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Blood fatty acid composition of pregnant and nonpregnant Korean women: Red cells may act as a reservoir of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for utilization by the developing fetus

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Abstract

Relative fatty acid composition of plasma and red blood cell (RBC) choline phosphoglycerides (CPG), and RBC ethanolamine phosphoglycerides (EPG) of pregnant (n=40) and nonpregnant, nonlactating (n=40), healthy Korean women was compared. The two groups were of the same ethnic origin and comparable in age and parity. Levels of arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids were lower (P<0.05) and palmitic and oleic acids higher (P<0.0001) in plasma CPG of the pregnant women. Similarly, the RBC CPG and EPG of the pregnant women had lower AA and DHA (P<0.05) and higher palmitic and oleic acids (P<0.01). The reduction in DHA and total n−3 fatty acids in plasma CPG of the pregnant women was paralleled by an increase in docosatetraenoic (DTA) and docosapentaenoic (DPA) acids of the n−6 series and in DPA/DTA ratio. In the RBC phospholipids (CPG and EPG) of the pregnant women, DTA and DPA acids of the n−6 series and DPA/DTA ratio did not increase with the decrease of the n−3 metabolites (eicosapentaenoic acid, DPA, and DHA) and total n−3. Since pregnancy was the main identifiable variable between the two groups, the lower levels of AA and DHA in RBC CPG and EPG of the pregnant women suggest that the mothers were mobilizing membrane AA and DHA to meet the high fetal requirement for these nutrients. It may also suggest that RBC play a role as a potential store of AA and DHA and as a vehicle for the transport of these fatty acids from maternal circulation to the placenta to be utilized by the developing fetus.

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... The many changes in the RBC-FA from delivery to 3 months PP (Fig. 1) are in part consistent with a return to the prepregnancy state [50][51][52] such as e.g. suggested by the presently observed decreases of 16:0 and 18:1x9, and the increases of 18:0, LA, AA and EPA. ...
... The paradoxical increase of 18:0 suggests that the postpartum DNL and SCD-1 activity declines are more pronounced compared with the decline of Elovl-6 activity. Comparably, Ghebremeskel et al. [50] showed higher 16:0, 16:1x7, 18:1x9, but lower 18:0 in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant counterparts, supporting high DNL activity, but an even higher SCD activity in pregnancy, resulting in a high 18:1x9/18:0 ratio. Interestingly, the 18:0 increase also took place in the infant, which suggests that the post-delivery changing maternal SCD-1 and Elovl-6 activities might be driving forces for 18:0 transfer to the infant via the milk. ...
Article
The hormonal milieus of pregnancy and lactation are driving forces of nutrient fluxes supporting infant growth and development. The decrease of insulin sensitivity with compensatory hyperinsulinemia with advancing gestation, causes adipose tissue lipolysis and hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL). We compared fatty acid (FA) contents and FA-indices for enzyme activities between preterm (28-36 weeks) and term (37-42) milks, and between colostrum (2-5 days), transitional (6-15) and mature (16-56) milks. We interpreted FA differences between preterm and term milks, and their changes with lactation, in terms of the well known decrease of insulin sensitivity during gestation and its subsequent postpartum restoration, respectively. Compared with term colostrum, preterm colostrum contained higher indices of DNL in the breast (DNL-breast) and medium chain saturated-FA (MCSAFA), and lower DNL-liver and monounsaturated-FA (MUFA). Preterm milk also had higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in colostrum and transitional milk and higher arachidonic acid (AA) in mature milk. Most preterm-term differences vanished with advancing lactation. In both preterm and term milks, DNL-breast and MCSAFA increased with advancing lactation, while DNL-liver, MUFA, long chain SAFA and AA decreased. DHA decreased in term milk. MUFA was inversely related to MCSAFA in all samples, correlated inversely with PUFA in colostrum and transitional milks, but positively in mature milk. MCSAFA correlated inversely with PUFA in mature milk. Higher maternal insulin sensitivity at preterm birth may be the cause of lower MUFA (a proxy for DNL-liver) and higher MCSAFA (a proxy for DNL-breast) in preterm colostrum, compared with term colostrum. Restoring insulin sensitivity after delivery may be an important driving force for milk FA-changes in early lactation.
... During the first 2 trimesters of human gestation, fat is stored in the fat deposits, whereas in later pregnancy (3rd trimester), fat tissue is broken down (4,(48)(49)(50)(51). Enhanced de novo lipogenesis and maternal hyperphagia are factors contributing to early pregnancy anabolism; whereas in late pregnancy, enhanced adipose tissue lipolytic activity and reduced activity of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) lead to accelerated breakdown of fat deposits as well as decreased fat deposits. One striking example of this mobilization of lipid depots is the increase in free fatty acid and phospholipid concentrations in maternal plasma with advancing gestation (52)(53)(54), which was also shown in our study. We also observed that in circulation, AA metabolism was decreased in the early-to mid-pregnancy and increased in later pregnancy (GD19) close to delivery. ...
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Objective Pregnancy is a dynamic state involving multiple metabolic adaptions in various tissues including the endocrine pancreas. However, a detailed characterization of the maternal islet metabolome in relation to islet function and the ambient circulating metabolome during pregnancy has not been established. Methods A timed-pregnancy mouse model was studied, and age-matched non-pregnant mice were used as controls. Targeted metabolomics was applied to fasting plasma and purified islets during each trimester of pregnancy. Glucose homeostasis and islet function was assessed. Bioinformatic analyses were performed to reveal the metabolic adaptive changes in plasma and islets, and to identify key metabolic pathways associated with pregnancy. Results Fasting glucose and insulin were found to be significantly lower in pregnant mice compared to non-pregnant controls, throughout the gestational period. Additionally, pregnant mice had superior glucose excursions and greater insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test. Interestingly, both alpha and beta cell proliferation were significantly enhanced in early to mid-pregnancy, leading to significantly increased islet size seen in mid to late gestation. When comparing the plasma metabolome of pregnant and non-pregnant mice, phospholipid and fatty acid metabolism pathways were found to be upregulated throughout pregnancy, whereas amino acid metabolism initially decreased in early through mid pregnancy, but then increased in late pregnancy. Conversely, in islets, amino acid metabolism was consistently enriched throughout pregnancy, with glycerophospholid and fatty acid metabolism was only upregulated in late pregnancy. Specific amino acids (glutamate, valine) and lipids (acyl-alkyl-PC, diacyl-PC, and sphingomyelin) were found to be significantly differentially expressed in islets of the pregnant mice compared to controls, which was possibly linked to enhanced insulin secretion and islet proliferation. Conclusion Beta cell proliferation and function are elevated during pregnancy, and this is coupled to the enrichment of islet metabolites and metabolic pathways primarily associated with amino acid and glycerophospholipid metabolism. This study provides insight into metabolic adaptive changes in glucose homeostasis and islet function seen during pregnancy, which will provide a molecular rationale to further explore the regulation of maternal metabolism to avoid the onset of pregnancy disorders, including gestational diabetes.
... The involvement of plasma fatty acids pools in the constant supply of the brain's DHA requirement is still a topic of debate [45] . RBC membrane phospholipids are considered a potential store of and a vehicle for the transport of fatty acids, from the maternal circulation to the developing fetus [46] . Our present results show ( Table 3 ) that RBC levels of n-3 LCPUFA, such as DHA, increased significantly, while the levels of n-6 LCPUFA, such as AA, decreased in ALA offspring. ...
Article
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is critical for normal brain development and function. DHA is in danger of being significantly reduced in the human food supply, and the question of whether its metabolic precursor, the essential n-3 alpha linolenic acid (ALA) during pregnancy, can support fetal brain DHA levels for optimal neurodevelopment, is fundamental. Female mice were fed either ALA-enriched or Control diet during pregnancy and lactation. The direct effect of maternal dietary ALA on lipids was analyzed in liver, red blood cells (RBC), brain and brain vasculature, together with genes of fatty acid metabolism and transport in three-week-old offspring. The long-term effect of maternal dietary ALA on brain fatty acids and memory was studied in 19-week-old offspring. Three-week-old ALA offspring showed higher levels of n-3 ALA fatty acids in liver, RBC, blood-brain barrier (BBB) vasculature and brain parenchyma, DHA enrichment in brain phospholipids and higher gene and protein expression of the DHA transporter, major facilitator superfamily domain containing 2a (Mfsd2a), compared to Controls. 19-week-old ALA offspring showed higher brain DHA levels and better memory performance than Controls. Conclusions: the increased brain DHA levels induced by maternal dietary ALA during pregnancy-lactation, together with the up-regulated levels of Mfsd2a, may indicate a mode for greater DHA uptake with long-term impact on better memory in ALA offspring.
... Lyso-PL, especially Lyso-PC, has shown to be a preferred physiological carrier of DHA to the brain and retina in some studies, being more efficiently taken than the NEFA, PL or TG form [78][79][80][81][82]. A similar observation has been made for erythrocytes, where DHA Lyso-PC is the major source of DHA for these cells rather than NEFA [83]. In addition, some authors have suggested that maternal erythrocytes may be a potential reserve of LC-PUFA and a preferred vehicle of them to the placenta [84]. Thus, Lyso-PL might represent an additional source of FA for the placenta. ...
Article
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Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy has been recommended by several health organizations due to its role in neural, visual, and cognitive development. There are several fat sources available on the market for the manufacture of these dietary supplements with DHA. These fat sources differ in the lipid structure in which DHA is esterified, mainly phospholipids (PL) and triglycerides (TG) molecules. The supplementation of DHA in the form of PL or TG during pregnancy can lead to controversial results depending on the animal model, physiological status and the fat sources utilized. The intestinal digestion, placental uptake, and fetal accretion of DHA may vary depending on the lipid source of DHA ingested by the mother. The form of DHA used in maternal supplementation that would provide an optimal DHA accretion for fetal brain development, based on the available data obtained most of them from different animal models, indicates no consistent differences in fetal accretion when DHA is provided as TG or PL. Other related lipid species are under evaluation, e.g., lyso-phospholipids, with promising results to improve DHA bioavailability although more studies are needed. In this review, the evidence on DHA bioavailability and accumulation in both maternal and fetal tissues after the administration of DHA supplementation during pregnancy in the form of PL or TG in different models is summarized.
... Positive mutual correlations of DTA and C14:1 in ATME estimated by our team may be caused by significantly higher percentage of C14:1 in ATME than in serum, as it may happen in response to tissues malnutrition and beta-oxidation [34]. Similar correlations with C22:0, FA which increases cholesterol level [35], may be associated with lowered cholesterol level which accompanies cancer [36]. ...
