Article

Working Unusual Hours and Its Relationship to Job Satisfaction: A Study of European Maritime Pilots

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Abstract

Our study focuses on maritime pilotage in seven European countries and analyzes the level of job satisfaction and its predictors. Like most existing studies in the field of job satisfaction, we show that job satisfaction is an outcome of the work of maritime pilots. Stressful working conditions, such as working unsocial hours and irregular working patterns, create strains that together with intervening factors related to work, family, or the work environment ultimately reduce job satisfaction. However, our results indicate that although negative physical and social consequences are important, they are neither the strongest nor the only variables determining job satisfaction. Another effect seems more important in European maritime pilotage: Job satisfaction is instead a predictor of how much pressure and stress pilots can handle. Despite health problems and a reduction in their quality of life due to working unusual hours, most maritime pilots do not regret their choice of profession. Factors to ameliorate the working conditions are also identified. The most important parameters include alterations in working time systems, working conditions which minimize physical strain, fairness regarding payment, flexibility within the compensation system, an intensification of the possibilities for involvement and participation, an extended degree of co-determination, and the distribution of the ownership of the pilot stations.

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... Whether all these factors cause fatigue and burnout in yacht masters and their job satisfaction will be revealed in this study. Andresen et al. (2007) [24] focused on pilots in seven European countries and analysed their job satisfaction levels. According to the results of their research, although their quality of life decreased due to health problems and unusual working hours, most of the pilots stated that they did not regret their career choices. ...
... Whether all these factors cause fatigue and burnout in yacht masters and their job satisfaction will be revealed in this study. Andresen et al. (2007) [24] focused on pilots in seven European countries and analysed their job satisfaction levels. According to the results of their research, although their quality of life decreased due to health problems and unusual working hours, most of the pilots stated that they did not regret their career choices. ...
... They also presented the factors that would improve the working conditions of the pilots in their studies. Accordingly, the most critical parameters include changes in working hours, working conditions that minimize physical exertion, justice in terms of salaries, and flexibility in the remuneration system [24]. Allen et al. (2007) [25] highlighted that global concern about the extent of seafarers' fatigue is expected in the shipping industry. ...
Article
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Background: Yacht tourism is a developing sector in the world and in Turkey as well. Yacht masters are the most important components of this sector. This study aims to investigate the factors affecting the fatigue, job satisfaction, and burnout levels of yacht masters, offer solutions according to the findings, and eliminate this deficiency in the literature. Materials and methods: The Maslach Burnout Scale (MBI), Minnesota Job Satisfaction Scale (MSQ) and Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS) were applied to yacht masters who are still actively working on yachts operating in the Bodrum district. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results and conclusions: According to the results of the analysis, yacht masters have high emotional burnout perceptions and very high personal success perceptions. In addition, their depersonalisation levels are low and their overall job satisfaction is high. The general fatigue levels of the masters are moderate. As their job satisfaction rate increases, their perceived fatigue level decreases. As their age increases, their fatigue level decreases. As their fatigue level increases, their burnout level also increases.
... Of the remaining studies that investigated fatigue, all relied on self-report measures to assess fatigue [4,5,8,26,28,29]. Results from these studies revealed that as pilots became more fatigued, they reported greater cognitive dysfunction (e.g., lost concentration), emotional disturbance (e.g., became grouchy or irritable), physical effects (e.g., experienced a decrease in energy), and sleepiness (e.g., felt sleepy [3]). ...
... A total of 6 studies investigated the perceived stress of maritime pilotage. Results revealed that the vast majority of European pilots reported work stress as the main cause of many health problems, including fatigue and insomnia [28]. When prompted, nearly 30% of these pilots attributed these issues to working at night, and a further 21% attributed the outcomes to variable weather [28]. ...
... Results revealed that the vast majority of European pilots reported work stress as the main cause of many health problems, including fatigue and insomnia [28]. When prompted, nearly 30% of these pilots attributed these issues to working at night, and a further 21% attributed the outcomes to variable weather [28]. Elsewhere, pilots reported experiencing high levels of stress [8], which was supported by physiological data [9] that revealed significant elevations in catecholamine levels from pre-to post-pilotage shift. ...
Article
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Background: Maritime pilotage is a demanding occupation where pilots are required to perform complex procedures in sometimes unfamiliar working environments. These psychological stressors, in addition to the physical demands associated with the role (e.g., reduced sleep, boarding, and departing vessels), may over time have a damaging effect on pilots' physical and mental health. Therefore the aim of this paper was to systematically review the existing literature on maritime pilots' health and well-being. Materials and methods: The databases academic search complete, MEDLINE and MEDLINE complete, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, PubMed, and ScienceDirect were searched from the earliest available record until 1 May 2015. From an initial pool of 167 manuscripts retrieved, only 18 were peer-reviewed original research and discussed topics associated with maritime pilots' health and well-being. Results: In total, 29 factors associated with maritime pilot health and well-being were identified. These were loosely categorised into physical (n = 14), psychosocial (n = 8), and workplace issues (n = 7). The most commonly investigated factors were blood pressure or heart rate, sleep or fatigue, smoking and alcohol consumption, perceived stress, and shift duration or cycle. Conclusions: Findings from the review suggest that the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and associated cardio-metabolic risk factors seems to be of paramount importance, with ample evidence indicating that modern-day pilots present as being overweight or obese. What remains unknown is whether these physical factors are associated with variations in psychosocial functioning. Therefore, it is recommended that future pilotage investigations adopt a multidisciplinary approach to better quantify the impact of maritime pilotage on long-term health and well-being.
... Of the remaining studies that investigated fatigue, all relied on self-report measures to assess fatigue [4,5,8,26,28,29]. Results from these studies revealed that as pilots became more fatigued, they reported greater cognitive dysfunction (e.g., lost concentration), emotional disturbance (e.g., became grouchy or irritable), physical effects (e.g., experienced a decrease in energy), and sleepiness (e.g., felt sleepy [3]). ...
... A total of 6 studies investigated the perceived stress of maritime pilotage. Results revealed that the vast majority of European pilots reported work stress as the main cause of many health problems, including fatigue and insomnia [28]. When prompted, nearly 30% of these pilots attributed these issues to working at night, and a further 21% attributed the outcomes to variable weather [28]. ...
... Results revealed that the vast majority of European pilots reported work stress as the main cause of many health problems, including fatigue and insomnia [28]. When prompted, nearly 30% of these pilots attributed these issues to working at night, and a further 21% attributed the outcomes to variable weather [28]. Elsewhere, pilots reported experiencing high levels of stress [8], which was supported by physiological data [9] that revealed significant elevations in catecholamine levels from pre-to post-pilotage shift. ...
... Maritime pilotage is a demanding occupation where pilots are required to perform complex procedures in sometimes unfamiliar working environments [8]. Specifically, maritime pilots are responsible for ensuring the safe passage of vessels into, and out of port, which is deemed a high-risk exercise [9]. These navigational tasks result in long periods of intense work that can affect routine sleep schedules [5]. ...
... At present, there is a shortage of maritime pilot-specific research that reveals the impact of fatigue and coping on performance. Given that human error has been identified as a primary cause of most transportation related accidents [11], and that the number and size of ships in commercial waterways is increasing [9] it is critical that maritime pilotage research examines factors related to human performance. ...
... While navigational demands are becoming increasingly more complex with the advent of electronic navigational instrumentation [24], evidence indicates that attention and vigilance on psychomotor tasks decreases with the presence of fatigue during night shift [25]. Combined, these explanations are consistent with other maritime pilotage investigations that revealed work-related stress (e.g., shift-work) were a primary cause of health problems, including early fatigue and insomnia [9]. Therefore, it seems plausible that long shifts and the increased reliance on automated systems to improve efficiency may exacerbate worker fatigue and affect task performance. ...
Article
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Little is known regarding the symptoms of fatigue that maritime pilots experience during shift work. Moreover, the strategies these individuals use to cope with the onset of fatigue are also unknown. The current study explored the symptoms of fatigue and coping strategies experienced by maritime pilots when on-shift. Fifty maritime pilots were recruited via an advertisement in the national association's quarterly newsletter (Mage = 51.42; SD = 9.81). Participants responded to a modified version of the questionnaire used with aviation pilots that assessed overall fatigue, and the symptoms pilots associated with fatigue on duty. Methods pilots used to cope with fatigue before shift and when on the bridge were also assessed. There were significant effects for pilot vitality on 4 categories of fatigue: cognitive dysfunction; emotional disturbance; mean physical effects; and sleepiness. There were no significant effects for vitality on any of the self-reported coping strategy factors. The findings indicated that maritime pilots experience a variety of physical, behavioural, and cognitive fatigue symptoms when on shift. Some of these symptoms are similar to those reported by aviation pilots. However, unlike aviation pilots, maritime pilots reported utilising self-sufficient coping strategies to deal with the experience of fatigue.
