes are particularly abundant and widespread. Pollen analysis of Lake Algonquin sediments, bogs on the Algonquin terrace, and upland bogs above the Algonquin terrace, indicate that Lake Algonquin was still in existence at the time of the spruce-pine pollen transition, previously dated at an average of 10,600 yr BP at a number of sites in Michigan, Ohio, and southern Ontario. Wood in estuarine-alluvial sediments graded to the Algonquin level is of similar radiocarbon age. Evidence from several sites in the eastern Great Lakes area suggests the presence of a preceding low-water stage (Kirkfield outlet stage); drowned and alluviated valleys and fining-upward sediment sequences have been identified in this study as further supporting evidence. Lake Algonquin drained from the southern sites by isostatic tilting and eventual opening of the “North Bay outlet” some time shortly after 10,400 yr BP. Our radiocarbon dates suggest the low-water stage has an age of about 11,000 yr BP, and that Lake Algonquin drained 10,000–15,000 y. a. Dates previously published for the Lake Michigan basin are generally too young in comparison with ours, and dates on the Champlain Sea are generally too old. More critical evaluation of all dating results is desirable. From fossil remains we suggest a rapidly expanding fauna in the waters of Lake Algonquin. The spruce pollen period was a time of rapid faunal and floral migration, when the ice front was retreating from Kirkfield to North Bay, Ontario. Diversity of some species and fossil numbers increased substantially at the transition from spruce to pine just before Lake Algonquin drained.
The distribution of diatom frustules in the surficial sediments of lakes and ombrotrophic peat pools in Atlantic Canada are examined especially in relation to pH and bog lake succession. Sedimentary diatom associations for peat pools, strongly acidic lakes, and weakly acidic lakes are characterized. These associations and the derived diatom-pH calibration functions will facilitate improved paleoecological interpretation of natural ontogenetic pathways and assessments of recent anthropogenic impacts.
The Cuyahoga River is a heavily polluted tributary of Lake Erie located in N. E. Ohio (USA). One hundred seventy taxa of diatoms were identified from seven locations along the Cuyahoga River. The most frequently collected diatoms from each station were Cyclotella meneghiniana, Gomphonema parvulum, Navicula cryptocephala, N. cryptocephala var. veneta, N. lanceolata, N. menisculus, N. minima, N. minuscula, N. pelliculosa, Nitzschia amphibia, N. ovalis, N. palea, and Rhoicosphenia curvata. In the most heavily damaged region of the river these widely-distributed taxa were the only frequently collected diatoms. The relatively undamaged section of the river contained 94% more taxa than the most heavily damaged section. Chief among these additional taxa were Achnanthes lanceolata, A. lanceolata var. dubia, Cocconeisplacentula, Fragilaria vaucheriae, Melosira varians, Meridion circulare, Navicula mutica var. tropica, N. symetrica, Nitzschia dissipata, Stephanodiscus astraea, and Synedra rumpens. The degree of similarity between diatom assemblages along the Cuyahoga River as measured by a modification of Sørensen's index of similarity in species-frequency of occurrence composition was related to the degree of chemical-physical water quality similarities and to the extent of similarity between areas of geologic and biologic substrates. The most dissimilar diatom assemblages usually occurred between locations that were the most dissimilar with respect to chemical-physical water quality conditions rather than to dissimilarities with respect to sediment-substrate composition.
