Avian pox infection in different wild birds in India

ArticleinEuropean Journal of Wildlife Research 57(4):785-793 · August 2011with49 Reads
DOI: 10.1007/s10344-010-0488-4
Amplicons of fpv167 and fpv140, of 578 and 1,800bp, respectively, characteristic of the avipox viral genes, were amplified by PCR using DNA from viruses isolated from eight Indian wild birds. BLAST and phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the fpv167 and fpv140 amplicons indicated that Fowlpox virus (FWPV) was the nearest phylogenetic neighbour to the viral isolates, from two Indian peacocks (Pavo cristatus), two golden pheasants (Chrysolophus pictus), one silver pheasant (Lopahura nycthemera) and one sparrow (Passer domesticus). However, the two isolates from the Indian little brown dove (Stigmatopelia senegalensis) and the common wood pigeon (Columba palumbus) formed a separate cluster with turkeypox and pigeonpox virus (PGPV) isolates when the phylogenetic tree was constructed using the sequence of fpv167. When the phylogenetic analysis was done using the fpv140 gene sequence both isolates formed a cluster with isolates of PGPV. Thus, the results support that fpv140 gene along with the fpv167 gene should be used for phylogenetic analyses of avipoxviruses for better discrimination of the viruses. Additionally, avian poxvirus isolated from wild birds of India were identical to those reported in Indian domestic birds, and phylogenetically related to avian poxviruses reported from different parts of the world. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of avian poxviruses infecting different wild birds in India. The study shows that FWPV and PGPV cause infection in wild birds irrespective of the species of birds indicating that these viruses are not species specific. Thus these viruses, which are not host specific have the ability to cause infection in game birds, endangered birds and domestic birds and therefore could spread easily. KeywordsAvian poxvirus–Wild birds– Fowlpox virus – Pigeonpox virus –Molecular characterization
    • "Poxviruses isolated from the African, Magellanic and Humboldt penguins group in Clades A2, A3 (FWPV-like) and B1 (CNPV-like) re- spectively [6,8]. Columbiformes have been shown to be susceptible to viruses from clade A (Fowlpox-like) [3,5,21,22] and clade B (Canarypox-like) [3,4,23]. In this study we have sequenced the genomes of two novel South African avipoxviruses using the 454 (Roche, Life Sciences) and Ion Torrent (Life Technology) platforms . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Two novel avipoxviruses from South Africa have been sequenced, one from a Feral Pigeon (Columba livia) (FeP2) and the other from an African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) (PEPV). We present a purpose-designed bioinformatics pipeline for analysis of next generation sequence data of avian poxviruses and compare the different avipoxviruses sequenced to date with specific emphasis on their evolution and gene content. Results The FeP2 (282 kbp) and PEPV (306 kbp) genomes encode 271 and 284 open reading frames respectively and are more closely related to one another (94.4%) than to either fowlpox virus (FWPV) (85.3% and 84.0% respectively) or Canarypox virus (CNPV) (62.0% and 63.4% respectively). Overall, FeP2, PEPV and FWPV have syntenic gene arrangements; however, major differences exist throughout their genomes. The most striking difference between FeP2 and the FWPV-like avipoxviruses is a large deletion of ~16 kbp from the central region of the genome of FeP2 deleting a cc-chemokine-like gene, two Variola virus B22R orthologues, an N1R/p28-like gene and a V-type Ig domain family gene. FeP2 and PEPV both encode orthologues of vaccinia virus C7L and Interleukin 10. PEPV contains a 77 amino acid long orthologue of Ubiquitin sharing 97% amino acid identity to human ubiquitin. Conclusions The genome sequences of FeP2 and PEPV have greatly added to the limited repository of genomic information available for the Avipoxvirus genus. In the comparison of FeP2 and PEPV to existing sequences, FWPV and CNPV, we have established insights into African avipoxvirus evolution. Our data supports the independent evolution of these South African avipoxviruses from a common ancestral virus to FWPV and CNPV.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014
    • "Consistently, in our study, the phylogenetic analysis of the fpv140 from the Egyptian APVs clustered the five viruses isolated from chicken and the one from turkey in subclade A1 (FWPV). The five strains revealed a distance percentage of 56.9 % from clade B. On the other hand, it places Elsharqyia_PGPV with the other PGPVs in the subclade A4 with a distance percentage of 53.9 % from clade B. Our study also supports the previous finding [11, 15] that the phylogenetic analysis of APVs based on the fpv140-H3l gene allows clustering of the PGPV strains in an independent taxonomic unit which correlates with the pigeon host species. In conclusion, sequence analysis of the APV-fpv 167 and APV-fpv140 revealed that Elsharqyia_FWPV1, Elsharqyia_FWPV2, Elsharqyia_FWPV3, Elsharqyia_FWPV4, and Elsharqyia_TKPV belong to Fowlpox-like viruses (subclade A1). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Six clinical cases of avipoxvirus (APV) infection were investigated and molecular biologically studied. The samples were collected from different domesticated birds reared in the Egyptian backyard management system and were propagated on the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated chicken eggs. The virus isolation was confirmed via PCR amplification of fpv167 (P4b) gene locus. All the studied isolates were characterized as Fowlpox-like viruses based on the amplicon length of fpv140 gene locus. The phylogenetic analysis of fpv167 (P4b) gene clustered Elsharqyia_FWPV1, Elsharqyia_FWPV2, Elsharqyia_FWPV3, Elsharqyia_FWPV4, and Elsharqyia_TKPV strains within subclade A1. Furthermore, Elsharqyia_PGPV strain was clustered within subclade A2 (Turkeypox virus) and showed 100 % nucleic acid identity with the wood pigeon Indian which was isolated in 2009. On the other hand, when the fpv140 gene was used for the phylogenetic analysis, Elsharqyia_PGPV was clustered within subclade A4 (Pigeonpox virus) with the other PGPVs. This study is considered the first molecular record for APVs circulating in the Egyptian birds. Further studies in a larger scale need to be developed to have a better understanding about the molecular characterization of the Egyptian APV strains.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Of the many important avian wildlife diseases, aspergillosis, West Nile virus, avipoxvirus, Wellfleet Bay virus, avian influenza, and inclusion body disease of cranes are covered in this article. Wellfleet Bay virus, first identified in 2010, is considered an emerging disease. Avian influenza and West Nile virus have recently been in the public eye because of their zoonotic potential and links to wildlife. Several diseases labeled as reemerging are included because of recent outbreaks or, more importantly, recent research in areas such as genomics, which shed light on the mechanisms whereby these adaptable, persistent pathogens continue to spread and thrive.
    Article · May 2013
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