... With regard to previous studies, job satisfaction is determiner of stress and satisfied personnel is more successful to struggle with daily stressors. On the other hand positive job characteristics and low stress enhance job satisfaction of employee (Andresen et al., 2007). ...
... As it is well known, most valuable times are holidays, weekends and special days that family, friends and social environment come together. When marine pilots work on these days, their high-valued spare times depreciate (Andresen et al., 2007). ...
... Up to relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intentions, marine pilots' working conditions which affect job satisfaction may be the reasons for their job turnover. According to study of Andresen (2007) some working conditions of marine pilots, i.e., working unusual hours, irregular working hours, and external conditions, such as the weather, lead to strain, reduce their job satisfaction. Consequently in this study, it is assumed that job satisfaction related with working conditions may be the predictor of marine pilots' turnover intentions. ...
... They argued that standard passage plans could be developed for coastal navigation, and deficiencies could be corrected with standard education. Andresen et al. (2007) investigated the relationship between job satisfaction and unusual working hours of pilots in seven European countries through feedback from 434 pilots. They concluded that dense and irregular working conditions reduced job satisfaction and caused physical and social problems, while structural deficiencies in pilotage organisations caused pressure on pilots, leading to fear of job loss and affecting job satisfaction. ...
... In addition, periodical medical reports are necessary. As well as theoretical and practical training, pilot candidates must undergo 6-month internships under the supervision of experienced pilots (Andresen et al. 2007). In their first 6 months, they are permitted to work on ships up to 170 m long; between 6 and 9 months, on ships up to 220 m; between 9 and 12 months on ships up to 260 m, and between 12 and 18 months on ships up to 310 m, after which they can work on all ships. ...
Article
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Previous studies have identified fundamental problems of pilotage organisations: pressure on commerce, improper working conditions, increasing traffic volume, and vessel size. Questioning the needs of pilots, the most important actors in pilotage services, is a key issue to ensure the safety of navigation in restricted waterways. This study, which conducts questionnaires and interviews with 71 pilots, reveals the structure of pilotage organisations and the profiles of pilots in Turkey. The survey examines pilot training infrastructure, professional experience, working conditions, tug services, pilot boats, accommodation facilities, and opportunities from operational, economic, and environmental constraints. The results indicate positive and negative aspects of existing pilotage organisations in Turkey in order to develop an ideal organisational model for pilotage in Turkey.
... While pilots were seemingly accepting of the job demands (Kaya Ozbag, & Ceyhum, 2014;Sparks, 1992), there were many role-related issues that contributed to stress and variations in job satisfaction. Specifically, working at night and on weekends, receiving little advanced warning of upcoming work, and reduced quality of life were key issues (Andresen, Domsch, & Cascorbi, 2007). A consequence of these occupational demands marital dissatisfaction was reported; with pilots' wives experiencing disturbed sleep and disruptions to daily functioning as a consequence of the varied work patterns . ...
... For example, the reported range of shift duration varied between 2.5 hours and 39.5 hours (Ferguson et al., 2008). It was perhaps of little surprise that shift work in general was identified as an issue by pilots (Andresen et al., 2007;. The physical work environment also negatively impacted pilot health and well-being. ...
Conference Paper
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Introduction Maritime pilotage is a demanding occupation where pilots are required to perform complex procedures in sometimes unfamiliar working environments. The psychological (e.g., stress) and physical demands (e.g., reduced sleep, boarding, and departing vessels) may over time have a damaging effect on pilots’ physical and mental health. This presentation will focus on findings from a recent systematic review on maritime pilots’ health and well-being. Materials and methods The databases Academic search complete, MEDLINE and MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, PubMed, and ScienceDirect were searched from the earliest available record until 1 May 2015. From an initial pool of 167 manuscripts retrieved, only 18 were peer-reviewed original research and discussed topics associated with maritime pilots’ health and well-being. Results Twenty-nine factors associated with maritime pilot health and well-being were identified, and were categorised into physical (n=14), psychosocial (n=8), and workplace issues (n=7). The most commonly investigated factors were blood pressure or heartrate, sleep or fatigue, smoking and alcohol consumption, perceived stress, and shift duration or cycle. Conclusion Results from the review suggest that the number of modern-day pilots presenting as overweight or obese, and that the prevention of CVD and associated cardio-metabolic risk factors is of paramount importance. In presenting the findings, recommendations for multidisciplinary approaches to better quantify the impact of maritime pilotage on long-term health and well-being will be made.
... Boyles and Shibata (2009) stated that in ordinary jobs where women were able to use their skills, job satisfaction could improve remarkably if their working hours were reduced, and overtime hours were eliminated. Another study (Andresen, Domsch & Cascorbi, 2007) of maritime pilots, who suffer chronometric and chronobiological changes in their working patterns by working up to 24 hours a day, found that working unusual hours -despite the negative social and psychological consequences -was neither the only nor the strongest variable determining their job satisfaction. However, its influence varied when associated with environmental and family variables. ...
... As regards income, it is distributive justice linked to reward and promotion that has been shown to be associated with satisfaction (Kumar, Bakhshi & Rani, 2009;Findler, Wind & Mor Barak, 2007;Andresen et al., 2007). Other authors (e.g., Ibrahim & Boerhaneoddin, 2010;Artz, 2008;Green & Heywood, 2008;Heywood & Wei, 2006) have investigated the relationship between individual performance pay and job satisfaction, and found that they were positively related (more in men than in women), although according to Heywood and Wei (2006), not all sources of performance pay relate to job satisfaction in the same way. ...
Article
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This paper presents the results obtained from a literature review of scientific articles related to job satisfaction, published between the years 2000 and 2010. The main findings of various research studies indicate that there is a relationship between the 'hard' aspects of work (schedules, working hours, type of contract, pay, etc) and job satisfaction. The revised bibliography notes that the relationship between these aspects and job satisfaction varies depending on the configuration of the job, although there are general criteria that typically linked to job satisfaction.
... Shift work is recognized as having different employee impacts to day work. Shift work tends to cause physical problems for workers and hence have a negative impact on employees' job satisfaction (Andresen, Domsch, & Cascorbi, 2007). Shift workers are more likely to report unfavorable levels of effort-reward imbalance than day workers (Peter, Alfredsson, Knutsson, Siegrist, & Westerholm, 1999). ...
... This inconsistency may be explained by differences between day and shift workers and the types of roles in which shift workers are engaged. Shift work tends to cause physical strains for many workers and hence have a negative impact on employees' job satisfaction (Andresen et al., 2007). Employees in all three sites often remain standing working in the bars and restaurants for long periods, which may produce physical strains and have adverse effects on health. ...
Article
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Few studies have examined the effect of organizational justice on workplace relationships and attitudes of shift workers. This study uses a full four factor model of organizational justice to investigate justice perceptions of shift workers in the specific hospitality context of employees in registered clubs. Using a social exchange perspective of the employment relationship, responses from 501 employees in three clubs were analysed. Inconsistent results were found across the three clubs on employees’ workplace relationships including leader-member exchange and perceived organizational support and their work attitudes of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and their intention to quit. The inconsistent results may be explained by contextual differences including the nature of the industry and work patterns. The findings provide weak support for past justice studies, raising concern about the generalizability of current organizational justice research to both shift workers and the hospitality industry.
... Being a pilot is a respectable profession, it is gruelling and requires serious responsibilities (Andresen et al., 2007). While performing their jobs, pilots have many negative working environments such as heavy weather and sea conditions, dense traffic, excessive workload, inconvenience of resting places, old pilot boats, and the inadequacy of tugboat services (Oldenburg et al., 2021). ...
Article
Human factor plays an important role in sustainable maritime transportation. Human errors are the leading cause of death or injuries during maritime pilot transfer operations despite international regulations. This paper proposes a hybrid human factors analysis model, comprised of qualitative and quantitative approaches by combining Success Likelihood Index Method (SLIM) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) methods, to obtain the seafarers’ errors in the pilot boarding and disembarking. Human errors in the maritime pilot transfer process are determined by examining accident reports, literature reviews and expert judgments. Accidents and near misses are often poorly reported in the maritime industry. Therefore, determining human error probability (HEP) is of paramount importance in maritime transportation. This paper conducts an empirical human error prediction for a maritime pilot transfer operation to enhance operational safety and minimize human errors, providing a methodological extension through the integration of the HFACS technique into the SLIM. Utilizing HFACS and SLIM constitutes the unique contribution of this paper by predicting the possibility of human error since it presents the first application of the maritime industry. Thus, possible loss of life and injury will be prevented, the sustainability of maritime safety will be contributed, and pilots will be provided to work in a safe environment.
... 4,[40][41][42][43] Only when there is a difference between actual and desired working hours, however, the length of working hours is more associated with satisfaction with work environment as compared with work characteristics. 4,37,44 In this regard, studies have also examined effects of the length of working hours on satisfaction with work environment considering multiple factors, such as job complexity and control over working hours. Some studies have reported a conflict between high performance practices and WLB policies. ...