Periphytic and planktonic algal populations were sampled over a yearly cycle in the Ogilvie and Swift rivers located in the northern and southern Yukon, respectively. Diatoms and green algae dominated periphytic assemblages during spring, summer, and fall, whereas the bulk of the overwintering cells was diatoms. The 96 species of periphytic diatoms were dominated by Achnanthes minutissima Kütz., an unidentified species of Achnanthes, Cocconeis placentula Ehr., Diatoma hiemale var. mesodon (Ehr.) Grun., Diatoma tenue var. elongatum Lyngb., Anomoeoneis vitrea (Grun.) Ross, and Fragilaria crotonensis Kitton. Most diatoms encountered are also generally abundant in more temperate locations. Periphytic green algae were dominated by Mougeotia sp., Oedogonium sp., Ulothrix sp., and Stigeoclonium sp. In high flow regions of the Ogilvie River the red alga Lemanea fucina Bory was extremely abundant. Phytoplankton was sparse and generally represented by the same species as found in periphytic habitats. Results indicate that the phytoplankton cells were probably derived from sloughed periphytic cells. Achnanthes minutissima, Diatoma tenue var. elongatum, Fragilaria construens var. binodis (Ehr.) Grun., Fragilaria vaucheriae (Kütz.) Peters, and Synedra ulna (Nitz.) Ehr. were the most abundant species in the plankton.
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Diatom associations collected from polyurethane foam (PF) substrates were surveyed through time along a nutrient enrichment gradient in Smith Mountain Lake, Virginia. A qualitative model is proposed which emphasizes the adaptive characteristics, or life-form strategies, of the most abundant diatoms in an association and relates them to generalized environmental conditions. The model provides a framework for readily describing complex habitat variations within the lake and supplies a means of interpreting successional changes occurring on the substrates.
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Particulate organic matter in a downriver riffle of the Grand River, the largest Canadian Great Lakes tributary, was studied between June 1970 and April 1972. In winter and spring, concentrations of particulate organic matter (1.0–26.2 mg/l) varied with river flow. High summer levels (3.4–12.7 mg/l) were attributable to high autochthonous primary production. Mean chlorophyll a concentration in summer (29.8 mg/m3) was nearly 15 times higher than in winter, and 8 times the spring mean level. High algal cell counts (15,000–19,000 cells/l) also occurred in summer. Autochthonous and allochthonous contributions to the total particulate organic carbon input to the river in summer were estimated by daily organic input and river flow relationships, carbon to chlorophyll a and to pheopigments ratios. The allochthonous source accounted for 21.5% of the total organic carbon while the autochthonous contributed the remaining 78.5%. The latter included living algae (23.0%), senescent plant material (30.3%) and detritus (25.2% — including microbes). The study establishes a new approach whereby the various components of particulate organic matter in river water can be indirectly partitioned and their biomass estimated by using quantitative relationships among readily obtainable parameters of river flow, standing biomass, chlorophyll a and pheopigments.
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The diatoms are a successful group of eukaryotic, photosynthetic microbes that occur in nearly every place there is or has been; that place being water. With over 64,000 named entities, they are one of the most diverse groups of algae. The groups of freshwater diatoms, known as "centric" and "araphid", occur in a wide variety of lotic and lentic systems, and are especially plentiful in plankton communities where they are the favored food source by many primary consumers. This chapter offers light and scanning electron microscope observations on the morphology of the siliceous cell walls of the commonly encountered genera found in the freshwaters of North America. A total of 45 genera are treated (27 centrics and 18 araphids). For each genus we provide original figures, descriptions, and comments on preferred ecological habitats. © 20152015 Elsevier Inc.
This paper describes the planktonic diatom flora of Lake Çildir. Samples were collected monthly between May 1991 and September 1993 at three different stations. A total of 94 diatom taxa were identified. In the study period, the most dominant and abundant taxa were Cyclotella meneghiniana Kütz., Aulacoseria granulata (Ehrenb.) Simonsen, Melosira varians C. Agardh and Navicula Bory spp. The diatom flora of the lake is rich in species and varieties and is similar to that in other parts of Turkey.
This paper describes the planktonic diatom flora of the Sultan Sazliǧi marshes, Kayseri. Samples were collected systematically from the marshes over a period of 1.5 years from three stations. The diatom flora of Sultan Sazliǧi is rich in terms of species and varieties, which are similar to those from many parts of Turkey. A total of 75 taxa of diatoms were identified. The diversity of species at freshwater stations was higher, than that of the brackish water station. Genera such as Fragilaria Lyngb., Navicula. Gomphonema Ehrenb., Nitzschia Hassall, Epithemia Bréb. ex Kütz, were dominant in species numbers.
