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Using Socratic Questioning in Coaching

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Abstract

Socratic questioning, a cornerstone of CBT, is as equally useful in coaching to raise awareness, promote reflection and improve problem-solving thinking. Padesky’s (Socratic questioning: Changing minds or guiding discovery? 1993) bifurcation of Socratic questioning, changing minds versus guiding discovery, is commented upon. The characteristics of good Socratic questions are enumerated, the pitfalls of experienced coaches’ over-reliance on intuition to guide their questioning is discussed and how continuing deliberate practice through, for example, providing the logical basis for sequencing questions can correct this ‘intuition bias’. Socratic questioning is demonstrated in a number of coach–coachee dialogues with accompanying commentary. Finally, it is emphasized that asking good Socratic questions is indispensable to the practice of effective coaching.

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... Item 9 on the CTSR is guided discovery (GD), which represents part of the new vocabulary and is one of the many conceptual skills and terms that trainees must become au fait with. Commonly referred to as the 'Socratic method' (Kennerley et al., 2017), GD is a specific way of eliciting information from clients and helping them to develop meta-cognitive awareness and is considered central to the practice of cognitive therapy (Beck, 1995;Kazantzis et al., 2014;Neenan, 2009;Padesky, 1993). The use of GD arguably affects all aspects of assessment and treatment; for example, when undertaking psychoeducation, a therapist could adopt a didactic approach by simply telling a client that they will not faint during a panic attack because their blood pressure is unlikely to drop when they are anxious (Wells, 1997). ...
... Crucially, this should be done without resorting to debate or persuasion from the therapist (Blackburn et al., 2001;Padesky, 1993;Roth and Pilling, 2007). Socratic questioning is a style of interacting with the client that involves asking a range of open questions designed to elicit pertinent information that is currently outside the client's awareness (James et al., 2010;Neenan, 2009). Table 3 gives some examples of Socratic questions and their related functions and is provided to trainees on the CBT training course where the first author is a tutor. ...
... As a therapist becomes more experienced, they draw upon their declarative and procedural knowledge but also engage their 'reflective system' to draw upon clinical experiences where guided discovery has been beneficial and when it has led to dead ends or impasses (Bennett-Levy, 2006;Kennerley et al., 2017). Experienced therapists thereby utilise 'meta-competences' where they have learned the nuances of when to adopt a Socratic approach and when not to (Bennett-Levy, 2006;Neenan, 2009;Roth and Pilling, 2007). ...
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Article
Training as a cognitive behavioural therapist involves a considerable role transition for mental health professionals where they are expected to demonstrate competence in a range of new skills that emphasise collaboration and Socratic dialogue. This can be in stark contrast to the more didactic style that trainees are familiar with prior to embarking on their training. Guided discovery (GD) is an integral part of formulation and treatment, yet little is known at present about the experiences of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) trainees when learning this new skill; specifically, how they assimilate this with existing ways of working and the challenges this might involve. This research is a preliminary attempt to understand factors that help and hinder GD skill acquisition. Eighteen trainee CBT practitioners completed an online questionnaire with the subsequent data analysed using a grounded theory methodology. Three themes were identified: ‘Competing Selves’, ‘Style’ and ‘Active Engagement and Learning’. These themes were used to develop a preliminary model of factors that enable or inhibit skills in GD. The impact of previous professional roles appears to influence the acquisition of confidence and skill in GD. This paper discusses the implications of the findings for CBT trainers, supervisors and trainees. Key learning aims As a result of reading this paper, readers should: (1) Understand how trainee cognitive behavioural therapists respond to learning how to use guided discovery. (2) Identify potential barriers to acquiring and improving skills in guided discovery. (3) Recognise training strategies that might assist trainees in becoming more proficient in guided discovery.
... In using Socratic questioning, therapists avoid a didactic style and instead use questions to help patients develop new perspectives (Overholser, 2011;Padesky, 1993). Socratic questioning is intended to foster active engagement and critical thinking, thereby aiding in the learning process (Neenan, 2009). While evidence for the facilitation of learning is limited in the context of psychotherapy, others have suggested that styles of interaction involving a reliance on questioning and seeking input may have advantages in the context of persuasion and negotiation (Grant, 2013). ...
... In using Socratic questioning, experts typically emphasize the use of open-ended questions aimed at helping patients to consider new sources of information or to adopt broader perspectives (Overholser, 2010;Padesky, 1993). The importance of using a Socratic approach has been emphasized, with experts suggesting that the use of this approach helps patients to take new perspectives, use cognitive therapy skills, and experience improvements in depressive symptoms (Neenan, 2009;Overholser, 2011;Padesky, 1993). Even outside of CT, Socratic questioning is a key strategy in several psychotherapies, perhaps most notably Motivational Interviewing (Miller & Rollnick, 2012). ...
... It is an important issue to address in future research. Additionally, Socratic questioning is also thought to help the patient to be more active in the process of treatment, and thus practice and better learn the skills emphasized in therapy (Neenan, 2009). Thus, Socratic questioning might impact symptoms by facilitating client engagement in treatment or fostering therapy skill acquisition. ...
