ArticlePDF Available

Impact of school sense of community within a faith-based university: Administrative and academic staff perceptions on institutional mission and values

Authors:
Article

Impact of school sense of community within a faith-based university: Administrative and academic staff perceptions on institutional mission and values

Abstract and Figures

Academic staff (n = 305) and administrative staff (n = 595) at a large urban, Catholic, and religious order teaching university completed on-line school sense of community, social desirability, and mission-identity plus mission-driven activity measures. Partial correlates (controlling for social desirability) indicated that for both faculty and staff a sense of community with co-workers and with administrators were significantly related to mission-identity characteristics of the university. Moreover, regression analyses found that for faculty and staff significant predictors of school sense of community variables were perceptions that the university was innovative and inclusive of pragmatic and risk-taking ideas. For staff but not for faculty, a feeling of Catholic pluralism on campus was a significant predictor of a sense of community with co-workers. These outcomes suggest that employees at faith-based universities may strengthen their school sense of community by institutional practices and programs that foster creating a setting for innovative, inclusive, pragmatic, and risk-taking policies, but not necessarily religious practices on campus.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Dear Author,
Here are the proofs of your article.
You can submit your corrections online or by fax.
For online submission please insert your corrections in the online correction form. Always
indicate the line number to which the correction refers.
Please return your proof together with the permission to publish confirmation.
For
fax
submission, please ensure that your corrections are clearly legible. Use a fine black
pen and write the correction in the margin, not too close to the edge of the page.
Remember to note the journal title, article number, and your name when sending your response
via e-mail, fax or regular mail.
Check
the metadata sheet to make sure that the header information, especially author names
and the corresponding affiliations are correctly shown.
Check the questions that may have arisen during copy editing and insert your answers/
corrections.
Check that the text is complete and that all figures, tables and their legends are included. Also
check the accuracy of special characters, equations, and electronic supplementary material if
applicable. If necessary refer to the
Edited manuscript
.
The publication of inaccurate data such as dosages and units can have serious consequences.
Please take particular care that all such details are correct.
Please do not make changes that involve only matters of style. We have generally introduced
forms that follow the journal’s style.
Substantial changes in content, e.g., new results, corrected values, title and authorship are not
allowed without the approval of the responsible editor. In such a case, please contact the
Editorial Office and return his/her consent together with the proof.
If we do not receive your corrections within 48 hours, we will send you a reminder.
Please note
Your article will be published Online First approximately one week after receipt of your corrected
proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. Further changes are, therefore,
not possible.
After online publication, subscribers (personal/institutional) to this journal will have access to the
complete article via the DOI using the URL:
http://dx.doi.org/[DOI].
If you would like to know when your article has been published online, take advantage of our free
alert service. For registration and further information go to: www.springerlink.com.
Due to the electronic nature of the procedure, the manuscript and the original figures will only be
returned to you on special request. When you return your corrections, please inform us, if you would
like to have these documents returned.
The printed version will follow in a forthcoming issue.
ELECTRONIC REPRINT ORDER FORM
After publication of your journal article, electronic (PDF) reprints may be purchased by arrangement with Springer and
Aries Systems Corporation.
The PDF file you will receive will be protected with a copyright system called DocuRights®. Purchasing 50 reprints will
enable you to redistribute the PDF file to up to 50 computers. You may distribute your allotted number of PDFs as you
wish; for example, you may send it out via e-mail or post it to your website. You will be able to print five (5) copies of your
article from each one of the PDF reprints.
Please type or print carefully. Fill out each item completely.
1. Your name: __________________________________________________
Your e-mail address: __________________________________________________
Your phone number: __________________________________________________
Your fax number: __________________________________________________
2. Journal title (vol, iss, pp): __________________________________________________________________
3. Article title: __________________________________________________________________
4. Article author(s): __________________________________________________________________
5. How many PDF reprints do you want? __________________________________
6. Please refer to the pricing chart below to calculate the cost of your order.
Number of PDF
reprints
Cost
(in U.S. dollars)
50 $200
100 $275
150 $325
200 $350
NOTE: Prices shown apply only to orders submitted by individual article authors or editors. Commercial orders must be
directed to the Publisher.
