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The main reasons abused men do not seek social services include their strong endorsement of social/cultural values and avoidance of gender role conflict. Through internet-based service connections, we did not find sources in Asia, Australia, or New Zealand that advertised programs exclusively for male victims of domestic violence (DV). Nine social services in Hong Kong and Singapore describe their work with men in DV situations, but the main focus is “men as perpetrators.” Targeting men as victims, 32 sources in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom describe services designed especially for male DV victims. Findings demonstrate that services for male victims must address such factors as secretiveness, cultural values, masculine identity, tolerance, shame, and loss of face.
Asian Male Domestic Violence Victims: Services Exclusive
for Men
Monit Cheung & Patrick Leung & Venus Tsui
Published online: 19 May 2009
Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009
Abstract The main reasons abused men do not seek social
services include their strong endorsement of social/cultural
values and avoidance of gender role conflict. Through
internet-based service connections, we did not find sources
in Asia, Australia, or New Zealand that advertised programs
exclusively for male victims of domestic violence (DV).
Nine social services in Hong Kong and Singapore describe
their work with men in DV situations, but the main focus is
men as perpetrators. Targeting men as victims, 32 sources
in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom
describe services designed especially for male DV victims.
Findings demonstrate that services for male victim s must
address such factors as secretiveness, cultural values,
masculine identity, tolerance, shame, and loss of face.
Keywords Spouse abuse
Male abuse victims
Abused men
Hong Kong
New Zealand
United Kingdom
United States
Internet services
Asian men
Help seeking behavior
Losing face
Masculine identity
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Preven-
tion (2006), Intimate partner violence (IPV) is abuse
between two people in a close relationship[including]
current and former spouse s and dating partners (p.1). In
general, domestic violence (DV) and IPV are interchange-
ably used although DV can involve more than two person s
in conflict such as spouses and their children. According to
American Psychological Association (2001), DV is an
ongoing pattern of behavior, attitudes, and beliefs in which
a partner in an intimate relationship attempts to maintain
power and control over the other through the use of
psychological, physical, and/or sexual coercion (p. 3).
Control and power are forcefully obtained through physical
abuse, sexual abuse and exploitation, emotional abuse,
economic or financial abuse, and spiritual abu se, and a
person may be subjected to more than one form of abuse.
DV affects people of all ages and both genders. A
number of studies reveal that both males and females
reportedly experience direct aggression in interaction with
intimate partners (Archer 2000, 2002;Gelles1999;
Richardson 2005). Based on the annual projection from
the results of National Viole nce Against Women Survey,
1.5 million women and 835,000 men are victims of
physical violence by their intimate partners (Tjaden and
Thoennes 1998). Brown (2004) found four times more
female victims (81%) than male victims (19%) in partner
violence reported to police.
Although DV statistics on Asians are not readily
available, three studies indicate that males are the hidden
victims. In a study focused on family violence, Yoshioka et
al. (2000) found that 15% of the Vietnamese American
respondents saw their mother regularly hit their father. Kim
and Emery ( 2003) found that marital violence among
Korean couples is correlated with power and conflict, and
their study with 1,500 participants indicated that wife to
husband abuse was 12% for minor violence and 2.8% for
severe violence. Baba and Murray (2003) surveyed 131
Vietnamese students at a U.S. college and found that 26%
of their mothers physically abused their fathers at least
J Fam Viol (2009) 24:447462
DOI 10.1007/s10896-009-9240-9
M. Cheung (*)
P. Leung
V. Tsui
University of Houston,
Houston, TX 77204-4013, USA
P. Leung
V. Tsui
once. The male-victim findings revealed that Asian male
victims are well-hidden and that Asian men are not always
the perpetrators. Since men typically do not report their
victimization, little is known about the needs of this
understudied population.
This paper focuses on exploring the phenomena of mens
help-seeking behavior, in general and among Asian men,
analyzing from literature the reasons why male victims do not
come forward, as well as describing the method and findings
of an internet-based study that searched the availability of
services with a focus on addressing male victims needs.
Implications for practice and research will be discussed.
Men Not Seeking Help: In General
Gender difference in help-seeking behavior is a growing
concern. Research has shown that men are less likely than
women to seek help for a variety of psychological
difficulties and medical attention (Commonwealth Fund
1998; Tudiver and Talbot 1999). In a study with four focus
groups of 18 participants (12 men and 6 women) who were
family physicians in active practice, perceived vulnerability,
fear, and denial are important factors that influence mens
decision not to seek help (Tudiver and Talbot 199 9 ).
According to George (1994), men are viewed as unaccept-
able victims of marital violence and the concept of the
male victim is a great taboo. When men report abuse
incidents, they are typically treated with blatant discrim-
ination and harsh comments, such as Look at the size of
you! Maybe she was just defending herself (Male Victims as
Domestic Violence 2007). An internet-based organization,
Respecting Accuracy in Domestic Abuse Reporting (RA-
DAR 2006), issued a special report about domestic abuse
and described how men who seek help are ignored, ridiculed,
and even accused of being the initiator of the crime. In a
study of open-ended interviews with five male Marines
about their experiences with violence in their homes, male
victims do not view abuse in the same way as their female
counterparts, and often deny that they are involved in an
abusive relationship, which reinforces abusive patterns
(Davis 2004). Social stigmatization and mensdenialof
being victims are among the many reasons explaining why
men are less inclined to seek help than women.
Some studies a rgued that not all men are equally
unwilling to seek help. A study on personal crises found that
European American men are more receptive than African
American men toward help-seeking (Neighbors et al. 1998).
In another study, middle-class men are more likely than
lower income and working class men to seek help (Hodgetts
and Chamberlain 2002). Although not gender specific,
Asian Americans and Asian immigrants have increased
resistance to professional assistance (Shin 2002).
Men Not Seeking Help: Asian Men
Many studies have recognized the importance of culture in
understanding ethnic minorities (Lane and Addis 2005; Liu
and Iwamoto 2006;Yu2005). Exploration of Asian cultural
values is an effective way to know more about Asian men.
In general, Asian cultural values consist of avoidance of
shame, collectivism, conformity to no rms, deference to
authority, emotional self-control, family recognition through
achievement, filial piety, humility, and compliance based on
hierarchical relationships (Kim et al. 2001; Kim et al. 1999).
Research has suggested that Asian cultural values may
shape masculinity for Asian American men. A study of 559
college students, who self-iden tified themselves as Chinese,
Japanese, or White/European, revealed that US-born and
immigrant Asian men viewed their masculinity as distinct
from White hegemonic masculinity (Chua and Fujino
1999). In Chua and Fujinos study, Asian American men
characterized masculinity as being polite, obedient and caring,
which indicates that Asian Americans standards for mascu-
linity are still shaped heavily by Asian traditional norms.
Reasons for Male Victims Not Coming Forward
Asian cultural values and norms, such as avoidance of
shame and emotional self-control, also directly influence
mens behavior. According to Ho (1976), face is lost when
a man fails to meet the essential requirements placed on the
mans position to perform his masculine roles. Since the
concepts of shame and face are closely related, Chan (2006)
stresses the use of face as a concept to understand mens
feeling and behavioral responses because spousal conflict in
Chinese culture is considered face-losing (Chan 2006).
Rentoul and Appleboom (1997) revealed that when male
victims seek help, the most pervasive themes are related to
their problems in reconciling their masculine identity with
their experience of being abuse victims. Through story
telling that can conceal their identities, many men are then
willing to share their sufferings from physical, fiscal, and
emotional abuse (Equal Justice Foundation 2006). Contrary
to the stereotypical image of the tough macho man, male
victims discl ose feelings of shame, disgrace, emotional
loss, a nd humiliation, any one of which w ould have
prevented abused men from speaking out (Jill 2002, 2006).
