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Diatom Flora of the Grand River, Ontario, Canada

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Abstract

This paper describes the diatom flora of the Grand River, Ontario, Canada. Samples were collected systematically from the river over a period of several years at tweleve stations. The diatom flora of the river is typical of temperate alkaline rivers. The flora is rich in species and variaties, and is similar to that from many parts from North Eastern United States. A total of 273 taxa of diatoms were identified. There is a tendency for the number of species per sample to increase downstream. The flora of the estuary in characteristic with a great variety of taxa occuring in small numbers. Most of the species are alkaliphilous and indifferent in the halolian spectra.

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... Excellent habit photomicrographs of raphid diatoms are available (e.g., Canter-Lund and Lund, 1995), illustrating their growth habits. Floras and checklists exist for certain localities, states, or regions of North America (Patrick, 1945;Sovereign, 1958;Woodhead and Tweed, 1960;Patrick and Freese, 1961;Hohn and Hellerman, 1963;Bright, 1968;Stoermer and Yang, 1969;Foged, 1971;Sreenivasa and Duthie, 1973;Clark and Rushforth, 1977;Collins and Kalinsky, 1977;Stoermer et al., 1999;Czarnecki and Blinn, 1978;Camburn et al., 1978;Prescott and Dillard, 1979;Johansen and Rushforth, 1981;Kaczmarska and Rushforth, 1983;Bahls et al., 1984;Bateman and Rushforth, 1984;Poulin, 1990;Douglas and Smol, 1993;Kociolek, 2005;Bahls, 2010), and hundreds of specific papers document North American diatom species and their relationship to ecological conditions. Continental-scale monitoring programs such as EMAP and NAWQA, and statewide programs in places such as California, Kentucky, and New Jersey aim to relate diatom species and community responses to environmental variables. ...
... For North American freshwater diatoms, particularly useful publications include the publications of Potapova Ponader and Potapova, 2007;Potapova and Hamilton, 2007;Enache and Potapova, 2012;Potapova, 2012) and Patrick and Reimer (1966), all primarily based largely on rivers in the eastern United States. Other publications are useful for dilute lakes (Camburn et al., 1984(Camburn et al., -1986, Utah (Johansen and Rushforth, 1981;Kaczmarska and Rushforth, 1983), Arizona (Czarnecki and Blinn, 1978), the Pacific Northwest (Sovereign, 1958(Sovereign, , 1963 the Laurentian Great Lakes (Stoermer and Yang, 1969;Kreis and Stoermer, 1979;Stoermer, 1980), Ontario (Sreenivasa, 1971;Duthie and Sreenivasa, 1972;Sreenivasa and Duthie, 1973), Hawaii (Lowe et al., 2009), and Alaska (Patrick and Freese, 1961;Foged, 1971). Some ecological works document the diatoms observed, though they are not primarily systematics studies (Cumming et al., 1995). ...
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This monophyletic group of diatoms has the evolutionary innovation of a raphe system, which has afforded its members the ability to move longer and faster, relative to their body size. Species within the 105 genera treated here occupy a wide range of habitats, including living adnate on substrates, being motile in benthic environments, living attached or in mucilaginous tubes, and even creating colonies to live in the plankton. We treat the following major groups of raphid diatoms: Eunotiales (6 genera), Achnanthales (11 genera), Naviculales (72 genera), Bacillariales (9 genera), Rhopalodiales (2 genera), and Surirellales (5 genera). For each group, we present scanning electron microscope images to illustrate valve morphology. For genera in each group, we provide original light microscope images, descriptions, and comments on ecological preferences.
... The ecological characteristics of the revealed species were obtained from the database compiled for freshwater algae from multiple analyses of algal biodiversity ( Barinova et al., 2006) with additions ( Bahls et al., 1984;Dell'Uomo, Torrisi, 2011;Kharitonov, 2010;Odland, Norway, 2005;Pankow, 1976;Salden, 1978;Soininen et al., 2004;Sreenivasa, Duthie, 1973;Ter Braak, Van Dam, 1989;Van Dam et al., 1994;Van de Vijver et al., 2004;W?hlin, 1970;Whitmore, 1989) according to substrate preference, temperature, streaming and oxygenation, pH, salinity, organic enrichments, N-uptake metabolism, and trophic states. ...