Article
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This nationwide, large-scale, cross-sectional study has hypothesized that there might be differences in workers’ satisfaction with work environment depending on demographic, socio-economic, and work characteristics in the context of a mismatch between actual and preferred working hours. The current study is a secondary data analysis of the Fifth Korean Working Conditions Survey. A total of 29 694 subjects (n = 29 694) were finally included in the current study. Female gender (β = −.372, OR 0.689 [95% CI 0.646-0.736]), age of ≥60 years old (β =.226, OR 1.253 [95% CI 1.089-1.441]), graduation from middle school (β = −.320, OR 0.726 [95% CI 0.616-0.856]), college (β =.492, OR 1.636 [95% CI 1.371-1.952]), or university (β =.826, OR 2.283 [95% CI 1.918-2.718]), fixed period of work (β = −.105, OR 0.901 [95% CI 0.823-0.986]), full-time employment (β = −.105, OR 0.900 [95% CI 0.813-0.996]), the engagement in public sector (β =.544, OR 1.722 [95% CI 1.532-1.935]), private-public partnership organization (β =.605, OR 1.832 [95% CI 1.342-2.500]) or NPO or NGO (β =.780, OR 2.182 [95% CI 1.522-3.127]), regular side job (β = −.929, OR 0.395 [95% CI 0.289-0.539]), or temporary side job (β = −.330, OR 0.719 [95% CI 0.533-0.970]), membership of multiple teams (β = −.501, OR 0.606 [95% CI 0.552-0.666]), labor union (β =.143, OR 1.154 [95% CI 1.047-1.273]), and better health status (β =.977, OR 2.657 [95% CI 1.175-6.007]) were predictors of satisfaction with work environment in the context of a mismatch between actual and desired working hours. Based on the current results, it can be concluded that female gender, age of ≥60 years old, graduation from middle school, college, or university, fixed period of work, full-time employment, the engagement in public sector, private-public partnership organization or NPO or NGO, regular side job or temporary side job, membership of multiple teams, labor union, and better health status were predictors of satisfaction with work environment.
... Our examination of the associations between the workplace practices and job satisfaction of 55+-year-old workers shows that weekly working hours, additional benefits , implementing new working methods and involvement in improvement all have a positive effect on older workers' job satisfaction, while they have no effect on younger workers' job satisfaction. Other practices like income, work-life balance (Andresen et al., 2007) and doing useful work are important to both younger and older workers. Some practices were found to be important to younger workers, but not to older ones. ...
Article
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Beyond the obvious positive effect on employees, job satisfaction is also critical for organizations. Job satisfaction affects workers' turnover intents, while also predicting employees' commitment to their workplace and their performances. Thus, not surprisingly, most organizations strive for employee satisfaction. The goal of the study is to examine which job characteristics and workplace practices affect the job satisfaction of employees, and particularly that of older ones (55+), and, in turn, enhance their will to work and may encourage them to work longer. Our analysis of the Social Survey for 2016 from the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics focused on job conditions and revealed that income satisfaction, additional benefits, a sense of belonging and work-life balance enhance job satisfaction and the desire to work longer, particularly among older workers. Among younger workers, a higher significance was found for professional training and skills. Implications for organizations and policymakers are discussed.
... (Kovach, 1987) states that, "When a need or desire is unsatisfied, a person experiences tension that drives her or him to satisfy the need, people work hard to satisfy their tension". Job satisfaction with another approach can be understood as happiness on a particular job having an utmost positive psychic originating in a job cycle of an employee during their job tenure satisfying individual needs (Andersen, Domsch, and Cascorbi (2007). Thus, in a broader context, job satisfaction can be stated as an attitude which a person carries towards a specific job (Lee and Chang (2008). ...
Article
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Hotels are one of the most important components when it comes to tourist lodging sectors which not merely contribute significantly to socioeconomic development, but often deliver productive tourism returns in the country. The motivated and committed employee offer more interest and effort, ensuring customer satisfaction and retention. The study aims to look over the aspect of job satisfaction and motivation within hotel employees in the state of Uttarakhand. To achieve this goal a survey sample of employees from various organizational levels and departments was used, the investigation was done on the on six hotels of star categorization in Uttarakhand. The significance of different factors such as work environment, salaries, job promotions, job security, impartiality and employee relationship at all levels was analyzed through this study. The finding of the study reveals that salary and remuneration, healthy environment, availability of opportunities, absence of appreciation and reward, were more common reasons for employee's satisfaction. The research paper also provides suggestions and various measures to improve employee satisfaction and translating it into an employee's output.
... Job satisfaction refers to the positive feeling about the workplace resulted from a pleasant experience created from efficiently addressing the employee's needs and expectations (Andersen et al., 2007;Lee & Chang, 2008). It also points to the overall emotional response and attitude to the work environment and job rules (Al-Douri, 2020) and the results of employees' appraisal experiences which lead them toward a positive feeling of the job (Lambert et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The critical role of employees in the hospitality industry is unimpeachable and human resource needs more attention because their satisfactions have a strong influence on the service quality and customers loyalty. In this study, we examined the impact of organizational justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional) and employees’ organizational commitment (affective, continuance, and normative) on the employees’ job satisfaction. A total of 119 questionnaires were gathered from employees in one to five-star hotels in Tehran. The results show that among organizational justice dimensions, only distributive justice has a strong relationship with job satisfaction. Similarly, between employees’ organizational commitment dimensions, only normative commitment has a meaningful impact on the employees’ job satisfaction. However, dissimilar to the previous studies, our investigations did not find any direct relationships between procedural and interactional justice, and affective and continuance commitment with employees’ job satisfaction. Managerial and theoretical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
... En este sentido, sería importante un seguimiento de la adaptación de las personas a las condiciones de trabajo en casa, conexión, competencias y anclas de carrera, ya que su predilección no está relacionada con el número de personas con las que comparten espacio laboral en casa. Además, la comunicación remota puede deteriorar la percepción de clima laboral, disminuyendo la apreciación del trabajo global desarrollado por la compañía, pudiéndose generar gradualmente una desconexión del colaborador con la estrategia y con los objetivos generales proyectados (Andresen, Domsch & Cascorbi, 2007). ...
Article
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El objetivo de esta investigación, es analizar la relación y el impacto de la pandemia Covid19 sobre el compromiso de los colaboradores de una organización del sector eléctrico colombiano, a través de un diseño no experimental, transversal, correlacional/causal y con un enfoque cuantitativo. La muestra correspondió a 113 trabajadores vinculados a la organización analizada y la información se recolectó a través de una encuesta tipo web. Los resultados establecen una relación significativa entre los cambios en las condiciones laborales y diarias debidos a la Pandemia Covid19 como variable independiente, y el compromiso laboral como variable dependiente, de r=0.565. Asimismo, la autopercepción de compromiso laboral y de adaptación al nuevo contexto de trabajo en las personas encuestadas, asciende a más del 92% de una manera fuerte o muy fuerte. En este sentido, la compañía estudiada debería considerar estrategias para acotar la jornada laboral, ya que el 61,06% de los encuestados considera que su tiempo de trabajo se ha incrementado desde que lo está desempeñando de forma remota.
... Few of the literature deals with the Intrinsic Formation Mechanism of risky operational behavior and related internal influencing factors. Andresen et al. [31] surveyed maritime pilots in seven European countries and found that job satisfaction can be predict how much stress maritime pilots would be able to withstand. Lee et al. [32] found that the increased physical and mental fatigue of maritime pilots will increase the possibility of human error in the course of pilotage and then threaten the safety of pilotage. ...
Article
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In this paper, a maritime pilots’ risky behaviour related factors questionnaire is designed to identify and quantify the factors of maritime pilots’ risky operational behaviour. And a questionnaire survey was conducted, which included four scales: risk-taking behavior, risk attitude, operational reliability, and risk perception. On this basis, the Structural Equation Model (SEM) of maritime pilots’ risky operational behavior is constructed to explore the internal relationship of the variable factors affecting maritime pilots’ operational behavior. The biggest influence on maritime pilots’ safety behavior is crowd psychology, which indicates that the maritime pilot’s mental health course, the psychological guidance course system, the psychological health consultation management, and safety training should be carried out regularly. Random evaluation and attention are significantly correlated with the risky cognition of maritime pilots. The results also explore that the maritime pilots’ risky behavior related factors questionnaire has a good structure, internal consistency, and validity in Chinese maritime pilots, and it is expected to be used for the Chinese maritime pilots’ subjective risky behavior self-evaluation. In addition, with empirical evidence for pilotage safety intervention in China, this measurement can also provide scheduling and management decision support for Chinese maritime pilot stations.