Men who experience greater gender role conflict tend to
have higher resistant attitudes towards seeking professional
help. Rigid adherence to male gender roles and masculine
expectations can result in gender role restriction and
conflict toward self (O'Neil et al. 1986). A study of 401
male undergraduates found that adherence to the traditional
male gender role, such as not expressing emotions or affection
toward other men, was negatively related to professional help-
448 J Fam Viol (2009) 24:447462
seeking behavior (Good et al. 1989). In addition to supporting
this premise, Osborne (2004) also found that the availability
of social support, situational distress, and acceptance of
vulnerability were significant predictors for at least one form
of help-seeking; namely, advice/guidance, practical assis-
tance, companionship, and emotional support.
Another study of why men do not seek help further
identifies some personal barriers related to a mans traditional
social role characteristics, including 1) a sense of immunity
and immortality, 2) difficulty relinquishing control, and 3) a
belief that seeking help is unacceptable and men are not
interested in prevention (Tudiver and Talbot 1999). Focusing
on results from 192 Asian American men, Liu and Iwamoto
(2006) found that endorsement of Asian cultural values is
related to higher scores on gender role conflict. These studies
and related research on domestic violence consistently
suggest that Asian mens adherence to traditional cultural
values is related to their unwillingness in help-seeking.
Although there is a dearth of studies on partner abuse
against Asian men in domes tic violence literature, it can be
extrapolated that when men are assaulted by their partners,
Asian mens unique psychology, personal barriers, and
traditional cultural values greatly affect or even jeopardize
their help-seeking decision. Despite the underreporting of
abuse of men and underutilization of services by male
victims, men do need help. Because of their resistance to
step forward, there is a defin ite need to have specialized
services designed solely for male victims. However, limited
research has been conducted on examining the service
needs of male victims and the existing service provisions.
The purpose of this paper explores the service availability
and charact eristics of existing services for male domestic
violence victims in countries where Asian men are living. It
is hoped that through this information more research will be
conducted on men as domestic abuse victims and service
providers will learn culturally sensitive ways to meet the
needs of ethnic minorities, especially the Asian male victims,
who are not immune to domestic violence.
In order to attain an updated and timely profile of service
provisions and characteristics for Asian male domes tic
violence victims, the authors utilized an internet search to
conduct the investigation. In 200708, the authors accessed
different websites via and to target
Asian male victim services. We took two steps to ensure
that we did not miss possibly important websites and
services for men: 1) general and specific keywords were
used with different combinations of word entries: spousal/
domestic violence/abuse, man/male victims, battered man/
husband, and services /programs/ projects for male victims/
men, and mens mental health; and 2) all three researchers
separately searched the internet to cross-check whether we
missed any relevant websites. We first focused on Asian
countries and found no service or program exclusively
publicized for male victims. There were nine domestic
violence programs implemented by the government and
NGOs in Hong Kong and Singapore. However, the
announcements show that no services are solely designed
for men as domestic violence victims.
Since Asians also live in many other countries, we
decided to go beyond Asian countr ies and search other parts
of the world. We first searched websites from Australia and
New Zealand because many Asians migrated to these
countries that are located in the Pacific Rim region. Although
we found nine social services pertaining content on domestic
violence, these services mainly serve men as perpetrators or
men experienced general crises. We were disappointed that
none of the DV social services publicized through the
internet are designed exclusively for male victims.
Finally, we expanded our search to other websites in the
world. Beyond keyword searches, government websites
also provided links to information such as official national
data and welfare services of related departments. This
search was then followed up by clicking the related link to
reach expected services/programs. To illustrate this process
with an example, we first used one of search engines
( and typed the word male domestic violence
victims, then clicked related websites, e.g., MenWeb-
domestic violence. 835,000 battered men each year,
silent…”; and then clicked into the website http://ww. and scrolled down to the bottom to
double click the program SAFE to get to http://www.; by clicking 682 resource list on the left
column, we found a resource list under the website http://; and lastly we selected
services that led to their home websites and then reported
the findings on a summary chart. This process continued
until all the relevant resources were exhausted.
While thousands of agencies and units from governm ental
and non-governmental organizations are currently provid-
ing a broad range of services and programs for female
domestic violence victims and their children, no services
were found exclusively for male victims of domestic
violence in Asia. This internet search showed that no
services were found for male victims in China, India, and
Japan. In Japan, it was not until 1992 that the term domestic
violence was introduced (Tsunoda 1997). In South Korea,
no unique services for male victims could be found;
programs are available to prevent sexual abuse or domestic
J Fam Viol (2009) 24:447462 449
Table 1 Services for male domestic violence victims in Asian countries
Country Organization/ Program Service Descriptions Service Targets
China No available services can be found.
Hong Kong Caritas-Hong Kong Family Service Mens Hotline: 2649 1100 (Wednesday: 2:00 pm-5:00 pm) Men
Hong Kong Christian Family Services Center Mens Hotline: 2787 1355 (Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday:
10:00 am-10:00 pm)
Men who are disturbed
by domestic violence
Mens Growth Group
Hong Kong Family Welfare Society -
Alternatives to Violence Project
Originated from the Quakers in 1975 and has been adopted by
26 countries, it is a movement advocating anger management
in a peaceful way. In 2002, the Society is the first agency to
bring the Project to Hong Kong from overseas in view of
increased family violence. It offers experiential workshops to
empower individuals to transform violence in a peaceful way
and build a peaceful community.
Aged 21 and above
(male and female)
Hong Kong Harmony House - Third Path
Mans Services:
It aims to end DV with men as perpetrators Male perpetrators
Hotline: 2295 1386 (Monday, Wednesday, Friday: 2:00 pm-10:00 pm)
Hong Kong Po Leung Kuk Men's Hotline: 2890 1830 Men in DV situations
Men are encouraged to use this hotline service and avoid violence if
they are upset by problems regarding marriage, family, financial
problem, work and interpersonal relationship, and courtship, etc. [24 hours]
Hong Kong Social Welfare Department (SWD) In Hong Kong, a wide range of welfare services for victims of child abuse,
spouse battering and sexual violence are provided by the Social Welfare
Department (SWD), subsidized and non-subsidized non-governmental
organizations (NGOs).
Victims of child abuse,
spouse battering and
sexual violence
-Support for Victims of Child Abuse,
Spouse Battering and Sexual Violence
The Family and Child Protective Services Units (FCPSUs) of SWD: One-stop
services include outreaching, social investigation, crisis intervention, statutory
protection, intensive individual and group treatment to victims of child abuse
and spouse battering, batterers and their family members. Referrals for various
services e.g. legal aid, school placement, residential placement etc. will also be
made whenever necessary.
Integrated Family Service Centers (IFSC)/Integrated Services Centers (ISC) run by
NGOs: Provide counseling and tangible assistance to help victims of child abuse,
spouse battering and their family members. For victims of sexual violence, social
workers of IFSCs/ISCs from both SWD and NGOs provide counseling services,
crisis intervention, therapeutic and supportive groups, escort for report to the Police,
if needed, and arrange referrals for other services including clinical psychological
service, financial assistance, legal service, schooling arrangement, job placement,
housing assistance (e.g. compassionate rehousing, conditional tenancy) and other
community resources.
450 J Fam Viol (2009) 24:447462
Table 1 (continued)
Country Organization/ Program Service Descriptions Service Targets
Medical social services: Provide counseling, tangible services and arrange referrals
for rehabilitation, community services and so forth to help the victims of child
abuse, spouse battering and sexual violence cases and their family members.
Clinical psychological Services (from SWD / NGOs / and some hospitals): Provide
assessment and treatment services to abusers and victims of domestic and other
sexual violence if they present symptoms of psychopathology.