Article
Socratic questioning is a key therapeutic strategy in cognitive therapy (CT) for depression. However, little is known regarding its relation to outcome. In this study, we examine therapist use of Socratic questioning as a predictor of session-to-session symptom change. Participants were 55 depressed adults who participated in a 16-week course of CT (see Adler, Strunk, & Fazio, 2015). Socratic questioning was assessed through observer ratings of the first three sessions. Socratic ratings were disaggregated into scores reflecting within-patient and between-patient variability to facilitate an examination of the relation of within-patient Socratic questioning and session-to-session symptom change. Because we examined within-patient variability in Socratic questioning, the identification of such a relation cannot be attributed to any stable patient characteristics that might otherwise introduce a spurious relation. Within-patient Socratic questioning significantly predicted session-to-session symptom change across the early sessions, with a one standard deviation increase in Socratic-Within predicting a 1.51-point decrease in BDI-II scores in the following session. Within-patient Socratic questioning continued to predict symptom change after controlling for within-patient ratings of the therapeutic alliance (i.e., Relationship and Agreement), suggesting that the relation of Socratic questioning and symptom change was not only independent of stable characteristics, but also within-patient variation in the alliance. Our results provide the first empirical support for a relation of therapist use of Socratic questioning and symptom change in CT for depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... According to Gambrill (1993), this is obtained through a gradual accumulation and a systematic review of gathered evidence. In order to facilitate the process of inductive reasoning, the latter component of the Socratic method must be employed, namely systematic questioning, which has been widely used beyond the realms of philosophy: teaching (DePierro & Garafalo, 2003), psychotherapy, with cognitive therapy in particular (Neenan, 2009;Overholser, 2011), motivational interviewing (Miller & Rollnick, 2012), and police interrogations of witnesses, especially children. ...
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The study employed the Socratic method to conduct 32 semi-structured interviews with future successors of family firms, to explore the relationship between entrepreneurial leadership and job crafting. Socratic questions were used to grasp regularities of participants’ behavior. Inference by analogy was employed to foster rational and inductive reasoning of the participants. The results show that the Socratic method and analogy may be a valuable qualitative data collection method in reducing participants resistance and facilitating their self-initiated discovery in a sensitive research context. The validity and reliability of this method is discussed in terms of trustworthiness. Applying the Socratic method and analogy to the data collection method (interviews) may enhance the overall credibility of organizational qualitative research methods.
... This method is a cornerstone of coaching and cognitive behavioral therapy. It uses context-dependent questions that help recipients reflect, reach conclusions, and solve problems independent of a coach or therapist (Neenan, 2009). The Socratic Method is ideally suited to help autistic adults identify and set goals, and to problem-solve obstacles that arise while attaining goals. ...
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Published self-determination programs do not adequately address the needs of autistic adults. We designed a multi-component self-determination program, grounded in the neurodiversity paradigm, to help autistic adults achieve goals to improve their quality of life. The first phase involved 5 days of psychoeducation, practice, and social events; the second phase included 3 months of telecoaching; and the third phase included follow-up. Thirty-four university students coached 31 autistic adults on three evolving goals. On average, participants completed one goal per week. Most participants were satisfied with the program. We found that the program was appropriate, acceptable, and feasible. This program is a promising approach to helping autistic adults gain self-determination skills and improve their quality of life.
... If classroom teachers emphasize critical thinking or problem solving by relying on questions to stimulate the lesson (Boyd, 2015;Crowe & Stanford, 2010), mentor teachers should also use questioning to stimulate critical thinking and problem-solving from their learners -interns. Neenan (2009) found that coaches using Socratic questioning for guided discovery helped the learner develop more helpful perspectives and actions for problem-solving. Mentors can use questioning during co-planning sessions to support and probe the intern who is learning to make informed decisions (Pylman, 2016;Pylman 2018b)). ...
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Article
Planning for teaching demands teachers engage as thoughtful practitioners who consider all the complexities of the classroom when making decisions. In this article, the authors analyzed mentor questions and student-teaching intern responses to answer in what ways the types of questions mentors asked interns during co-planning sessions influenced intern growth as thoughtful practitioners. Mentors asked questions to (a) check-in to see if interns knew what they need to know, (b) see if interns were able to apply that knowledge to make good plans, (c) allow interns to make decisions and encourage them to envision possibilities, and (d) probe to see if interns knew why they were making these decisions. However, mentors varied in the types of questions they asked. The type of questions mentors asked greatly influenced the thinking required by the interns in their responses
... Aspects of reasoning can be scaffolded as well, though, with the use of guided thinking (Strahan, 1986), where a deliberate emphasis is placed on the act of thinking to determine, rather than guessing, at procedures, possibilities, or outcomes. Thought-provoking questions are used to further the goal of prompting the student to explore relationships of causation, condition, order, and priority, and then to come to conclusions on their own as opposed to being given or told solutions (Neenan, 2009). Asking students questions designed to get them to recognize how objects will, will not, or might work in conjunction with one another can take some adaptation on the part of the therapist. ...
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Article
Purpose Adolescent students face increased expectations to successfully navigate academic, social, and vocational transitions. As demands increase and support systems fade, adolescents with developmental language disorder and concomitant deficits in executive functions are particularly vulnerable to these high-stakes transitional moments. Limited language systems are not well suited for navigating the subtleties of social nuance, the abstraction of academic and vocational language, and the unfamiliarity of complex planning necessary for self-regulation. Conclusions This clinical focus article proposes a clinical model of language therapy for adolescents with developmental language disorder and concomitant deficits in executive functions. Therapy emphasizes eliciting the most complex syntactic and semantic skills available to the student as they work to formulate specific, reasoned, predictive, strategic plans. Therapy takes place in small group contexts where pairs of students collaborate to use their language and reasoning to solve unfamiliar, challenging, scientific-like problems.
... We use the term medical educator to refer to anyone preparing future clinicians inclusive of all medical education settings (Branch et al. 1997). Questioning is rooted in the educational tradition of the philosopher Socrates (Neenan 2009;Kost and Chen 2015) and is powerful strategy educators use to scaffold learning and encourage the development of critical thinking skills (Smith 1977;Costa 1985;Garside 1996;Ritchhart et al. 2011). When effectively executed, questioning can elicit positive outcomes in learner participation, concentration, and understanding of content (Cho et al. 2012). ...