Article
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Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity mucosa grows under conditions of poor oxygenation and nutrient scarcity. Reprogramming of lipid biosynthesis accompanies tumor growth, but the conditions under which it occurs are not fully understood. The fatty acid content of the serum, tumor tissue and adjacent tumor microenvironment was measured by gas chromatography in 30 patients with squamous cell carcinoma grade 1-3. Twenty-five fatty acids were identified; their frequencies and percentages in each of the environments were assessed. Nineteen of the twenty-five fatty acids were found in tumor tissue, tumor adjacent tissue and blood serum. Of them, 8 were found in all thirty patients. Percentages of C16:0 and C18:1n9 were highest in the tumor, C18:1n9 and C16:0 were highest in tumor adjacent tissue, and C16:0 and C18:0 were highest in blood serum. The frequencies and amounts of C22:1n13, C22:4n6, C22:5n3 and C24:1 in tumor adjacent tissues were higher than those in blood serum, independent of the tumor grade. The correlations between the amount of fatty acid and tumor grade were the strongest in tumor adjacent tissues. The correlations between particular fatty acids were most prevalent for grade 1+2 tumors and were strongest for grade 3 tumors. In the adjacent tumor microenvironment, lipogenesis was controlled by C22:6w3. In blood serum, C18:1trans11 limited the synthesis of long-chain fatty acids. Our research reveals intensive lipid changes in oral cavity SCC adjacent to the tumor microenvironment and blood serum of the patients. Increase in percentage of some of the FAs in the path: blood serum-tumor adjacent microenvironment-tumor, and it is dependent on tumor grade. This dependency is the most visible in the tumor adjacent environment.
... While PUFA composition of plasma phospholipids reflects short-term intake of PUFA and is subject to high biological variability, erythrocyte fatty acid composition appears to be more appropriate to represent an integrative measure of the fatty acid status over the previous few months [34][35][36][37]. Moreover, it has been suggested that maternal erythrocyte phospholipids are involved in the placental transfer of DHA and AA to the fetus [38]. ...
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Background: It is unanimously recognized that the maternal nutritional status at the pregnancy onset influence both short-term and long-term health of the mother and offspring. Among several nutrients, LCPUFA, particularly from the omega-3 family, are of utmost importance. This study was carried out to determine fatty acids profile of maternal erythrocyte membranes in early pregnancy and to identify potential determinants impacting on this status. Methods: A cohort of 122 healthy women with a singleton pregnancy was included. Fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography. Because of the lack of cutoff values, reference ranges were used to determine fatty acids categories. Results: Of concern, our data revealed low monounsaturated and long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status in most participants. More than 75% of Belgian pregnant women exhibited Pal, AO and EPA levels as well as IOM3 values below the laboratory reference ranges. Higher DHA concentrations and IOM3 values were found among foreign-nationality participants, non-smokers and physically active women. With regard to dietary factors, omega-3 supplements and diet seem to be complementary since DHA from supplements (but not from diet) and EPA from diet (but not from supplements) were found to be associated with higher concentrations of DHA and EPA, respectively. Conclusions: Our study presents evidence demonstrating that the fatty acid status of most early pregnant women is far from being optimal based on the admitted general reference values. Clinicians should be advice to carefully evaluate and improve this status to guarantee the best possible outcome for both the mother and the baby.
... In our previous report [20], we have found that adolescents had higher n-6 LCPUFA concentration but lower levels of the n-3 LCPUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) in umbilical cord plasma, despite similar circulating levels between adult and adolescent mothers, suggesting that placental transfer of specific fatty acids, implicated in fetal growth and development, could be altered. It has been suggested that erythrocytes may act as reservoirs of LCPUFA and play a major role in their transport to the fetus [21,22], which make them good biomarkers of FA status during pregnancy. Thus, the present study was addressed to analyze the FA profile of maternal and umbilical cord erythrocytes in adolescent pregnancies and investigate the mRNA expression of key membrane-bound and cytosolic FA transporters thought to mediate LCPUFA transfer across the placenta. ...
Article
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Adolescent pregnancy increases risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. Placental delivery of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) is essential for fetal growth and development. In this pilot study, we aimed to assess maternal and fetal status of fatty acids (FA) measured at birth and the expression of key genes involved in FA uptake, transport and metabolism in the placenta of fifteen adolescents and fifteen adults. FA were quantified by gas-liquid chromatography. Placental expression of FA transporters was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) was quantified by Western Blot. Adolescents had lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and total n-3 FA levels in maternal erythrocytes and placenta, but these were not different in fetal erythrocytes. Arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 n-6) concentration was increased in placenta but lower in fetal circulation. Plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein (FABPpm) and fatty acid transport protein (FATP) 4 mRNA expressions were not different, however FATP1, fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) mRNA and PPARγ protein levels were decreased in placenta of adolescents. Despite significant downregulation of FATP1, CD36 and FABP3, there was only a modest decrease in LCPUFA (10%) and AA (12%) and no difference in DHA content in cord blood, suggesting that FA transfer to the fetus was partially protected by other factors in adolescents from this cohort.
... SCIeNtIFIC REPORTS | (2018) 8:1216 | DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-19500-0 or turnover and are heavily influenced by fasting status. Erythrocyte fatty acid content represents an integrative measure of whole body fatty acid status over the preceding three months (the lifespan of an erythrocyte is 120 days) and erythrocytes may act as a potential storage vehicle for some key polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) 7 . Metabolomic profiling has identified maternal plasma fatty acid composition as a potential mediator of the adverse effect of pre-pregnancy BMI on pregnancy outcome 1 . ...
Article
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The environment for embryo implantation and fetal growth and development is affected by maternal nutritional, metabolic and health status. The aim of this prospective, cohort study was to test whether plasma metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers can predict pregnancy resulting from in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Women with a natural menstrual cycle undergoing frozen embryo transfer (FET) were recruited and fasting baseline blood samples were collected a mean of 3.4 days prior to the luteinising hormone (LH) surge and a non-fasting blood sample was taken on the day of FET. Ongoing pregnancy was defined by positive fetal heartbeat on ultrasound scan at day 45 post LH surge. Thirty-six pregnancies resulted from FET in 143 women. In an overall stepwise multivariable analysis, erythrocyte saturated to unsaturated fatty acid ratio was positively associated with ongoing pregnancy. A similar model incorporating day of FET covariates found that erythrocyte saturated to unsaturated fatty acid ratio, erythrocyte fatty acid average chain length and plasma log-triglycerides predicted ongoing pregnancy. In conclusion, a higher peri-conceptional saturated to unsaturated fatty acid ratio predicted ongoing pregnancy after natural cycle frozen embryo transfer and may reflect a maternal nutritional status that facilitates pregnancy success in this assisted conception scenario.
... In addition, patients with CHD (coronary heart disease) are recommended for reducing the risk of sudden death by consuming approximately 6 ounce (170 g) serving/week of fish richest in -3 PUFA (Strobel et al., 2012). This wellknown machinery by which -3 PUFAs communicate through the diminution of nuclear factor-κB activation, increase secretion of adiponectin and increasing resolvins and protectin creation (Siriwardhana et al., 2012).It is informed that very low amount of ARA(<1.0) is advantageous for consumer's cardiovascular health due to its antagonistic consequences to health benefits of the -3 fatty acids (Simopoulos, 2002).Still together with DHA, is crucial in pregnancy and infant nutrition (Ghebremeskel et al., 2000). Incidence of breast cancer, metabolic syndrome like diabetes can be slowing down after a 5weeks administration of 4-8 capsules of fish oil corresponding to 1.26 to 2.5 g daily (Hedayatifard and Jamali, 2008). ...
... In addition, patients with CHD (coronary heart disease) are recommended for reducing the risk of sudden death by consuming approximately 6 ounce (170 g) serving/week of fish richest in -3 PUFA (Strobel et al., 2012 ). This wellknown machinery by which -3 PUFAs communicate through the diminution of nuclear factor-κB activation, increase secretion of adiponectin and increasing resolvins and protectin creation (Siriwardhana et al., 2012).It is informed that very low amount of ARA(<1.0) is advantageous for consumer's cardiovascular health due to its antagonistic consequences to health benefits of the -3 fatty acids (Simopoulos, 2002).Still together with DHA, is crucial in pregnancy and infant nutrition (Ghebremeskel et al., 2000). Incidence of breast cancer, metabolic syndrome like diabetes can be slowing down after a 5weeks administration of 4–8 capsules of fish oil corresponding to 1.26 to 2.5 g daily (Hedayatifard and Jamali, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present analysis investigated the major lipids and their fatty acids in a small sized edible Indian minor carp Puntius sophore, by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas liquid chromatography. In P. sophore muscle lipid is <1%, for which fish can be regard as very low fat fish. Among the lipid classes, Phospholipids (PL) is the maximum and the fatty acid (FA) symphony consists of altogether 36 members which are quantified by open gas liquid chromatography. In P. sophore the DHA is 2.5 times higher than EPA and 3/6 ratio is ranging from 3.69 to 5.57 in the major lipid fractions. P. sophore can be considered as an ideal diet as it is found to be extraordinarily loaded with -3 FAs. The A.I. and T.I. are investigated which are within the range considered for standard human health. The result clearly illustrates that the significance of lipids and their FAs is imperative in maintaining their own physiology as well as human nutrition for reducing incidence of wide range of common degenerative diseases, as well as the alleviation of clinical symptoms. Therefore additional awareness should be given to the management legislation and policies for this P. sophore culture, because of its substantial nutritional capability.
... The correlation was even stronger (r = 0.73) in women with erythrocyte DHA ě3%, but not at all in those with erythrocyte DHA <3% (n = 36; r =´0.13, p = 0.46); interestingly, the plasma concentrations in the two subgroups of women (2.25% versus 2.04%) did not differ materially. One explanation regarding the inflection point in the correlation between plasma and erythrocyte DHA was that erythrocyte could serve as a reservoir and its DHA could be transported into plasma for body need in case of a lower DHA status [30]. Another explanation was that the storage of the blood samples at´20˝C might have compromised erythrocyte DHA, especially in those with lower DHA concentrations, whereas the storage probably had no impact on plasma DHA, which in turn resulted in a flawed deviation from the linear correlation [11,12]. ...
Article
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Few studies have examined docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in pregnant and lactating women in developing countries like China, where DHA-enriched supplements are increasingly popular. We aimed to assess the DHA status among Chinese pregnant and lactating women residing areas differing in the availability of aquatic products. In total, 1211 women in mid-pregnancy (17 ± 2 weeks), late pregnancy (39 ± 2 weeks), or lactation (42 ± 7 days) were enrolled from Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland), and Baotou (inland) city, with approximately 135 women in each participant group by region. DHA concentrations were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and are reported as weight percent of total fatty acids. Mean plasma DHA concentrations were higher in coastland (mid-pregnancy 3.19%, late pregnancy 2.54%, lactation 2.24%) and lakeland women (2.45%, 1.95%, 2.26%) than inland women (2.25%, 1.67%, 1.68%) (p values < 0.001). Similar differences were observed for erythrocyte DHA. We conclude that DHA concentrations of Chinese pregnant and lactating women are higher in coastland and lakeland regions than in inland areas. DHA status in the study population appears to be stronger than populations from other countries studied to date.
