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KeywordsBiodiversity–Biological invasions–Ecosystem functioning–Ecosystem services–World Conference on Biological Invasions and Ecosystem Functioning–BIOLIEF
Biological invasions and ecosystem functioning: time
to merge
Ronaldo Sousa Pedro Morais Ester Dias
Carlos Antunes
Received: 21 September 2010 / Accepted: 15 December 2010 / Published online: 12 February 2011
ÓSpringer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011
Keywords Biodiversity Biological invasions
Ecosystem functioning Ecosystem services World
Conference on Biological Invasions and Ecosystem
Functioning BIOLIEF
The movement of species is a key characteristic of
our planet. However, in recent decades, humans
increased the rate and scale of these movements and
are responsible for many introductions of non-indig-
enous invasive species (NIS) in all types of ecosys-
tems, from the tropics to the poles and from terrestrial
to aquatic environments (Carlton and Geller 1993;
Mack et al. 2000). Initially, these movements were
just between contiguous regions but later the
increased transport of goods and people enlarged
the scale of these introductions. Given the magnitude
of these movements plus social and economic
concerns, research programs on NIS have increased
enormously recently and attracted great scientific
interest (Pys
ˇek et al. 2008; Pejchar and Mooney
`et al. 2010). This theme has been gaining
momentum in theoretical and empirical ecology and
is an important topic of research with broad impli-
cations in biogeography, genetics, and evolution
(Sakai et al. 2001; Sax et al. 2007).
Similarly, the discussion about the relationship
between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning
(BEF) has matured during the last two decades
(Chapin et al. 2000; Loreau et al. 2001; Cardinale
et al. 2006; Duffy et al. 2007). Few sub-disciplines in
ecology have expanded as quickly as BEF, and this
research has stimulated the emergence of new theo-
retical approaches responsible for advances in our
understanding of community and ecosystem ecology
(Kinzig et al. 2002; Loreau et al. 2002; Naeem et al.
2009). Until the 1990s, and with few exceptions,
biodiversity was considered to depend merely on
abiotic conditions; however, ecologists subsequently
recognized that the properties of ecosystems are also
mediated by biodiversity itself (Chapin et al. 1992).
Usually, discussions of BEF focus almost exclusively
on what happens to ecosystem processes and functions
as species richness declines owing to extinctions
(Hooper et al. 2005). This discussion is of great
R. Sousa (&)
CBMA—Centre of Molecular and Environmental
Biology, Department of Biology, University of Minho,
Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
R. Sousa P. Morais E. Dias C. Antunes
CIMAR-LA/CIIMAR—Centro Interdisciplinar de
˜o Marinha e Ambiental, Rua dos Bragas 289,
4050-123 Porto, Portugal
P. Morais
ICCE—International Center for Coastal Ecohydrology,
´cio do Capita
˜o-Mor, Horta das Figuras, EN 125,
8005-518 Faro, Portugal
C. Antunes
Aquamuseu do Rio Minho, Parque do Castelinho,
4920-290 Vila Nova de Cerveira, Portugal
Biol Invasions (2011) 13:1055–1058
DOI 10.1007/s10530-011-9947-4
concern because human activities are reducing biodi-
versity, which leads to major ecosystem changes, and
are also affecting goods and services that are funda-
mental for humans (Naeem et al. 2009). Indeed,
biodiversity is facing dramatic changes that have
resulted in loss of species plus reductions in their
distribution and abundance, mainly related to anthro-
pogenic impacts such as habitat loss, pollution,
climate change and overexploitation of resources
(Sala et al. 2000). In addition, the introduction of
species is also responsible for dramatic changes in
biodiversity that are leading to the homogenization
of Earth’s biota by breakage of dispersal barriers
(McKinney and Lockwood 1999). At the global scale,
the introduction of NIS can cause a net reduction of
species (e.g., introduction of top predators, parasites
and diseases that are responsible for the extinction of
native species). However, on a local scale, species
addictions can also result in a net increase of species,
which is an interesting subject for future research.
Therefore, it is of paramount importance that the
discussion of BEF also includes cases of biological
invasions that substantially affect diversity.