All orders must be prepaid. Payments must be made in one of the following forms:
a check drawn on a U.S. bank
an international money order
Visa, MasterCard, or American Express (no other credit cards can be accepted)
PAYMENT (type or print carefully):
Amount of check enclosed: _________________ (payable to Aries Systems Corporation)
VISA __________________________________
MasterCard __________________________________
American Express __________________________________
Expiration date: _________________ Signature: _________________________________
Your PDF reprint file will be sent to the above e-mail address. If you have any questions about your order, or if you need
technical support, please contact: support@docurights.com
For subscriptions and to see all of our other products and services, visit the Springer website at:
http://www.springeronline.com
Print and send this form with payment
information to:
Aries Systems Corporation
200 Sutton Street
North Andover, Massachusetts 01845
Attn.: Electronic Reprints
OR —
Fax this to Aries at: 978-975-3811
Metadata of the article that will be visualized in OnlineFirst
ArticleTitle
Impact of school sense of community within a faith-based university: administrative and academic staff
perceptions on institutional mission and values
Article Sub-Title
Article CopyRight - Year Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009
(This will be the copyright line in the final PDF)
Journal Name Social Psychology of Education
Corresponding Author Family Name Ferrari
Particle
Given Name Joseph R.
Suffix
Division Department of Psychology
Organization DePaul University
Address 2219 North Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60614, USA
Email jferrari@depaul.edu
Author Family Name Cowman
Particle
Given Name Shaun E.
Suffix
Division
Organization Rock Valley College
Address Rockford, IL, USA
Email
Author Family Name Milner
Particle
Given Name Lauren A.
Suffix
Division Department of Psychology
Organization DePaul University
Address 2219 North Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60614, USA
Email
Author Family Name Gutierrez
Particle
Given Name Robert E.
Suffix
Division Department of Psychology
Organization DePaul University
Address 2219 North Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60614, USA
Email
Author Family Name Drake
Particle
Given Name Peter A.
Suffix
Division Department of Psychology
Organization DePaul University
Address 2219 North Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60614, USA
Email
Schedule
Received 26 September 2008
Revised
Accepted 04 May 2009
Abstract
Academic staff (
n
= 305) and administrative staff (
n
= 595) at a large urban, Catholic, and religious order
teaching university completed on-line school sense of community, social desirability, and mission-identity
plus mission-driven activity measures. Partial correlates (controlling for social desirability) indicated that for
both faculty and staff a sense of community with co-workers and with administrators were significantly related
to mission-identity characteristics of the university. Moreover, regression analyses found that for faculty and
staff significant predictors of school sense of community variables were perceptions that the university was
innovative and inclusive of pragmatic and risk-taking ideas. For staff but not for faculty, a feeling of Catholic
pluralism on campus was a significant predictor of a sense of community with co-workers. These outcomes
suggest that employees at faith-based universities may strengthen their school sense of community by
institutional practices and programs that foster creating a setting for innovative, inclusive, pragmatic, and
risk-taking policies, but not necessarily religious practices on campus.
Keywords (separated by '-') Mission engagement - School sense of community - Teaching faculty - Clerical staff
Footnote Information
Author Query Form
Please ensure you fill out your response to the queries raised below
and return this form along with your corrections
Dear Author,
During the preparation of your manuscript for typesetting, some questions have arisen. These are listed below. Please check your
typeset proof carefully and mark any corrections in the margin of the proof or compile them as a separate list. This form should
then be returned with your marked proof/list of corrections to spr_corrections1@sps.co.in
Disk use
In some instances we may be unable to process the electronic file of your article and/or artwork. In that case we have, for
efficiency reasons, proceeded by using the hard copy of your manuscript. If this is the case the reasons are indicated below:
Disk damaged Incompatible file format LaTeX file for non-LaTeX journal
Virus infected Discrepancies between electronic file and (peer-reviewed, therefore definitive) hard copy
Other: .................................................................................................................................................................................
We have proceeded as follows:
Manuscript scanned Manuscript keyed in Artwork scanned
Files only partly used (parts processed differently: …………………………………………………………...………………..)
Bibliography
If discrepancies were noted between the literature list and the text references, the following may apply:
The references listed below were noted in the text but appear to be missing from your literature list. Please complete the list or
remove the references from the text.
Uncited references: This section comprises references that occur in the reference list but not in the body of the text.