Witness Support Program: In strengthening support to the abused children serving
as witnesses in criminal proceedings, support persons would be arranged through
the Witness Support Program, set up jointly by SWD and the Police, to accompany
the abused children who have to testify in the court proceedings through a live
television link system. This program is also available to the mentally incapacitated
Four Refuge Centers: Provide temporary accommodation and supportive services to
women and their children who are facing domestic violence or family crisis
(including Wai On Home for Women, Harmony House, Serene Court and Sunrise
Court. Refuge centers), admissions on a 24-hour basis
The Family Crisis Support Center (FCSC) operated by the Caritas-Hong Kong provides
time-out facility and an integrated package of services in helping people under extreme
stress or facing crisis to manage their emotions and seek positive solution to family
problems, including domestic violence
Two Pilot projects of Batterer Intervention Program (operated by the Hong Kong Family
Welfare Society and SWD): Develop a systematic and localized group intervention
model to meet the needs of batterers of domestic violence, launched in March 2006 and
completed by March of 2008
ix) Hotline Service: Provide information on social welfare services and immediate support to
victims of domestic and sexual violence (including child abuse). The hotlines which are
operated by social workers or volunteers, or through the interactive voice processing
system include: SWD Hotline : 2343 2255 [24 hours]
x) Family Crisis Support Center : 18 288 [24 hours]
xi) Mutual Aid HKCSS Helpline (through IVPS) : 1878668 [24 hours]
xii) Crisis Intervention Team on Family Violence (CIT): The crisis intervention team
has been set up in A&E Department of Tuen Mun Hospital, United Christian
Hospital and Tseung Kwan O Hospital to render immediate crisis intervention
and support to battered spouse cases.
xiii) Mens Health Program: Use an internet program to encourage men to answer questions
regarding their concerns about health and issues including domestic violence.
Hong Kong SWD & Tung Wah Group
of Hospitals: CEASE Crisis
Center 24-hour Hotline: 18281
It provides the following services: 24-crisis intervention service; coordination with the
concerned departments/agencies to facilitate the victim to go through the procedures,
if necessary; provision of support and company to the victims and their families
throughout the process; referrals to other necessary services, e.g. psychological treatment,
Domestic violence victims
including children,
women, men and elderly
J Fam Viol (2009) 24:447462 451
Table 1 (continued)
Country Organization/ Program Service Descriptions Service Targets
financial assistance and temporary accommodation (80 beds by 2008 will be provided for
victims of domestic violence); and case consultation to frontline professionals handling
sexual violence cases.
India No available services can be found.
Japan No available services can be found
Singapore Singapore Government 1) Family Violence Networking System: It is collaboration between government and
non-government agencies to deal with family violence cases. The system helps ensure that
victims receive the appropriate and timely help and advice for their safety and protection.
It links police, hospitals, social service agencies, the courts, prisons and Ministry of
Community Development, Youth and Sports (MCYS) in a web of assistance for victims
and perpetrators of family violence. A victim of family violence can approach any one
these agencies and appropriate services will be rendered to the person. This means that there
are many contact points for the victims and their families to seek help.
Victims and perpetrators
of family violence
2) Family Protection and Welfare: Mandatory Counseling Program: A Counseling Order
(Section 65 of the Women's Charter) is usually made when the Family Court issues a
Personal Protection Order. It is an order for those involved in family violence
to attend a compulsory counseling program. MCYS works closely with social
service agencies in providing counseling services to these cases.
Singapore Family Service Centers
(FSCs)-Family Violence
Along with the Family Court, police, hospitals and crisis shelters, the FSC is one of
the entry points into the network of help and support for people who experience
family violence. FSCs provide a range of professional services and practical assistance,
which include the following:
Abuser and abused of DV
as well as the children
who witnessed violence
Legal advice and referrals to the Family Court
Referrals to crisis shelters, if necessary
Counseling, Groupwork and Support Groups for:
- Those who experienced violence
- Those who used violence
- Children who witnessed violence
S. Korea Ministry of Gender
Equality and Family
Programs for the prevention of sexual abuse/domestic violence and for the protection of
victims include enforcing victim protection and prevention plan. A 24-hour national
womens hotline 1366 service for victims to call in case of emergency and to report incidents
has been made available. Interpretation service for foreign sex trafficking and sexual assault
victims has been provided. In addition, counseling centers and shelters have been established
to offer legal, medical and vocational training services. The shelters to house family-level
domestic violence victims are under expansion as well. Prevention plans that focus on increasing
awareness and preventing violence are also executed. Domestic violence offender treatment and
behavioral correction therapy programs are being developed and applied to prevent the recurrence
of violence.
Women and all victims
452 J Fam Viol (2009) 24:447462
violence for protectin g female victims and their children.
(Table 1)
Based on these internet sources in Asia, we found three
hotlines that provide services for men in domestic violence,
but these hotlines do not solely target men as victims.
Generally, most specified services focus on helping men to
find ways to avoid violence. For instance, according to Po
Leung Kuk Mens Hotline in Hong Kong, men are
encouraged to use the hotline to avoid using violence when
faced by problems with marriage, family, financial condi-
tion, work, interpersonal relationships, and courtship issues.
Another example is Alternatives to Violence Project
offered by the Family Welfare Society in Hong Kong,
which aims to empower men to transform violence
peacefully. In Singapore , services are offered by the
government, in collaboration with NGOs, to help DV
victims of both genders as well as their children. These
findings indicate that Hong Kong and Singapore have
developed a system accessible through the internet, mainly
for female victims of spouse abuse.
Further investigation reached services in Australia and
New Zealand for males in cris is or men inflicted and at risk
of family violence. Mensline Australia uses teleconfer-
encing technology to support mal e callers individually, as
well as in groups, and its Menslines Online Counseling
Service helps men as victims or perpetrators. Service
Assisting Male Survivors of Sexual Assault clearly targets
male survivors of sexual assault and child sexual abuse,
which mig ht implicitly include mal e DV victims although it
was not the focus. Also in Australia, Commissioner for
Victims Rights, South Australia helps victims of both
genders. The No To Violence in Australia and Man
Alive in New Zealand are programs that encourage men to
take responsibility for their violence and assist them to
change and end their violent behaviors. Again, most services
focused on working with men as perpetrators. (Table 2)
In the third search, possibly due to the use of English as
the medium, we found websites from Can ada, the United
Kingdom, and the United States. Knowing many Asians are
also residing in these countries, we went ahead with further
analysis. We found 32 male-focused non-duplicated sources
with a home website describing domestic violence, includ-
ing five in Canada, eight in the United Kingdom (UK), and
19 in the United States of America (USA). None of these
websites specify Asian populations as their target clientele.
Among these websites, five characteristics of their male
victims services stand out.
First, about half of these service agencies or programs
have provided hotline services with most of them running
on a 24-hour basis . For instance, Domestic Abuse Helpline
for Men offers a nationwide hotline in the USA for all
victims of domestic violence, with a particular focus on
battered men and same sex victims. Programs in Canada
Table 1 (continued)
Country Organization/ Program Service Descriptions Service Targets
S. Korea Seoul Women's Hotline The SWHL was founded in 1983 to eliminate wife abuse, and it is one of the leading
non-governmental organizations for women's human rights in Korea.
Abused wife
Affiliates: Domestic
Violence Counseling
The Domestic Violence Counseling Office provides counseling to the victims of domestic violence,
and provides them with medical and legal support. To keep homes violence free, it trains future
counselors on domestic violence and holds various kinds of campaigns and forums.
Victims of domestic
* Counseling: 82-2-2263-6464
Seoul Sexual Assault
Counseling Center
The Seoul Sexual Assault Counseling Center provides counseling, medical and legal support to the
victims of rape and sexual harassment. In order to create equal and healthy values on sex and
culture, the center trains sex education instructors and organizes sex education projects.
Victims of rape and
sexual harassment
* Counseling: 82-2-2263-6465
Temporary Protection
Facility, "Shimteo"
The SWHL operates a "Shimteo", temporary protection facility, to provide the victims of domestic
violence and sexual assault with a place to stay, and offers not only psychological treatment
through individual, group counseling and various group activities but also legal and medical support.