... In addition, patients with CHD (coronary heart disease) are recommended for reducing the risk of sudden death by consuming approximately 6 ounce (170 g) serving/week of fish richest in -3 PUFA (Strobel et al., 2012 ). This wellknown machinery by which -3 PUFAs communicate through the diminution of nuclear factor-κB activation, increase secretion of adiponectin and increasing resolvins and protectin creation (Siriwardhana et al., 2012).It is informed that very low amount of ARA(<1.0) is advantageous for consumer's cardiovascular health due to its antagonistic consequences to health benefits of the -3 fatty acids (Simopoulos, 2002).Still together with DHA, is crucial in pregnancy and infant nutrition (Ghebremeskel et al., 2000). Incidence of breast cancer, metabolic syndrome like diabetes can be slowing down after a 5weeks administration of 4–8 capsules of fish oil corresponding to 1.26 to 2.5 g daily (Hedayatifard and Jamali, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present analysis investigated the major lipids and their fatty acids in a small sized edible Indian minor carp Puntius sophore, by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas liquid chromatography. In P. sophore muscle lipid is <1%, for which fish can be regard as very low fat fish. Among the lipid classes, Phospholipids (PL) is the maximum and the fatty acid (FA) symphony consists of altogether 36 members which are quantified by open gas liquid chromatography. In P. sophore the DHA is 2.5 times higher than EPA and 3/6 ratio is ranging from 3.69 to 5.57 in the major lipid fractions. P. sophore can be considered as an ideal diet as it is found to be extraordinarily loaded with -3 FAs. The A.I. and T.I. are investigated which are within the range considered for standard human health. The result clearly illustrates that the significance of lipids and their FAs is imperative in maintaining their own physiology as well as human nutrition for reducing incidence of wide range of common degenerative diseases, as well as the alleviation of clinical symptoms. Therefore additional awareness should be given to the management legislation and policies for this P. sophore culture, because of its substantial nutritional capability.
... In Presence of EPA, DHA and AA indicates this species is nutritionally valuable. It should be noted that 20:4ω6 has been regarded with some suspicion with respect to risks in cardiology (40) but together with DHA it is an essential fatty acid in its own right at all times (41), as well as in pregnancy and infant nutrition (42).This freshwater crab shows a moderate level of DHA and is valuable for lactating mother and pregnant woman (43). There is ample evidence from large scale human studies (44)(45)(46)(47)(48) that the presence of EPA and DHA in our diet have a definite benefit in deferring CHD incidents. ...
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Objective: This experiment is designed to assess the major lipid classes and their fatty acids from the flesh and hepatopancreas of a small sized freshwater crab Varuna litterata (Fabricius 1798) by Thin layer chromatography and Gas liquid chromatography. This work is focused on the nutritionally valuable fatty acids present on the species which are vital nutrients of human. Scope: The paper will provide information on suitability of a freshwater fish for lipid source for human. Results: In Varuna litterata, among all lipid classes NL and PL are the dominant components in HP and flesh respectively. Among NL fractions, TG is high in both hepatopancreas and flesh. From HC+WE+SE combine HC is major in both tissue. Among PL components cardiolipin is high in HP and PC is high in flesh. By open GLC 29 fatty acids were identified. The major saturated fatty acids were C14:0, C15:0, C16:0, C17:0, C18:0, C20:0, C22:0, C24:0. The major unsaturated fatty acids were C14:1, C15:1, C16:1, C17:1, C18:1ω9, C20:1ω9, C22:1ω11, C24:1, C16:2, C18:2ω6 and C20:2.The major poly unsaturated fatty acids were C18:3ω6, C18:3ω3, C20:3ω6, C20:3ω3, C20:4ω6, C20:4ω3, C20:5ω3, C21:5ω3, C22:5ω6, C22:5ω3, C22:6ω3 which were recorded from all the lipid fractions. In most of the fractions, the amount of total SFA was much more in both flesh and hepatopancreas than those of MUFA and PUFA except in PL of flesh and MUFA of PL in hepatopancreas. The high level of n3 in TL of both tissues makes this crab nutritionally attractive. n3/n6 ratio is in between 1-2.Two distinctive indices AI and TI have very low percentage which is good for human uptake. The result shows that being a freshwater crustacean, Varuna litterata, is rich in PUFA both in their flesh and hepatopancreas. Thus common people may be encouraged to include this crab in their schedule diet for advance protection from coronary heart diseases.
... Fat metabolism is altered during pregnancy; initially fat is stored in the fat depots, but later in pregnancy breakdown of fat tissue [30], leads to higher levels of free fatty acids in the blood [31]. Pregnancy itself affects the fatty acid profiles of the mother, owing to the natural fat deposition that occurs during this period [32,33]. Plasma phospholipid concentrations increase during pregnancy [34], and there is an active transport of PUFAs, particularly DHA, across the placenta to the fetus [35]. ...
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Fish and meat intake may affect gestational weight gain, body composition and serum fatty acids. We aimed to determine whether a longitudinal dietary intervention during pregnancy could increase fish intake, affect serum phospholipid fatty acids, gestational weight gain and body composition changes during pregnancy in women of normal weight participating in the Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study. A second aim was to study possible effects in early pregnancy of fish intake and meat intake, respectively, on serum phospholipid fatty acids, gestational weight gain, and body composition. In this prospective, randomized controlled study, women were allocated to a control group or to a dietary counseling group that focused on increasing fish intake. Fat mass and fat-free mass were measured by air-displacement plethysmography. Reported intake of fish and meat was collected from a baseline population and from a subgroup of women who participated in each trimester of their pregnancies. Serum levels of phospholipid arachidonic acid (s-ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (s-EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (s-DHA) were measured during each trimester. Weekly fish intake increased only in the intervention group (n = 18) from the first to the second trimester (median difference 113 g, p = 0.03) and from the first to the third trimester (median difference 75 g, p = 0.01). In the first trimester, fish intake correlated with s-EPA (r = 0.36, p = 0.002, n = 69) and s-DHA (r = 0.34, p = 0.005, n = 69), and meat intake correlated with s-ARA (r = 0.28, p = 0.02, n = 69). Fat-free mass gain correlated with reported meat intake in the first trimester (r = 0.39, p = 0.01, n = 45). Dietary counseling throughout pregnancy could help women increase their fish intake. Intake of meat in early pregnancy may increase the gain in fat-free mass during pregnancy.
... DHA] plays a crucial role in brain and neural development and is crucial to be available to the developing chick in this perinatal period (Simopoulos et al., 1986;Innis, 1991). From human research, it is known that during pregnancy, the requirement for DHA is maximal during the last trimester and stabilizes at 2 yr postpartum corresponding to a rapid rate of cell proliferation and membrane synthesis (Clandinin et al., 1980;Ghebremeskel et al., 2000). Moreover, during the last intrauterine trimester and the first 18 mo of human postnatal life, DHA accumulates rapidly in the brain (Martinez, 1991). ...
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the transfer of maternal dietary fatty acids (FA) from the yolk to the developing offspring, with special emphasis on n-3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Six hundred forty Ross 308 breeders were housed from 6 to 58 wk of age in 16 pens resulting in 4 replicates per dietary treatment. They were fed 1 of 4 diets: a basal diet, rich in n-6 FA (CON), or an n-3 FA enriched diet formulated to obtain an EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA = DHA), 1/2 (DHA), or 2/1 (EPA). At 28, 43, and 58 wk of age, 20 eggs per treatment were collected and analyzed for FA composition. At these same breeder ages, 600 fertilized eggs per treatment were incubated. At hatch the residual yolks of 25 chicks per treatment were collected and analyzed for FA composition. At every hatch, 180 chicks per treatment were raised under standard conditions and livers were sampled at d 1, 14, 28, and 38 d for FA analysis. Concentrations of EPA in the yolk and residual yolk of eggs laid by EPA-fed breeders were highest, next-to-highest for EPA = DHA-fed breeders, next-to-lowest for DHA-fed breeders, and lowest in those laid by control hens, reflecting the inclusion levels in the maternal diets. Yolk and residual yolk DHA concentrations, however, were not only elevated due to DHA supplementation, compared with the control diet, but also due to EPA supplementation. Offspring hepatic EPA concentrations were elevated until d 28 in all n-3 enriched groups, whereas hepatic DHA concentrations were only affected by EPA = DHA and DHA supplementation at d 1. No differences were found in hepatic DHA concentrations at later offspring ages. Considering the role of EPA and DHA in early development and growth, the maternal supply of these n-3 FA might improve offspring health and performance. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.
... It is noteworthy that DHA plays a prominent role in promoting cognitive function and eye health and also assists in nervous system development of infants (Nettleton, 1993). Hence, the demand for DHA is highest during the latter part of pregnancy and infancy (Ghebremeskel et al., 2000). The other consideration is the balance between omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids. ...
... Similarly, lyso-phosphatidylcholine seems to deliver 13 C-DHA more efficiently to erythrocytes than NEFA (Brossard et al., 1997). Furthermore, some authors have also suggested that maternal erythrocytes, which take lyso-PL into their membranes, may be a potential store of LCPUFA, and a vehicle for their transport to the placenta (Ghebremeskel et al., 2000).Magnusson et al. (2004)investigated placental LPL in normal gestations in comparison with gestations complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study demonstrated that the placental LPL activity was reduced by 47% in IUGR, but increased by 39% in IDDM with respect to the controls.Lindegaard et al. (2006)reported increases in placental LPL activity in gestations complicated with IDDM in association with fetal overgrowth. ...
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The concentration of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) in the fetal brain increases dramatically from the third trimester until 18 months of life. Several studies have shown an association between the percentage of maternal plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during gestation and development of cognitive functions in the neonate. Since only very low levels of LCPUFA are synthesized in the fetus and placenta, their primary source for the fetus is the maternal circulation. Both in vitro and human in vivo studies using labeled fatty acids have shown preferential transfer of LCPUFA from the placenta to the fetus compared with other fatty acids, although the mechanisms involved are still uncertain. The placenta takes up circulating maternal non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and fatty acids released mainly by maternal lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase. These NEFA may enter the cell by passive diffusion or by means of membrane carrier proteins. Once in the cytosol, NEFA bind to cytosolic fatty acid-binding proteins for transfer to the fetal circulation or can be oxidized within the trophoblasts, and even re-esterified and stored in lipid droplets. Although trophoblast cells are not specialized for lipid storage, LCPUFA may up-regulate peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and hence the gene expression of fatty acid transport carriers, fatty acid acyl-CoA-synthetases and adipophilin or other enzymes involved in lipolysis, modifying the rate of placental transfer, and metabolism. The placental transfer of LCPUFA during pregnancy seems to be a key factor in the neurological development of the fetus. Increased knowledge of the factors that modify placental transfer of fatty acids would contribute to our understanding of this complex process.