Although discussions of invasive species and eco-
system functioning are rife in the theoretical literature,
studies addressing this issue are few. Indeed, only 4%
of all studies published in Biological Invasions from
1999 to 2009 have analyzed the effect of invasive
species on ecosystem functioning. Most of these
studies were performed in North America (60%),
focusing mainly on terrestrial ecosystems (53%)
(aquatic ecosystems- 23%, saltmarshes- 15%) and
plants (70%) (invertebrates- 20%, vertebrates- 10%).
One conclusion resulting from these published studies
is that species addictions will affect ecosystem func-
tioning (e.g., productivity, biogeochemical cycles,
decomposition) and biotic interactions (e.g. predator
prey interactions, introductions of parasites and dis-
eases), with some species also affecting human well-
being. These effects will contribute to ecosystem
functioning in complex ways and obviously will range
from almost negligible to dramatic proportions. Given
the growing number of NIS introductions, it is
imperative to know which species greatly affect BEF
in order to plan proper management actions. This
situation requires a link between the field of invasion
ecology and BEF research. Both disciplines focus, for
example, on the consequences resulting from the loss
of species, changes to ecosystem functioning, and
measuring species traits to predict community and
ecosystem-level impacts. However, a key difference is
that BEF research is generally based on experiments
that do not allow immigration, whereas NIS ecological
research relies on open communities (Engelhardt et al.
2009). Anyway, both fields are eager for cross-
fertilization and the World Conference on Biological
Invasions and Ecosystem Functioning (BIOLIEF),
held in Porto (Portugal, 27–30 October 2009), brought
together more than 300 researchers from 42 countries
to discuss the interplay between NIS and ecosystem
functioning. This special issue of Biological Invasions
presents 14 articles covering a multitude of aquatic
(coastal ecosystems- Le Cam and Viard 2011; Queiro
et al. 2011; lakes- Goedkoop et al. 2011) and terrestrial
ecosystems (agroecosystems- Dosdall et al. 2011;
dunes- Rascher et al. 2011; forests- Dassonville et al.
2011; Økland et al. 2011; Maguire et al. 2011; Szlavecz
et al. 2011; Rascher et al. 2011; grasslands- Dasson-
ville et al. 2011; Mediterranean ecosystems- Angulo
et al. 2011; sub-antartic islands- Lebouvier et al. 2011)
and organisms including molluscs (Queiro
´s et al. 2011;
Goedkoop et al. 2011; Le Cam and Viard 2011), insects
(Angulo et al. 2011; Dosdall et al. 2011; Lebouvier
et al. 2011; Økland et al. 2011), oligochaetes (Szlavecz
et al. 2011), and plants (Dassonville et al. 2011;
Januchowski-Hartley et al. 2011; Maguire et al. 2011;
Rascher et al. 2011; Vicente et al. 2011).
In this BIOLIEF special issue, we present five
works that investigate species (Angulo et al. 2011;
´s et al. 2011; Rascher et al. 2011), inter-species
interactions (Økland et al. 2011) and community level
effects (Szlavecz et al. 2011), or putative effects, on
ecosystem functioning. There are also four works that
in essence address NIS management: (1) one deter-
mines if a specialist insect can, and how it can, control
a non-indigenous plant in North America (Maguire
et al. 2011); (2) other shows that the zebra mussel
influences a lake’s nutrient budget and advocates the
successive harvesting of cultured mussels to decrease
the impact of cultural eutrophication (Goedkoop et al.