Victims of domestic
violence and sexual
Inquiry: 82-2-2272-2161
J Fam Viol (2009) 24:447462 453
Table 2 Services for male domestic violence victims in Australia & New Zealand
Country Organization/ Program Service Descriptions Service Targets
Australia Mensline Australia It responds to callers in a variety of ways: For men with relationship
and family concerns1. Helpline service - Standard Call an immediate, single-session discussion and support
- Call Back Support Service short to medium term follow-up coaching
and support, initiated by the service to the caller after the initial contact call
- Peer Education Telegroups small groups of men from anywhere in the
country engaged in a facilitated discussion on a relevant topic using
teleconferencing technology.
- Assisted Referrals Referring services or agencies who have established
protocols with -Mensline Australia can assist their clients to link directly
with the Mensline service via a real-time warm-link transfer or email.
- Dedicated Industry Lines Mensline Australia can provide customized
telephone counseling services to support male employees.
2. Mensline's Online
Counseling Service
This service is currently in development. Expected delivery date: October 2008
Australia No To Violence (NTV), the
Male Family Violence Prevention
Association Inc.
NTV is a peak organization of individuals and agencies working for the
prevention of male family violence. The specific focus is work with men
to assist them to change and end their violent behavior.
Men inflicted and at risk
of family violence
Activities undertaken by NTV include:
Provision of telephone, counseling, information and referral service for men
wishing to change and end their use of violence towards family members
Support and development of men's behavior change programs
Development and provision of training, resources and information
Data development and analysis
Education and information provision
Provision and Support of research
Contribution to policy development
Service sector advocacy and leadership.
Australia Commissioner for Victims
Rights, South Australia
Domestic violence hotline: 1-800-80-00-98 (24/7) Men and women DV victims
This is a domestic (family) violence helpline for anyone, male or female, who
would like to speak to a person who understands domestic (family) violence.
This service is available Statewide.
Australia Department for Community
Development: The Men's
Domestic Violence Helpline
The Men's Domestic Violence Helpline is a free telephone information, referral
and counseling service for men to help them change their violent behavior
towards female partners.
Men as perpetrators
Ph. 9223 1199 or 1800 000 599 (24 hours)
Australia The Lone Fathers Association
(Australia) Inc. (LFAA)
The LFAA conducted for some years a mens and childrens crisis and
accommodation service in the ACT for homeless men and their children.
Lone fathers and
their children
454 J Fam Viol (2009) 24:447462
Table 2 (continued)
Country Organization/ Program Service Descriptions Service Targets
The MAACS (Men's Accommodation and Crisis Service), based in Canberra,
provides short term crisis accommodation (up to 21 days) as well as
information and referral services for men and their children who are in a
marriage or relationship breakdown situation.
(02) 6241 0433 6255 0970 or 6258 4216 (After Hours)
Australia The Men's Phone-Line (Sydney) The Aims of the Men's Phone-Line are: Men in crisis
- to provide telephone information & support for men; acknowledging that
men can feel more comfortable initially discussing sensitive issues with
another man. And,
- to assist new & existing services to identify themselves to men in need. And,
- to provide phone-line inquiry-based research into men's needs.
Phone: 02-99799909
Australia Murringu Men's Center Information and services for men, including one to one counseling; a senior
mens group meeting fortnightly; programs on anger management, grief and
loss support; and on-going confidential peer support groups.
Men in crisis
Phone: (03) 9428 2899
Australia Service Assisting Male
Survivors of Sexual
Assault (SAMSSA)
SAMSSA: Male survivors
of sexual assault
and child sexual abuse
- provides support to men recovering from sexual assault and child sexual abuse;
- provides education and information services about male sexual assault issues
to the community;
- assists men who seek to eradicate sexual violence against men, women
and children.
- is inclusive and accepting of all men who seek assistance in their recovery.
24-hour Hotline: 02 6247 2525
New Zealand Man Alive Living Without Violence and Te Ara Taumata Ora programs run by Man Alive
will not blame, shame or judge men. Men will be encouraged to take
responsibility for their violence and understand there is no excuse for abuse.
Men and boys in crisis
Man Alive's point of difference from other non-violence programs is that they
are run by men, for men. [Counseling for men by men]
In mid 2006, their services expand to include:
- Men's change and support group
- Counseling and Group Support for Sexually Abused Men
- The Respect program
- Family & couple counseling
J Fam Viol (2009) 24:447462 455
Table 3 Services for male domestic violence victims in Canada, UK and USA
Country Organization / Program Service Descriptions Service Targets
Canada Mens Alternative
Safe House (MASH Project)
Works towards providing men and fathers with children an opportunity
to remove themselves from a potentially explosive domestic situation. The
fulfillment of its goal to provide beds for these people in need is imminent
Men victims
Operates a telephone crisis line, shelter, and support for
people wanting support and information for abused man
Canada Ontario Association
of Male Survivor
Services (OAMSS)
Provides victim services and treatment programs with
critical information, networking, and training.
Men victims
Canada Ottawa Mens Center A dedicated support group whose primary goal is to stem the trend of
suicide by fathers. It provides divorce resources, impartial attorney
referrals and support for men or fathers who are victims of false allegations,
parental alienation and or gender bias.
Men or fathers in crisis
Canada The Family of Men
Support Society
It aims to stop the cycle of violence and abuse. The society is for men who
want to remove themselves from a potentially explosive domestic situation
with dignity. It provides a positive form of intervention and help before
anyone is hurt and before children experience violence. It educates all
persons that family violence and abuse are non-gender issues and to
elevate the cries of men to the same level of women and children.
Men victims in domestic violence
Hotline: 403-242-4077
Canada The Victoria Mens Center As the physical representation of a supportive men's network, it is a place
for men to gain support, companionship, and a place to share concerns
and experiences in a spirit of brotherhood.
Men victims
UK It Does Happen 2 Men Offers Advice Line and SMS based support for battered
men (07800 647 379).
Battered men
Founder: Mike Kenny
UK Men Cry Too Provides an invaluable resource on male victim of domestic violence, such
as information, facts, myths, and coping methods.
Male victims of sexual
and domestic violence
There is a hotline especially designed for male victims of sexual and domestic
violence, which provides opportunities for men to talk in confidence and
anonymously. Victim Supports Male Helpline: 0800-328-3623
UK Mens Advice Line &
Enquiries (M.A.L.E.)
Offers a range of support, information & counseling services to
men who are experiencing or have experienced domestic violence
and abuse from intimate partners.
Men experienced domestic violence
Provides a telephone advice line for a minimum of 28 hours per
week; face to face outreach work and to liaise with other relevant
service providers from the statutory and voluntary sectors.
456 J Fam Viol (2009) 24:447462
Table 3 (continued)
Country Organization / Program Service Descriptions Service Targets
Hotline: 0808-801-0327
UK Montgomeryshire
Family Crisis Center
The first refuge for male was opened in Wales in south-west England,
will shelter men and their children who have been physically or
emotionally abused by a female partner.
Abused men and their children /
all victim of domestic violence
Its program, Men Experience Domestic Abuse, provides a confidential
24 hour help line every day of the year for individuals who have
experienced, or are experiencing, domestic violence. Help Line:
UK Mens Aid Aims to help and support all men suffering any form of abuse or
discrimination. It is run and supported by a group of concerned
parents and professionals.
Men suffering from abuse/ discrimination
Provides national support throughout the UK for male victims of
domestic violence, their children, family, friends and colleagues.
Advice Line: 0871-223-9986 (8am-8pm; 7 days a week)
UK Survivors UK Provides a telephone helpline with staff who are specialized in male
abuse. The helpline is Helpline: 0845-122-1201(Mondays, Tuesdays
and Thursdays from 7pm to 10pm)
Male victims of domestic abuse
UK The Mankind Initiative National Domestic Abuse helpline for men and their children (01823-334244). Men and their children of domestic abuse
UK Warwickshire County Council Warwickshire Domestic Abuse Referral Line Provides the opportunity
to talk through abuse experiences and help to determine what options
are available (0845-234-0822)
Male victims of domestic abuse
The Councils webpage also lists resources available for male victims in
Warwickshire and the UK.