... This study clearly indicates inadequate DHA intake in some pregnant women (Innis & Elias, 2003) and the possibility is that long-chain PUFAs may alternatively be derived from the mobilisation of maternal stores in these cases. A study of Korean women showed that pregnancy significantly decreased red blood cell membrane DHA levels ( Ghebremeskel et al., 2000). Other maternal tissues, including the membranes of the brain (with up to 13 % of fatty acids in grey matter as DHA : see Table 2) are other sources that could service this demand. ...
Article
Lipids play varied and critical roles in metabolism, with function dramatically modulated by the individual fatty acid moities in complex lipid entities. In particular, the fatty acid composition of membrane lipids greatly influences membrane function. Here we consider the role of dietary fatty acid profile on membrane composition and, in turn, its impact on prevalent disease clusters of the metabolic syndrome and mental illness. Applying the classical physiological conformer-regulator paradigm to quantify the influence of dietary fats on membrane lipid composition (i.e. where the membrane variable is plotted against the same variable in the environment--in this case dietary fats), membrane lipid composition appears as a predominantly regulated parameter. Membranes remain relatively constant in their saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acid levels over a wide range of dietary variation for these fatty acids. Membrane composition was found to be more responsive to n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels in the diet and most sensitive to n-3 PUFA and to the n-3/n-6 ratio. These differential responses are probably due to the fact that both n-6 and n-3 PUFA classes cannot be synthesised de novo by higher animals. Diet-induced modifications in membrane lipid composition are associated with changes in the rates of membrane-linked cellular processes that are major contributors to energy metabolism. For example, in the intrinsic activity of fundamental processes such as the Na+/K+ pump and proton pump-leak cycle. Equally, dietary lipid profile impacts substantially on diseases of the metabolic syndrome with evidence accruing for changes in metabolic rate and neuropeptide regulation (thus influencing both sides of the energy balance equation), in second messenger generation and in gene expression influencing a range of glucose and lipid handling pathways. Finally, there is a growing literature relating changes in dietary fatty acid profile to many aspects of mental health. The understanding of dietary lipid profile and its influence on membrane function in relation to metabolic dysregulation has exciting potential for the prevention and treatment of a range of prevalent disease states.
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Background: Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL) and Recurrent Implantation Failure (RIF) are highly heterogeneous condition and many of the mechanisms involved still require elucidation. The aim was to analyze the lipidomic profile in plasma of women with RPL and RIF before and after receiving the Lipid Emulsion Therapy (LET) containing 10% fish oil (SMOFlipid® 20%). Methods: This study included twenty-six women with RPL or RIF from immunological or inflammatory causes, with elevated natural killer cell levels and divided into a Pregnancy Loss or a Live Birth group according to the outcome. The women received intravenous LET and sample collecting was done before the first, third and fifth dose of LET in the pregnant women. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF MS) and multivariate statistical methods were performed to evaluate the profile of phospholipids present in the women's plasma. Results: An increase of phosphatidylcholines (PC) 40:8 and 36:5 levels with predominance of n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was observed in plasma lipids of the Pregnancy Loss Group compared to Live Birth Group. We also observed an increase in the relative abundance of n3 PUFA-PC species (42:10 and 36:6) and LysoPC 15:0 with the long term use of LET. Conclusion: The greater availability of n3 PUFA in plasma of the pregnant women stemming from LET use can be considered advantageous regarding the alteration of the phospholipid profile and its postulated anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory role. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for maternal and fetal health, but epidemiological data is sparse in China. We examined the trends of EPA alone and a combination of EPA plus DHA in pregnant and lactating women in three distinct geographic regions in China, and explored their potential influencing factors. A total of 1015 healthy women during mid-pregnancy, late pregnancy, or lactation were recruited from Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland), and Baotou (inland) cities of China between May and July of 2014. Maternal EPA and DHA concentrations (percentage of total fatty acids) in plasma and erythrocytes were measured by capillary gas chromatography. Adjusted EPA plus DHA concentrations in both plasma and erythrocytes significantly declined from mid-pregnancy (2.92%,6.95%), to late pregnancy (2.20%,6.42%) and lactation (2.40%,6.29%) ( P trend <0.001); and both concentrations were highest in coastland, followed by lakeland, and lowest in inland ( P <0.001). Regarding EPA alone, the concentrations were higher in women during lactation or late pregnancy and in women in coastland and inland areas. Moreover, concentrations of EPA or EPA plus DHA were higher in women with older age, higher education, higher annual family income per capita, and higher dietary intake of marine aquatic product and mutton. In lactating women, erythrocyte EPA concentration was higher in those having breastfeeding partially versus exclusively. In conclusion, maternal plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of EPA plus DHA or EPA alone differed with geographic regions, physiological periods and maternal characteristics, indicating a need of population-specific health strategies to improve fatty acids status in pregnant and lactating women.
Article
Maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is required during pregnancy to supply for normal fetal growth and development. This pilot study aimed to assess the unknown fatty acid (FA) composition in a cohort of non-pregnant and pregnant Israeli women at term and their offspring on a normal diet without n-3 FA supplementation. The fatty acid profile,analyzed using gas chromatography, showed significantly higher plasma monounsaturated (MUFA) and lower n-6 FA percent distribution with similar n-3 index, in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women. RBC exhibited significantly higher MUFA with similar n-3 index, in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women. N-3 FA significantly correlated between neonates’ plasma,with higher n-3 index,and pregnant women's DHA . Conclusion: DHA levels in non-pregnant and pregnant Israeli women at term were comparable and the DHA in pregnant women's plasma positively correlated with their neonate's level, suggesting an efficient mother-fetus FA transfer and/or fetal fatty acid metabolism to longer FA products .
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This preprint book focuses on maternal docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3 (DHA), and arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6 (ARA), on children’s neurodevelopment.
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When prescribing a vitamin‑mineral complex or a drug containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to a pregnant, lactating mother and child, it is expected to receive the effect from the subsidy of this polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega‑3 PUFA). In the case when the preparation contains additional impurities, the magnitude and nature of the effect may differ from the expected ones. In this work, we conducted a comprehensive study of the composition of 11 omega‑3 PUFA preparations with chromatographic determination of more than 40 metabolites of fatty acids and other compounds. The obtained data on the composition of the extracts were analyzed using modern methods of intellectual analysis. As a result, quantitative markers were obtained that made it possible to separate preparations based on standardized omega‑3 PUFAs from less standardized ones based on chromatographic analysis of the fatty acid composition of the preparations: marker ‘EPA + DHA’, marker ‘ω6 + ω11’ and standardization coefficient evaluating the conformity of measured levels of omega‑3 PUFAs to manufacturer declared. Based on the data obtained, highly standardized (Elevit Feeding, Omacor), medium and low standardized preparations were selected. It is recommended to take these data into account when prescribing and choosing vitamin complexes for nursing women, preferring highly standardized ones.
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Das Fettsäure(FS)-Muster von Organismen wurde in einer unübersichtlichen Vielzahl von Publikationen dargestellt. Da die klinische Relevanz des FS-Musters verschiedener Gewebe bei Mensch und Tier für viele Krankheitskomplexe unumstritten ist, war das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit, verfügbare Daten zu FS bei Tieren zu katalogisieren und hinsichtlich verschiedener Fragestellungen auszuwerten. Es wurden Daten zu 290 Wirbeltierarten aus 609 Publikationen gesammelt. Unter anderem wurden folgende Ergebnisse erzielt: Der bei Wiederkäuern bekannte Effekt der Sättigung mehrfach ungesättigter FS (PUFA) im Vormagen lässt sich auch bei anderen Vormagenfermentierern nachvollziehen.Daten zu Leber- und Muskellipiden unterstützen die Hypothese, dass mit steigender Körpermasse der Anteil an Docosahexaensäure bei gleich bleibendem PUFA-Anteil sinkt; phylogenetische Effekte sind jedoch nicht auszuschliessen. Berechnete Indices zur Charakterisierung von Enzymaktivität (Desaturase-Index) können sich mit der Körpermasse verändern und sollten nur bei Tieren auf ähnlichem Futter verglichen werden. In Gefangenschaft gehaltene Fische, Vögel und herbivore Säuger weisen durchweg niedrigere Anteile an PUFA und n3-FS auf, als ihre freilebenden Artgenossen. Dies wird in verschiedenen Fällen mit geringerem Nachzuchterfolg und anderen klinischen Symptomen in Zusammenhang gebracht. Aufgrund des FS-Musters verschiedener Futterpflanzen und - tiere werden Empfehlungen für eine Verbesserung der Zootierfütterung gemacht. The fatty acid (FA) pattern of organisms has been documented in a confusing multitude of publications. As the clinical relevance of the FA pattern of different tissues in man and animals is undebated with respect to certain disease complexes, and is suspected with respect to some more, this study aimed at compiling available data on FA in animals and performing a variety of analyses. Data on 290 vertebrate species were compiled from 609 publications. Amongst others, the following results were generated: The well-known effect of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) saturation in the forestomach of ruminants can be demonstrated in other foregut fermenters as well. Data on liver and muscle lipids support the hypothesis that the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid decreases with increasing body mass, while the proportion of PUFA remains constant; however, phylogenetic effects cannot be ruled out. Calculated indices for the characterization of enzyme activity (desaturase-index) can vary with body mass and should only be compared in animals consuming a similar diet. In captivity, fish, birds and herbivorous mammals consistently have lower proportions of PUFA and n3-FA than their free-ranging conspecifics. In several cases, this has been associated with diminished reproductive success and other clinical symptoms. Based on the FA pattern of feeds and prey animals, recommendations for an improvement of the nutrition of captive wild animals are made.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate two sources of oil (soybean and fish) and four additional levels of vitamin E (0, 150, 250 and 350mg/kg diet) in breeder diets between the 42nd and 56th week of age and its effect on performance and meat quality of offspring. The supplementation of fish oil in the maternal diet increased the deposition of DHA and CLA in egg yolk. From 1 to 35 days of age, intermediate levels of vitamin E resulted in lower weight gain and feed intake. To feed conversion, the best result was obtained supplementing the maternal diet with soybean oil, regardless of vitamin inclusion. In addition, the evaluation of meat quality, the fish oil-supplemented-diet resulted in lower moisture loss of the breast fillets. For maternal diet supplemented with fish oil, the inclusion of vitamin E resulted in a linear increase of the pH value of the meat. Greater levels of vitamin E in the maternal diet influenced the functional properties of meat according to the type of oil that was added to the diet. The deposition of different fatty acids in the embryonic egg yolk can directly influence the meat quality of offspring.
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Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA), specifically DHA, are associated with fetal growth and development. We aimed to determine the levels of DHA and EPA in cord serum after n-3 FA supplementation during the last trimester of pregnancy. Among 55 women, 23 were administered daily one capsule of n-3 FA supplement, involving DHA/EPA in a ratio of 1/1.3. Twenty nine women were enrolled as control group. Blood samples were collected at 22–24 weeks of gestation and at delivery. Fatty acids were analyzed with the method of GC-MS. Cord DHA level increased and EPA level decreased in both groups between the days of 22–24 and delivery. However, decrease in cord EPA level was significant in control group (p < 0.001) but not in supplement group (p > 0.05). Supplementation of DHA/EPA in a ratio of 1/1.3 during the last trimester of pregnancy caused higher cord EPA level compared to control group indicating an accumulation in umbilical cord.