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... Hardwater species such as Clado- phora glomerata, Phormidium incrustatum and Schizothrix calcicola (Blum, 1959 ;Pentecost, 1982) were not found, further substantiating the fact that Rhode Island streams contain a macroalgal flora associated with acidic-to-neutral habitats . The most widespread and abundant species, Eunotia pectinalis, is cosmopolitan in flowing waters which are low in pH and dissolved ions (Patrick & Reimer, 1966 ;Cholnoky 1968 ;Sreenivasa & Duthie, 1973 ;Eloranta & Kunnas, 1979 ;van Dam et al., 1981 ;Johansson, 1982) . In addition, this species has been reported to be a dominant component of the stream flora in coastal plain streams of North Carolina, U .S .A . ...
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Forty stream segments in Rhode Island, U.S.A., were examined seasonally from June 1979 to March 1982. Thirty-nine species of macroalgae were collected, respresenting 25 genera. The composition of the lotic flora was 54% green algae, 31% red algae, 5% blue-green algae, 5% xanthophytes, 3% chrysophytes and 3% diatoms. The majority of these taxa (85%) were filamentous. From a biweekly examination of five stream segments, macroalgal communities could be grouped according to light regime. Species in unshaded streams exhibited little seasonality, whereas in streams shaded by one or more layers of riparian canopy, maxima in species numbers and abundance occurred during colder seasons. The most widespread and abundant species were the blue-green alga Phormidium retzii, the green alga Draparnaldia acuta, and the diatom Eunotia pectinalis. P. retzii and E. pectinalis were aseasonal annuals, while D. acuta was primarily a winter-spring form. It appears that pH is a major factor affecting broad geographic distribution patterns of stream macroalgae, whereas the light regime established by overhanging canopy is an important factor which influences localized abundance and seasonality of lotic macroalgal communities. Niche pre-emption appears to be a common mode of resource space division among stream macroalgae in Rhode Island. E. pectinalis is the strongly developed dominant in this drainage system.
... In addition, many studies exist concerning the taxonomy of river diatoms (e.g. Sreenivasa and Duthie 1973, Wujek and Rupp 1980, Zalocar de Domitrovic and Maidana 1997, and several others (e.g. De Sève and Goldstein 1981, Juggins 1992, Hay et al. 1997) have considered the relationships between diatoms and environmental conditions in rivers. ...
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... The Grand River (south western Ontario, Canada) has been thoroughly characterized, with studies ranging from nutrient uptake (BARLOW-BUSCH et al., 2006), species composition along seasonal and nutrient gradients (METCALFE-SMITH et al., 2000;ROTT et al., 1998;SREENIVASA and DUTHIE, 1973), nitrogen cycling (ROSAMOND et al., 2011), fish ecology (COOKE and BUNT, 1999) to health risks from livestock rearing (DORNER et al., 2004) and human activities (LISSEMORE et al., 2006). The Grand River receives agricultural and urban inputs from both point (sewage plants, tile drainage) and non-point sources (agriculture, chiefly from manure spreading). ...
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... The Grand River is a case in point for studying these parallel effects, since the cities are concentrated in the central part of the catchment area whereas the intensively cultivated land extends mainly from the middle to the lowest reaches. This was the background to earlier investigations of the benthic and planktonic diatom flora of the Grand River (Fraser 1966; Sreenivasa and Duthie 1973). Diatom analysis is proposed as a valuable diagnostic tool for quantifying stream ecosystem conditions in Canada in the sense of Kilgour et al. (1996) . ...
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This paper present a study of physico-chemical quality of river water and abundance and distribution of phytoplankton community in a stretch of river Damodar from November 1996 to October 1998 in relation to steel plant effluents. Phytoplankton and water quality of S1 (Control zone), S2 (Out fall zone) and S3 and S4 (Downstrean zone) were studied and compared. Low transparency and pH, and high TSS, temperature and total hardness were the characteristic of S2 and S3, indicating a stressful habitat. Effluent discharge significantly changed the phytoplankton community structure. It was also noticed that S2 and S3 were characterized by low number of taxa with their higher abundance. The discharge of steel plant effluent obviously caused habitat degradation resulting ecological modification of phytoplankton community of river Damodar at Barnpur.