Victims Support: 0845-130-9551
USA Alternative Horizons (Colorado) Services include 24-hour crisis hotline, court advocacy, support
groups, Latino outreach, legal project and community education
Abused gay/bisexual, transgender men
Hotline: 970-247-4374 (Individuals with disabilities, individuals
in gay/lesbian relationships, individuals
who do not speak English)
USA Crisis Connection Mens Line: Counselors available to help men with domestic
violence/abuse calls, custody and legal referral calls
(612)379-6367 (612-379-MENS).
Abused men
USA Domestic Abuse Helpline
for Men (Nationwide)
Offers a nationwide hotline for all victims of domestic violence. All victims of domestic
violence (also with a
focus on men)
Services are particularly sensitive to the plight of those who
traditionally have not been believed when they call, such as
battered men and same sex victims.
J Fam Viol (2009) 24:447462 457
Table 3 (continued)
Country Organization / Program Service Descriptions Service Targets
Hotline number: Toll Free 1-888-7 Helpline (or 207-683-5758)
USA Domestic Abuse Shelter
Homes (Florida)
Provides support, referral and transitional housing to victims of
domestic abuse and their families (men, women, children and
teens) in Sarasota and Charlotte Counties.
Male victims as well
as their families
USA Equal Justice Foundation It sets up Domestic Violence Against Men in Colorado to help
males who have suffered from physical or mental abuse from a
female partner are encouraged to write their story or seek help
by emailing It hopes that the presented stories can
influence the law that brings into equal justice. It preaches the
message that domestic violence and abuse is a human problem,
not a gender issue.
Abused men
USA Men Working Against Abuse
Crisis Line: (206) 461-7824 (serves residents of King, Pierce, and
Snohomish counties in Washington state)
Abused men
Offers voluntary support group for abusive men; educational
programs for individuals and couples that suffer from abusive
relationship; and services for men who are victims of abuse, to
help them understand the situation and get free of abuse. Also
offers public educational services.
USA Mens Resource Center
(MRC) for Change
Supports men, challenges mens violence, and develops mens
leadership in ending oppression in oneself, families, and
communities through Domestic Abuse Program, Anger
Management Classes, Support Program for sharing, Fathering
Program, Workshop, Training and Consultation.
Men as victims or perpetrators
USA MenWeb Encourage male victims of domestic violence to email their
personal stories
Abused men
USA National Center for Men Incorporated in 1987, NCM is dedicated to the advocacy of
men's equal rights.
Male victims and general public
Educates the public about how men have been hurt by sex
discrimination and also counsel individuals and families who
have been damaged by discrimination against men.
Educates the public about male victims of domestic violence,
men's health concerns and how men are often victimized by
false accusation, particularly during divorce.
USA Ogeechee Judicial Circuit
Domestic Violence Shelter
Offers services to both men and women. Men do not stay at the
shelter; however, they are able to provide shelter in a safe place
for them at another location in the community.
Men and women in DV situations
(912)764-4605 crisis line in Atlanta, GA
458 J Fam Viol (2009) 24:447462
Table 3 (continued)
Country Organization / Program Service Descriptions Service Targets
USA Peaceful Choices Helps male and female victims find shelter in Washington
County, Maine. 1-800-604-8692
Men and women in DV situations
USA Safe Horizon/ Safe Horizons
Domestic Violence
Accountability Program (DVAP)
Provides support, prevent violence, and promote justice for victims
of crime and abuse, their families and communities.
Male victims of domestic abuse
24 Hour Crisis Line 1-800-621-4673
USA Shattered Men International A web-based organization established in Indiana for the purpose
of educating churches, schools and other groups and organizations
on the issues of abuse from a Biblical prospective.
Men victims of abuse (Women
are welcome to join the discussions)
Most of its work takes place in the interactive club on Yahoo.
This club is open for everyone.
USA Stop Abuse For Everyone
(SAFE) (Nationwide)
A human rights organization that provides services for those who
typically do not have services. Services include: Professional
trainings and presentations to service providers, Brochures for
underserved domestic violence groups (currently men, gay men,
and lesbian women) in several languages, an online support group,
online resource lists, such as court advocacy, support groups, hotlines.
Battered men, same sex victims,
teens, the elderly, and immigrants.
Phone: (319) 441-1010;
USA The Florida Mens Resource
Has a list of resources for men in Florida. Provides information
about support group, shelters, divorce and so forth.
Abused men (Women and children are welcome also)
USA The Gay Mens Domestic
Violence Project
It is a nonprofit program that provides support service for male
victims of same-gender domestic violence. In addition, they
provide outreach and education to law enforcement and communities.
The crisis line (Toll free crisis line at 1-800-832-1901) is monitored
24 hours a day and accessible throughout the commonwealth. They
have also initiated a Safe Home Program where victims can go when
leaving a battered relationship. GMDVP offers shelter, guidance, and
resources to allow gay, bisexual, and transgender men in crisis to
remove themselves from violent situations and relationships.
Male victims of same-gender
domestic violence
USA The Resource Center
(South Dakota)
Provides counseling for men, may start a mens support group, and
provides ad hoc sheltering for battered men whove had to leave
their homes.
Battered men
USA Twin Cities Mens Center Provides resources for men seeking to grow in body, mind and spirit,
and from that foundation advocates for healthier family and
community relationship.
Men, heterosexual, gay,
bisexual and transgender
men in crisis
J Fam Viol (2009) 24:447462 459
and the UK also provide hotline services for male victims,
such as Mens Alternative Safe House (MASH Project) in
Canada and Men Cry Too in the UK.
Second, these services specify distinctly that their service
targets are male victims or abused men. These agencies
advertise that they offer services for men who are dealing
with their own abuse, such as Domestic Abuse Helpline for
Men in the USA, Ottawa Mens Center in Canada, and
Mens Advice Line & Enquiries (M.A.L.E.) in the UK.
Third, six shelters or shelter resourcesfour in the USA
and one each in Canada and the UKare available exclu-
sively for men and some for their children as well. These
shelters provide a clear message that men need help too.
Fourth, technology is used as a means to reach out to
abused men through online support groups and email
services for male victims. In the USA, Eq ual Justice
Foundations Domestic Violence Against Men in Colo-
rado and Stop Abuse for Everyone provide online
support for men to build mutual support through sharing
on the internet. Both Shattered Men and MenWeb
encourage male victims of domestic violence to email their
personal stories for sharing with strict anonymity.
The fifth characteristic is that these three countries list
multiple services for male victims, such as crisis counsel-
ing, support group, educational programs, community
resources, legal advice, and referral for other services.
Some programs stress the importance of engaging men in
couples counseling and group treatment. (Table 3)
Implications for Practice and Research
This paper originally aimed to explore the service needs of
Asian male domestic violence victims. We were not
successful, however, in identifying much information in
Asian countries about mens help-seeking behavior or the
resources supporting them. Through a literature review that
focused on domestic violence affecting male victims, we
were able to analyze the possible cultural and social expect-
ations that lead men not to seek help. Of nine service sources
available for men in Asian countries that posted internet
materials on domestic violence, we noted that the services
seldom advertised with men also need help or "men are
victims/survivors/sufferers, too," or the equivalent, as catch-
phrases to reach out to the male client population. On the
other hand, in Canada, the UK, and the USA, it seemed to be
appropriate for services to tell clients that "men cry too" or
"men as DV victims need help." We will need further
research, however, to find out whether Asian men with
domestic violence problems living in these countries have
actually utilized the services available for men as DV victims.
Though computer and internet searches are convenient
and efficient in obtaining timely information, this techno-
Table 3 (continued)
Country Organization / Program Service Descriptions Service Targets
Offers support groups and services for male victims of sexual abuse,
men who were wrongly accused, bisexual men, and men in crisis,
as well as a web-based newsletter Men Talk.