Please position each reference in the text or delete it. Any reference not dealt with will be retained in this section.
Queries and/or remarks
Section/paragraph Details required Author’s response
Front matter Please check and confirm the authors and
their respective affiliations are correctly
identified.
References Reference Velcoff and Ferrari (2006) is
cited in text but not provided in the
reference list. Please provide references
in the list or delete these citations.
Please check and confirm the author
initials for the reference Kruger et al.
(2001).
Journal:
SP
Article: 11218-9093
uncorrected proof
Soc Psychol Educ
DOI 10.1007/s11218-009-9093-3
Impact of school sense of community within a
faith-based university: administrative and academic
staff perceptions on institutional mission and values
Joseph R. Ferrari · Shaun E. Cowman · Lauren A. Milner ·
Robert E. Gutierrez · Peter A. Drake
Received: 26 September 2008 / Accepted: 4 May 2009
© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009
Abstract Academic staff (n = 305) and administrative staff (n = 595) at a large1
urban, Catholic, and religious order teaching university completed on-line school sense2
of community, social desirability, and mission-identity plus mission-driven activity3
measures. Partial correlates (controlling for social desirability) indicated that for both4
faculty and staff a sense of community with co-workers and with administrators were5
significantly related to mission-identity characteristics of the university. Moreover,6
regression analyses found that for faculty and staff significant predictors of school7
sense of community variables were perceptions that the university was innovative and8
inclusive of pragmatic and risk-taking ideas. For staff but not for faculty, a feeling of9
Catholic pluralism on campus was a significant predictor of a sense of community10
with co-workers. These outcomes suggest that employees at faith-based universities11
may strengthen their school sense of community by institutional practices and pro-12
grams that foster creating a setting for innovative, inclusive, pragmatic, and risk-taking13
policies, but not necessarily religious practices on campus.14
Keywords Mission engagement · School sense of community · Teaching faculty ·15
Clerical staff16
Organizations publicly proclaim their institution’s objectives, expectations, and val-17
ues through a mission statement (
Holland 1999). These statements define purpose,18
distinctiveness, the institution’s future, drive operations by providing guidelines for19
day-to-day decision making, and help members connect and identify with the organi-20
J. R. Ferrari (
B
) · L. A. Milner · R. E. Gutierrez · P. A. Drake
Department of Psychology, DePaul University, 2219 North Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, IL 60614, USA
e-mail: jferrari@depaul.edu
S. E. Cowman
Rock Valley College, Rockford, IL, USA
123
Journal: 11218-SPOE Article No.: 9093 TYPESET DISK LE CP Disp.:2009/5/12 Pages: 13 Layout: Small-X
Author Proof
uncorrected proof
J. R. Ferrari et al.
zation (
Emery 1996; Gardiner 1988; Wright 2002). Within higher education settings,21
mission statements focus the energies of employees to balance the relationship between22
educational goals and the needs of the outside world across diverse stakeholders (e.g.,23
administrative and academic staff). Everyone, therefore, works towards common goals,24
and has an overarching vision toward which each member may strive (
Berg et al. 2003).25
Institutional missions may be conveyed through administrative operations, academic26
programs and policies, and student services (Ferrari and Cowman 2004). They iden-27
tify the institution’s intentions to accomplish goals, and its premise for action (
Ehrlich28
2000; Rowley et al. 1997).29
Colleges and universities with institutional missions that are clearly understood30
and embraced by employees claim effective strategic planning (
Bourne et al. 2000),31
marketing and public dissimilation on the unique characteristics of the institution32
(
Bingham et al. 2001; Detomasi 1995), future visions for growth and enhancement33
(Amis et al. 2002; Finley et al. 2001), and useful assessments of outcomes and goals34
(Carver 2000). In fact, academic departments with clear mission statements that reflect35
their institution’s vision and values (e.g.,
Haynes 2002; Smith 1998; Sterns and Borna36
1998) establish ways to reward academic staff accomplishments and hire new instruc-37
tors based on the institution’s mission and values (Diamond 1999; van der Vorm 2001).38
Previous studies evaluated perceptions and outcomes of mission statements within39
colleges and universities (e.g.,
Ferrari and Cowman 2004; Tyson and Birnbrauer 1985).40
For instance, Merline (1998) examined archival records from six small private lib-41
eral arts colleges across the country on factors that defined the institution’s internal42
character (e.g., policies on curriculum, admissions, leadership, and financial opera-43
tions) and external public image (social policies, religious practices, and community44