A distillery and a tannery were discharging effluents directly into the river Ganga at Hathidah in Bihar. On the opposite bank (Simariaghat), effluents from a refinery were discharged through a pipeline. An investigation was carried out from December 1996 to September 1998 to assess the influence of waste disposal on plankton abundance and diversity in different seasons. A total of 34 phytoplankton and 11 zooplankton taxa were recorded from four sampling sites such as S1 (control zone), S2 (outfall zone) and, S3 and S4 (below out fall zones). Phytoplankton ranged from 300 to 29,020 (85.71 to 100%) and zooplankton ranged from 0 to 360-unit/50 liter. Among phytoplankton diatoms dominated at S1 site in rainy, winter and summer season with 88.66, 79.17 and 86.53% respectively followed by Chlorophyceae (8.03, 13.89 and 13.47% respectively) and Myxophyceae (0 to 1.42%). At S2 site, share of Myxophyceae increased to 14.93, 8.67 and 6.10% in rainy, winter and summer season respectively. Again, total numbers of taxa were decreased from 29 at S1 to 18 at S2. Dominance of rotifers at S2 site in all the seasons was also noted. Changes in the plankton community structure at S2 site indicated polluted nature of the river. Some pollution tolerant planktonic forms were also identified.
The present paper deals with abundance, periodicity and composition of phytoplankton in relation to physico-chemical factors of fish pond at Anjale, Dist. Jalgaon, Maharashtra. It was observed that members of Bacillariophyceae were dominant amongst other algal groups. This dominance was followed serially by Chlorophyceae, Myxophyceae, Euglenineae and Dinophyceae.
The river Damodar at Durgapur received wastes from different major industries. An investigation was carried out to assess the impact of waste disposal on plankton in different seasons. A total of 31 phytoplankton and eight zooplankton taxa were identified from four sampling sites such as S1 (control zone), S2 (out fall zone) and, S3 and S4 (below out fall zones). Phytoplankton ranged from 60-9,840 and zooplankton ranged from 0 to 2,600 u/50 L in different seasons. Change in the percentage composition of different groups of plankton at different sites was noted. Certain pollution toleration planktonic algae were dominated in the discharge zone indicating polluted nature of the river in this stretch.
This paper present a study of physico-chemical quality of river water and abundance and distribution of phytoplankton community in a stretch of river Damodar from November 1996 to October 1998 in relation to steel plant effluents. Phytoplankton and water quality of S1 (Control zone), S2 (Out fall zone) and S3 and S4 (Downstrean zone) were studied and compared. Low transparency and pH, and high TSS, temperature and total hardness were the characteristic of S2 and S3, indicating a stressful habitat. Effluent discharge significantly changed the phytoplankton community structure. It was also noticed that S2 and S3 were characterized by low number of taxa with their higher abundance. The discharge of steel plant effluent obviously caused habitat degradation resulting ecological modification of phytoplankton community of river Damodar at Barnpur.
A 16-month study on a storage reservoir explained some of the factors controlling the seasonal development of phytoplankton in such an environment. Thermal stratification was unstable but was established in one of the two summers of the study and was associated with oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion. Both nitrate and phosphate concentrations showed distinct seasonality and the amounts in the influent were very similar to the amounts in the effluent. Large populations of Cryptomonas spp. developed in the early summer, when amounts of phosphate and nitrate were minimal, and were followed by a succession of planktonic Cyanophyta lasting into the winter. A population of Peridinium aciculiferum (Lemm.) Lemm. occurred over the winter. Based on their ecology in the reservoir the species of phytoplankton were divided into three groups: an autochthonous group, which developed populations simultaneously all over the lake; an allochthonous group, which sometimes formed populations around the inflow; and the river plankton, which rarely developed in the reservoir.