Article
Questioning is one of the most frequently used and powerful teaching strategies across levels and settings in medical education. Although the concept of asking questions may seem like a simple practice, many medical educators lack pedagogical training. When effectively executed, questioning can elicit positive outcomes in learner participation, concentration, and understanding of content. When used incorrectly, questioning can leave learners feeling singled out and not in a position to learn, or worse – threatened or humiliated. There is a lot of literature in medical education about what ineffective questioning looks like, but little about how to enact effective questioning, such as what kind of questions should be asked and how to design those questions to improve learning. The following twelve tips will help medical educators be purposeful and effective as they plan, ask, and analyze questions in classroom or clinical settings.
... συνομιλητές του υπό το μανδύα μίας ταπεινοφροσύνης και μίας ιδέας προσωπικής αναξιότητας (Michelini,‖ 1998:52 Marzio, 2007;Silvermintz, 2007;Moir, 2004;Chang, Lin & Chen, 1998) 151 ,‖ τον‖ επιχειρηματικό‖ κόσμο‖ (Morrell, 2004;Roy, 2005),‖ την‖ Χυχολογία‖ (Hughes, 1994;Milliren, Milliren & Eckstein, 2007;Neenan,‖ 2009; (Birnbacher, 1999;Fitzgerald & Hooft, 2000;Bunkers, 2004 (Hadot, 2002:100), «της κορωνιδας ολων των ασκησεων» (Foucault, 1998:38) (Gagarin, 2002:99). ...
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Thesis
The field of “Philosophical Psychotherapy”, underlies an epistιmological trend of great importance, undiminishedly and continually developed into the contemporary scientific context, offering, in this way, a new perspective on the crucial existential impasses, which tend to trouble people nowadays. This School of Thought, has already come to existence and been widely formed as an independent professional activity with the Ancient Greek Philosophy being its starting point and long-term goal to be made worth or useful in the fields or vital issues which seem to surpass, or to be incompatible with what would be managed by a traditional psychotherapeutic approach. Many centuries have passed by since the first foundation of this form of the Therapy of the Soul, with the first “samples” to have been met in the belief of the therapeutic power of the word in the Homeric Poetry, to be continued in the therapeutic function of the language in the context of Sophistry – Rhetoric movement, to be culminated with Socrates, and, terminated, as a moral dimension, in a systematic and profound Therapy, in the ground of the Hellenistic Philosophy (applied to the eudaimonistic philosophies of Hellenistic age including Stoicism, Epicureanism and Scepticism) and, finally, tends to be practically expressed in the “techne alypias” of Antiphon. However, the last one has not been profoundly studied in the methodological way which is followed here. During the years which have “interceded”, many scholars studied a variety of views and versions of a multifarious connection among Philosophy, Clinical Psychotherapy and Counseling Psychology, and a parallel use of Philosophy as Counseling, with the final effect of the philosophical therapy in its initial level to have an important position in the “firmament” of the Science of Philosophy. Nowadays, many professionals suggest the dire need of a deeper study of the principles concerning the use of Philosophical Psychotherapy and the rise of this kind of the therapeutic dynamics in front of a heavenly changed sociocultural reality. This dissertation is concerned with this attempt. Throughout the investigation of the historical initiation principles as far as the Therapeutic Philosophy is concerned, we attempt to raise the crucial role of Philosophy as an interpretative pilot of the Hardy, Core Self, trying to illuminate the inferior discriminant dynamics which tend to determine the contemporary psychotherapy. Under this light, the meaning of the Socratic Techne “through Word” and the “techne alypias” of Antiphon, play an important role in the acceptance of a comprehensive and integrated version of a cognitive way of management of the mental agony in the context of the classical philosophical psychotherapy. This dissertation is innovative in the following points: although its scientific goal is specifically determined, it is able to be a sufficient ally in the attempt of a meeting and a deep penetration as far as many specific and important meanings of historical innations are concerned, giving an innovative, integrated and multiple-level standpoint for its consideration.
... To this end, Socratic questioning (McArdle and Moore, 2012) is used to develop metacognitive skills that enable athletes to non-judgmentally observe their own thoughts, and subsequently think logically and empirically in order to challenge, correct, and replace them. In cognitive-behavioral therapy, Socratic questioning, which consists of asking a person a series of open-ended questions to help promote reflection, is considered useful for raising awareness and improving problemsolving thinking (Neenan, 2009). ...
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Article
This study prospectively followed the experiences of skilled athletes who were involved in an innovative reflexive self-talk online intervention targeting goal-directed self-talk. Four experienced female athletes between the ages of 20 and 40 years were invited to an initial interview, a 4-week intervention, and two post-intervention interviews. Two applied sport psychologists used an online Socratic questioning approach to encourage their athletes to describe challenging scenarios, think about their use of self-talk and its effectiveness, and explore alternative self-statements that could be used in future situations. Data were multi-sourced stemming from the psychologists, athletes, and third parties (e.g., coach). Three athletes completed the intervention, whereas one athlete withdrew prematurely, mainly because the Socratic questioning approach and the online mode of delivery did not meet her preferences. From the three athlete who had completed the intervention, there was endorsement and constructive criticism of the intervention and its online delivery mode. The intervention, largely due to the accompanying raised awareness of self-talk use and refined content, seemingly benefited a range of variables including emotions, motivation, and confidence, both inside and outside of the athletes’ sports life domain. Accordingly, this new type of online intervention warrants further consideration in the literature.