Information: 612-822-5892 or online at
USA Valley Oasis Shelter The Antelope Valley Domestic Violence Council provides domestic
violence services including a shelter for people of all ages in Los
Angeles County. There are no geographic restrictions and they
serve both men and women in abusive situations.
Male DV victims
Stated as the only shelter in the USA that provides full ranges of
services to
male victims in the Special Report, VAWA Programs
Discriminate Against Male Victims, 2006.
1-800-282-4808 (Service/Intake and Hotline), 1-661-945-6736
(Service/Intake and Hotline)
460 J Fam Viol (2009) 24:447462
logical method limited our search to only agencies or
organizations that may be more technologically oriented in
information dissemination. In addition, we only accessed
information from countries that are ready to post informa-
tion on the internet in English. With these technological
limitations as a constant, we hit the keyword domestic
violence and found services for women as victims imme-
diately and services for men as victims were nowhere near
the top one thousand websites. This outcome may reflect the
perspective that men are not perceived as domestic violence
service consumers unless they are perpetrators. Although
services are now delivered to both genders, not focusing on
mens distinct needs can be perceived as a lack of concern
toward men as victims. Such perception may impose an
invisible barrier to mens help-seeking action.
Since strong cultural values may create hindrances for
men to seek help, what we learned from this research is that
users anonymity must first be maintained to outreach male
victims. When programs are designed, it is also essential to
consider boundary-less support because Asian men are
now residing in different parts of the world and their
concerns may change after migrating to a country outside
Asia. Further research may also need to addres s Asian men
living in other parts of the world, such as other European
countries, South and Central America, Africa and Middle
East where Asians are the minorities in powe r.
Chan (2006) stresses the concept of face as a crucial
factor to understand mens feelings and behavioral
responses in face-losing situations caused by spousal
conflict. Nguyen (2005) discusses similar cultural factors
that have built barriers a gainst men disclosing t heir
domestic violence victimization. These two observations
are important considerations in helping male victims,
especially when they want to preserve the fami lys name
and reputation and hide their shameful feelings. Although
we cannot find many resources addressing the needs of
Asian male victims, the websites that posted resources for
male victims also present similar reasons to those cited in
the literature for men not coming forward: secretiveness,
cultural values, masculine identity, tolerance, shame, and
loss of face.
Like other men, Asian men live in a society that seems
to deman d that they endors e and adhere to the role of
dominant gender and live up to certain masculine expect-
ations which are sometimes impossible to achieve. These
societal expectations may place added strain and conflict
on men, especially when they cannot find suitable
employment or other resources to support the expected
gender role. The internet findings in this study reinforce the
notion that adequate services must place importance on
helping men deal with these conflictual feelings and must
also respect their cultural ways in handling these hidden
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... society, where female-perpetrated DA is often minimized and men are frequently blamed for their own victimization (Lysova and Dim 2020;Tsang 2015;Walker et al. 2020). This view is common across cultures but may be even more pronounced in cultures with more traditional views of gender roles or rigid expectations of masculinity (Ayodele 2017;Cheung et al. 2009;Thobejane and Luthada 2019). As a result of the pervasiveness of dismissive attitudes towards male victimization, men may be less inclined to view all but the most serious and violent acts from their partner as abuse (Arnocky and Vaillancourt 2014;Lysova and Dim 2020;Lysova et al. 2020b). ...
... Still others may fear looking weak or being labelled a 'wimp', a 'coward', or 'feminine' (Arnocky and Vaillancourt 2014;Douglas & Hines 2011;McCarrick et al. 2016;Tsui et al. 2010). Fear of emasculation in this manner may have different significance in different cultures (Cheung et al. 2009;Thobejane & Luthada 2019). For some men, a challenge to their masculinity may simply represent a blow to their self-confidence, pride, or personal image (Bates 2019;Huntley et al. 2019;Tsang 2015). ...
... Minimizing the severity of the abuse and victim-blaming have been reported as common responses to male victims' disclosures (McCarrick et al. 2016;Walker et al. 2020). Some cultures may be less tolerant of male victims of DA than others, and in these cultures publicly admitting one's victimization, let alone asking for help, could lead to serious social stigmatization (Cheung et al. 2009;Ayodele 2017). ...
Full-text available
Male victims of domestic abuse (DA) face a number of barriers to seeking help from their abusive relationships. Though available research has focussed primarily on exploring many of these challenges, few suggestions have been made on how to reduce or resolve them. It is necessary to establish a comprehensive plan to affect change at multiple levels in society in order to improve outcomes for this under-served population. This paper begins with a literature review examining in detail the many reasons why male victims of DA may refuse to seek help in an abusive relationship. Using the main key words, male victims combined with several common phrases related to the phenomenon of abuse including domestic abuse, domestic violence, and intimate partner violence, the review revealed several common reasons that male victims of DA refuse to seek help. These reasons include refusal or reluctance to view their experiences as abuse, hesitancy to identify with victimizing language, lack of available supportive services, embarrassment, shame, loss of masculinity, fear of being judged or disbelieved by others, fear of police response, and devotion to their family. Based on this review, a list of suggestions by the author is provided for changes that can be made to counter these barriers and improve male help-seeking. These suggestions are comprised of four broad themes: increasing public awareness, addressing the unique needs of male victims of DA, improving training for service providers, and increasing funding for services targeted to male victims of DA. A section exploring some of the unique concerns of gay, bisexual, and transgender men is included. International trends in the development and provision of services for male victims show that while increasing attention is being given to this vulnerable population, there are still significant gaps in available supports.
... Wang et al., 2018). The AAPI emphasis on collectivism and emotional control/regulation contrasts with the individualism and emotional expression (e.g., anger) among Western (e.g., U.S.-born Black, White, or Latino) male students (Cheung et al., 2009). ...
... Multiple studies suggest AAPI cultural values assist in determining, to an extent, Asian American males' perceptions of masculinity (Cheung et al., 2009;P. Chua & Fujino, 1999;T. ...
... Since Asian American males may conceptualize their masculinity differently, school counselors should focus on other culturally relevant factors. For example, in lieu of concentrating on aggression, school counselors can emphasize AAPI cultural ideas such as being polite, obedient, and caring (Cheung et al., 2009;A. Chua, 2011;P. ...
Full-text available
Adolescent Asian American males frequently encounter prejudice, discrimination, and emasculation, which result from and are exacerbated by the myth of the “model minority” group. This article provides school counselors with a group intervention, based on a collectivism and resiliency framework, for working with Asian American adolescent males. Recommendations regarding recruitment, screening, selection of participants, and group sessions underscore for school counselors the need to promote the well-being and resilience of Asian American males in school-based interventions.
... Institutions of criminal justice typically downplay the seriousness of female violence. 12,17 Likewise, male victims tend to underreport incidents of intimate partner violence 11,18 and are less willing to seek out social supports 11,14,19 due to fear of being ridiculed, socially isolated, and humiliated. 11 However, the number of reports of male IPV victims has recently been increasing every year, possibly due to a growing awareness of its existence. ...
... One possible explanation of this result is that the respondents might be avoiding shame and are practicing excessive emotional selfcontrol, which leads to an avoidance of help-seeking behavior, in accord with the traditional Japanese culture that upholds the virtue of patience. 18 This cultural perspective may also make the victims less aware of the abuse or violence they have suffered. ...