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Studies reporting blood levels of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were systematically identified in order to create a global map identifying countries and regions with different blood levels. Included studies were those of healthy adults, published in 1980 or later. A total of 298 studies met all inclusion criteria. Studies reported fatty acids in various blood fractions including plasma total lipids (33.0%), plasma phospholipid (32%), erythrocytes (32%) and whole blood (3.0%). Fatty acid data from each blood fraction were converted to relative weight percentages (wt.%) and then assigned to one of four discrete ranges (high, moderate, low, very low) corresponding to wt.% EPA + DHA in erythrocyte equivalents. Regions with high EPA + DHA blood levels (> 8%) included the Sea of Japan, Scandinavia, and areas with indigenous populations or populations not fully adapted to Westernized food habits. Very low blood levels (≤ 4%) were observed in North America, Central and South America, Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Africa. The present review reveals considerable variability in blood levels of EPA + DHA and the very low to low range of blood EPA + DHA for most of the world may increase global risk for chronic disease.
Chapter
Pregnancy is a period in a woman’s life when good nutrition is exceptionally important, for both the growing foetus and the health of the mother. Several studies have reported that marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are one of the macronutrients required for optimal perinatal development and growth. The n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) plays an important role in foetal development. The placenta transports DHA specifically and in concentrated amounts from the mother’s blood to the foetus. DHA is incorporated into cell membranes of the central nervous system and retina of the foetus, where it increases fluidity of the membranes and participates in various cell functions. Studies indicate that dietary intake of preformed DHA is necessary, because the synthesis of DHA in the human body is not sufficient to meet physiological needs. It has been suggested that maternal red blood cells (RBC) act as a reservoir of DHA. Maternal dietary n-3 PUFA is therefore the most important determinant of n-3 PUFA availability to the growing foetus, since maternal dietary n-3 PUFA intake is assumed to reflect the maternal n-3 PUFA status of RBC lipids. Foetal growth during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy has been shown to be a major determinant of birth weight, and the neonate’s brain experiences a tremendous increase in growth during late gestation and early postnatal life. Moreover, it is indicated that n-3 PUFA could be one of the factors programming the later health of the growing individual. A recent study reported an association between maternal diet and lifestyle during pregnancy and foetal growth. Mothers who consumed a diet classified as the ‘Western diet’ (mainly red meat and little fish), and who smoked, were more likely to give birth to a baby that was small for gestational age. Optimal outcome of pregnancy has been related to improved health of the offspring later in life. The foetus’ birth weight and the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life are dependent on the mother’s nutrition and lifestyle during intrauterine life. The responsibility of women of reproductive age and during the pregnancy is therefore great, since they have to consume fish oil and/or seafood in order to have a reservoir of n-3 PUFA. In this chapter, an attempt is made to give an overview of the maternal status of blood DHA during pregnancy, intrauterine DHA sources, and their association with foetal growth.
Article
Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are essential unsaturated long-chain FAs necessary for proper health and growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on maternal serum FA profiles. Participants (n = 150 pregnant women aged 18-35 years in Tabriz, Iran) were randomly assigned to receive either 1000 mg fish oil supplements daily containing 120 mg docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or placebo from week 21 of pregnancy to delivery. The primary outcome measures were mean serum DHA and EPA proportion of total FAs at weeks 35-37 of pregnancy. Analyses were based on intention-to-treat. No significant differences were observed between the groups in consumption of fish and serum FAs levels at baseline. Fish oil supplementation significantly increased the mean DHA proportion of total FAs in the intervention compared to the placebo group at weeks 35-37 (adjusted Mean Difference (aMD) = 0.15; [95% CI 0.08-0.23]). The mean EPA proportion of total FAs also increased in the intervention group, but the difference between the groups was not significant (aMD = 0.04; [95% CI -0.01 to 0.08]). The dietary recommendation for consumption of 1000 mg/day fish oil supplements during pregnancy seems beneficial for better serum FA composition.
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Objective: The present work investigated the principal lipids and their fatty acids in Mola (Amblypharyngodon mola), a small sized edible minor carp in India by Thin layer chromatography and Gas liquid chromatography. Scope: In A. mola muscle lipid is less than 1%, for which fish is considered as low fat fish. Among the lipid classes, Neutral lipids (NL) are found to be the most prominent components, followed by phospholipids (PL) and glycolipids (GL). Among PLs, cardiolipins (CL) is a major one; involve in supporting several proteins in inner mitochondrial bioenergetics. Altogether 35 fatty acids are quantified by open gas liquid chromatography. The fatty acids profile include minor amount of odd number, branched chain fatty acids as well as saturated components , also MUFA and PUFA. Absence of C20:3-9 acid suggests that the fish do not suffer from fatty acid deficiency .The content of DHA is maximum in phospholipids whereas EPA in TL. In A.mola, 3/6 ratio is the lowest in GL (6.9) and maximum in PL (15). This freshwater fish can be considered as a balance diet as it is found to be unusually rich in -3 fatty acids. The two distinct indices (AI and TI) are investigated which are within the range considered for normal human health. Results: The result clearly shows that the importance of lipids and their fatty acids is important in maintaining their own physiology as well as human nutrition for combating diseases like heart problem, cholesterol and many nerve related problems. Hence more attention should be given to the culture of A.mola since they promise better health benefits. INTRODUCTION Freshwater fish is an excellent and cheaper source of animal protein of high biological value for a large portion of the inhabitants in India. Apart from a major protein source, these fish also contain nutritionally valuable lipids and fatty acids (1, 2, and 3). Fawole et al. (4) have studied the proximate and mineral compositions of several freshwater fish species and monitored that freshwater fishes are excellent in mineral compositions. Generally worldwide freshwater fish production is mainly dependent on carps. In India, among the freshwater fishery, a number of minor carp species, indigenous to this subcontinent, are available throughout the country. The nutritional value of Indian fishes was initially explored by Saha and Ghosh (5, 6, 7).
Article
The Korean daily intake of vegetable oils has increased about 2.5-fold from 17 g/day to 46 g/day for the last several decades. Perilla (Perilla frutescens var. frutescens) has been cultivated in Korea for a long time as a dietary oil seed which has the highest content of {\alpha}-linolenic acid, accounting for nearly 60%. It is known that the main role of ALA is as a precursor to the longer-chain {\omega}-3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the metabolic products of {\alpha}-linolenic acid (ALA, {\omega}-3). Dietary {\omega}-3 fatty acids reduce inflammation and the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and arthritis, but they also may act as functional components for cognitive and behavioral function. Thus, {\alpha}-linolenic acid is one of the essential nutrients in modern dietary patterns in which much linoleic acid is consumed. Nevertheless, perilla oil, rich in {\alpha}-linolenic acid, can be easily oxidized, giving rise to controversies with respect to shelf life, the deterioration of the product`s commercial value, and further related toxicity. Recent research using genetic modifications has tried to develop new plant oil seeds that balance the ratio of {\omega}-6/{\omega}-3 fatty acids. Such trials could be a strategy for improving an easily oxidizable property of perilla oil due to high {\alpha}-linolenic acid. Alternatively, appropriate application of antioxidant to the oil can be considerable.
Article
Background: The present study aimed to assess the dietary fat intake and blood fatty acid status of healthy Norwegian men and women living in Bergen whose habitual diet is known to be high in long-chain omega-3 fat. Methods: Healthy men (n = 41) and women (n = 40) aged 20-50 years who were regular blood donors completed 7-day food diaries and their nutrient intake was analysed by Norwegian food database software, kbs, version 4.9 (kostberegningssystem; University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway). Blood samples were obtained before blood donation and assessed for the fatty acid composition of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol esters, phosphatidylcholine, and red cell phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Results: There was no difference in dietary fat intake between men and women. Total and saturated fat intakes exceeded the upper limits of the recommendations of the National Nutrition Council of Norway. Although polyunsaturated fat intake was close to the lower limit of the recommended level, the intake varied greatly among individuals, partly as a result of the use of supplementary fish oil. Moreover, the proportional fatty acid composition of plasma and red cell lipids was similar between men and women. Enrichment of docosahexaenoic acid in red cell phosphatidylethanolamine was found in fish oil users. Conclusions: The results of the present study provide a snapshot of the current nutritional status of healthy Norwegian adults. Moreover, the detailed blood fatty acid composition of men and women whose habitual diet constitutes high long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fat as well as saturated fat could be used as reference value for population studies.
Article
Long-chain polyunsaturated (LCP) fatty acids (FA) are important during infant development. Mother-to-infant FA-transport occurs at the expense of the maternal status. Maternal and infant FA-status change rapidly after delivery. Comparison of maternal (mRBC) and infant erythrocyte (iRBC)-FA-profiles at delivery and after 3 months exclusive breastfeeding in relation to freshwater-fish intakes. Approximation of de-novo-lipogenesis (DNL), stearoyl-CoA-desaturase (SCD), elongation-of-very-long-chain-FA-family-member-6 (Elovl-6), delta-5-desaturase (D5D) and delta-6-desaturase (D6D)-enzymatic activities from their product/essential-FA and product/substrate-ratios. Increasing iRBC-14:0 derived from mammary-gland DNL. Decreasing mRBC-ω9, but increasing iRBC-ω9, suggest high ω9-FA-transfer via breastmilk. Decreasing (m+i)RBC-16:0, DNL- and SCD-activities, but increasing (m+i)RBC-18:0 and Elovl-6-activity suggest more pronounced postpartum decreases in DNL- and SCD-activities, compared to Elovl-6-activity. Increasing (m+i)RBC-18:3ω3, 20:5ω3, 22:5ω3, 18:2ω6, mRBC-20:4ω6 and (m+i)D5D-activity, but decreasing mRBC-22:6ω3 and (m+i)D6D-activity and dose-dependent changes in iRBC-22:6ω3 confirm that D6D-activity is rate-limiting and 22:6ω3 is important during lactation. Fish-intake related magnitudes of postpartum FA-changes suggest that LCPω3 influence DNL-, SCD- and desaturase-activities.