2011), and thus indirectly applies one of the principles
of ecohydrology, which is to use biota to regulate
hydrology and thus transform threats into opportuni-
ties (Zalewski et al. 1997); (3) another applies a
spatially explicit decision method to identify spatial
configurations of actions to achieve objectives related
to invasive species, while minimizing management
costs and the likelihood of reinvasion of an aquatic
1056 R. Sousa et al.
macrophyte (Januchowski-Hartley et al. 2011); (4) a
last one uses a species distribution model to identify
suitable areas for rare native species, which are highly
susceptible to invasion by a non-indigenous tree at
present and under future land-use and climate change
scenarios (Vicente et al. 2011). The impact of climate
change is also discussed for a sub-Antartic island,
namely its interaction with non-indigenous insects and
the vulnerability of these terrestrial ecosystems to
future colonization in light of the limited gene pools in
these islands (Lebouvier et al. 2011). Non-indigenous
insects were also studied in Canadian agro-ecosys-
tems, of which the invasion patterns, economic
impacts, and ecological effects were highlighted
(Dosdall et al. 2011). In the aquatic realm, we present
an article suggesting that one non-indigenous marine
gastropod facilitates the infection of the surrounding
commercially exploited shellfish by a parasitic
sponge, although the impact on the gastropod is still
limited (Le Cam and Viard 2011). Finally, a review is
also presented arguing that it is an exaggeration to
claim that most invasions produce ecosystems
impacts; however it also claims that it would not be
more of an overstatement than the common assertion
that very few introduced species have any significant
impact (Simberloff 2011).
Future research opportunities on this topic are
many, and we challenge our colleagues to diversify
the studied ecosystems, to consider more frequently
the context-dependent impact of NIS on ecosystem
functioning, to analyze the effect of migration in BEF
long-term studies, and also to study NIS microor-
ganisms (e.g., viruses, bacteria, protists, microarthro-
pods and nematodes), because they may be key
organisms in regulating ecosystem processes and
functions. We hope that the first World Conference
on Biological Invasions and Ecosystem Functioning
and this special issue can contribute to boost the
number of works combining invasion ecology and
ecosystem functioning, and also can call this impor-
tant topic to the attention of policy makers, managers,
and the general public.
Acknowledgments: We want to thank all the
authors and reviewers for their meaningful contribu-
tions to this special issue. We are also grateful to Dr
Daniel Simberloff for his suggestions and comments
on the initial draft of this preface and his guidance
during the preparation of this special issue. Finally,
we would like to thank Dr Joa
˜o Coimbra, director of
CIIMAR—Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigac¸a
Marinha e Ambiental, for the support given during
the preparation of the BIOLIEF conference.
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... The impacts of IAS may vary spatially and temporally depending on important factors, such as population density (Benkwitt, 2015;Pintor et al., 2009), phenotypic diversity , propagule pressure (Barney et al., 2016;Warren et al., 2012), functional distinctiveness (Ehrenfeld, 2010;Sousa et al., 2011) and environmental characteristics of the invaded area . However, the invasion process (e.g., establishment, population growth, dispersion or niche occupation) may be context-dependent and perhaps change through time as a consequence of evolutionary responses by native species, increasing the unpredictability of IAS impacts (Buckley, 2017;Mooney & Cleland, 2001). ...
Invasive alien species (IAS) are leading to the homogenisation of taxonomic and functional biodiversity, with negative consequences for key ecosystem processes in fresh water. Invasive signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) is expected to disrupt detritus‐based food webs by affecting leaf breakdown and/or by decreasing invertebrate density and diversity through predation. The combination of per‐capita and abundance effects of P. leniusculus in invaded ecosystems is still largely unknown. A four‐week field experiment was established in Rabaçal and Tuela Rivers (NE Portugal) to assess effects of P. leniusculus on invertebrate taxonomic and functional diversity and leaf litter breakdown following a gradient of invasion. We controlled the presence and absence of crayfish by placing the animals and leaf litter inside cages at six sites (three sites per river) according to the crayfish in situ abundance (absent, low, high). Cages were covered with coarse‐ or fine‐mesh net to allow or prevent invertebrates from accessing the leaves. Results showed that higher crayfish in situ abundance led to a decrease in abundance, richness and Shannon diversity of invertebrates and to changes in the communities’ structures. Higher crayfish abundance led also to a decrease in invertebrate functional redundancy and an increase in the percentage of invertebrate taxa with resistance forms. Leaf litter breakdown increased with crayfish presence and decreased at sites with higher crayfish abundance. Overall, signal crayfish changed the community structure of invertebrates, with potential severe long‐term effects on native communities and leaf litter breakdown. Given the widespread distribution of signal crayfish (and other crayfish species), their ecological impacts should be assessed carefully, especially in pristine freshwater ecosystems such as those described here.