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A 16-month study on a storage reservoir explained some of the factors controlling the seasonal development of phytoplankton in such an environment. Thermal stratification was unstable but was established in one of the two summers of the study and was associated with oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion. Both nitrate and phosphate concentrations showed distinct seasonality and the amounts in the influent were very similar to the amounts in the effluent. Large populations of Cryptomonas spp. developed in the early summer, when amounts of phosphate and nitrate were minimal, and were followed by a succession of planktonic Cyanophyta lasting into the winter. A population of Peridinium aciculiferum (Lemm.) Lemm. occurred over the winter. Based on their ecology in the reservoir the species of phytoplankton were divided into three groups: an autochthonous group, which developed populations simultaneously all over the lake; an allochthonous group, which sometimes formed populations around the inflow; and the river plankton, which rarely developed in the reservoir.
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In experiments conducted simultaneously at two stations in Belwood Reservoir it was found that while the standing crop and the rate of assimilation per square meter were less at a station just below the inflow, the activity coefficient was generally higher than at a station near the dam. The activity coefficient varied from 0.19 with a population consisting mainly of Cryptomonas, Asterionella, and Dinobryon to 0.02 with a very large population of mainly Ceratium hirundinella. In general there was an inverse relationship between standing crop and activity coefficient. Daily production estimates ranged from 134 mg C/day m2 to 1650 mg C/day m2. A population of Peridinium aciculiferum was found to have an activity coefficient of 0.05.
1965 - The Waterloo interlobate area (408/7
  • P F Karrow
1951-1955 - Die Diatomeen von Schweden und Finland. Kgl, Sveska Vetenskapsakad
  • A Cleve-Euler
indifferent, pH; indifferent
  • Hal
Hal; indifferent, pH; indifferent. (N.F.) FIGS. 133--149
Gomphonema angustatum var. obtusatum. KUTZ. (Fig. 141) 5: 4, p. 179, Fig. 1270c, d. Valves 7-9 u wide and 29 /u long; this taxon is found in small numbers from rock scrapings and moss
  • Hal A Cleve
  • K V A Handl
Hal; indifferent, pH; alkaliphilous. (N.F.) Gomphonema angustatum var. obtusatum. KUTZ. (Fig. 141) A. CLEVE, in K.V.A. Handl. 5: 4, p. 179, Fig. 1270c, d. Valves 7-9 u wide and 29 /u long; this taxon is found in small numbers from rock scrapings and moss. Stations: 4, 6 and 8. Gomphonema angustatum var. sarcophagus (GREG.) V.H. (Fig. 142) HUSTED, in PASCHER, p. 373, Fig. 691. Valves 7,u wide and 35 u long; this taxon is found in few samples nearer to the estuary and the estuary mud. Stations: 8, 9, 11 and 12.
Magnification scale denotes 10 microns. Valves 9-12 y wide and 30-42 u long: This taxon is found to be frequent in few samples
  • N Hust
N. theinamanni HUST. 128. N. tripunctata (0. F. MULL.) BORY. 129. N. viridula Kz. 130. N. vulupina Kz. 131, 132. N. wittrockii (LAGST.) A. CL. Magnification scale denotes 10 microns. Valves 9-12 y wide and 30-42 u long: This taxon is found to be frequent in few samples. Stations: 2, 3, 8 and 10.
3: 3, p. 84, Fig. 1491e-i. Valves 3.6 t wide and 17 u long; this taxon is rare and is found in a single sample Station: 11. Nitzschia fonticola var. septentrionalis A: 3, p. 89, Fig. 1500i-k. Valves 3 wide 13 uz long; this taxon is found in few samples. Stations: 3, 6 and 11
  • Hal Nitzschia
  • Grun A Cleve
  • K V A Handl
Hal; indifferent, pH; alkaliphilous. (N.F.) Nitzschia fonticola var. minima GRUN. A. CLEVE, in K.V.A. Handl. 3: 3, p. 84, Fig. 1491e-i. Valves 3.6 t wide and 17 u long; this taxon is rare and is found in a single sample. Station: 11. Nitzschia fonticola var. septentrionalis A. CL. A. CLEVE, in K.V.A. Handl. 3: 3, p. 89, Fig. 1500i-k. Valves 3 wide 13 uz long; this taxon is found in few samples. Stations: 3, 6 and 11. JVitzschia frustulum var. perpusilla (RABH.) (GRUN. Fig. 206) VAN HEURCK, In A Treatise on the Diatomaceae, p. 403, pl. 17, Fig. 566. Valves 4 yu wide and 16 ut long; this taxon is found in a single plankton collection. Station: 1.