In experiments conducted simultaneously at two stations in Belwood Reservoir it was found that while the standing crop and the rate of assimilation per square meter were less at a station just below the inflow, the activity coefficient was generally higher than at a station near the dam. The activity coefficient varied from 0.19 with a population consisting mainly of Cryptomonas, Asterionella, and Dinobryon to 0.02 with a very large population of mainly Ceratium hirundinella. In general there was an inverse relationship between standing crop and activity coefficient. Daily production estimates ranged from 134 mg C/day m2 to 1650 mg C/day m2. A population of Peridinium aciculiferum was found to have an activity coefficient of 0.05.
1965 - The Waterloo interlobate area (408/7
  • P F Karrow
1951-1955 - Die Diatomeen von Schweden und Finland. Kgl, Sveska Vetenskapsakad
  • A Cleve-Euler
indifferent, pH; indifferent
  • Hal
Hal; indifferent, pH; indifferent. (N.F.) FIGS. 133--149
Gomphonema angustatum var. obtusatum. KUTZ. (Fig. 141) 5: 4, p. 179, Fig. 1270c, d. Valves 7-9 u wide and 29 /u long; this taxon is found in small numbers from rock scrapings and moss
  • Hal A Cleve
  • K V A Handl
Hal; indifferent, pH; alkaliphilous. (N.F.) Gomphonema angustatum var. obtusatum. KUTZ. (Fig. 141) A. CLEVE, in K.V.A. Handl. 5: 4, p. 179, Fig. 1270c, d. Valves 7-9 u wide and 29 /u long; this taxon is found in small numbers from rock scrapings and moss. Stations: 4, 6 and 8. Gomphonema angustatum var. sarcophagus (GREG.) V.H. (Fig. 142) HUSTED, in PASCHER, p. 373, Fig. 691. Valves 7,u wide and 35 u long; this taxon is found in few samples nearer to the estuary and the estuary mud. Stations: 8, 9, 11 and 12.
Magnification scale denotes 10 microns. Valves 9-12 y wide and 30-42 u long: This taxon is found to be frequent in few samples
  • N Hust
N. theinamanni HUST. 128. N. tripunctata (0. F. MULL.) BORY. 129. N. viridula Kz. 130. N. vulupina Kz. 131, 132. N. wittrockii (LAGST.) A. CL. Magnification scale denotes 10 microns. Valves 9-12 y wide and 30-42 u long: This taxon is found to be frequent in few samples. Stations: 2, 3, 8 and 10.
3: 3, p. 84, Fig. 1491e-i. Valves 3.6 t wide and 17 u long; this taxon is rare and is found in a single sample Station: 11. Nitzschia fonticola var. septentrionalis A: 3, p. 89, Fig. 1500i-k. Valves 3 wide 13 uz long; this taxon is found in few samples. Stations: 3, 6 and 11
  • Hal Nitzschia
  • Grun A Cleve
  • K V A Handl
Hal; indifferent, pH; alkaliphilous. (N.F.) Nitzschia fonticola var. minima GRUN. A. CLEVE, in K.V.A. Handl. 3: 3, p. 84, Fig. 1491e-i. Valves 3.6 t wide and 17 u long; this taxon is rare and is found in a single sample. Station: 11. Nitzschia fonticola var. septentrionalis A. CL. A. CLEVE, in K.V.A. Handl. 3: 3, p. 89, Fig. 1500i-k. Valves 3 wide 13 uz long; this taxon is found in few samples. Stations: 3, 6 and 11. JVitzschia frustulum var. perpusilla (RABH.) (GRUN. Fig. 206) VAN HEURCK, In A Treatise on the Diatomaceae, p. 403, pl. 17, Fig. 566. Valves 4 yu wide and 16 ut long; this taxon is found in a single plankton collection. Station: 1.