... Functional consequences of IAS (invasive alien species) along coasts and within estuarine systems have not been explored extensively, yet published studies show that species addictions affect ecosystem functioning (e.g., productivity, biogeochemical cycles, and decomposition) and biotic relations (e.g., prey-predator interactions, and introductions of parasites and diseases). These effects will contribute to ecosystem functioning in complex ways and range from almost negligible to dramatic proportions [34,35]. This paper will review (i) the definitions proposed to study biopollution caused by the introduction of AS; (ii) some of the impacts that have been described in the literature; and (iii) the framework of risk assessment procedures that have been applied aiming at management of biological invasions. ...
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Biopollution by alien species is considered one of the main threats to environmental health. The marine environment, traditionally less studied than inland domains, has been the object of recent work that is reviewed here. Increasing scientific evidence has been accumulated worldwide on ecosystem deterioration induced by the development of massive non-indigenous population outbreaks in many coastal sites. Biopollution assessment procedures have been proposed, adopting criteria already used for xenochemical compounds, adjusting them to deal with alien species invasions. On the other hand, prevention and mitigation measures to reduce biopollution impact cannot always mimic the emission countermeasures that have been successfully applied for chemical pollutants. Nevertheless, in order to design comprehensive water-quality criteria, risk assessment and management strategies, based on scientific knowledge, have been developed in a similar way as for chemical pollution. The Mediterranean Sea is a well-known case of alien species invasion, mainly linked to the opening of the Suez Canal. Non-indigenous species have caused well-documented changes in many coastal ecosystems, favoured by concomitant changes induced by global warming and by the heavy load of nutrients and pollutants by various anthropogenic activities. Naval commercial traffic and leisure boats are among the most active vectors of spread for alien species inside the Mediterranean, and also towards other ocean regions. The scientific evidence gathered and summarized in this review suggests that effective management actions, under a precautionary approach, should be put in place in order to control introductions of species in new areas. These management measures are already established in international treaties and national legislations, but should be enforced to prevent the disruption of the dynamic ecological equilibria in the receiving environment and to control the direct adverse effects of alien species.
... A similar process is observed with their impacts, which are only acknowledged by the scientific community and public when impacts are already significant (Pyšek and Richardson 2010;Simberloff 2011). In extreme cases, invasive species may lead to the extirpation of native species and shifts in the functioning of ecosystems (Sousa et al., 2011). The estimated economic impacts are tremendous. ...
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Biological invasions are among the most challenging ecological and conservation riddles of our times. Fortunately, citizen science projects became a valuable tool to detect non-indigenous species (NIS), document their spread, prevent dispersion, and eradicate localized populations. We evaluated the most undisputed definitions of citizen science and proposed that a combination of two of them is a better reflection of what citizen science has become. Thus, citizen science is any environmental and/or biological data collection and analysis, including data quality control, undertaken by members of the general public, as individuals or as organized groups of citizens, with the guidance and/or assistance of scientists toward solving environmental and/or community questions. With this review, we also assessed how citizen science has been advancing biological invasions research and its focus, by analyzing 126 peer-reviewed articles that used citizen science methods or data concerning NIS. Most of the articles studied terrestrial species (68%) and terrestrial plants were the most studied group (22.7%). Surprisingly, most first detection reports were of non-indigenous marine fish probably due to the constraints in accessing aquatic ecosystems which delays the detection of new NIS. Citizen science projects running over broad geographical areas are very cost-effective for the early detection of NIS, regardless of the studied environment. We also discuss the applicability and need to adapt the methods and approaches toward the studied ecosystem and species, but also the profile of the participating citizens, their motivations, level of engagement, or social status. We recommend authors to better acknowledge the work done by contributing citizens, and the putative limitations of data generated by citizen science projects. The outreach planning of citizen science projects is also evaluated, including the use of dedicated web platforms vs. pre-existent and disseminated web platforms, while discussing how such outreach actions can be maximized. Lastly, we present a framework that contextualizes the contributions of citizen science, scientific research, and regional and national stakeholders toward the integrated management of biological invasions.