... Socratic questioning is a demonstrated technique from cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for the treatment of depression and anxiety (Roth & Pilling, 2007). Therapists use questions to foster active engagement and critical thinking, thereby aiding in the learning process (Neenan, 2009) and helping patients develop new perspectives (Overholser, 1993;Padesky, 1993). The aims of the present study were to investigate the effectiveness and feasibility of Socratic feedback to increase awareness in terms of improvements in specific self-regulatory behaviour, and general levels of self-regulation, awareness of deficits, depression and anxiety. ...
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Article
Objective: To investigate the effectiveness and feasibility of a Socratic feedback programme to improve awareness of deficits in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). Setting: Rehabilitation centre. Participants: Four patients with ABI with awareness problems. Design: A series of single-case experimental design studies with random intervention starting points (A-B + maintenance design). Main measures: Rate of trainer-feedback and self-control behaviour on everyday tasks, patient competency rating scale (PCRS), self-regulating skills interview (SRSI), hospital anxiety and depression scale. Results: All patients needed less trainer feedback, the change was significant in 3 out of 4. One patient increased in overt self-corrective behaviour. SRSI performance increased in all patients (medium to strong effect size), and PCRS performance increased in two patients (medium and strong effect size). Mood and anxiety levels were elevated in one patient at the beginning of the training and decreased to normal levels at the end of the training. The feasibility of the programme was scored 9 out of 10. Conclusions: The Socratic feedback method is a promising intervention for improving awareness of deficits in patients with ABI. Controlled studies with larger populations are needed to draw more solid conclusions about the effect of this method.
... [44] The Socratic questioning technique was also employed; this technique is used in coaching to raise awareness, promote reflection, and improve problem-solving by participants. [45] In the coach-coachee dialogues, asking good Socratic questions is crucial for effective REBC. The cognitive, emotive, and behavioral techniques found in the REBT manual [43] were used to help participants overcome occupational stress and maladjustment. ...
Article
Background/objective: This study examined the effectiveness of rational emotive behavior coaching (REBC) on occupational stress and work ability in a sample of electronics workshop instructors in Nigeria. Methods: A pretest–posttest control group design was used. The participants were 108 electronics workshop instructors in technical colleges in the southeast of Nigeria who met the study inclusion criteria. Data were collected using 3 questionnaires and analyzed using a repeated measure analysis of variance and Mann–Whitney U test. Results: REBC led to a significant reduction in occupational stress experienced by the electronics workshop instructors in the REBC group compared to their counterparts in the waitlist control group. Furthermore, the scores for occupation-related irrational beliefs of the instructors in the REBC group were significantly lower than those in the waitlist control group at the end of the coaching intervention. The work ability of the REBC group was significantly better than that of the waitlist control group. Finally, the effects in the REBC group were significantly sustained at 3-month follow-up. Conclusion: REBC is a time-efficient and solution-focused therapeutic modality for assisting occupationally stressed employees in a Nigerian setting. REBC can be used for improving and maintaining work ability of workers. The researchers hope that occupational health professionals and health counselors would extend this approach to tackle psychological issues limiting employees' effectiveness and performance in the Nigerian work environment and in other countries. Abbreviations: hp2 = partial eta squared, ABCDE = activating event, beliefs, consequences, disputing, and effective new philosophy, EWIOSS = Electronics Workshop Instructors' Occupational Stress Scale, F = repeated measures ANOVA test, M = mean, REBC = rational emotive behavior coaching, REBT = rational emotive behavior therapy, U = Mann–Whitney U test, WAI = Work Ability Index, WIOIBS = Workshop Instructors Occupational Irrational Beliefs Scale.
... [44] The Socratic questioning technique was also employed; this technique is used in coaching to raise awareness, promote reflection, and improve problem-solving by participants. [45] In the coach-coachee dialogues, asking good Socratic questions is crucial for effective REBC. The cognitive, emotive, and behavioral techniques found in the REBT manual [43] were used to help participants overcome occupational stress and maladjustment. ...
Full-text available
Article
Background/objective This study examined the effectiveness of rational emotive behavior coaching (REBC) on occupational stress and work ability in a sample of electronics workshop instructors in Nigeria. Methods A pretest–posttest control group design was used. The participants were 108 electronics workshop instructors in technical colleges in the south-east of Nigeria who met the study inclusion criteria. Data were collected using 3 questionnaires and analyzed using a repeated measure analysis of variance and Mann–Whitney U test. Results REBC led to a significant reduction in occupational stress experienced by the electronics workshop instructors in the REBC group compared to their counterparts in the waitlist control group. Furthermore, the scores for occupation-related irrational beliefs of the instructors in the REBC group were significantly lower than those in the waitlist control group at the end of the coaching intervention. The work ability of the REBC group was significantly better than that of the waitlist control group. Finally, the effects in the REBC group were significantly sustained at 3-month follow-up. Conclusion REBC is a time-efficient and solution-focused therapeutic modality for assisting occupationally stressed employees in a Nigerian setting. REBC can be used for improving and maintaining work ability of workers. The researchers hope that occupational health professionals and health counselors would extend this approach to tackle psychological issues limiting employees’ effectiveness and performance in the Nigerian work environment and in other countries.
... However, it can be argued that for a coach, keeping the coachee focused on finding solutions is crucial but not sufficient to make actual progress. In order to help the coachee to generate inventive solutions for their problems, coaches should also aim to stimulate the coachees' cognitive flexibility in order to enable divergent thinking (Neenan, 2009). With regard to coaching, previous authors have suggested that development of a coachee's cognitive flexibility is one of the most important goals of coaching because cognitively flexible individuals can apply a wide variety of strategies to their problems and are less likely to suffer from feelings of anxiety and loss of control when confronted with changing circumstances (Jones, Rafferty, & Griffin, 2006). ...