... Officers are faced with unfavourable working conditions such as rough seas, wind, storm, dense traffic, shipowner pressure, increased workload, internal-external audits and fast crew cycle while performing their duties (Phillips 2000;Bloor et al. 2004;Uğurlu 2015;Uğurlu et al. 2018). Many studies have investigated deck officers' work conditions, including inappropriate environmental conditions, excessive workload, inconvenient rest hours, and lack of social opportunities (Reyner and Baulk 1998;McNamara et al. 2000;Bloor et al. 2004;Leung et al. 2006;Andresen et al. 2007;Louie and Doolen 2007;Pik 2007;Robert 2007;Miller et al. 2011;Orosa et al. 2011;Uğurlu 2015;Yıldız et al. 2016). ...
Article
Short sea shipping poses significant problems for many seafarers, particularly for officers employed in oil tankers as the chief officer. This study examines chief officers' working conditions on short sea shipping. In this study, Simio simulation software was used to evaluate the working hours of chief officers. The results showed that the rest periods of the chief officers improved as the navigation period increased in oil tankers operated on short sea shipping. To comply with the relevant regulations, a navigation period of 24-28 hours is the minimum condition for an oil tanker to have a chief officer; however, an additional officer may be required on shorter voyages. The findings of research provide recommendations to maritime authorities to achieve safe short sea shipping.
... El tercer aspecto que define la satisfacción laboral es en cuanto al estado emocional en el cual Andresen et al. (9) , explican que la satisfacción laboral es un estado emocional placentero o positivo resultante de la experiencia misma del trabajo, dicho estado es alcanzado satisfaciendo ciertos requerimientos individuales a través de su trabajo. La satisfacción laboral es entendida como los sentimientos que las personas tienen sobre sí mismas en relación a su trabajo (10) . ...
Preprint
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Objetivo: El propósito de este artículo fue determinar la asociación de la satisfacción laboral con las variables sociodemográficas de trabajadores hospitalarios. Materiales y métodos : con diseño transversal y analítico en una muestra probabilística de 526 trabajadores, se aplicó un cuestionario de datos sociodemográficos y laborales, y el Cuestionario de Satisfacción Laboral S21 / 26 que consta de seis dimensiones que permiten evaluar la Satisfacción con la Supervisión y Participación en la Organización (I), con la Remuneración y las Prestaciones (II), Satisfacción Intrínseca (III), con el Ambiente Físico (IV), con la Cantidad de Producción (V), y con la Calidad de Producción (VI). Resultados: se determinó que la edad se asoció con las dimensiones I y II con p = 0,037 yp = 0,038 respectivamente. La variable escolaridad se asoció con las dimensiones IV (p = 0,008), V (p = 0,000) y VI (p = 0,059). La variable de categoría laboral tuvo un valor de p = 0.010, p = 0.000 yp = 0.001 para las dimensiones IV, V y VI, respectivamente. Finalmente, la variable antigüedad laboral, se asoció con la dimensión I (p = 0.057). Conclusiones: se concluye que la institución estudiada en general ofrece a sus trabajadores los medios que satisfacen sus expectativas profesionales, pero se debe hacer énfasis en mejorar las dimensiones en las que se genera el descontento para forjar un ambiente propicio al desarrollo laboral de los trabajadores y así contribuir para mejorar su calidad de vida.
... The usually unpredictable arrival of the ship, the transfer on board the ship and advising the captain during the passage through the specific waterway are general and typical features of the pilots' job. situation of a pilot in global maritime shipping is comparable, regardless of the country in which they operate [7,8]. ...
Article
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Long and irregular shifts, unforeseeable operations and high responsibility are still prominent in the job of a pilot and pose high psycho-physical demands. Furthermore, there is a disturbed work-family balance. Working hours of pilots are highly variable and not bound by regulations due to irregularities of vessel traffic. The pilots have to work in a shifting rotation system. This paper demonstrates the stressors during their work routine and shows the usual working profile of a pilot during their service.
... The majority of the related works focuses on the fundamental problems of pilotage profession. Rhodes and Gil (2003) proposed recommendations about fatigue management for Canadian pilots. Andresen et al. (2007) found out that the irregular working conditions of maritime pilots have a negative impact on job satisfaction, and cause physical and social problems. Darbra et al. (2007) conducted questionnaires about safety culture and risk awareness of pilots from Australia and New Zealand. ...
... An essential ramification of these discoveries is that wellbeing centered could profit by considering in preparing and spurring for security. As indicated by Andresen et al. (2007), that employment fulfillment is rather an indicator of how much weight and stress Mariners can deal with. In spite of medical issues and a lessening in their satisfaction because of working extraordinary hours, most sailors don't lament their decision of calling. ...
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A maritime apprenticeship is an arrangement of preparing intended to get ready cadets for skilled occupations, and comprising of a mix of at work preparing with skilled excursion laborers and paid related classroom direction. At the point when a student has finished the predefined number of hours of apprenticeship preparing, he turns into a confirmed talented sailor. This study meant to distinguish the variables identified with the oceanic pre-apprenticeship stage as the reason for proposing a program. The study employed the descriptive method using surveys and interviews with key informants. A three-set researcher made questionnaire was constructed based on the apprenticeship program guidelines, suggestions, and opinions provided by the institutions' superintendents and STOs and the apprenticeship crewing managers of selected shipping companies. The gathered data were treated using simple percentage, weighted mean, rank, Spearman Rank Order Coefficient, and ANOVA. The study revealed that key informants have the same perceptions of the skills and competencies needed to qualify applicants for an apprenticeship. It was concluded that the apprentice mates, shipboard training officers, and crewing managers considered certain factors related to their qualifying for apprenticeship and that they encountered problems along the way. The researchers strongly recommend the implementation of the learning program to improve procedures for applications.
... Aunque no existe un concepto ampliamente aceptado de satisfacción laboral (Andresen, Domsch y Cascorbi, 2007), es habitual definirla como "un estado emocional placentero o positivo resultante de la valoración de la propia experiencia de trabajo o de empleo" (Locke, 1976(Locke, , p. 1300. ...
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A pesar do progresivo aumento de estudos sobre responsabilidade social corporativa (RSC), o estudo dos seus antecedentes e da súa influencia sobre as actitudes e comportamentos da forza de vendas aínda é limitado. Este traballo contribúe a encher este baleiro na literatura organizativa, de comportamento sostible e de vendas mediante a análise de como o exercicio do liderado ético por parte do supervisor pode influír a través da percepción da responsabilidade social corporativa (RSC) e da satisfacción laboral no desempeño dos vendedores. Os resultados obtidos da análise mediante procesos condicionais dunha mostra de 120 días de supervisores-vendedores confirman que o liderado ético está relacionado positivamente co desempeño do vendedor, pero a través dun mecanismo mediador no que interveñen as súas percepcións de RSC e a súa satisfacción laboral. Ademais, o estudo tamén analiza as principais implicacións para a xestión e propón futuras liñas de estudo.
... La satisfacción laboral se comprende según Andresen, et al (2007) como "un estado emocional placentero o positivo resultante de la experiencia misma del trabajo; dicho estado es alcanzado satisfaciendo ciertos requerimientos individuales a través de su trabajo". Estos requerimientos se establecen en "la motivación y el reconocimiento, formación, dirección de la unidad, el puesto de trabajo, ambiente de trabajo e interacción con los compañeros, comunicación y coordinación, implicación en la mejora, condiciones ambientales, infraestructura y recursos", propuesto por la unidad de evaluación de la calidad, de la Universidad de Salamanca, España (2009). ...
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Las municipalidades de Chiquimula, Quezaltepeque y Esquipulas, ejercen funciones de gobierno y administran los intereses del municipio, en donde se detectó insatisfacción laboral por parte de los colaboradores administrativos, impactando directamente en la atención a los usuarios de las diferentes oficinas, lo que es influenciado por aspectos que integran el clima organizacional, como la infraestructura, las características estructurales, el ambiente social, características personales y el comportamiento organizacional. El estudio permitió establecer las deficiencias que posee las municipalidades en cuanto a su clima organizacional, estableciendo la relación que tiene con la satisfacción laboral, de los colaboradores administrativos de acuerdo a diferentes aspectos. Como técnicas de investigación se utilizó, la observación, entrevista y encuestas. Realizando un análisis descriptivo e inferencial de tipo correlacional, utilizando el programa SPSS (versión 15.0); con el objeto de determinar, si el “clima organizacional”, influye sobre la satisfacción laboral. Tomando como referencia que a un nivel de significancia de 0.01, se “Acepta” la hipótesis de investigación “A mejor clima organizacional, mayor satisfacción laboral en los colaboradores administrativos de las municipalidades de Chiquimula, Quezaltepeque y Esquipulas”, siendo la significancia bilateral de correlación (.000) menor al alfa aplicado (0.01); obteniendo un grado de correlación de 0.814 “positiva alta”.