... Las especies invasoras representan un agente significativo de cambio global (Vitousek, D'Antonio, Lloyd, & Westbrooks, 1996) con implicaciones económicas y ambientales potencialmente graves, generando efectos negativos en la agricultura, la salud pública, el transporte y la conservación (Pimentel, Lach, Zuniga, & Morrison 2000;Sousa, Morais, Dias, & Antunes, 2011). Después de la destrucción de hábitat, la invasión de especies exóticas es el segundo factor asociado a la extinción de especies en el mundo (Everett, 2000). ...
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Introducción: El proceso de invasión biológica es una de las mayores amenazas a la biodiversidad y ecosistemas, con actuales y potenciales impactos en la salud pública y conservación. Procambarus clarkii es un crustáceo decápodo, originario del sur de Estados Unidos y noreste de México, que puede adaptarse a diferentes condiciones ambientales debido a su plasticidad ecológica. Objetivo: Se caracterizó el nicho ecológico fundamental existente de Procambarus clarkii con el fin de predecir las áreas con idoneidad ambiental para el potencial establecimiento de la especie en Suramérica y Colombia. Métodos: Usamos modelos de nichos ecológicos calibrados en el área nativa, elaborados con el algoritmo Maxent, basados en datos de presencia extraídos de GBIF y variables hidroclimáticas de ecosistemas acuáticos a una resolución de 1 km2. Resultados: En Suramérica el modelo indicó un potencial geográfico amplio de invasión mostrando áreas ambientalmente idóneas para la presencia y expansión hacia Colombia, Venezuela, Perú, Ecuador, Brasil, Guyana, Surinam, Bolivia, Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay y Chile. En Colombia, el modelo predijo que las áreas idóneas se ubican principalmente en el norte y oriente, incluidos diversos ecosistemas, como: bosques tropicales, bosques basales, bosques riparios y sabanas. La especie tiene una alta posibilidad de expandirse hacia áreas de distribución de latitudes bajas, ocupando zonas hacia la parte norte de la región Caribe colombiana, en departamentos de Magdalena, Cesar, Córdoba y Atlántico. También se predijo áreas con idoneidad ambiental en el oriente de Colombia, hacia la extensión de la planicie oriental de la Orinoquia, una región de baja altitud en: Arauca, Casanare, Meta y Vichada. Conclusión: En este estudio se aplican modelos de nichos ecológicos, que puede ser de interés en la planeación de estrategias o la creación de planes de manejo, como sistemas de alerta temprana para evitar el establecimiento de esta especie.
... Las especies invasoras representan un agente significativo de cambio global (Vitousek, D'Antonio, Lloyd, & Westbrooks, 1996) con implicaciones económicas y ambientales potencialmente graves, generando efectos negativos en la agricultura, la salud pública, el transporte y la conservación (Pimentel, Lach, Zuniga, & Morrison 2000;Sousa, Morais, Dias, & Antunes, 2011). Después de la destrucción de hábitat, la invasión de especies exóticas es el segundo factor asociado a la extinción de especies en el mundo (Everett, 2000). ...
... Invasive non-native species are one of the biggest threats to native ecosystems since their spread is occurring at an alarming speed (Hulme, 2009). Successful invasive plant species alter the functioning of ecosystems, threaten native biological diversity and they can even cause species extinctions (Gurevitch & Padilla, 2004;Sousa, Morais, Dias, & Antunes, 2011;Vil a et al., 2006). One of the hypotheses explaining the success of exotic species is the "Novel Weapons Hypothesis", which suggests that invasive species can release phytotoxic chemicals that are novel to resident native species and act as unusually powerful allelopathic agents (Callaway & Ridenour, 2004). ...