Article
Introduction: Perinatal changes in maternal glucose and lipid fluxes and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) are driven by hormones and nutrients. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) reduces, whereas insulin augments, nuclear abundance of sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1 (SREBP-1), which promotes DNL, stearoyl-CoA-desaturase (SCD, also Δ9-desaturase), fatty acid-(FA)-elongation (Elovl) and FA-desaturation (FADS). Decreasing maternal insulin sensitivity with advancing gestation and compensatory hyperinsulinemia cause augmented postprandial glucose levels, adipose tissue lipolysis and hepatic glucose- and VLDL-production. Hepatic VLDL is composed of dietary, body store and DNL derived FA. Decreasing insulin sensitivity increases the contribution of FA from hepatic-DNL in VLDL-triacylglycerols, and consequently saturated-FA and monounsaturated-FA (MUFA) in maternal serum lipids increase during pregnancy. Although other authors described changes in maternal serum and RBC essential-FA (EFA) after delivery, none went into detail about the changes in non-EFA and the mechanisms behind -and/or functions of- the observed changes. Hypothesis: Postpartum FA-changes result from changing enzymatic activities that are influenced by the changing hormonal milieu after delivery and DHA-status. Empirical data: We studied FA-profiles and FA-ratios (as indices for enzymatic activities) of maternal and infant RBC at delivery and after 3 months exclusive breastfeeding in three populations with increasing freshwater-fish intakes. DNL-, SCD- and FADS2-activities decreased after delivery. Elongation-6 (Elovl-6)- and FADS1-activities increased. The most pronounced postpartum changes for mothers were increases in 18:0, linoleic (LA), arachidonic acid (AA) and decreases in 16:0, 18:1ω9 and DHA; and for infants increases in 18:1ω9, 22:5ω3, LA and decreases in 16:0 and AA. Changes were in line with the literature. Discussion: Postpartum increases in 18:0, and decreases in 16:0 and 18:1ω9, might derive from reduced insulin-promoted DNL-activity, with more reduced SCD- than Elovl-activity that leaves more 16:0 to be converted to 18:0 (Elovl-activity) than to MUFA (SCD-activity). Postpartum changes in ΣDNL, saturated-FA and MUFA related negatively to RBC-DHA. This concurs with suppression of both SCD- and Elovl-6 activities by DHA, through its influence on SREBP. Infant MUFA and LA increased at expense of their mothers. Sustained transport might be important for myelination (MUFA) and skin barrier development (LA). Maternal postpartum decreases in FADS2-, and apparent increases in FADS1-activity, together with increases in LA, AA, and 22:5ω3, but decrease in DHA, confirm that FADS2 is rate limiting in EFA-desaturation. Maternal LA and AA increases might be the result of rerouting from transplacental transfer to the incorporation into milk lipids and discontinued placental AA-utilization. Implications: Perinatal changes in maternal and infant FA status may be strongly driven by changing insulin sensitivity and DHA status.
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Evaluación de las composiciones de aminoácidos y ácidos grasos en Haruan Extractos tradicional (HTE) se realizó mediante métodos de HPLC y GC. La HTE contenía al menos 17 aminoácidos con ácido glutámico, glicina, leucina, ácido aspártico, prolina, alanina y arginina como mayoritarios, con valores de 1.87 - 43.13 mg/g, 21.80 - 80.85 mg/g, 7.85 - 40.19 mg/g, 13.85 - 44.07 mg/g, 9.49 - 45.46 mg/g, 11.38 - 35.25 mg/g and 5.99 - 21.79 mg/g, respectivamente. Mientras tanto, el mayor porcentaje de ácidos grasos es el ácido palmítico; 3.54 - 26.84 % de la proteína total. Otros ácidos grasos importantes son el ácido esteárico, ácido oleico y ácido linoleico con valores de 3.25 - 15.90 %, 1.40 - 27.68 %, 0.51 - 7.82 % de la proteína total, respectivamente. HTE también encontró cuatro compuestos bioactivos adicionales etiquetados de 1 a 4 en el seguimiento cromatográfico que está de acuerdo con resultados previos. Se concluye que la HTE contiene todos los aminoácidos importantes además de algunos ácidos grasos, que es la base para llevar a cabo la composición antioxidante, tanto en fresco Haruan y la HTE que se afirma poseen propiedades curativas. Estudios comparativos se llevaron a cabo con otros protocolos de extracción, incluido el producto comercial.
Article
Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and their neonates have lower levels of arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids in red cell membranes. It is not clear if this abnormality is restricted to red cells or is a generalised problem. We have investigated plasma fatty acids of neonates (venous cord) of GDM (n=37), and non-diabetic (n=31) women. The GDMs had lower levels of dihomogamma-linolenic (20:3n-6, DHGLA) acid, summation operator n-6 metabolites, DHA and summation operator n-3 metabolites (p<0.05) in choline phosphoglycerides (CPG). They also had lower levels of AA (-4.5%), adrenic acid (22:4n-6, -13%), osbond acid (22:5n-6, -7%) and summation operator n-6 (-2.5%). There was a similar pattern in triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol esters (CE). Mead acid, a marker of generalised shortage of derived and parent essential fatty acids, was higher in CPG and TG of the GDM group by 73% and 76%. The adrenic/osbond acid (22:4n-6/22:5n-6) ratio, a biochemical marker of DHA insufficiency, was reduced in CPG (-4.5%), TG (-63%) and CE (-75%) of the GDM group. These findings, which are consistent with the previous red cell data, suggest that the neuro-visual and vascular development and function of the offspring of GDM women may be adversely affected if the levels of AA and DHA are compromised further by other factors, pre- or post-natally. Studies are required to elucidate the underlying mechanism for the reduction of the two fatty acids and to evaluate the developmental and health implications.
Article
Intrauterine exposure to diabetes is a significant determinant of the development of obesity and early onset of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the offspring. Both conditions are characterized by insulin resistance and the latter is associated with reduced membrane arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids. Hence, we investigated if the membrane arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids are depressed in the cord blood of babies born to women with gestational diabetes. Cord (fetal) and maternal blood were obtained at delivery from control subjects (n = 33) and women with gestational diabetes (n = 40) and analysed for plasma triglycerides and cholinephosphoglycerides, and erythrocyte choline- and ethanolaminephosphoglycerides fatty acids. Babies of gestational diabetic mothers had reduced docosahexaenoic acid in the plasma (5.9 +/- 1.4 vs. 7.1 +/- 2.0, P < 0.01) and erythrocyte (4.0 +/- 2.2 vs. 5.4 +/- 2.9, P < 0.05) cholinephosphoglycerides. Moreover, the total omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids of the erythrocyte cholinephosphoglycerides were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in these babies. A similar trend was observed in plasma triglycerides and erythrocyte ethanolaminephosphoglycerides. The maternal plasma triglycerides and erythrocyte ethanolaminephosphoglycerides fatty acids profile were not different between the two groups. However, there was a reduction in arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids in the erythrocyte cholinephosphoglycerides of the gestational diabetic women. The altered plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids in the cord blood of babies born to women with gestational diabetes suggests a perturbation in the maternal-fetal nutrient transport and/or fetal lipid metabolism.
Article
Placental transfer of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids is selectively high to maintain accretion to fetal tissues, especially the brain. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the essential fatty acid (EFA) and LCPUFA status at birth of preterm and term Brazilian infants and their mothers, from a population of characteristically low intake of n-3 LCPUFA, and to evaluate the association between fetal and maternal status, by the determination of the fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membrane. Blood samples from umbilical cord of preterm (26-36 weeks of gestation; n = 30) and term (37-42 weeks of gestation; n = 30) infants and the corresponding maternal venous blood were collected at delivery. The LCPUFA composition of the erythrocyte membrane and DHA status were similar for mothers of preterm and term infants. Neonatal AA was higher (P < 0.01) whereas its precursor 18:2n-6 was lower (P < 0.01) than maternal levels, as expected. There was no difference in LCPUFA erythrocyte composition between preterm and term infants, except for DHA. Term infants presented a worse DHA status than preterm infants (P < 0.01) and than their mothers (P < 0.01) at delivery. There was a negative correlation of neonatal DHA with maternal AA and a positive correlation between neonatal AA and maternal AA and 18:2n-6 only at term. These results suggest that the persistent low DHA maternal status, together with the comparatively better AA and 18:2n-6 status, might have affected maternal-fetal transfer of DHA when gestation was completed up to term, and possibly contributed to the worse DHA status of term neonates compared with the preterm neonates.
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The aims of the present study were to evaluate essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) status in lactating adolescents and its association with breast milk composition. Healthy nursing adolescents from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (n 30; 14-19 years; 30-120 d postpartum), exclusively or predominantly breast-feeding, participated in this study. Breast milk and blood samples were collected after overnight fasting. Fatty acid composition of breast milk, erythrocyte membrane (EM) and plasma NEFA were determined by GC. Indices of fatty acid status (mean melting point (MMP); EFA status index; DHA status indices, 22 : 5n-6:22 : 4n-6 and 22 : 6n-3:22 : 5n-6 ratios) were calculated from EM fatty acid composition. Dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids was low when compared with current recommendations for lactating women. MMP was associated with indices of DHA status, some individual fatty acids in EM and years post-menarche and weeks postpartum, suggesting the use of erythrocyte MMP as a possible comprehensive biochemical marker of LCPUFA status in this physiological condition. The DHA status of lactating adolescents and their milk DHA concentrations were similar to the values of Brazilian lactating adults, but lower compared with the values of lactating adults from other countries. Therefore, these lactating adolescents were apparently not disadvantaged, as compared with the Brazilian adults, when EM and breast milk fatty acid composition were considered. In general, PUFA in milk from adolescents presented few associations with their concentrations in plasma NEFA and with maternal status. However, milk DHA was associated with maternal LCPUFA and DHA states.
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Healthy pregnant women (n 23) were supplemented with fish-oil capsules (2.7 g n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids/d) from the 30th week of gestation until delivery. Subjects in a control group were either supplemented with olive-oil capsules (4 g/d, n 6) or received no supplementation (n 10). Fatty acid compositions of the phospholipids isolated from umbilical plasma and umbilical arterial and venous vessel walls were determined. Fatty acid compositions of maternal venous plasma phospholipids were determined as well. Maternal plasma phospholipids of the fish-okupplemented group contained more n-3 fatty acids and less n-6 fatty acids. Moreover, the amounts of the essential fatty acid deficiency markers Mead acid (20:3n-9) and Osbond acid (22:5n-6) were significantly lower. The extra amount of n-3 fatty acids consumed by the mothers resulted in higher contents of n-3 fatty acids, and of docosahexaenoic acid (22 : 6n-3) in particular, in the phospholipids of umbilical plasma and vessel walls. It is, indeed, possible to interfere with the docosahexaenoic acid status at birth: children born to mothers supplemented with fish oil in the last trimester of pregnancy start with a better d d e x a e n o i c acid status at birth, which may be beneficial to neonatal neurodevelopment.