... Hotel enterprises are known for their twenty four hour, seven days a week operations. Therefore, in order to meet consumer demand, employees are expected to work flexible hours; have irregular working patterns; endure many confrontational interactions with guests; and put in long, unsocial hours under very stressful circumstances (Andresen et al., 2007;Deery and Jago, 2009). Front office department staff are employees who have extensive interaction with guests (Kasavana and Brooks, 2001) and are the focal point for all guests' requests (Pizam and Holcomb, 2008). ...
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Today, while the competition in the hospitality market is increasedpermanently, human resource management (HRM) becomes a key factor to income and expense adjustment, as it is necessary for both keeping up the customer satisfaction level while reducing the labor cost. In HRM topic, as a decision making tool, scheduling organizes the resources or the capacity according to the inputs, and helps to improve the effectiveness of the organization. In this study, an approach for cost minimization problem of a hotel in Ankara, Turkeyis proposed for HRM topic and mathematical modelling isused as a scheduling optimization technique. We handled the HRM problem in hospitality subject with OR point of view, but this time, thanks to our new approach, in an agile and way differently from the former examples placed in the related literature. As result, weekly staff need of the analyzed hotel enterprise is decreased from 21to 16employees, hence a competitive advantage is brought to the enterprise.
... Job satisfaction is commonly defined [62] as "a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the assessment of one's own work or employment experience" [63] (p. 1300), that is, it is a combination of job characteristics and workplace environment. ...
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Although sales tasks require creative thinking, salespeople's creativity has been identified as one of the most under-researched topics in the sales literature. This study contributes to filling this gap by understanding how responsible leadership and corporate social responsibility (CSR) perceptions can contribute to fostering salespeople's creativity. This study's empirical analysis is based on information provided by 176 supervisor-salesperson dyads from 96 companies, and the results indicate that responsible leadership is positively related to salespeople's creativity. Furthermore, our findings confirm that the relationship between responsible leadership and salespeople's creativity is mediated by salespeople's CSR perception, their job satisfaction, and their identification with the organization. Sales leaders should recognize that by practicing responsible leadership behavior, they can create this type of work environment for their subordinates.
... Job satisfaction is commonly defined [62] as "a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the assessment of one's own work or employment experience" [63] (p. 1300), that is, it is a combination of job characteristics and workplace environment. ...
Article
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Although sales tasks require creative thinking, salespeople’s creativity has been identified as one of the most under-researched topics in the sales literature. This study contributes to filling this gap by understanding how responsible leadership and corporate social responsibility (CSR) perceptions can contribute to fostering salespeople’s creativity. This study’s empirical analysis is based on information provided by 176 supervisor–salesperson dyads from 96 companies, and the results indicate that responsible leadership is positively related to salespeople’s creativity. Furthermore, our findings confirm that the relationship between responsible leadership and salespeople’s creativity is mediated by salespeople’s CSR perception, their job satisfaction, and their identification with the organization. Sales leaders should recognize that by practicing responsible leadership behavior, they can create this type of work environment for their subordinates.
... In the current 21st century, Miñarro I Brugera et al. (2001) propose an ampler definition when considering that job satisfaction is composed of the behaviors, sensations, and feelings that the members of an organization have about their job, focusing on: individual perception, people's affective evaluation about work regarding an organization, and the consequences that are derived from that sensation. In the same way, Andresen, Maike, and Cascorbi (2007) refer to the construct as a pleasant or positive emotional state, the result of the experience at work, which is produced when certain individual requirements are met through it. Lee and Chang (2008) understand job satisfaction as a broad and general concept that refers to the attitude of the individual towards his/her job; in short, it is the result of the worker's experience in his/her interaction with the organizational environment (Abrajan Castro, Contreras Padilla, & Montoya Ramírez, 2009;Pupo Guisadod & García Vidal, 2014). ...
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In the field of tourism, job satisfaction has a direct impact on the quality of the service provided and, as a consequence, on the company’s image. This paper reviews some explanatory variables regarding job satisfaction in the hotel sector and makes an empirical application centered on field work undertaken in the hotels of the city of Cuenca (Ecuador). The current analysis is based on descriptive techniques and contrast of hypothesis, seeking to verify if the employees’ gender, age, marital status, or educational level affect their job satisfaction.
... It has been widely believed that the majority of human casualties and damage to vessels is related to human error; but recently it has been suggested that the link in the chain of events that directly leads to injury is fatigue ( Baulk and Reyner, 2002). The literature includes several studies on the working conditions of seafarers ( McNamara et al., 2000;Bloor et al., 2004;Jones et al., 2005;Smith et al., 2006;Andresen et al., 2007;Mitroussi, 2008;Orosa et al., 2011;Uğurlu et al., 2012), which discuss problems such as poor working and environmental conditions, work and rest hours, insufficient social opportunities, fatigue, and the relationship between fatigue and maritime accidents. ...
... Andersen, Domsch, and Cascorbi (2007) are among recent researchers who follow the first approach. For these authors, job satisfaction is a pleasant or positive emotional state resulting from the work experience, which is produced when the job satisfies certain individual needs. ...
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ABSTRACT This study examined factors affecting job satisfaction and also assessed the level of satisfaction of employees working in the hotel industry. The study gathered descriptive data using questionnaires from 190 hotel employees. Factor analysis was employed to extract job satisfaction factors while the standard multiple regression was used to analyze the predictive factors of job satisfaction. The results showed that employees were slightly satisfied with their jobs. The study also identified four main facets of satisfaction, namely pay, supervision, promotion, as well as training and advancement. Of these factors, pay, supervision, and promotion were found to significantly influence job satisfaction. Managerial implications are that hotel managers can overcome employee dissatisfaction by providing employees with competitive pay and also by training supervisors on the use of good communication, among other techniques.
... It has been widely believed that the majority of human casualties and damage to vessels is related to human error; but recently it has been suggested that the link in the chain of events that directly leads to injury is fatigue (Baulk and Reyner, 2002). The literature includes several studies on the working conditions of seafarers (McNamara et al., 2000;Bloor et al., 2004;Jones et al., 2005;Smith et al., 2006;Andresen et al., 2007;Mitroussi, 2008;Orosa et al., 2011;Uğurlu et al., 2012), which discuss problems such as poor working and environmental conditions, work and rest hours, insufficient social opportunities, fatigue, and the relationship between fatigue and maritime accidents. ...
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Despite modern bridge equipment, new technologies, and improved safety measures, maritime accidents still occur, and an analysis of their causes is essential in preventing future accidents. Ship groundings are one of the more frequent types of accidents encountered, and this study examines the maritime accident reports issued for grounded ships between 1993 and 2011. These were sourced using the International Maritime Organization's Global Integrated Shipping Information System and the reports published by the countries and relevant institutions that investigated the accidents. The grounding accidents are analysed using the Analytic Hierarchy Process, and the objective of this study is to act as an advisory paper on the prevention of grounding accidents involving human error. The results suggest that the most significant causes of these types of accidents are, lack of communication and coordination in Bridge Resource Management, position-fixing application errors, lookout errors, interpretation errors, use of improper charts, inefficient use of bridge navigation equipment, and fatigue. It is suggested that providing more education and training opportunities to seafarers, promoting widespread use on board of Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems, and improving seafarers' working hours and rest breaks would help to reduce grounding accidents significantly.
... It has been widely believed that the majority of human casualties and damage to vessels is related to human error; but recently it has been suggested that the link in the chain of events that directly leads to injury is fatigue (Baulk and Reyner, 2002). The literature includes several studies on the working conditions of seafarers (McNamara et al., 2000;Bloor et al., 2004;Jones et al., 2005;Smith et al., 2006;Andresen et al., 2007;Mitroussi, 2008;Orosa et al., 2011;Uğurlu et al., 2012), which discuss problems such as poor working and environmental conditions, work and rest hours, insufficient social opportunities, fatigue, and the relationship between fatigue and maritime accidents. ...
... La realización de numerosas investigaciones (Martínez, 2007) ha generado una amplia diversidad de perspectivas respecto a la conceptualización de la satisfacción laboral (Gamboa, 2010), lo que en consecuencia ha propiciado el desarrollo de diversos instrumentos de medida (Pérez y Fidalgo, 1995;Meliá y Peiró, 1989;Cook, Hepworth, Wall y Warr, 1981). La satisfacción laboral ha sido definida como un estado emocional placentero o positivo resultante de la experiencia misma del trabajo; dicho estado es alcanzado satisfaciendo ciertos requerimientos individuales a través del trabajo (Andresen, Domsch y Cascorbi, 2007). Otros autores como Aldag y Brief (1978) la describen como una dimensión actitudinal que ocupa un lugar central en la consideración de la experiencia del hombre en el trabajo. ...
... Así, para Wright & Bonett (2007: 143) "La satisfacción laboral es probablemente la más común y más antigua forma de operacionalización de la felicidad en el lugar de trabajo". En cualquier caso, entre las definiciones más recientes que se pueden encontrar se destacan las siguientes: Andresen et al. (2007: 719): Un estado emocional placentero o positivo resultante de la experiencia misma del trabajo; dicho estado es alcanzado satisfaciendo ciertos requerimientos individuales a través de su trabajo; Lee & Chang (2008: 733) quiénes la conceptúan de manera muy breve pero clara: Un actitud general que el individuo tiene hacia su trabajo"; o por Barraza & Ortega (2009: 1 ...