Decomposing litter is regarded as the most important source of allelochemicals released into soil. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was designed to assess the net effect of differently aged leaf litter from exotic (Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia and Ulmus pumila) and native riverine trees (Populus alba, Populus nigra and Ulmus minor) on the germination and growth of three herb species (Trifolium repens, Dactylis glomerata and Chenopodium album). We also characterized the chemical composition of litter samples at different litter ages (0, 1, 2 and 3 months) based on phenolic compounds, fibers and ergosterol (as a measure of fungal biomass) contents. Overall, litter from both native and exotic species had a negative effect on shoot and root growth of target species, indicating that phytotoxic effects of litter predominate over positive effects. The inhibition effect of the exotic species was similar or even lower than that of the natives, which does not support the Novel Weapons Hypothesis. Among exotic trees, U. pumila showed the highest inhibition effect on the growth of the target species. T. repens was the most sensitive target species. The importance of litter age varied with both target and donor species. In general, D. glomerata was more inhibited by fresh litter, C. album by half-decomposed litter of U. pumila and R. pseudoacacia and by fresh litter of A. altissima and T. repens was more inhibited by fresh litter of A. altissima and P. alba and by highly decomposed litter of U. minor. The concentration of total phenolics and flavonoids decreased while acid detergent fiber, lignin and ergosterol increased with increasing litter age. Hydroxybenzoic and protocatechuic acids and the flavonoid quercetin were detected in all litter species and at most of the litter ages, while gallic, chlorogenic, vanillic, coumaric and rosmarinic acids were species-specific and they were only detected in fresh litter. Ergosterol concentration appeared as the strongest constrictor of inhibitory effects of litter on understory species. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of the net effect of fresh and decomposed litter from exotic and native trees on the growth of understory species.
This study aimed to investigate the recolonization behavior of the rapa whelk (Rapana venosa) and the common starfish (Asterias rubens) on the mussel beds in their natural habitat. The monitoring studies were carried out seasonally on an island covered by a complete mussel bed in the Sea of Marmara (Turkey) between 19 October 2020 and 9 August 2021. Inhabitant rapa whelk and common starfish on the experimental study island (ESI) were tagged, then moved 10 m away from ESI. The recolonization potential of tagged invaders was monitored for 14 days with underwater surveys after their local eradication each season. The percentage of returned rapa whelk to the ESI was higher than common starfish end the monitoring period. Rapa whelk moved non-stop towards the mussel bed, reaching the ESI at the latest 6th hour. Common starfish reached the mussel bed much later (at the 15th hour) than rapa whelk. The common starfish began to leave the ESI at the end of the 7th day, while the rapa whelk addicted to the ESI for 14 days. Re-invasion behavior varied significantly seasonally, and both invaders reached the ESI much later in winter. During the monitoring periods, the highest invader densities were seen in the patches with the most abundant mussels, indicating continued uninterrupted feeding. The re- invasion duration and daily feeding activities support the fact that the spread of these invaders could be considered a threat to marine resources, as noted in many studies
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Corbicula fluminea is a known aquatic invasive species responsible for several ecological and economic impacts. In Portugal, it is found in all major watersheds, although to varying degrees of invasion (regarding density, biomass and spatial distribution). The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatio-temporal differences in condition indices (CIs) and biochemical composition (proteins, lipids and energy) of individuals collected in Lima (low invasion) and Minho (high invasion) Rivers, as well as the effects of intra-specific competition (densities: 150, 500, 1000 individuals/m2) on the CIs of C. fluminea. CIs and biochemical composition varied between rivers and over time, with populations in Lima and Minho showing different patterns. Corbicula fluminea in Lima River had higher CIs and lower densities with more individuals of larger size, while individuals in Minho River had lower CIs and high densities with a more uniform size distribution. The intra-specific competition experiment showed that the optimum of C. fluminea was reached at 500 individuals/m2 density, possibly related to the species ability of enrich sediments with organic matter, leading to a positive feedback on phytoplankton and/or microbial communities. This study improves the understanding of the ecophysiological conditions of C. fluminea populations, a topic neglected in previous studies.
Macrophytes sometimes become a nuisance, interfering with navigation, fishing, and aesthetic purposes. Therefore, in many water bodies, the macrophytes are periodically removed. However, with the removal of macrophytes, changes occur in the physico-chemical properties of water and the plankton associated with them. Here we describe the zooplankton community composition using functional traits (feeding guilds and habitat type) from littoral and open water zones in the central Mexican waterbody Benito Juárez Reservoir for one year. In two sites, the macrophyte Egeria densa was removed by the local administration, which resulted in an increase of turbidity, chlorophyll a and phycocyanin levels. Among rotifers, Polyarthra, Trichocerca, Lecane, Lepadella, and Keratella were the dominant genera while for microcrustaceans, copepods, Alona, Ceriodaphnia, Chydorus, and Simocephalus were the dominant genera. Littoral sites had a higher number of microphagous and raptorial species than open water; however, after macrophyte removal, microphagous species were more reduced than raptorial species. Moreover, a decrease in semi-planktonic and benthic-periphytic species, as well as an increase in planktonic organisms was observed after macrophyte removal. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed that before the removal of Egeria, macrophyte sites were different from open water; however, after the removal, the zooplankton community was similar in all sites. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that carbonates, nitrates, oxygen, and turbidity were the strongest predictors determining zooplankton composition. Our study showed that macrophyte removal caused habitat modification and zooplankton community shifts that reduce diversity and functional groups.