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Article
Previous research has demonstrated that Solution-Focused (SF) coaching can help individuals to attain positive outcomes. However, not much is known about the processes through which these positive outcomes are achieved. In two experiments, we subjected undergraduate students to either SF or Problem-Focused (PF) questions about their study-related problems. In Experiment 1, we hypothesized and found that SF questioning (as compared to PF questioning) leads to higher positive affect (H1a) and lower negative affect (H1b). Contrary to our expectations, SF questions did not lead to higher attentional control (H2). In Experiment 2, we aimed to replicate the hypotheses for positive and negative affect and additionally hypothesized that SF questioning leads to higher cognitive flexibility (H3a). The results supported these hypotheses. However, our hypothesis that the differential effects of SF and PF questioning on cognitive flexibility are mediated by positive affect (H3b) was not supported. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Among the different instructional methods, SQ is one of the most popular and powerful teaching tools (Hernandez, Kaplan & Schwartz, 2006). Because the level of thinking that occurs is influenced by the level of questions asked (King, 1995), SQ promotes reflection and discovery of solutions rather than requiring the acceptance of answer provided directly by the teacher (Neenan, 2009). Aukerman (2006) and ...
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Article
Critical thinking (CT) and English literacy are two essential 21st century competencies that are a priority for teaching and learning in an increasingly digital learning environment. Taking advantage of innovations in educational technology, this study empirically investigates the effectiveness of CT-infused adaptive English literacy instruction using a Moodle system. A one-group pretest–posttest design was employed to evaluate the effect of the treatment on students' acquisition of CT skills (CTS) and English literacy. A total of 83 students enrolled in two sections of a general studies course at a large university in Taiwan participated in the semester-long experiment. Adaptive learning was achieved through the use of an online Moodle system for (1) online grouping (based on pretest English literacy scores), (2) delivery of specifically designed adaptive learning materials for each group and (3) provision of individualised feedback. CT-infused language activities based on social constructivist principles were designed for each level of adaptive instruction, whereas direct instruction for fostering CTS was provided in class and practiced or reflected upon in groups. Empirical results demonstrate that CT-enhanced adaptive English literacy instruction simultaneously improved students' CTS and English literacy and that students' online discussions developed towards higher levels of interaction. This paper illustrates an effective blended learning model for adaptive instruction and offers recommendations for designing CT-infused language learning activities that can successfully foster both CT and English literacy outcomes.
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Continuing our series, developed with Alcon, focusing on how to best ensure comfortable contact lens wear, Andy Cole discusses the way communication skills may be used to elicit the best information upon which the best advice may be based (C76253, one distance learning CET point suitable for optometrists)
Chapter
I dedicate this chapter to reviewing research literature about Socratic dialogue. In this chapter, I review topics such as definition, aim, and how to use Socratic dialogue. There is no consensus about the definition and execution process of Socratic dialogue (Padesky, C. A., Action, dialogue & discovery: Reflections on Socratic questioning 25 years later. Paper presented at the Ninth World Congress of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies, Berlin, Germany. https://www.padesky.com/clinical-corner/publications/, 2019).Finally, my suggested solution is to search for the sources of Socrates’s thoughts. These sources are philosophy and logic. In logic knowledge, there are methods to assess the validity of thinking. Socrates asked questions based on logical rules. Throughout the book, I explain the appropriate questioning based on logical rules.KeywordsSocratic methodSocratic questioningSocratic dialogueDifficulties during the questioning processPsychotherapyThe definition of the Socratic methodBenefitsTime to use the Socratic methodHow to use Socratic dialogue
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Peer coaching is a type of coaching under-represented and infrequently utilized within organizations, yet offers opportunity for organizations to improve employee wellness, build deeper connections between employees and develop stronger competencies in areas such as communication, collaboration and inclusion. This capstone seeks to reveal the myriad benefits and opportunities inherent to implementing a peer coaching program in the workplace, through a secondary research of available literature and proposal of a peer coaching framework that can be implemented with ease, at low cost and to maximum organizational benefit. Through the course of analysis of the literature, both the existing research as well as the gaps in the literature with regard to peer coaching are made visible, thus creating space for a conceptual peer coaching framework that focuses on trust and transparency along with key intersections of authenticity and psychological safety, suited for organizations of any size or type to implement.
Chapter
In this chapter, the research design for an effective EI intervention is outlined for readers to follow if they want to undertake an intervention in their teaching programme. Limitations in the research design of previous studies are used as safeguards and a detailed description of the suggested methodological approach is provided. The chapter includes information on measures, procedure, and the basic components of an EI intervention; it explains which self-report measures could be included pre- and post-intervention to assess relevant inter-individual variables. The chapter contains descriptions of a theory-based training using strategies that have been previously shown to be effective in scientific EI interventions. It presents a selection of coaching activities to provide a focus for difficult or emotion-eliciting conversations.
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Novelty and appropriateness have long been considered as the two fundamental elements of creativity; however, whether these two can separately affect creativity or its related processes remains unclear. In the present study, the authors focused on psychotherapeutic insight to identify the different effects of novelty and appropriateness. Three experiments were conducted (total N = 452) using a micro-counseling dialogue (MCD) paradigm, which can induce stable and differential insights by providing different types of solutions to mental distress problems (Experiment 1) and negative descriptions (Experiment 2). Further, in Experiment 3, the authors improved the study by employing a group of high school students with test anxiety (assessed using the Test Anxiety Inventory), which was more ecological. Across the three experiments, higher insightfulness and pleasantness were induced by high novelty (experiments 1 and 2) and appropriateness (experiments 1 to 3). In Experiment 3, the effect of test anxiety was found, wherein the low-test anxiety group generated higher insightfulness compared to the high-test anxiety group, and this effect was stronger in the inappropriateness condition. The results provide evidence that novelty and appropriateness are key factors in inducing psychotherapeutic insightfulness.