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Es indudable la fuerte relación que existe en el sector servicios entre la calidad percibida por los clientes y los niveles de satisfacción laboral y compromiso organizativo de los empleados que los prestan. Esta identificación es más intensa en el sector hotelero, donde la satisfacción del cliente está íntimamente ligada a la de los trabajadores. En este artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre el nivel de satisfacción existente en la hostelería de Córdoba (España) y su relación con determinados aspectos personales de los individuos y organizativos de las empresas donde trabajan. El objetivo perseguido es que los directivos del sector hotelero conozcan los diferentes condicionantes socio-laborales y organizativos que determinan el nivel de satisfacción laboral y, con este conocimiento, poner en marcha políticas que fomenten el desarrollo del capital humano que conforma, hoy en día, el activo más importante en dicho sector. Para conseguirlo, se ha realizado un amplio trabajo de campo consistente en la recopilación de encuestas específicas y el tratamiento estadístico de los datos dimanados. Como conclusión general podemos destacar que la mayoría de los empleados están satisfechos o muy satisfechos con su trabajo, destacando positivamente la relación con los compañeros y superiores, siendo mayor la probabilidad de satisfacción laboral en los empleados que trabajan en hoteles de menor categoría, turno de mañana y de género masculino
... The working conditions of seafarers are important elements having impact on the professional life. In literature, there are several studies about the working conditions of seafarers (Baulk and Reyner, 2002; Bloor et al., 2004; Louie and Doolen, 2007; McNamara et al., 2000; Miller et al., 2011; Mitroussi, 2008; Pik, 2007; Robert, 2007; Andresen et al., 2007; Leung et al., 2006; Orosa et al., 2011; U gurlu et al., 2012 ). These studies discuss problems of seafarers, inconvenient working conditions, inconvenient environmental conditions, work and rest hours, insufficient social opportunities, fatigue and the relationship between fatigue and marine accidents. ...
... Some authors have conceptualized job satisfaction as an emotional state, a feeling, an attitude or an affective response to a job situation (see Breckler, 1984;Crites, Fabrigar, & Petty, 1994, among others), while others view job satisfaction as the result of comparing or balancing the expectations, needs or actual outcomes of the position and the benefits of the job (Mason & Griffin, 2002;Wright, 2006). Andersen, Domsch, and Cascorbi (2007) are among the most recent researchers who follow the first approach. For these authors, job satisfaction is a pleasant or positive emotional state resulting from the work experience which is produced when the job satisfies certain individual needs. ...
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Employees play a key role in the success of businesses today. In the hotel industry, in particular, the study of job satisfaction is of interest as the dedication, effort, and commitment of employees is an essential factor in ensuring customer satisfaction. This research aims to investigate the level of job satisfaction among hotel employees in the province of Cordoba, Spain, and its relationship with specific organizational aspects of hotel businesses. To achieve this goal, a series of hypotheses are proposed and tested using a variety of statistical techniques. The research finds that job satisfaction increases with higher family dependence on employee wages, and that permanent contracts or greater length of service do not increase job satisfaction levels, but working part time does.
... Accommodation establishments are known for their twentyfour hour, seven days a week operations. Therefore, in order to meet consumer demand, employees are expected to work flexible hours; have irregular working patterns; endure many confrontational interactions with guests; and put in long, unsocial hours under very stressful circumstances (Andresen et al., 2007;Deery and Jago, 2009). Front of House Employees (FOE) are employees who have extensive interaction with guests (Kasavana and Brooks, 2001) and are the focal point for all guests' requests (Pizam and Holcomb, 2008). ...
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Maritime incidents occurring during pilotage are of international concern. Maritime pilots control most pilotage operations worldwide, yet despite the safety criticality of their role, research examining pilot decision-making processes during these complex and dynamic operations is scarce. This article describes the findings from two studies that utilised an integrated systems thinking framework to understand how pilots make decisions and what factors are perceived to influence their decisions. Interviews were held with 22 pilots (Study 1) and 17 maritime safety stakeholders (Study 2) in the New Zealand maritime context. The findings illustrate the challenges pilots face during pilotage and provide insights into their decision-making processes and the systemic factors that can be addressed to improve maritime safety. Given the multiple causal pathways to incidents occurring during pilotage identified by this research, it is suggested that multiple systems-wide interventions are needed, which is likely to require a long-term, strategic approach.
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La investigación tuvo por objetivo evaluar la validez de la estructura interna y la fiabilidad del cuestionario de \Satisfacción Laboral de Warr, Cox y Wall" para ser aplicado a docentes de educación superior. Método: Mediante el Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio con el método de estimación de Mínimos Cuadrados de Libre Escala en modelos de medida unifactorial y bifactorial, en una muestra de 242 docentes de educación superior. Resultados: Obteniendo los indicadores Chi de 59.024 y 63.185, GFI de 0.984 y 0.983, AGFI de 0.978 y 0.977, RMSR de 0.066 y 0.070, respectivamente, encontrándose dentro de los parámetros adecuados. El grado de fiabilidad se evaluó con el coeficiente Alpha de Cronbach= 0.867 con un IC (99 %) [0.832; 0.897], el coeficiente de con fiabilidad compuesto en el modelo unifactorial ω = 0.908 y en el bifactorial ω = 0.913, sien- do la consistencia interna de la escala muy buena. Concluyendo que la estructura interna de la escala de satisfacción laboral es válida y es fiable.
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This study examined how objective measures of sleep change across shift-cycles, and the impact of this on sleep quality and fatigue. Forty maritime pilots were recruited from Australian ports. Sleep wake-behaviour (timing and length), and self-reported sleep quality and fatigue, were assessed to determine any impact of roster status and ‘on-call’ status. On-roster pilots experienced reduced night time sleep duration compared to those off-roster (57 ± 8.8 mins), while working on-call also diminished night time sleep duration (126 ± 11.3 mins) and quality, compared to workers not on-call. Fatigue scores indicated that participants were not fully recovered prior to commencing rostered night shift, while sleep quality was significantly worse following sleep that occurred after a night shift, compared to after a day shift. These findings potentially support workplace negotiations to change future shift cycles, and to adopt monitoring systems may mitigate the risk of fatigue-related accidents and chronic health outcomes. Practitioner Summary: Long and irregular work hours of maritime pilotage can compromise worker performance and safety. This observational study found that on-roster pilots experience reduced sleep duration compared to those off-roster, while working on-call further diminishes sleep duration and quality. Future workload/fatigue monitoring systems may mitigate fatigue-related accidents and adverse chronic health outcomes.
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El objetivo de este articulo es analizar la relación entre los comportamientos de tipo cívico y la satisfacción laboral en empleados operativos y gerenciales en empresas hoteleras de la ciudad de Zacatecas, México. Los comportamientos de ciudadanía y la satisfacción laboral son dos temas importantes de la experiencia de los empleados que pueden explicar el encause del capital humano hacia la prestación de mejores servicios. Se aplicó el instrumento a 212 empleados de diferentes niveles ocupacionales en 11 hoteles de la ciudad de Zacatecas. Mediante la técnica estadística correlación canónica se muestra que existe relación favorable entre las variables planteadas, lo que implicaría que el grado de satisfacción laboral de los trabajadores repercute directamente en la realización de las conductas voluntarias discrecionales que priorizan los intereses organizacionales sobre los intereses propios del trabajador. Esta correlación se confirmó tanto para el grupo de trabajadores directivos (agrupados como gerenciales) como para los operativos, aunque de manera intensificada en los primeros. Por tanto, el vínculo entre el nivel de SL y los componentes de su constructo con los CCO en su conjunto muestra la relevancia de cumplir e impulsar, como organización hotelera zacatecana, aquellos factores que son fuente de satisfacción laboral ya que estos podrían impulsar conductas (denominadas como cívicas) en favor de la organización.
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The subject bias in the assessment of maritime simulator training in education is unnerving. Researchers repeatedly point to the need for enunciated assessment criteria for human assessors to achieve more reliable performance evaluations. Moreover, the integration of inter-subjective opinions on how assessment tools are both developed and weighted could diminish individual biases. In the current paper, a study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of a proposed computer-aided performance assessment (CAPA) tool for maritime pilotage assessment is reported. The proposed assessment tool was developed using the Analytical Hierarchy Process and Bayesian Network, with the intention of standardising the calculation and weighting of the performance indicators. A between-subject experiment (n = 16) has been conducted to test the reliability and validity of the CAPA-tool compared to conventional assessment methods when evaluating a pre-defined simulated pilotage operation. The interrater reliability was fair. The absolute reliability for assessing the technical competencies was good for the CAPA-tool and unacceptable for the control condition. The absolute reliability for assessing teamwork was unacceptable for both conditions. Evidence of construct validity has not been found. The experiment demonstrated the potential for higher reliability in the performance assessment of maritime simulator training, especially for assessing technical competencies. In parallel, it also confirmed the lack of reliability associated with using conventional assessment methods, which should inspire further research and development of maritime simulator assessment methods. The proposed CAPA-tool can be applied in education and training of maritime navigation training using full-mission bridge simulators, particularly for assessing pilotage operations.