Holbrook DL, Schad AN, Dick GO, Dodd LL, Kennedy JH. 2020. Invasive bivalve establishment as a secondary effect of eradication-focused nuisance aquatic plant management. Lake Reserv Manage. XX:XX–XX. We evaluated changes in aquatic vegetation cover and community structure in hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata)-infested constructed experimental ponds after applying the management tools of triploid grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) stockings, herbicide applications, and native macrophyte planting (emergent, floating-leaved, and submersed species). In ponds where aquatic vegetation was most reduced due to management (herbicide and >72 grass carp per vegetated hectare stockings), a secondary infestation of the invasive bivalve (Asian clam or Corbicula fluminea) was observed. Asian clam abundances were analyzed in relation to grass carp stocking densities (0, 40–42, 72–81, and 110–129 per vegetated hectare), depth, and changes in native and invasive vegetation community structure and cover. Data analyses showed inverse relationships of Asian clam abundances to vegetation cover and to depth, as well as a synergetic relationship with grass carp stocking density. Implications of this research indicate that when a nuisance aquatic plant management strategy is focused on full or near eradication of a target species, inevitable damage to native species that might otherwise preserve beneficial ecological components may result in secondary issues, such as the expansion of additional invasive species due to opening of habitats. Excessive control efforts of a targeted nuisance plant species, and the results here highlight potential unintended consequences of over management of natural resources.
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This chapter reviews the literature to understand the significance of making decisions about the prevention and/or control of invasive alien species (IAS) that ignore impacts on ecosystem services. It reports damage costs associated with IAS in monetary terms. The costs presented for various provisioning, regulating, and cultural services may be roughly comparable since most of the literature mostly clusters around the early 2000s. Whether damage costs of any magnitude will change the way IAS is managed will naturally depend on the benefits of the activities that lead to the introduction and spread of each species. Identifying potential damage costs and estimating their magnitude is a positive first step towards properly accounting for the full impact of IAS.
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In an age of accelerating biodiversity loss, this timely and critical volume summarizes recent advances in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research and explores the economics of biodiversity and ecosystem services. The book starts by summarizing the development of the basic science and provides a meta-analysis that quantitatively tests several biodiversity and ecosystem functioning hypotheses. It then describes the natural science foundations of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning research including: quantifying functional diversity, the development of the field into a predictive science, the effects of stability and complexity, methods to quantify mechanisms by which diversity affects functioning, the importance of trophic structure, microbial ecology, and spatial dynamics. Finally, the book takes research on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning further than it has ever gone into the human dimension, describing the most pressing environmental challenges that face humanity and the effects of diversity on: climate change mitigation, restoration of degraded habitats, managed ecosystems, pollination, disease, and biological invasions.However, what makes this volume truly unique are the chapters that consider the economic perspective. These include a synthesis of the economics of ecosystem services and biodiversity, and the options open to policy-makers to address the failure of markets to account for the loss of ecosystem services; an examination of the challenges of valuing ecosystem services and, hence, to understanding the human consequences of decisions that neglect these services; and an examination of the ways in which economists are currently incorporating biodiversity and ecosystem functioning research into decision models for the conservation and management of biodiversity. A final section describes new advances in ecoinformatics that will help transform this field into a globally predictive science, and summarizes the advancements and future directions of the field. The ultimate conclusion is that biodiversity is an essential element of any strategy for sustainable development.