Full-text available
Aim The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting depression trait among male intimate partner violence (IPV) victims in Japan utilizing a multiple linear regression analysis. Methods A web‐based questionnaire survey was conducted. Male IPV victims living in Japan were recruited to answer the questionnaire on the website on February 25–26, 2021. A total of 16,414 subjects were enrolled, of whom 1466 respondents were included in the study. Other than IPV exposure, information about sociodemographic characteristics, past traumatic experiences and psychiatric history was collected. The Domestic Violence Screening Inventory (DVSI), a 20‐item questionnaire regarding IPV exposure, and the Patient Health Questionnaire‐9 (PHQ‐9) were used to determine the intensity and the type of IPV harm and to screen for depression, respectively. Results The victims were more frequently subject to psychological abuse than to physical violence. Based on PHQ‐9 scores, 10.7% of respondents exhibited moderate to severe depression. In the DVSI score, 79.2% of respondents required “observation and support.” The lowest level of academic attainment (junior high school), positive psychiatric history, foregoing divorce to avoid adverse childhood experiences of their offspring, childhood exposure to domestic violence, younger age, having no children, and experience of school bullying were shown to be significantly associated with depression trait. Conclusion Male IPV harm has a multilayered complexity. The sociodemographic characteristics and experiences of victims' own have a greater impact on depression trait than direct violent harm, suggesting that the violence‐focused support might be inadequate for male victims. Comprehensive supports are urgently needed.
... Intimate partner violence is considered as a public health and human rights issue. Prior research has shown that women who experienced physical or sexual intimate partner violence have a risk of developing physical problems [3][4][5], including difficulty accessing and using antenatal care services for pregnant women [6], as well as mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicide, and alcohol abuse [4]. ...
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Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is reported to be a public health issue given its magnitude and long-lasting consequences. Men are generally thought to be perpetrators of IPV, but they can also be victims. In Rwanda, the experience of men as victims has not yet been described and characterized. The aim of this study is to examine the trends and correlates of IPV victimization for men and women in Rwanda. Methods The data for this study were extracted from the Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (RDHS) in 2014/15 (female: n = 8292, male: n = 3470) and 2019/2020 (female = 8574, male: n = 3590). The survey had used a structured measure of IPV (i.e. physical, sexual, or emotional) and its related demographic characteristics to collect data in a nationally representative sample of ever-married women aged 15–49 years and men aged 15–59 years. Multiple logistic regression was applied to examine the association between demographic characteristics and IPV in both women and men. Result The prevalence of IPV among women increased from 40% in 2015 to 46% in 2020, while it decreased from 21 to 18% in men during the same time period. The associated factors for women IPV victimization in 2015 were: uneducated husband (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) = 5.570, 95% CI 1.29–24.02), woman from the poorest household (AOR = 2.834, 95% CI 1.9–93.12), husband aged from 30 to 39 years (AOR = 2.797, 95% CI 1.517–5.158), husband consuming alcohol (AOR = 3.021, 95% CI 1.517–5.158); women involved in decisions about their own earnings (AOR = 0.576, 95% CI 0.37–0.88); and purchases (AOR = 0.472, 95% CI 0.27–0.82). However, the factors such as uneducated husbands (AOR = 3.032, 95% CI 1.117–8.24); husbands consuming alcohol (AOR = 1.712, 95% CI 2.408–4.486); a woman's involvement in decisions on her personal health (AOR = 0.443, 95% CI 0.30–0.63) and visits from her family or relatives (AOR = 0.405, 95% = 0.41–0.22) were factors of IPV in 2020. On the other hand, the associated factors for men IPV victimization in 2015 were being from richer wealth index (AOR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.04–1.04), frequency of being hit in last 12 months by other than partner (AOR = 5.49, 95% CI 1.65–18.25), woman often consuming alcohol (AOR = 13.30, 95% CI 1.9–93.12); whereas its associated factor in 2020 were women consuming alcohol (3.91, 95% CI 0.55–9.87). Conclusion The present study revealed a significant increase in IPV against women, and slight decrease of IPV against men in Rwanda from 2015 to 2020, as well as its associated risks and protective factors over time. This increase needs further exploration given that government and partners have invested in policies and strategies to mitigate the IPV with limited impact. Since there is a relationship between IPV prevalence and education, the existing laws on domestic violence need to be known by the citizens. Findings from this study evidenced also visits from extended families to be a protective factor and therefore suggesting the necessity of a family and community-based approach in managing IPV in Rwanda. Future studies to assess the effectiveness of community-based approach in preventing IPV.
... The results of the sample indicated greater use of community samples, meaning the absence of clinical samples could be explained by the lack of help services aimed at men. The evidence suggests that a large part of them focus their attention on female victims or even direct themselves to men in their role as the perpetrator, making it difficult to obtain information on male victims from this field (Barkhuizen, 2015;Cheung et al., 2009 aspect is the non-representativeness of the samples added to the use of nonprobabilistic samples that compromise the external validity of the results. Therefore, they´re impacting their reproducibility although, it is necessary to note that complying with these sampling characteristics is difficult even in female victims of intimate partner violence. ...
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La violencia hacia la pareja es un fenómeno que se ha analizado desde diversas perspectivas, entre ellas se encuentra la Violencia hacia el Hombre (VhH) en la pareja, objeto de estudio al que se le ha otorgado poca relevancia social y académica en diversas regiones. El presente estudio tiene como propósito identificar los aspectos metodológicos y hallazgos más relevantes de la VhH en los estudios realizados en las últimas dos décadas en Latinoamérica. Siguiendo las directrices del Modelo PRISMA, se llevó a cabo una revisión sistemática a través de una búsqueda de trabajos en seis bases de datos. Las referencias iniciales fueron 426, las cuales se sometieron a un análisis por medio de un proceso de depuración donde, finalmente, se obtuvieron 16 artículos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Los principales resultados destacan que, recientemente, la comunidad científica en América Latina ha prestado más atención a las víctimas masculinas realizado aportes que permiten cuestionar la minimización social, académica y científica del fenómeno. Se discuten los resultados destacando que el estigma social es lo que sigue dificultando el reconocimiento de las víctimas masculinas como un objeto legítimo y válido de investigación.
... In a male-dominated society, like Uganda, men feel that it is shameful to be beaten by a woman and they shun reporting the violence [8,9]. The probable reasons for underreporting female perpetrated IPV include social stigma (fear of losing social respect and position), not being believed, fearing shame, having their masculinity questioned, and being accused of domestic violence [10,11]. Complaining by men is also often perceived as a 'feminine behavior' , especially in male-dominated societies [8]. ...
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Background There is limited research on intimate partner violence (IPV) among ever-married men in Uganda. This paper aimed to establish the extent and correlates of emotional, sexual, and physical IPV among ever-married men in Uganda. Methods We used the 2016 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) data and selected a weighted sample of 2559 ever-married men. Frequency distributions were used to describe the characteristics of men and their partners. Chi-square tests and binary logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with IPV among married men in Uganda. Results Almost half (44%) of the ever-married men experienced some form of IPV. Among the individual forms of IPV, emotional IPV was the most prevalent (36%), followed by physical IPV (20%) and sexual IPV the least common (8%). Factors that were associated with all the different forms of IPV included, region, number of wives, partners’ controlling behaviors, witnessing parental violence, and drinking alcohol as well as the frequency of getting drunk by the female partners. Except for number of wives, which had a protective effect, the rest of the factors increased the likelihood of experiencing intimate partner violence among ever-married men in Uganda. Conclusions Besides women, men are also victims of intimate partner violence. This calls for combined efforts to reduce violence against men perpetrated by females by addressing controlling behaviors, frequency of getting drunk with alcohol, and lack of awareness of the issue. There is a need for interventions aimed at increasing public awareness to improve the reporting and case management of violence against men and boys.