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Despite geographic, financial, and cultural diversity, publications dealing with the pharmacist workforce throughout the world share common concerns and focus on similar topics. Their findings are presented in the literature in a seemingly unrelated way even though they are connected to one another as parts of a comprehensive theoretical structure. The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical model that relates some of the most salient topics addressed in the international literature on pharmacist workforce. The model is developed along two fundamental ideas. The first identifies the shape and location of the pharmacist's labor supply curve as the driving force behind all workforce decisions undertaken by pharmacists; the second argues that gender and age differences are two of the most important factors determining the shape and location of this supply curve. The paper then discusses movements along the curve attributed to changes in the wage rate, as well as displacements of the curve attributed to disparities in personal characteristics, investments in human capital, job-related preferences, opinions and perceptions, and institutional rigidities. The focus is on the individual pharmacist, not on groups of pharmacists or the profession as a whole. Works in multiple countries that address each topic are identified. Understanding these considerations is critical as employers' failure to accommodate pharmacists' preferences for work and leisure are associated with negative consequences not only for them but also for the healthcare system as a whole. Possible consequences include excessive job turnover, absenteeism, decreased institutional commitment, and lower quality of work.
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In this study, the results of an empirical case carried out in 2014 in a Thermal Centre in Spain are exposed. The aim of this study is to identify/to evaluate current labour satisfaction of the employees to analyse strengths and weaknesses of the labour conditions that will allow us to suggest some improvement actions to the managers and testing whether the proposed scale based on the EFQM model is a valid measurement scale for measuring job satisfaction in organizations. A descriptive analysis was used as methodology, and a questionnaire was sent to 55 employees of the Thermal Centre with the aim to collect data; the response rate was of a 76.36% (42 employees). The obtained results show that the employees are satisfied with the organizational climate, 4.09 points in average and the measuring instrument was tested and validated. Furthermore, it show areas with possibilities of improvement are training, internal communication, knowledge and identification of objectives and organization and change management, on the other hand, the areas that need to improve are the work conditions, the perception of the executives and salary. The Originality this paper is detect the dimension’s strengths and weaknesses of the labour
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ABSTRACT Purpose- Labour satisfaction of the employees with their job affect quality of a service that is provided to a client so it is a very important aspect that must be managed by executives of organizations. The organizational climate is a key for a company’s success, and its regular analysis can help to improve those aspects where the organization is not so effective. The aim of this study is to identify/to evaluate current labour satisfaction of the employees to analyse strengths and weaknesses of the labour conditions that will allow us to suggest some improvement actions to the managers and determine whether the proposed scale based on the EFQM model is a valid measurement scale for measuring job satisfaction in organizations. Design/methodology/approach- A descriptive analysis was used as methodology, and a questionnaire was sent to 55 employees of the Thermal Centre with the aim to collect data; the response rate was of a 76.36% (42 employees). The measuring instrument was tested and validated. Findings- The obtained results show areas with possibilities of improvement are training, internal communication, knowledge and identification of objectives and organization and change management and the areas that need to improve their work conditions are perception of the executives and salary. Originality/value- By detect the dimension’s strengths and weaknesses of the labour conditions he has to take into account and so, to work with them the executive manager of the Thermal Centre with the aim improve labour climate that indirect way influence on clients through the quality of services. Keywords EFQM, Human Resources, Labour Satisfaction, Organizational Climate, Thermal Centre
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Navigation safety on coastal waters is an extremely important issue. Fatigue is an important factor threatening navigation safety. Considering that the vessel type is an oil tanker, such a threat is not posed only to the crew but also to the environment. Most of the tankers navigating coastal waters are in the small tanker category. Therefore, this study examined the working and resting hours of the deck officers in the oil tankers navigating coastal waters. The study utilized the ISF Watchkeeper 3 program for assessing and interpreting the working periods. The study reached the conclusion that the first and second officers in particular are working under unsuitable conditions. To improve the working conditions of the deck officers, effects of additional cargo officer on board was investigated. This study is in quality of recommendation. The study elucidated that the cargo officer practice determines the working and resting hours of deck officers, in the work on the oil tankers, and compliance with the related conventions.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate vision‐based leadership effects on follower satisfaction in a Thai state enterprise. Design/methodology/approach Extending previous research, the present study examines relationships between vision realization factors and employee satisfaction. Derived from the literature, these vision realization factors are vision communication, motivation, and empowerment of employees. In total, five directional hypotheses are developed and tested accordingly through a series of regression analyses. Findings Findings indicate that vision communication, motivation, and empowerment of employees are directly predictive of enhanced employee satisfaction at the Thai state enterprise. Practical implications To enhance employee satisfaction, supervisors of all levels at the Thai state enterprise should focus on frequently communicating their vision to their direct subordinates, particularly through written and technology‐mediated channels. The supervisors should also delegate work to their subordinates, provide resources and support services to them, and encourage them to make more decisions regarding daily operations. The supervisors should additionally act as a role model for their subordinates, build subordinates' self‐confidence, create challenges for them, and reward subordinates who act consistently with their vision. Originality/value Although leaders are widely exhorted to espouse vision and vision‐based leadership was empirically endorsed in the Thai culture, vision‐based leadership and its effects have been little investigated in the Thai state enterprise sector. This paper contributes to this area.
Working Paper
The hedonic treadmill model for subjective well-being was subject to several recent empirical analyses based on individual panel data. Most of this adaptation literature is concentrated on how life events affect measures of life satisfaction and happiness, whereas adaptation processes of domain satisfactions like job satisfaction are largely unstudied. The aim of this paper is to test empirically adaptation processes of self-reported job satisfaction. For this purpose we consider flexibility characteristics of a job and derive hypotheses about which flexibility measures allow for or impede adaptation processes. Hypotheses are tested using data from up to 18 waves of the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). We estimate fixed-effects panel models to test adaptation processes based on intra-individual changes in job satisfaction. Our results show no adaptation to rotating shift work, little adaptation to temporary employment, but full adaptation to flextime regulations.
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In this article the authors investigate the extent to which traits reflecting individual differences in personality and affectivity explain or mediate genetic influences on job satisfaction. Using estimates of the dispositional source of job satisfaction according to 2 dispositional frameworks--the five-factor model and positive affectivity-negative affectivity (PA-NA)--and behavioral-genetic estimates of the heritabilities of job satisfaction and the dispositional factors, the authors computed the proportion of genetic variance in job satisfaction that is explained by these trait frameworks. Results indicate that the affectivity model is a stronger mediator of genetic effects on job satisfaction than the five-factor model. PA and NA mediate about 45% of the genetic influences on job satisfaction, whereas the five-factor model mediates approximately 24% of these genetic effects.
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Der Arbeitsbeschreibungsbogen. - Goch : BRATT-Inst. für Neues Lernen 1. (1980). - [84] S. 2. Handanweisung. - 1982. - 33, [10] S. - (Trainer-Leitfaden ; 2)
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A meta-analysis of single-item measures of overall job satisfaction (28 correlations from 17 studies with 7,682 people) found an average uncorrected correlation of .63 (SD = .09) with scale measures of overall job satisfaction. The overall mean correlation (corrected only for reliability) is .67 (SD = .08), and it is moderated by the type of measurement scale used. The mean corrected correlation for the best group of scale measures (8 correlations, 1,735 people) is .72 (SD = .05). The correction for attenuation formula was used to estimate the minimum level of reliability for a single-item measure. These estimates range from .45 to .69, depending on the assumptions made.
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A meta-analysis of single-item measures of overall job satisfaction (28 correlations from 17 studies with 7,682 people) found an average uncorrected correlation of .63 (SD = .09) with scale measures of overall job satisfaction. The overall mean correlation (corrected only for reliability) is .67 (SD = .08), and it is moderated by the type of measurement scale used. The mean corrected correlation for the best group of scale measures (8 correlations, 1,735 people) is .72 (SD = .05). The correction for attenuation formula was used to estimate the minimum level of reliability for a single-item measure. These estimates range from .45 to .69, depending on the assumptions made.
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This article contrasts the composite view of the relationship between multidimensional constructs and their facets/dimensions with the factor view. The composite view assumes that facets are components of the composite constructs, while the factor view assumes that facets are manifestations of latent constructs. An empirical study is used to illustrate the fact that these two views will lead to different conclusions about the relationship of constructs in covariance structure analyses. It is suggested that researchers must examine the theoretical basis of their topic in order to determine whether the factor or composite view is more suitable for the multidimensional construct of interest.