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Recent comprehensive data provided through the DAISIE project ( have facilitated the development of the first pan-European assessment of the impacts of alien plants, vertebrates, and invertebrates — in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine environments — on ecosystem services. There are 1094 species with documented ecological impacts and 1347 with economic impacts. The two taxonomic groups with the most species causing impacts are terrestrial invertebrates and terrestrial plants. The North Sea is the maritime region that suffers the most impacts. Across taxa and regions, ecological and economic impacts are highly correlated. Terrestrial invertebrates create greater economic impacts than ecological impacts, while the reverse is true for terrestrial plants. Alien species from all taxonomic groups affect "supporting", "provisioning", "regulating", and "cultural" services and interfere with human well-being. Terrestrial vertebrates are responsible for the greatest range of impacts, and these are widely distributed across Europe. Here, we present a review of the financial costs, as the first step toward calculating an estimate of the economic consequences of alien species in Europe.
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Research on the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning typically varies biodiversity levels by establishing communities that are subsets of the species in the high diversity community. This chapter examines what happens when biodiversity change is not limited to these subsets but instead is open to colonization from a larger species pool. The chapter first examines species traits that are responsible for successful colonization, establishment, and impact on ecosystem processes. The chapter then addresses how novel species may produce cascading and irreversible effects, drawing on known processes (selection effect or complementarity effect) that drive relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Finally, the chapter explores how information on species traits and processes driving the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning may be used to enhance the economic evaluation of invasion risks to society.
Ocean-going ships carry, as ballast, seawater that is taken on in port and released at subsequent ports of call. Plankton samples from Japanese ballast water released in Oregon contained 367 taxa. Most taxa with a planktonic phase in their life cycle were found in ballast water, as were all major marine habitat and trophic groups. Transport of entire coastal planktonic assemblages across oceanic barriers to similar habitats renders bays, estuaries, and inland waters among the most threatened ecosystems in the world. Presence of taxonomically difficult or inconspicuous taxa in these samples suggests that ballast water invasions are already pervasive.
* A graduate level text which incorporates the latest developments in the field of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, one of the most controversial and high profile areas of ecological research * The first volume to explore the economics of biodiversity and ecosystem services * Summarizes the eagerly anticipated findings of two large and highly respected scientific networks, BioMERGE and DIVERSITAS * Builds on the success and influence of the highly cited Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning (OUP, 2002) * The first volume advancing the scientific foundation of the United Nation's global environmental assessment, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, that links human well-being with the conservation of biodiversity
The ecological consequences of biodiversity loss have aroused considerable interest and controversy during the past decade. Major advances have been made in describing the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem processes, in identifying functionally important species, and in revealing underlying mechanisms. There is, however, uncertainty as to how results obtained in recent experiments scale up to landscape and regional levels and generalize across ecosystem types and processes. Larger numbers of species are probably needed to reduce temporal variability in ecosystem processes in changing environments. A major future challenge is to determine how biodiversity dynamics, ecosystem processes, and abiotic factors interact.
FOREWORD At the present state of the human population in many areas of the world the freshwater resources are becoming the most limiting factor not only for development but even for persistence of some communities. On the other hand, the exponential growth of human population and aspirations creates and amplifies the various impacts on freshwater ecosystems. For this reason a new solution has been postulated in 1992 during the Dublin International Conference on Water and Environment. Why has the integration of Ecology and Hydrology a potential to create a new paradigm? Up to now freshwater management dealt mostly with the elimination of threats such as floods, droughts and point source pollution. However, every successful strategy has to contain two elements: elimination of threats and amplification of chances. One of the chances should be the use of understanding of the evolutionarily established resistance and resilience of freshwater ecosystems to stress. Besides the fundamental assumptions of the new approach , it should be environmentally sound, economically possible and socially acceptable. This goal can be achieved by research focused on integrating the functioning of freshwater ecosystems with large scale hydrological processes, The integration of the dynamics of the three components, catchment, water and biota into a “superorganism” determines the management target - the maintenance of its homeostatic equilibrium measurable by biodiversity, water quantity and quality. The information achieved has to be transferred to the public through education and applied toward creation of a new strategy adjusted to the given economic conditions. The integration of the dynamics of freshwater ecosystems into hydrological processes should create the basis for sustainable development of freshwater resources. Maciej Zalewski Warsaw, December 1996