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In a group of 19 normal pregnant women, plasma lipids were extracted, phospholipids were isolated, and the fatty acid (FA) compositions were measured by capillary gas chromatography. Blood samples were taken at 36 wk, at labor, and at 6 wk postpartum. The FA profiles showed deficiencies of omega 6 and omega 3 FA (omega indicating the length of the terminal saturated chain), the latter more severe, at all three times. Mean melting point (MMP) was calculated for each sample as an index of "fluidity" based upon all FA present. MMP varied linearly with total polyunsaturated FA and with double bond index, current measures of "fluidity" and essential FA status. MMP was elevated 9-11 degrees C in plasma phospholipids of women during pregnancy and labor and postpartum. Lactating mothers showed less recovery from the deficiencies than did the nonlactating mothers, but neither approached normal at 6 wk. The changes seen in phospholipid profiles suggest a significant transfer of omega 3 and omega 6 polyunsaturated FA from the mother to the fetus. These FA are essential for normal fetal growth and development; their relative deficiency in maternal circulation suggests that dietary supplementation may be indicated.
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Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with handicaps, the most prevelant of which affect the brain or its sensory attributes and have a life long impact. We have therefore been interested in nutrition and fetal growth and have studied the relationship between maternal diet and the outcome of pregnancy. Essential fatty acids are methylene-interrupted, polyenoic fatty acids that are required for cell membrane structure, integrity and function. Some 60% of the structural material of the brain and nervous system is lipid and it uses 20- and 22-carbon-chain-length polyenoic acids specifically in sites of signal transduction and high activity (Fig. 1). We have been interested in the acquisition of these fatty acids during fetal growth and along with deficits of several nutrients found low intakes of essential fatty acids (EFA) in the mothers of LBW babies. In order to test this food intake data we have analysed the lipids of the umbilical artery as representative of fetal tissue. We found surprisingly high proportions of the n − 9 eicosatrienoic acid (20:3, n − 9) and docosatrienoic acid (22:3, n − 9). The 20:3, n − 9 is known as the Mead acid and is recognized as a biochemical index of EFA deficiency [1,2]. The 20:3, n − 9/2:4, n − 6 ratio has been used as a biochemical test of general EFA deficiency and the 22:5, n − 6/ 22:4, n − 6 ratio as a marker of docosahexaenoic or n − 3 deficiency. Both ratios were unusually high. Further analysis of 14 babies of different birth weights produced highly significant Pearson correlation coefficients between birth weights and head circumferences, and these two indices, which were negative, and greater in the ethanolamine phosphoglycerides than in the choline phosphoglycerides of the umbilical artery. The ethanolamine phosphoglycerides are inner membrane lipids and therefore the presence of the Mead acid and high levels of 22:5, n − 6 are statements about the biochemical history of the individual fetus. These indices may therefore have a diagnostic value as a measure of the nutritional status of the fetus during its growth. Because they describe the status of fatty acids specifically used for neural tissue growth, this diagnostic tool has a potential, which needs now to be tested, for assessing risk of neural deficits or damage in, for example, LBW and premature infants.
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Docosahexaenoic acid [22:6(n-3); 22:6(4,-7,10,13,16,19) (DHA)] is required in quantity by the developing nervous system of the fetus. This need could be met through synthesis of DHA from linolenic acid in the fetus or through placental transfer of DHA directly. To study the placental transfer of n-3 fatty acids, we obtained umbilical and maternal blood samples from 26 healthy women and infants at parturition and measured the fatty acid composition and content of both plasma and erythrocytes. A striking finding was a considerable venous-arterial difference for DHA in the umbilical erythrocytes as a proportion of total fatty acids and in absolute concentration. This difference of 2.2 micrograms per billion erythrocytes was 6 times larger than the difference in fetal plasma, when the plasma and erythrocyte concentrations were normalized to whole blood. Most other erythrocyte fatty acids showed a similar trend. In umbilical plasma, significant venous-arterial differences were found for 16:0, 16:1, 18:2, and total saturated fatty acids. There was a similar trend for most other plasma fatty acids. Compared with maternal blood, fetal plasma and erythrocytes had higher levels of 20:4 and DHA and lower levels of 18:2 and 18:3(n - 3) fatty acids as a proportion of total fatty acids. These results suggest that erythrocytes play a major role in the necessary transport of the essential fatty acid DHA into the fetus.
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Although essential fatty acids (EFA) and their longer chain, more unsaturated derivatives play a major role during pregnancy, hardly any information is available with respect to the course of the maternal EFA status during an uncomplicated pregnancy and its relationship to the neonatal EFA status. Therefore, a longitudinal study was started in which 110 pregnant women gave repeated blood samples from the 10th week of gestation until delivery. After birth a blood sample from the umbilical vein and a maternal venous blood sample were collected as well, and 6 months after delivery a final blood sample from the mother was taken. The absolute (mg/l) and relative (% total fatty acids) amounts of the fatty acids in plasma phospholipids were determined. The total amounts of fatty acids increased significantly during pregnancy. This pattern was similar for the individual fatty acids and fatty acid families. The relative amount of linoleic acid (18:2n-6) did not change during pregnancy, whereas the relative amount of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) decreased. Despite maternal mobilization of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA), suggested by a temporary increase in the DHA status until 18 weeks gestation, the DHA status steadily declined thereafter. This pattern was associated with a progressive increase in the DHA deficiency index in maternal blood throughout pregnancy and resulted in a sub-optimal neonatal DHA status. The overall maternal EFA status also declined steadily during pregnancy. Therefore, the question arises whether the mother, under the prevailing dietary conditions, is able to meet the high fetal requirement for EFA.
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To investigate whether the steady decline in the maternal essential fatty acids (EFA) status during pregnancy observed in Dutch pregnant women is a local or general phenomenon. The EFA status was measured during uncomplicated, singleton pregnancy of healthy women from the Netherlands, Hungary, Finland, England and Ecuador. In addition, the EFA status of their neonates were measured at birth. Fatty acid profiles were analyzed in phospholipids isolated from maternal plasma and from umbilical plasma and cord vessel walls. Considerable differences between these centers were observed in the maternal EFA levels and EFA status indexes. However, the change in the absolute as well as relative amounts of the EFAs followed a similar course in the five populations during pregnancy. The neonatal EFA profiles reflected the differences found in maternal plasma during pregnancy and shortly after delivery. Comparable correlations were found, particularly, between the neonatal and the maternal n-3 fatty acids in the participating groups. It seems that the reduction in maternal EFA status during pregnancy is a general phenomenon, and is largely independent of differences in dietary habits and ethnic origin. Since the lowest values for certain maternal EFAs in a given country were significantly higher than the highest value of these EFAs throughout pregnancy in other countries, the functional implications of the pregnancy-associated reduction in the maternal EFA status for the fetal and neonatal development is not obvious and needs to be further elucidated.
Article
Human milk is found to be variable in its composition but these variations are predictable and could be physiologically significant to the neonate. In-feed variations are mainly associated with a rise in milk lipid content. Milk from the early part of the feed provides water and the later milk is rich in lipid. This change offers the baby a means of satisfying water and nutrient requirements and could also act as a mechanism of appetite control. Milk has been studied over a 9-month lactation period. It was found that whilst the early milk phosphoglycerides were rich in the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids used in brain cell growth, their content fell with time, but the proportion of the long-chain mono-unsaturated acids used in myelin increased. This change is consistent with the changing developmental biology in the neonate which shifts the emphasis from brain cell division to myelination. In general, the fatty acid composition of breast milk from well-nourished mothers in different countries was found to be more remarkable for its similarity than dissimilarity. The implications of the milk lipid as an index of maternal under-nutrition are discussed.
Article
In a longitudinal study covering twenty years, dietary intake of pregnant women was recorded. Data reported here are broken down according to trimester and are also compared with preconceptional intake.
Article
Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of plasma choline phosphoglycerides has been measured at birth in 22 preterm infants. Positive correlations were found between both n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and measurements of growth and maturation. 20:4(n-6) and the sum of 20:3(n-6) + 20:4(n-6) correlated most strongly with weight and head circumference, while 22:6(n-3) showed strongest correlation with length of gestation. These findings are of relevance to understanding the role of nutrition in fetal growth and in establishing the group of infants most at risk of postnatal deficiency of essential fatty acids.
Article
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) composition of choline phosphoglycerides was measured in the plasma of 22 preterm infants at birth and at expected date of delivery (EDD). In a subgroup of 10 infants, data were also collected at regular intervals between birth and EDD. Levels at birth showed a positive correlation between arachidonic acid (AA) and birth weight, p less than 0.01, and between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and gestational age, p less than 0.01. Percentage compositions of both AA and DHA fell rapidly between preterm birth and expected date of delivery, at a time when they would remain high in utero. For AA, the mean value fell from 16.52 to 7.18%, and for DHA from 4.49 to 2.63%. Levels of DHA fell less in babies fed breast milk than in those fed formula milk, p less than 0.05, and levels of AA fell less in those requiring a large number of blood transfusions, p less than 0.05. The level of DHA fell more in those infants with intrauterine growth retardation, p less than 0.05. Although these nutrients share common metabolic pathways for their synthesis, they appear to be affected by different factors in both the fetus and the preterm infant. Low levels at this time may adversely affect brain and retinal development.
Article
The food intakes of pregnant women were analysed from two contrasting socio-economic areas in London. There were significant differences in mean calorie and EFA intakes. Analysis of maternal and cord blood essential fatty acids (EFAs) in relation to birth weight, placental weight and head circumference were consistent with the dietary data. To assess the EFA tissue status of the low birth weight babies, the umbilical arteries from 14 separate babies of different birth weights were studied. Surprisingly high levels of the Mead acid (20:3 n-9) were found, with the highest appearing in the artery from the baby with the lowest birth weight. This data may not necessarily imply an EFA deficiency, but at the least it probably indicates a remarkable thirst for long chain n-6 and n-3 fatty acids for fetal brain development.
Article
The influence of diet and maternal parity on the fatty acid composition of mature breast milk have been studied in 23 rural Gambian mothers. The subjects' habitual diet was low in fat (16% total energy), groundnuts (peanuts) constituting the principal fat source. The high abundance of oleic and linoleic acids in groundnut fat were reflected in the proportions of these fatty acids in breast milk (47.0 +/- 1.5 and 13.0 +/- 0.3 g/100 g fat, respectively), which were elevated compared with mothers in other African communities. Estimates of daily breast-milk fatty acid secretion indicated that there was little risk of essential fatty acid deficiency in Gambian infants. The proportions of fatty acids synthesized de novo (10:0, 12:0, 14:0) were less than expected from published studies of mothers consuming low-fat diets, averaging 16.8 +/- 1.4 g/100 g fat. As the study was conducted at a time of food shortage and high energy expenditure, it is argued that mobilisation of body fat during negative energy balance increased the availability of long-chain fatty acids to the breast. The proportion of endogenous fatty acids was markedly reduced in the milk of mothers of very high parity (parity 1 = 19.3 +/- 1.6 g/100 g fat; parities 10 + = 11.4 +/- 1.5 g/100 g fat; p less than 0.01). It is hypothesised that this represents an impairment of the ability to synthesise breast-milk fatty acids de novo in these mothers.