Article
Although the neural correlates of novelty and appropriateness of creative insight during cognitive tasks have been investigated in several studies, they have not been examined during mental distress in a psychotherapeutic setting. This study aimed to reveal the promoting effects of novelty and appropriateness processing on therapeutic insight in a micro-psychotherapeutic setting. We examined the effects of appropriateness (between-subject factor: appropriateness group, 20 participants; inappropriateness group, 21 participants) by manipulating the preceding negative scenarios that either fit or did not fit the subsequent solutions, and those of novelty (within-subject factor) by varying the linguistic expressions for describing solutions (metaphorical, literal, or problem-restatement). Event-related functional magnetic resonance images were collected. We found the following effects: an interactive effect of the two factors on insightfulness and activation in the bilateral hippocampus and amygdala, right superior frontal gyrus, and left superior/middle temporal gyrus; a simple effect of novelty on activation in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and inferior/middle occipital gyrus; and a simple effect of appropriateness on activation in the left inferior parietal lobule. Our findings indicate that solutions with high novelty and appropriateness generate the highest levels of therapeutic insightfulness as well as the strongest activation in the hippocampus and amygdala, which may be involved in episodic memory encoding.
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Executive coaching is now becoming paramount in any organization that values performance. However, there is scanty research on the relationship between executive coaching and organizational performance. The purpose of this study is to identify the contextual, theoretical, conceptual and methodological gaps that exist between executive coaching and organizational performance. The study has found out that relatively few theories link the two major variables in the study. Experiential leaning theory talks about learning experiences and outcomes of executives but fails to give a clear link of how the various outcomes lead to organizational performance. More so, cognitive behavior theory is more inclined to behavioral changes and self-driven scrutiny on finding fault in oneself with aid of Socratic questioning, but does not clearly explain how the changes lead to organizational performance. The systems approach sheds light on how the various systems in the organization can be amalgamated to give an effective leader but fails to indicate how effective leadership translates to organizational performance. The goal theory on the other hand explains how the various environment and personal aspects lead to goal attainment in the organization. However, learning and behavior change have not been used categorically to explain the goal attainment process. The empirical studies conducted tend to relate executive coaching to other variables such as job satisfaction, individual commitment, self-efficacy and self awareness in the western context but fails to associate the coaching exercise to organizational performance. Finally, few studies have employed inferential statistics to show the association between executive coaching and organizational performance. The fundamental conclusion therefore, is that the gaps mentioned and explained in this study need to be addressed in order to show if indeed there is any association. The study would help organizations in realizing that, the association between executive coaching and organizational performance has an impact in the firm.
Article
The coaching industry has grown to become a multi-billion dollar business, yet there remain few barriers to entry and an absence of national governing bodies. Wide variation in quality of practice undermines the credibility of a field that has been found to be effective (Grover, S., & Furnham, A. (2016). Coaching as a developmental intervention in organisations: A systematic review of its effectiveness and the mechanisms underlying it. PLoS One, 11(7), e0159137. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0159137; Theeboom, T., Beersma, B., & van Vianen, A. E. (2014). Does coaching work? A meta-analysis on the effects of coaching on individual level outcomes in an organizational context. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2013.837499). Coaching stakeholders should therefore be motivated to understand what ‘good coaching’ looks like. However, it remains unclear what it means to be an outstanding, or expert, practitioner, or even whether the construct of expertise applies to the field of coaching. Within this paper, I critique literature that discusses coach expertise, and suggest the philosophical constraints embedded within current thinking imply the need for an alternative conceptualisation of expertise; adaptive expertise. Adaptive expertise is compatible with the complexity that characterises coaching, and prioritises coach decision-making (judgment and reasoning) over coaching outcomes. Many coaching texts largely ignore the construct of decision-making, with the exception of intuitive decision-making. Further research that seeks to understand coach judgment and decision-making will help coaches’ develop their practice, and may be a key to demystifying the central role of intuition in coaching.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on evidence-based, positive parenting practices and contributions of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT; Ellis, 1962) to the practice of parenting coaching. The process of parenting coaching is focused on the present, with the aim of promoting child and parent adjustment, and makes use of RE-CB coaching techniques to help the parent reach their goals, by identifying future directions and implementing the necessary steps to reach those goals. The specific purpose of the parenting coaching process is to develop parents’ skills (e.g., emotion management skills, positive parenting, rational thinking), with the ultimate goal of increasing the functionality of the parent-child relationship and foster child autonomy and socialization. The assumption is that by receiving close assistance, monitoring and feedback during the implementation of these abilities and skills will facilitate the desired changes in relation with the child.
Chapter
This chapter summarizes evidence on the use of goal-setting in Cognitive and Behavioral Therapies (CBT) supervision. In the supervision literature, goal-setting and the development of a supervision contract have both a 'formative' and a 'normative' function. The origin of goal-setting theory derives from the work of Edwin Locke in I-O psychology. Locke's research on goal-setting demonstrated that, across a variety of organizational settings and job roles, from technical to professional, the establishment of clear, specific, and concrete goals improved overall individual performance. Based on a collaborative process, the contract defines mutual roles and expectations for the full period of supervised experience and should guide the agenda for all supervision sessions. It needs to take account of the organizational context and the supervisee's learning history, strengths, and personal qualities. Discussion of professional issues should be an aim, as well as organizational requirements and the practical logistics of supervision: when, where, how to contact, roles, rules and handling of emergencies.