Handle, 3: 3, p. 11, Fig. 1334. Valves 7 u wide and 56 u long; this taxon is found in a few samples
  • K A V A Cleve
Hal; mesohalobous, pH; alkalibiotic. (N.F.) Gyrosigma scalproides (RABH.) CL. (Fig. 90) A. CLEVE, in K.V.A. Handle, 3: 3, p. 11, Fig. 1334. Valves 7 u wide and 56 u long; this taxon is found in a few samples. Stations: 9 and 12.
Fig. 126) PATRICK & REIMER, in the diatoms of the U, pl. 48, Fig. 1. Valves 7-9 /i wide and 21-41 ,u long; this taxon is one of the common naviculoid diatoms in the river
  • N F Navicula
  • Cleve Grun
Hal; indifferent, pH; alkaliphilous. (N.F.) Navicula salinarum GRUN in CLEVE & GRUN. (Fig. 126) PATRICK & REIMER, in the diatoms of the U.S., Vol. 1, p. 502, pl. 48, Fig. 1. Valves 7-9 /i wide and 21-41,u long; this taxon is one of the common naviculoid diatoms in the river. Stations: 1, 3-8, 10 and 12.
HUBER-PESTALZZI, G. -1942 -Das Phytoplancton des Siisswassers. 1. Die Binnengewasser, 16, Diatomeen. HUSTEDT, F. -1927-66 -Die Kiesslalgen Deutschlands, Osterreichs, and der Schweiz Akademische Verlags-gesellschaft) 815 pp. HUSTEDT, F. -1930 -Bacillariophyta Die Siisswas-ser-Flora Mittleuropas
  • S P Fraser
  • G Fischer
  • Jena Jorgensen
FRASER, S. P. C. -1966 -The seasonal growth and distribution of Algae in the Grand River. M. Sc. Thesis. University of Waterloo. HUBER-PESTALZZI, G. -1942 -Das Phytoplancton des Siisswassers. 1. Die Binnengewasser, 16, Diatomeen. HUSTEDT, F. -1927-66 -Die Kiesslalgen Deutschlands, Osterreichs, and der Schweiz. Band 7 (1,2) in: L. RABENHORST (ed.). Akademische Verlags-gesellschaft, pt 1, (1927-30), 920 pp.; pt 2, (1931-59), 845 pp,; pt 3, (1961-66) 815 pp. HUSTEDT, F. -1930 -Bacillariophyta. Heft 10 in: A., PASCHER (ed). Die Siisswas-ser-Flora Mittleuropas. G. Fischer, Jena. JORGENSEN, E. G. -1948 -Diatom communities in some Danish Lakes and ponds. D. Kgl. Danske Vidensk. Selskab, Biol. Skrifter. V. W. 2: 1-140.
-1970 -Recent and extant diatom assemblages in Southern Ontario Bacillariophyceae in The algae of Illinois
  • M R Sreenivasa
  • Pp
  • L H Tiffani
  • M E Britton
SREENIVASA, M. R. -1970 -Recent and extant diatom assemblages in Southern Ontario. Ph. D. thesis, University of Waterloo, 450 pp. TIFFANI, L. H. & BRITTON, M. E. Bacillariophyceae in The algae of Illinois. 214-289. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago. VAN HEURCK, H. -1896 -A treatise on the Diatomaceae (translated by W. E. Boxter).
Fig. 66 8 g. Valves 4-5.8 u wide and 14-16 ju long; this taxon is also very rare. Stations: 12. Fragilaria pinnata EHR. (Fig. 39-40) HUSTEDT, in RABENHORST, p. 160, Fig. 671a-i. Valves 4 t wide and 6-15 y long; this taxon is very common
  • N F Ny
  • Hustedt
Hal; indifferent, pH; alkaliphilous. (N.F. and Ny) HUSTEDT, in RABENHORST, p. 154, Fig. 66 8 g. Valves 4-5.8 u wide and 14-16 ju long; this taxon is also very rare. Stations: 12. Fragilaria pinnata EHR. (Fig. 39-40) HUSTEDT, in RABENHORST, p. 160, Fig. 671a-i. Valves 4 t wide and 6-15 y long; this taxon is very common. Stations: 3 and 5-12.