Article
Since the discovery in 1929 that certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential for life and health, intense investigation has revealed the multiplicity of members in each of several families of PUFA, no two of which are equivalent. The quantified nutrient requirements for the essential dietary precursors of the two dominant families of PUFA have been estimated, and the general functions of these families are slowly becoming known. The PUFA are essential components of structural membrane lipids. The functions of the individual members are not yet differentiated, except as they act as precursors of synthesis of unique octadecanoid, eicosanoid, and docosanoid products of oxidation that have potent biological properties. The PUFA occur in animals and higher plants as ubiquitous and essential components of structural lipid that are in a dynamic equilibrium with the pool of dietary acyl groups. Many human diseases have been found to involve unique essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiencies or distortions of the normal equilibrium pattern. The equilibrium is influenced by the level of dietary intake or precursors, by the presence of competing essential and nonessential acyl groups, by nonoptimum intake of other essential nutrients, by hormonal effects, by drug therapy, and by other effects upon physiological condition. With the many variables already known to modulate or control the equilibrium, it should be possible with more precise understanding of each variable to shift abnormal equilibria in the direction of normalcy. This perhaps will be the next area of intensive investigation in this field of nutrition and metabolism.
Article
1. The oxidation rates of lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, α-linolenic, linoleic, γ-linolenic, dihomo- γ-linolenic and arachidonic acids were studied by use of a radioisotope tracer technique in weanling rats at rest in a metabolism chamber over 24 h. 2. Of the saturated fatty acids, lauric acid (12:O) was the most efficient energy substrate: the longer the chain length of the saturated fatty acids, the slower the rate of oxidation. 3. Oleic acid (18:1) was oxidized at a remarkably fast rate, similar to that of lauric acid. 4. Of the ω6 essential fatty acids studied, linoleic acid (18:2ω6) was oxidized at a faster rate than any of its metabolites, with arachidonic acid (20:4ω6) being oxidized at the slowest rate. 5. The rate of oxidation of γ-linolenic acid (18:3ω3) was almost as fast as that of lauric and oleic acids.
Article
Extract: The fatty acids of total phosphoglycerides (TPG), ethanolamine phosphoglycerides (EPG), and choline phosphoglycerides (CPG) were obtained by mild alkaline transmethylation from lipid extracts of whole cerebrum and then analyzed by gas chromatography. A complete brain hemisphere from each of the 34 newborn infants reported previously was homogenized and its lipids extracted according to the procedure specified in that report. As the gestational age of the children went up, a statistically significant increase of the n-3/n-6 ratio and, especially, of the 22:4(n-6)/22:5(n-6) index was observed. Other ratios, such as the n-6/n-9 and the 18:0/18:1(n-9), were also studied in the fatty acid patterns of EPG and CPG. Both of them showed significant increases with the gestational age of the infants. The [22:4(n-6) + 22:5(n-6)]/20:4(n-6) index, an indicator of the elongation process of arachidonic acid, on the other hand, did not show appreciable changes with maturation in TPG during this period of life. When ethanolamine and choline phosphoglycerides were analyzed separately, however, the elongation of arachidonic acid did rise with the gestational age in the former whereas it decreased in the latter.
Article
At plasma glucose values of 5 mM (90 mg/100 ml) the maximum glucose transport capacity of the human red cell membrane is 12,000 times the rate of glucose utilization by the red blood cell. Mammals, other than primates, that have been tested have a comparable high-capacity system during fetal life, which is lost soon after birth. It has been suggested that the availability of the water space of the red blood cell for distribution of glucose facilitates transfer across the placenta during fetal life in all mammals and across the blood-brain barrier in adult primates. Though plausible, more comparative studies of glucose transport in red blood cells of other species and direct experimental evaluations of the contribution of the red blood cell to glucose transfer across the placenta and the blood-brain barrier are needed.
Article
Prostacyclin production by human umbilical artery rings was measured in a variety of incubation media and related to gestational age, mode of delivery, and birth weight. Prostacyclin production was directly correlated with the status of essential free fatty acid in the tissue as assessed by the ratio of tissue concentrations of arachidonic acid and Mead's acid. The results indicate a possible association of the essential fatty acid status both with intrauterine growth retardation and with fetal vascular prostacyclin production.
Article
Total fatty acid content of infant brain was determined to assess minimal fatty acid requirements for synthesis of structural lipids in brain tissue during the first 13 weeks of life. Fatty acid accretion rates were determined by regression analysis of tissue fat components at varying postnatal ages. Quantitative fatty acid analysis indicated that postnatal accretion of long-chain polyenoic fatty acids in cerebellum, frontal and occipital brain lobes initially appeared to lag behind the rate of increase in brain weight and brain fat content. After a 4-week period total long-chain fatty acids increased at a rate similar to the increase in brain weight. Accretion of individual fatty acids in cerebellum also reflected changes in tissue total fatty acid content. These developmental changes in fatty acid components of whole brain and cerebellum are quantitatively relevant to estimation of the minimal extrauterine fatty acid requirements of the human neonate.
Article
Fatty acid components of infant brain were determined to assess fatty acid requirements for synthesis of structural lipids in brain tissue during the last trimester of development in the fetus. Quantitative fatty acid analysis of cerebellum, frontal and occipital brain lobes indicated rapid accretion of chain elongation and desaturation products during the last trimester of brain growth. Frontal and occipital brain lobes were similar in fatty acid content. Fatty acid accretion rates were determined by regression analysis of tissue fat components at varying gestational ages. Tissue accretion of saturated and omega-9 fatty acids, as well as total fatty acid content, paralleled increases in whole brain weight. Levels of linoleic (C18:2, omega-6) and linolenic (C18:3, omega-3) acids were consistently low in brain during the last trimester of development, while marked substantial accretion of long chain desaturation products, arachidonic (C20:4, omega-6) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6, omega-3) acids occurred. Accretion of individual fatty acids of cerebellum also reflected changes in tissue total fatty acid content, with exception of the levels of C18:3, omega-3 and its chain elongation products present in cerebellum during the last trimester. These developmental changes and estimates of fatty acid incorporation into whole brain and cerebellum are quantitatively relevant to estimation of fatty acid requirements of the low birth weight neonate.
The human erythrocyte plasma membrane is permeable to several free amino acids usually present in the bloodstream. Seven distinct routes of entry have been described which represent both secondary active transport and facilitated diffusion (passive transport). Additionally, certain amino acids can enter the cell by simple diffusion, at least to a limited extent. The function of most of these transport systems is unclear, although it has been suggested that the cell can take up certain amino acids and carry them to various parts of the body. In the case of glutamine, cysteine, and glycine, however, it is believed that the biosynthesis of the tripeptide glutathione is the primary reason for their uptake into the cell. Much of the amino acid transport probably has no function in mature red cells, but might be a remnant of the immature cell's needs. This review discusses the various amino acid transport systems known to be present in the red cell plasma membrane.
Article
Total plasma fatty acids were analysed in 75 first trimester pregnant women, 32 second trimester pregnant women, 27 women at delivery and 38 non-pregnant women. Eleven fatty acids were studied by capillar gas chromatography SP-column. Compared with non-pregnant women, in the first trimester there was a significant percentual increase in palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and docosahexaenoic acids, whereas linoleic and eicosapentaenoic percentually decreased. Between the first and second trimester a significant increase in the proportion of palmitic acid and a significant percentual decrease in arachidonic acid was detected. Between the second trimester and delivery the aforementioned changes were more marked. Between the second trimester and delivery there was also a significant percentual increase in oleic and linolenic acids, whereas the proportions of stearic, linoleic, dihomogammalinolenic and docosahexaenoic acids significantly decreased. It is suggested that the intake in polyunsaturated fatty acids should be increased during pregnancy, specially in the third trimester.
Article
In rhesus monkeys, maternal n-3 fatty acid deficiency during pregnancy produces infant monkeys deficient in n-3 fatty acids at birth. These results stimulated current experiments to find out if n-3 fatty acids from fish in the diets of pregnant women would influence the concentration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) in the newborn human infant. Fifteen healthy pregnant women were enrolled to receive a 9-wk dietary supplementation of n-3 fatty acids from the 26th to the 35th wk of pregnancy. Sixteen pregnant women were not supplemented and served as controls. n-3 Fatty acid supplementation consisted of sardines and additional fish oil, which provided a total of 2.6 g of n-3 fatty acids per day (d) for the 9-wk period of supplementation. This included 1.01 g DHA. The end point of this study was the blood concentrations of DHA in the newborn infant. DHA in maternal red blood cells increased from 4.69% of total fatty acids to 7.15% at the end of the supplement period and at the time of delivery decreased (as expected) to 5.97% of total fatty acids. Maternal plasma showed a similar change from 2.12 to 3.51% of total fatty acids and then decreased to 2.35%. Levels of DHA in plasma and red blood cells of unsupplemented mothers did not change during the same time period. Levels of DHA in blood of newborn infants differed greatly in infants born from n-3-supplemented mothers compared with control infants. In red blood cells, DHA was 7.92% of total fatty acids compared with 5.86% (control infants). Plasma values showed a similar difference: 5.05% vs. 3.47% (controls). In n-3-supplemented infants, DHA concentrations were 35.2% higher than in control infants in red blood cells and 45.5% higher in plasma. These data indicate the importance of maternal dietary n-3 fatty acids and, in particular, maternal dietary DHA in promoting higher concentrations of DHA in the blood of the newborn infant.
Article
To investigate whether succeeding pregnancies will affect the maternal and neonatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) status. Cross-sectional study. Women who were pregnant for the 1st to 7th time and took part in a longitudinal study to investigate the essential fatty acid status of pregnant women and their infants. The total study population comprised 98 primigravidae (PG) and 146 multigravidae (MG). Fatty acid profiles of phospholipids isolated from maternal plasma samples collected during pregnancy and after delivery, and of umbilical plasma, vein and artery, obtained immediately after birth. The absolute (mg/L) and relative (% of total fatty acids) amounts of DHA in maternal plasma phospholipids (PL) were significantly lower in MG than in PG. In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between gravida number and the DHA content in maternal plasma samples. The DHA deficiency index (22:5n-6/22;4n-6) was significantly higher and the DHA sufficiency index (22:6n-3/22:5n-6) was significantly lower in umbilical plasma of infants born of MG than in that of infants born of PG. The relative DHA content of umbilical artery and vein vessel walls was significantly lower in MG- than in PG-neonates and significant negative associations were observed between birth order and the relative amounts of DHA in cord tissues. These results indicate that the maternal DHA status becomes reduced after each following pregnancy, which may result in a lower neonatal DHA status. Whether or not this has also functional consequences needs to be investigated further.
A Simple Method for the Isolation and Purification of Total Lipids from Animal Tissue
  • J Folch
  • M Lees
  • J. Folch
Nutritional Studies During Pregnancy
  • V A Beal
  • V.A. Beal
Breast-Milk Fatty Acids of Rural Gambian Mothers: Effects of Diet and Maternal Parity
  • A Prentice
  • M A J Landing
  • J D Patrick
  • D Odile
  • A. Prentice