Article
This paper explores five theories that inform the academics and practice of organizational consulting and executive coaching: multi-dimensional executive coaching, adult transformational learning, emotional intelligence, cognitive behavior theory, and positive psychology. I discuss themes within these theories including the use of self as a tool to understand organizational environments, examination of the individual through the lens of systemic forces, establishment of positive perspectives, and the importance of qualifying and quantifying coaching outcomes. I argue that by using these theories and themes as intervention frameworks and processes, consulting and coaching models and practices can be flexible, grounded in construct, and organizationally integrated in terms of the client and the coach.
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Article
The Socratic Method has been described as an important component of CBT interventions yet an empirical case for its use has not been made. The objective of this paper is to review the role of the Socratic Method in CBT in four stages. First, a review of the literature describes how the Socratic Method is applied and defined within CBT, with assumptions regarding its proposed benefits identified. Second, a review of empirical literature demonstrates that multiple challenges to the evaluation of the Socratic Method exist and that no direct evidence supports the premise that it is beneficial in CBT. Evidence is examined which may suggest why the Socratic Method could be beneficial in therapy. Finally, the hypothesised function of the Socratic Method within therapy is discussed in reference to the Interacting Cognitive Subsystems framework. A number of avenues for future research are proposed in order to determine whether this potentially valuable therapeutic component contributes to the efficacy of CBT.
Article
Although recommended as an approach to improving school leaders’ practises, especially for novices, the processes of cognitive coaching for veteran leaders are underreported. This study explored district-level coaches’ perspectives on posing questions for veteran principals as the coaches reflected on their 2-year pilot programme. The protocol included survey results from year-one’s seminar sessions and a structured interview during year two. The surveys provided coaches opportunities to express their immediate reactions to seminar sessions’ focus on cognitive coaching to pose school improvement questions to veteran principal protégés. The structured interview occurred nearly 18 months after seminar and encouraged coaches’ descriptions of their implementation of posing questions. Findings included the following coaches’ perspectives: (a) seminar addressed adult learning needs; (b) posing questions shifted coaches’ tendencies to provide solutions; (c) trust issues; (d) time constraints; and (e) working across district lines offered more advantages than disadvantages.
Full-text available
Article
This article explores the extent to which the research focus areas of the 100 proposals generated by the International Coaching Research Forum (ICRF) in 2008 have been addressed in substantive, primary and evidence-based research. Abstracts of English-language, peer-reviewed research on coaching published from January 2008 to June 2012 were compiled and reviewed and key trends in relation to coverage of research focus areas suggested by the ICRF proposals are summarised. Major gaps remaining in coaching research are identified and priorities for the coaching topics to be studied are recommended, based on the 2008 ICRF proposals.
Full-text available
Article
To determine the factors affected students' participation and critical thinking skill through online discussion the process of learning and teaching in one subject is revised. The findings of research affirmed A) the importance and effects of students' participation in learning process and giving prompt on the base of Socratic questions through discussion to promote critical thinking ability and B) the persistence of students' CT skills after the administration of teaching and the modeling of Socratic questioning in online discussion persuaded through Web Based Bulletin (WBB) discussions.
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Article
Popular lore tells us that genius is born, not made. Scientific research, on the other hand, reveals that true expertise is mainly the product of years of intense practice and dedicated coaching. Ordinary practice is not enough: To reach elite levels of performance, you need to constantly push yourself beyond your abilities and comfort level. Such discipline is the key to becoming an expert in all domains, including management and leadership. Those are the conclusions reached by Ericsson, a professor of psychology at Florida State University; Prietula, a professor at the Goizueta Business School; and Cokely, a research fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, who together studied data on the behavior of experts, gathered by more than 100 scientists. What consistently distinguished elite surgeons, chess players, writers, athletes, pianists, and other experts was the habit of engaging in "deliberate" practice-a sustained focus on tasks that they couldn't do before. Experts continually analyzed what they did wrong, adjusted their techniques, and worked arduously to correct their errors. Even such traits as charisma can be developed using this technique. Working with a drama school, the authors created a set of acting exercises for managers that remarkably enhanced executives' powers of charm and persuasion. Through deliberate practice, leaders can improve their ability to win over their employees, their peers, or their board of directors. The journey to elite performance is not for the impatient or the faint of heart. It takes at least a decade and requires the guidance of an expert teacher to provide tough, often painful feedback, it also demands would-be experts to develop their "inner coach" and eventually drive their own progress.
Full-text available
Article
Research is in its infancy in the newly emerging field of coaching psychology. This study examined the effects of a 10-week cognitive-behavioral, solution-focused life coaching group programme. Participants were randomly allocated to a life coaching group programme (n = 28) or a waitlist control group (n = 28). Participation in the life coaching group programme was associated with significant increases in goal striving, well-being and hope, with gains maintained up to 30 weeks later on some variables. Hope theory may explain such positive outcomes. Life coaching programmes that utilize evidence-based techniques may provide a framework for further research on psychological processes that occur in non-clinical populations who wish to make purposeful change and enhance their positive psychological functioning.
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Article
The use of hypothetical questions as a creative therapeutic process is explored and described. Hypothetical questions start with the client's actual life situation—in whatever way the client construes and lives it—and triggers a search for what could be. Hypotheticals are thought experiments in which the client is challenged to think beyond the usual, common obstacles and constraints of everyday life, and to imagine "what if?" in its most constructive sense. This exercise—which requires both therapist ingenuity and client open-mindedness—can shed light on the clients' expectations, desires, motives, decision-making process, and methods of solving problems. Hypotheticals also enable clients to paint a picture of how they might be able to change the course of their lives, and to live by a more voluntary, meaningful script. Four classes of hypotheticals are reviewed, along with some representative, corresponding sets of questions.