Handle, 3: 3, p. 11, Fig. 1334. Valves 7 u wide and 56 u long; this taxon is found in a few samples
  • K A V A Cleve
Hal; mesohalobous, pH; alkalibiotic. (N.F.) Gyrosigma scalproides (RABH.) CL. (Fig. 90) A. CLEVE, in K.V.A. Handle, 3: 3, p. 11, Fig. 1334. Valves 7 u wide and 56 u long; this taxon is found in a few samples. Stations: 9 and 12.
Fig. 126) PATRICK & REIMER, in the diatoms of the U, pl. 48, Fig. 1. Valves 7-9 /i wide and 21-41 ,u long; this taxon is one of the common naviculoid diatoms in the river
  • N F Navicula
  • Cleve Grun
Hal; indifferent, pH; alkaliphilous. (N.F.) Navicula salinarum GRUN in CLEVE & GRUN. (Fig. 126) PATRICK & REIMER, in the diatoms of the U.S., Vol. 1, p. 502, pl. 48, Fig. 1. Valves 7-9 /i wide and 21-41,u long; this taxon is one of the common naviculoid diatoms in the river. Stations: 1, 3-8, 10 and 12.
HUBER-PESTALZZI, G. -1942 -Das Phytoplancton des Siisswassers. 1. Die Binnengewasser, 16, Diatomeen. HUSTEDT, F. -1927-66 -Die Kiesslalgen Deutschlands, Osterreichs, and der Schweiz Akademische Verlags-gesellschaft) 815 pp. HUSTEDT, F. -1930 -Bacillariophyta Die Siisswas-ser-Flora Mittleuropas
  • S P Fraser
  • G Fischer
  • Jena Jorgensen
FRASER, S. P. C. -1966 -The seasonal growth and distribution of Algae in the Grand River. M. Sc. Thesis. University of Waterloo. HUBER-PESTALZZI, G. -1942 -Das Phytoplancton des Siisswassers. 1. Die Binnengewasser, 16, Diatomeen. HUSTEDT, F. -1927-66 -Die Kiesslalgen Deutschlands, Osterreichs, and der Schweiz. Band 7 (1,2) in: L. RABENHORST (ed.). Akademische Verlags-gesellschaft, pt 1, (1927-30), 920 pp.; pt 2, (1931-59), 845 pp,; pt 3, (1961-66) 815 pp. HUSTEDT, F. -1930 -Bacillariophyta. Heft 10 in: A., PASCHER (ed). Die Siisswas-ser-Flora Mittleuropas. G. Fischer, Jena. JORGENSEN, E. G. -1948 -Diatom communities in some Danish Lakes and ponds. D. Kgl. Danske Vidensk. Selskab, Biol. Skrifter. V. W. 2: 1-140.
-1970 -Recent and extant diatom assemblages in Southern Ontario Bacillariophyceae in The algae of Illinois
  • M R Sreenivasa
  • Pp
  • L H Tiffani
  • M E Britton
SREENIVASA, M. R. -1970 -Recent and extant diatom assemblages in Southern Ontario. Ph. D. thesis, University of Waterloo, 450 pp. TIFFANI, L. H. & BRITTON, M. E. Bacillariophyceae in The algae of Illinois. 214-289. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago. VAN HEURCK, H. -1896 -A treatise on the Diatomaceae (translated by W. E. Boxter).
Fig. 66 8 g. Valves 4-5.8 u wide and 14-16 ju long; this taxon is also very rare. Stations: 12. Fragilaria pinnata EHR. (Fig. 39-40) HUSTEDT, in RABENHORST, p. 160, Fig. 671a-i. Valves 4 t wide and 6-15 y long; this taxon is very common
  • N F Ny
  • Hustedt
Hal; indifferent, pH; alkaliphilous. (N.F. and Ny) HUSTEDT, in RABENHORST, p. 154, Fig. 66 8 g. Valves 4-5.8 u wide and 14-16 ju long; this taxon is also very rare. Stations: 12. Fragilaria pinnata EHR. (Fig. 39-40) HUSTEDT, in RABENHORST, p. 160, Fig. 671a-i. Valves 4 t wide and 6-15 y long; this taxon is very common. Stations: 3 and 5-12.