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This study uses a national panel of 1,668 married women and men interviewed in 1980 and again in 1983 to assess the commonsense notion that shift work damages marital quality. The effects of shift work are assessed on six measures of marital quality (marital happiness, interaction, disagreements, general problems, sexual problems, and child-related problems) and the probability of divorce. The results suggest that shift work has a modest but very general negative effect on marital quality: every indicator of marital quality is significantly and negatively affected by shift work in at least one analysis. This negative effect is supported by both cross-sectional and panel analysis and does not appear to be attributable to correlated job characteristics. Shift work is also found to increase the probability of divorce from 7% to 11% over the three-year period.
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There has been renewed interest in dispositional explanations of individual behavior in organizations. We argue that this new stream of dispositional research is flawed both conceptually and methodologically, and we suggest several theoretical and empirical improvements. We conclude by discussing the costs of a dispositional perspective for both organizations and organizational participants.
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This article contrasts the composite view of the relationship between multidimensional constructs and their facets/dimensions with the factor view. The composite view assumes that facets are components of the composite constructs, while the factor view assumes that facets are manifestations of latent constructs. An empirical study is used to illustrate the fact that these two views will lead to different conclusions about the relationship of constructs in covariance structure analyses. It is suggested that researchers must examine the theoretical basis of their topic in order to determine whether the factor or composite view is more suitable for the multidimensional construct of interest.
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A range of situational, biological and psychological individual differences have been suggested to modify the impact of shift and night work. This paper discusses the development and application of a construct firmly based in the psychological/behavioural domain. The overall aim is to offer a theoretical standpoint with practical implications. Locus of Control theory has an extensive research history. In line with the evolution of thinking about this construct in terms of application in a context-specific sense, this paper describes the origins of internally-oriented Shiftwork Locus of Control (SHLOC) and presents its relationships with typically reported shiftwork-related outcomes. The SHLOC measure has been shown to be psychometrically robust and has demonstrated consistent patterns of relationships with shiftwork related variables that include sleep quality, fatigue, alertness, interference with family and social life, psychological well-being and perceived stress. In general, higher shiftwork-specific internality is associated with more positive outcomes (e.g. better sleep quality, lower fatigue, higher alertness) than lower shiftwork-specific internality. These findings hold true across a range of shiftwork situations and occupational groups. The construct has practical potential as an addition to shiftworker monitoring procedures that may be used to identify those individuals who may be more susceptible to the negative effects of shiftworking and, thereby, could benefit from targeted intervention.
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Flexible work hours have gained in prominence, as more than a quarter of all workers can now vary their schedules; however, there has been little change in the proportion who work a shift other than a regular daytime shift.
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Long shifts of more than 8 hours, commonly of 10 or 12 hours, are spreading widely as a way of increasing operational availability and flexibility, and offering employees bigger blocks of time off. Research shows that they can provide multiple benefits or serious costs to all parties, depending on the balance of many factors, such as the nature of the work, total weekly hours, and the skill and sophistication of management. Careful planning around these factors, and using participative roster design, can maximise the chances of achieving the benefits and avoiding the costs.
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Working extended workshifts and overtime has been linked to three basic manifestations of fatigue, involving decrements in behavioral performance and physiological function, plus subjective complaints. Fatigue, in turn, may be associated with performance decrements and accidents. This report describes findings from a prospective study of changes in an array of subjective response and objective performance measures, before and after workers in an underground mine converted from an 8 h to a 12 h rotating shift schedule. The study employed a psychophysiological approach to work schedule evaluation. An array of putative fatigue-related measures were collected, encompassing pre- , mid-, and post-shift measures of cognitive and psychomotor behavioral performance, estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and heart rate (HR) recovery levels using submaximal exercise testing, and subjective self- report mood and sleepiness responses. Continuous heart rate records during work activity across the shift also were collected. There are no significant main effects of schedule (8 h versus 12 h) for most measures. However, the continuous HR findings suggest pacing of work effort on 12 h relative to 8 h shifts. Pre- to post-shift changes in HR recovery and in mood self-report responses are consistent with differential fatigue effects of 12 h relative to 8 h shifts. Results support the conclusion that the extended workdays schedule evaluated in this study is not associated with pronounced fatigue effects, possibly because of moderation of work effort across 12 h compared with 8 h shifts.
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Evidence suggesting that job satisfaction is caused by individual dispositions is reviewed, and stability coefficients for job satisfaction in previous studies are analysed with a meta-analytic procedure. Previous longitudinal studies analysing job changer samples imply an upper limit estimate of 0.51 for direct dispositional influences on job satisfaction. A study of job changers considering the stability of working conditions suggests that this estimate has to be considerably corrected downwards. At present, it is concluded that it is more likely that dispositions indirectly affect job satisfaction via selection and self-selection processes. Implications for job satisfaction as a tool for organizational assessment are discussed. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This study examined psychological correlates of nightwork on different television workers. Three hundred and twelve participants working nightshifts or dayshifts completed a questionnaire to measure psychological well-being, self-esteem, job satisfaction, locus of control and adjustment to night-work. Participants were “creatives” and journalists working in television news production. Nightworkers, compared to dayworkers, reported lower job satisfaction (particularly intrinsic satisfaction and attitude towards physical conditions); there were, however, no differences in self-reported psychological well-being, locus of control, or self-esteem. Significant interactions between time-of-day and job category for job satisfaction and locus of control indicated that journalists had higher internal locus of control during nightwork whereas creatives were more external; and journalists were more job satisfied than creatives especially nightworkers. Adjustment to shiftwork factors were not different as a main effect, but there was an interaction indicating that day time journalists had significantly higher morningness scores than night time journalists. Participants working only two to four consecutive nights between time-off (considered fast rotating) were significantly more internal, had higher scores for well-being, self-esteem and job satisfaction than slowly rotating nightworkers. Results are discussed in terms of the interaction of factors that facilitate adjustment. Further suggestions for coping with night work are made, and further possible research is discussed.
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This study examined attitudes towards particular shifts and predictors of overall dissatisfaction with shiftwork. One hundred and thirty female nurses were studied during their first 15 months of shiftwork. Forty-eight worked on a two-shift roster throughout and 82 transferred to a three-shift roster after 6 months. Attitudes were assessed after 6 months (Stage 2) and 15 months (Stage 3). Analysis of variance revealed a significant rise in dissatisfaction scores from Stage 2 to Stage 3, but no shift group or interaction effects. Multiple regression analysis indicated that greater work/non-work conflict, higher psychological symptoms and lower social support from co-workers were associated with dissatisfaction at Stage 2. Greater work/non-work conflict, greater vigour and lower social support from family were associated with dissatisfaction at Stage 3. Nineteen characteristics significantly discriminated between night shift and either day shift or afternoon shift. Night shift rated most negatively on circadian/sleep disturbance and work/non-work conflict effects.
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Sumario: This paper begins by describing changes in the concept of working time, in the sense that these changes reflect the new, more complex dimensions which work designers need to take into account. The second part of this paper goes on the examine innovative work patterns applied in different industries, in particular those applied to realize more flexible work schedules; advantages for the organization and for workers are reviewed. The third part of the paper looks at the implications of these changes for work content, and for the safety and health of workers. Finally, change strategies for adjusting work content and schedules to the often conflicting needs of workers and the entreprise are suggested
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Fatigue has often been viewed as a simple variable that is positively correlated with time on task in the workplace and is produced mainly by physical activity. However, shiftwork researchers have demonstrated time-of-day differences for variables including sleepiness and mood, thereby challenging this notion of fatigue. Using a within-subjects design, the present study advances this research by searching for differences in time-of-day interactions in firefighters' sleep length, sleepiness, and mood ratings as a function of shift. We examined reductions in sleep length associated with shiftwork and used sleepiness and mood scales to assess the effects of these reductions. Participants completed surveys throughout a complete cycle of their shift schedule. The study showed that firefighters working on a rotating 8-h shift schedule will sleep less and will report lower positive mood scores, higher negative mood scores, and greater sleepiness ratings on the night shift. Additionally, it was shown that over the course of a shift (two weeks), firefighters were unable to adapt to changes in their sleep schedule. Finally, the significant interactions that were observed challenge the historical, singular notion of fatigue.
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Past research has suggested that dispositional sources of job satisfaction can be traced to measures of affective temperament. The present research focused on another concept, core self-evaluations, which were hypothesized to comprise self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and nonneuroticism. A model hypothesized that core self-evaluations would have direct effects on job and life satisfaction. It also was hypothesized that core self-evaluations would have indirect effects on job satisfaction. Data were collected from 3 independent samples in 2 countries, using dual source methodology. Results indicated that core self-evaluations had direct and indirect effects on job and life satisfaction. The statistical and logical relationship among core evaluations, affective disposition, and satisfaction was explored.