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Article
A new model of therapist skill development is presented. Grounded in information processing theory, it provides a comprehensive framework that accounts for a range of phenomena encountered by trainers and trainees – for example, why different training methods are needed for different elements of therapist skill. The model features three principal systems: declarative, procedural and reflective (DPR). Reflection is identified as central to therapist skill development and, accordingly, a pivotal role is given to a reflective system, which enables therapists to reflect and build on their conceptual (declarative) knowledge and procedural skills. The DPR model incorporates a taxonomy of therapist skills, and explains why different skills develop in different ways at different rates. It highlights the centrality of therapists' perceptual skills, and of when-then rules, plans, procedures and skills (rules that determine when to implement what interventions with which patient under what conditions) in the development of therapist expertise. It makes a distinction between personal and professional selves (the self-schema vs. the self-as-therapist schema); and it identifies the role of the personal self in therapist skill development. While there are still many questions to be investigated, it is hoped that the model will stimulate researchers and provide guidance for trainers.
Full-text available
Article
Popular lore tells us that genius is born, not made. Scientific research, on the other hand, reveals that true expertise is mainly the product of years of intense practice and dedicated coaching. Ordinary practice is not enough: To reach elite levels of performance, you need to constantly push yourself beyond your abilities and comfort level. Such discipline is the key to becoming an expert in all domains, including management and leadership. Those are the conclusions reached by Ericsson, a professor of psychology at Florida State University; Prietula, a professor at the Goizueta Business School; and Cokely, a research fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, who together studied data on the behavior of experts, gathered by more than 100 scientists. What consistently distinguished elite surgeons, chess players, writers, athletes, pianists, and other experts was the habit of engaging in "deliberate" practice--a sustained focus on tasks that they couldn't do before. Experts continually analyzed what they did wrong, adjusted their techniques, and worked arduously to correct their errors. Even such traits as charisma can be developed using this technique. Working with a drama school, the authors created a set of acting exercises for managers that remarkably enhanced executives' powers of charm and persuasion. Through deliberate practice, leaders can improve their ability to win over their employees, their peers, or their board of directors. The journey to elite performance is not for the impatient or the faint of heart. It takes at least a decade and requires the guidance of an expert teacher to provide tough, often painful feedback. It also demands would-be experts to develop their "inner coach" and eventually drive their own progress.
Book
This book offers an approach to working with clients who simply do not seem to change. Therapeutic change, in the author's view, hinges on the presence of seven precursors, or harbingers, of change: hope, awareness, a sense of necessity to change, the willingness to experience anxiety or difficulty, confronting issues, the exertion of will or effort, and the presence of social support. The presence of these precursors bodes well for a client no matter what the therapist's theoretical orientation. The converse is also true: their absence or deficiency close the relationship. The good news for any therapist who has ever encountered a client who believes change is frightening, unattainable, or a waste of time is that the obstacles are not insurmountable. In this practical guide, the author offers a tool for assessing the readiness for change in clients and in therapists. He offers an abundance of strategies, examples, and insights for enhancing precursors that are lacking and leveraging those that are present. This model offers invaluable guidance for the stalled client and therapist alike. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Psychological science reveals some astounding powers of intuition, and some notable perils. Intuition feeds automatic behaviours, creativity, and spirituality. But intuition is also perilous. Today's cognitive science aims not to destroy intuition but to fortify it, to sharpen thinking and deepen wisdom. Scientists who expose intuition's flaws note that it works well in some areas, but needs restraints and checks in others. In realms from sports to business to risk assessment, people now understand how perilous intuitions often go before a fall, and how they can therefore think smarter, even while listening to the creative whispers of their vast unseen minds.
Article
An exploration of trainees' abilities to identify question types, their function and the process of questioning was carried out with 25 trainees who were studying for either a Diploma in Cognitive Therapy or a Doctorate in Clinical Psychology. The results showed that trainees were best at determining the functions of questions, but were poor overall at identifying the different elements of questioning. This study highlights the absence of terminology for breaking down therapeutic dialogue into its component parts. It is concluded that research is needed to explore ways in which the components of questioning can be better articulated and conceptualized so as to aid our ability to reflect on questions in a meaningful way.
Article
"Cognitive Therapy of Substance Abuse" was written in response to the ever-growing need to formulate and test cost-effective treatments for substance abuse disorders. Representing a major advance for meeting this pressing need, cognitive therapy offers a well-documented and demonstrably efficacious psychosocial treatment model. Emanating from the research and practical experience of Aaron T. Beck and his colleagues, this book demonstrates how cognitive therapy can be easily replicated by therapists and counselors alike. This volume concentrates on clinical procedures in a way that is both teachable and testable. An ideal treatment manual that can be utilized independently, or in conjunction with psychopharmacological or 12-step programs, [this book] will be valued by all mental health practitioners who work with substance abusers, regardless of their orientation or the extent of their previous experience with either cognitive therapy or substance abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This is a book about ten Great Ideas. Each chapter is an attempt to savor one idea that has been discovered by several of the world's civilizations--to question it in light of what we now know from scientific research, and to extract from it the lessons that still apply to our modern lives. Helping people find happiness and meaning is precisely the goal of the new field of positive psychology, a field in which the author has been active, so this book is in a way about the origins of positive psychology in ancient wisdom and the applications of positive psychology today. Most of the research the author covered was done by scientists who would not consider themselves positive psychologists. Nonetheless, he has drawn on ten ancient ideas and a great variety of modern research findings to tell the best story he could about the causes of human flourishing, and the obstacles to well being that we place in our own paths. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Organizational consulting offers opportunities to diversify one’s practice and increase one’s income, all the while reducing the frustrations associated with working with insurance and managed care companies. This paper describes one REBT therapist’s conception of the “personality” of any organization, a list of potential services to offer businesses, and a few practical suggestions to successfully transfer from the clinical office into the organizational world.
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