Fig. 557. Valves 18 u wide and 24 yt long; this species is very rare, a single frustule of this is seen in the estuary mud
  • N F Navicula
  • W Sm
  • Ex Gre
  • Husted
  • Pascher
Hal; mesohalobous, pH; alkaliphilous. (N.F.) Navicula scutelloides W. SM. EX GRE. HUSTED, in PASCHER, p. 311, Fig. 557. Valves 18 u wide and 24 yt long; this species is very rare, a single frustule of this is seen in the estuary mud. Station: 12.
GRUN. (Fig. 30--31) HUSTEDT, in RABENHORST, p. 168, Fig. 670h-m. Valves 6-7 /z wide and 8-10 /z long; not very common
  • Fragilaria
  • Var
Fragilaria construens var. ventar (EHR.) GRUN. (Fig. 30--31) HUSTEDT, in RABENHORST, p. 168, Fig. 670h-m. Valves 6-7 /z wide and 8-10 /z long; not very common. Station: 5.
HUSTEDT, in PASCHER, p. 355, Fig. 651. Valves 9 u wide and 30 ut long; this taxon is found in collections from rocks, moss, sometimes in plankton and in the estuary mud
  • N F Cymbella
  • Naegeli Kutz
Hal; indifferent, pH; alkaliphilous. (N.F.) Cymbella amphicephala NAEGELI EX KUTZ. HUSTEDT, in PASCHER, p. 355, Fig. 651. Valves 9 u wide and 30 ut long; this taxon is found in collections from rocks, moss, sometimes in plankton and in the estuary mud. Stations: 6, 8, 11 and 12.
.) pH; indifferent (N.F.) Gomphonema acuminatum var. laticeps EHR. (Fig. 138-139) A. CLEVE in K.V.A. Handl. 5: 4, p. 173, Fig. 1262c, d. Valves 11.7 u wide and 35-45 ,u long; this taxon is not so common as the variety coronatum
  • Hal
  • ( R Indifferent
Hal; indifferent, (R.P.) pH; indifferent (N.F.) Gomphonema acuminatum var. laticeps EHR. (Fig. 138-139) A. CLEVE in K.V.A. Handl. 5: 4, p. 173, Fig. 1262c, d. Valves 11.7 u wide and 35-45,u long; this taxon is not so common as the variety coronatum. Station: 6.
1943 - Some halobian spectra (Diatoms) Det Kgl. Danske Vinske Videnskabernes Selskab Biologiske Meddeleser
  • Boye Petersen
1927–66 - Die Kiesslalgen Deutschlands, Österreichs, and der Schweiz Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft
  • F Hustedt
1966 - The seasonal growth and distribution of Algae in the Grand River
  • S P Fraser
F. - 1965 - The Waterloo interlobate area
  • P Karrow
1950 - The diatoms of Praesto Fiord
  • M Møller
  • M. Møller
1896 - A treatise on the Diatomaceae
  • H Van Heurck
1970 - Recent and extant diatom assemblages in Southern Ontario
  • M R Sreenivasa
Bacillariophyceae in The algae of Illinois. 214-289
  • L H Tiffani
  • M E Britton
1965 - The Waterloo interlobate area (408/7, 408/10)
  • P F Karrow
  • P. F. Karrow
1933-35 - An index to the genera and species of the Diatomaceae and their synonyms
  • F W Mills
  • F. W. Mills
1958 - The diatoms in the basalt area and adjoining areas of Archean Rock in West Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Kommissioner for Videnskabelige Undersøgelser I Grønland. BD, 156
  • N Foged
1959 - Diatoms from Afghanistan
  • N Foged
  • N. Foged
Det Kgl. Danske Vinske Videnskabernes Selskab Biologiske Meddeleser
  • J Boye Petersen
  • J. Boye Petersen
Die Süsswas-ser-Flora Mittleuropas
  • F Hustedt
  • Bacillariophyta