... Análogamente, en el caso de la violencia contra la pareja, se considera una conducta u omisión intencional que comprende un conjunto de prácticas, vivencias, actitudes y sentimientos que pueden o no generar daño físico, emocional, psicológico, sexual o económico hacia la persona con la cual se comparte una relación íntima, sin necesariamente convivir o estar casados (Castro y Casique, 2010). Ahora bien, los datos sobre la frecuencia y comportamiento de la violencia de pareja en México y el mundo (Alegría y Rodríguez, 2015;Dasgupta, 2002;endireh, 2006;2016;onumujeres, 2013;O'Leary, Smith, 2003;Trujano et al, 2010), permiten observar el papel de los hombres como principales generadores de la violencia de pareja, y también la poca evidencia empírica disponible para identificar tendencias claras sobre la ocurrencia de los maltratos hacia varones, ya que, aunque la percepción sobre un problema es un dato valioso, sabemos que puede ser diferente a la prevalencia del mismo (Clark et al., 2014;Carmo et al., 2011;Cheung et al., 2009;Choi et al., 2015;cndh, 2011;2012;2013;2014;2015;2016;De Puy et al., 2017;Drijber et al., 2013;Hines y Douglas, 2016;Machado et al., 2017;Mills et al, 2006;Muller et al., 2009). A partir del conocimiento generado en el campo, no resulta posible explicar suficientemente las dinámicas de esta relación, a excepción de algunos estudios (Fiebert y Gonzalez, 1997). ...
Desde una lógica que considera la experiencia de género de los varones en el marco de sus condiciones de vida producto de las clases sociales y el contexto social amplio, es que se aborda la violencia que los hombres heterosexuales ejercen hacia sus parejas y su posible relación con las infecciones de transmisión sexual –its- y el vih/ sida. Es decir, incluyendo las condiciones de género de los varones, en este trabajo se realiza una reflexión sobre el proceso de determinación social de la violencia de pareja y la transmisión del vih hacia sus parejas mujeres, considerando a estas relaciones como el medio donde se manifiesta y es posible observar la relación entre la estructura social, los procesos sociales-culturales y las afectaciones directas a la salud enfermedad -s/e- de las personas.
Scholars have established China’s pro-mediation policies in policing domestic violence public security offense cases. However, the mediation process remains obscure. This ethnographic study revealed that officers adopted a gender-based morality to press female and male victims into accepting mediation. Specifically, the police moralized victims’ choices and urged male victims to forgive their wives to protect their masculinity while asking female victims to forgive their husbands to protect their children’s well-being. This work advances the scholarship on domestic violence intervention by showing how such a gendered policing strategy disempowers victims of both genders and results in another form of victim-blaming.
Abstract. It remains a huge challenge for most male victims of intimate partner violence to seek help. Abused men seem to lack courage to seek help due to interpersonal and intrapersonal factors that affect their decision to disclose the abuse experienced. This study was aimed at exploring help seeking behaviour of male victims of partner violence in selected rural areas of South Africa. The objectives of the study were to determine men’s views about seeking help and to help improve services for victims of gender-based violence. The study has implemented qualitative approach with exploratory research design. Data was collected through semi structured interviews and was analysed using thematic data analysis. Barriers that prevent men from seeking help include fear of possible ridicule, disbelief, false accusations, and rejection from helping professionals. Feelings of helplessness, perceived lack of confidentiality among professionals and influence of the media hampered help-seeking behaviour of most men in the study. The overall outcome of the study is that most victims appear to lack knowledge of services available for them. It has also been established that male victims are reluctant to seek support from informal networks such as friends, family members, colleagues, and their in-laws. The study recommends that public education, advocacy, and appropriate gender-sensitive intervention programmes be implemented to overcome the effects of violence and to prevent further victimisation.
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Tested theory that adherence to the traditional male gender role and help-seeking attitudes and behaviors are related. Ss were 401 undergraduate men who completed measures of help-seeking attitudes and behaviors, attitudes toward the stereotypic male role, and gender role conflict factors (i.e., success/power/competition, restrictive emotionality, and restrictive affectionate behavior between men). Canonical analysis and regression indicated that traditional attitudes about the male role, concern about expressing emotions, and concern about expressing affection toward other men were each significantly related to negative attitudes toward seeking professional psychological assistance. Restrictive emotionality also significantly predicted decreased past help-seeking behavior and decreased likelihood of future help seeking. The implications of these results for theory, research, and counseling practice are discussed.
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Based on values common to most Asian cultures, a set of propositions on the relationship between Asian cultural values and the counseling process is presented in the context of a current theory of acculturation/enculturation. Recommendations for future research relating Asian cultural values to the counseling process are offered in an attempt to stimulate more empirical attention in this area.
The concept of face is clarified and distinguihed from other closely related constructs: authority, standards of behavior, personality, status, dignity, honor, and prestige. The claim to face may rest on the basis of status, whether ascribed or achieved, and on personal or nonpersonal factors; it may also vary according to the group with which a person is interacting. Basic differences are found between the processes involved in gaining versus losing face. While it is not a necessity for one to strive to gain face, losing face is a serious matter which will, in varying degrees, affect one's ability to function effectively in society. Face is lost when the individual, either through his action or that of people closely related to him, fails to meet essential requirements placed upon him by virtue of the social position he occupies. In contrast to the ideology of individualism, the question of face frequently arises beyond the realm of individual responsibility and subjective volition. Reciprocity is inherent in face behavior, wherein a mutually restrictive, even coercive, power is exerted upon each member of the social network. It is argued that face behavior is universal and that face should be utilized as a construct of central importance in the social sciences.
In post-Renaissance France and England, society ridiculed and humiliated husbands thought to be battered and/or dominated by their wives (Steinmetz, 1977-78). In France, for instance, a "battered" husband was trotted around town riding a donkey backwards while holding its tail. In England, "abused" husbands were strapped to a cart and paraded around town, all the while subjected to the people's derision and contempt. Such "treatments" for these husbands arose out of the patriarchal ethos where a husband was expected to dominate his wife, making her, if the occasion arose, the proper target for necessary marital chastisement; not the other way around (Dobash & Dobash, 1979). Although the patriarchal view supporting a husband's complete dominance of his wife persisted into the twentieth century (E. Pleck, 1987), during the latter half of this century, we find a definite shift in people's attitudes toward marital relationships. Beginning in the 1970s, for instance, advocates like Del Martin (1976) and Erin Pizzey (Pizzey 1974; Pizzey & Shapiro, 1982) exposed the "hidden" secret of domestic violence. As a result, terms like "domestic violence," "domestic abuse," and "battered wife" have found their way into our everyday speech. Finally, society seems to be taking the issue of domestic violence against women seriously and looking for solutions to stem if not to end the violence. Most of the early research dealing with domestic violence focused solely on the female victims and the social factors that supported the victimization of women (Smith, 1989). Consequently, a voluminous literature now exists that portrays domestic violence as a unitary social phenomenon stemming from a patriarchal social order where women are portrayed as the victims and men perceived as the perpetrators (Dobash & Dobash, 1979). Such research has had a significant impact upon the evolution of recent changes in civil law, enforcement of criminal law, and the ways law enforcement and social agencies respond to the needs of battered wives (see Victim Support, 1992).
English The study examines the Chinese face embedded in marital violence. Results from the analysis of male batterers showed that the stronger the faceorientation, the greater the masculine gender role stress and thus the greater the likelihood of using violence against a female partner. French L'étude examine la corrélation entre le concept chinois de 'sauver la facé et la violence conjugale. L'analyse révè le que plus ce concept est fortement ancréchez un agresseur, plus il met l'emphase sur le rôle masculin et, par conséquent, plus il est enclin à utiliser la violence contre une partenaire féminine. Spanish Se examina la faz china en relació n a la violencia marital. El anúlisis de datos sobre hombres que maltratan indica que a mayor orientació n facial ('in faceorientation'), mayor el estrés del rol masculino, y por tanto, mayor la probabilidad de violencia en contra de la mujer.
This study replicates Coleman and Straus's 1990 U.S. research, analyzing the relationships between marital power, conflict, norm consensus, and domestic violence in a national random sample of the population of South Korea. There were about 1,500 participants. Using the Conflict Tactics Scale to measure domestic violence between husbands and wives, the study found that, as in the United States, all three variables are correlated with domestic violence. Marital power and conflict in particular were strongly correlated with violence. Because a male dominant marital power structure was highly correlated with husband-to-wife violence, the study concludes that all possible efforts must be made to encourage and induce the formation of egalitarian marital organization, which is negatively correlated with violence.
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