Fig. 557. Valves 18 u wide and 24 yt long; this species is very rare, a single frustule of this is seen in the estuary mud
  • N F Navicula
  • W Sm
  • Ex Gre
  • Husted
  • Pascher
Hal; mesohalobous, pH; alkaliphilous. (N.F.) Navicula scutelloides W. SM. EX GRE. HUSTED, in PASCHER, p. 311, Fig. 557. Valves 18 u wide and 24 yt long; this species is very rare, a single frustule of this is seen in the estuary mud. Station: 12.
GRUN. (Fig. 30--31) HUSTEDT, in RABENHORST, p. 168, Fig. 670h-m. Valves 6-7 /z wide and 8-10 /z long; not very common
  • Fragilaria
  • Var
Fragilaria construens var. ventar (EHR.) GRUN. (Fig. 30--31) HUSTEDT, in RABENHORST, p. 168, Fig. 670h-m. Valves 6-7 /z wide and 8-10 /z long; not very common. Station: 5.
HUSTEDT, in PASCHER, p. 355, Fig. 651. Valves 9 u wide and 30 ut long; this taxon is found in collections from rocks, moss, sometimes in plankton and in the estuary mud
  • N F Cymbella
  • Naegeli Kutz
Hal; indifferent, pH; alkaliphilous. (N.F.) Cymbella amphicephala NAEGELI EX KUTZ. HUSTEDT, in PASCHER, p. 355, Fig. 651. Valves 9 u wide and 30 ut long; this taxon is found in collections from rocks, moss, sometimes in plankton and in the estuary mud. Stations: 6, 8, 11 and 12.
.) pH; indifferent (N.F.) Gomphonema acuminatum var. laticeps EHR. (Fig. 138-139) A. CLEVE in K.V.A. Handl. 5: 4, p. 173, Fig. 1262c, d. Valves 11.7 u wide and 35-45 ,u long; this taxon is not so common as the variety coronatum
  • Hal
  • ( R Indifferent
Hal; indifferent, (R.P.) pH; indifferent (N.F.) Gomphonema acuminatum var. laticeps EHR. (Fig. 138-139) A. CLEVE in K.V.A. Handl. 5: 4, p. 173, Fig. 1262c, d. Valves 11.7 u wide and 35-45,u long; this taxon is not so common as the variety coronatum. Station: 6.
1943 - Some halobian spectra (Diatoms) Det Kgl. Danske Vinske Videnskabernes Selskab Biologiske Meddeleser
  • Boye Petersen
1927–66 - Die Kiesslalgen Deutschlands, Österreichs, and der Schweiz Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft
  • F Hustedt
1966 - The seasonal growth and distribution of Algae in the Grand River
  • S P Fraser
F. - 1965 - The Waterloo interlobate area
  • P Karrow
1950 - The diatoms of Praesto Fiord
  • M Møller
  • M. Møller
1896 - A treatise on the Diatomaceae
  • H Van Heurck
1970 - Recent and extant diatom assemblages in Southern Ontario
  • M R Sreenivasa
Bacillariophyceae in The algae of Illinois. 214-289
  • L H Tiffani
  • M E Britton
1965 - The Waterloo interlobate area (408/7, 408/10)
  • P F Karrow
  • P. F. Karrow
1933-35 - An index to the genera and species of the Diatomaceae and their synonyms
  • F W Mills
  • F. W. Mills
1958 - The diatoms in the basalt area and adjoining areas of Archean Rock in West Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Kommissioner for Videnskabelige Undersøgelser I Grønland. BD, 156
  • N Foged
1959 - Diatoms from Afghanistan
  • N Foged
  • N. Foged
Det Kgl. Danske Vinske Videnskabernes Selskab Biologiske Meddeleser
  • J Boye Petersen
  • J. Boye Petersen
Die Süsswas-ser-Flora Mittleuropas
  • F Hustedt
  • Bacillariophyta