involvement). Results indicated that survival for each institution depended on financial45
and strategic leadership, as well as a consistent mission statement that distinguished46
the institution from other schools filling a unique “niche” within higher education.47
Moldenhauer-Salazar (2000) interviewed, in a series of open-ended, qualitative items,48
37 university administrators from a large, midwestern research university involved in49
attempts to heighten and implement new diversity initiatives on campus. Results indi-50
cated that creating a campus-wide mission statement was essential to guide, maintain,51
and attract others toward the changes.52
Carroll (2002) surveyed employees from a northwestern US Roman Catholic53
teaching university affiliated with the Jesuit order on their beliefs, expectations, and54
experiences related to the mission statement, specifically those associated with hiring55
practices. Results based on only half the participants indicated that employee commit-56
ment to the institution was highly related to work experiences reflective of the school’s57
mission, but not related to beliefs in the values as expressed in the mission statement.58
That is, employees had positive experiences at the institution based on practices that59
reflected their university’s mission, but they did not necessarily embrace the mission of60
the school at the time of hire or subsequently after working at the institution. Unfor-61
tunately, this unpublished study did not report why only half the respondents were62
included in the data analysis or provide psychometric properties of the survey instru-63
ments. These studies within higher education settings supports corporate research indi-64
cating that commitment to an institution among its members is related to the setting’s65
mission statement (e.g.,
Gardiner 1988; Pohl 2002; Wright 2002). Employees must66
123
Journal: 11218-SPOE Article No.: 9093 TYPESET DISK LE CP Disp.:2009/5/12 Pages: 13 Layout: Small-X
Author Proof
uncorrected proof
University mission perceptions by academic and administrative staff
sign-on to the values and visions reflective of the institutional mission for effective67
organizational operations. Without all university personnel embracing the mission of68
the institution, administrative chaos may arise, infighting over resources within depart-69
ments may arise, frustrating meetings may occur, and staff dissatisfaction frequently70
occurs (
Berg et al. 2003). Therefore, there is a need for administrators within higher71
educational institutions to assess the perceptions and commitment by stakeholders72
(e.g., academic and administrative staff) to the school’s mission.73
Ferrari and Velcoff (2006) created a new self-report measure with reliability and74
validity to assess perceptions of institutional mission within contemporary urban,75
faith-based (Catholic) universities. This 39 item scale, called the DePaul Mission &76
Values (DMV) inventory, identified five subscales that included both perceptions of the77
school’s mission and mission-driven activities. More specifically, the DMV identified78
benchmark characteristics and related programs for an urban, Catholic, and Vincen-79
tian institution. The urban mission of the university is expressed by delivering quality80
education to locations in and immediately around a metropolitan area (in this case, the81
city of Chicago, IL, US). The university states that it expresses its Catholic mission by82
direct service to the poor and economically disenfranchised through such programs as83
actively engaging students, academic and administrative staff in volunteer and com-84
munity service. Although it is a Roman Catholic school of higher education like other85
institutions, the institution’s mission invoked Vincentianism (referring to the namesake86
of the school, St. Vincent dePaul) through respect for human dignity, diversity, and87
individual “personalism” (see
Murphy 1991; Sullivan 1997).88
Velcoff and Ferrari (2006) found DMV scores reflected embracement of the89
university’s mission toward social engagement by senior administrators (i.e., Deans90
and Vice Presidents). In addition, DMV scores related to how these senior administra-91
tors expressed ways for academic staff involvement with the institution’s mission. To92
date, however, no systematic study explored the similarities and differences of how93
academic and administrative staff might express their perceptions of the university’s94
mission, vision, and values. Both groups of staff may be considered the “soul” of a95
university, especially in dealing with students. Academic staff provides students the96
academic knowledge-base for scholarly activities, while staffs frequently serve as sup-97
port personnel who help students on a daily basis with the operational components to98
the institution. It seems logical that an understanding of how academic and adminis-99
trative staff perceive the mission of the university is important for administrators in100
institutional assessment and operation evaluations.101
In the present study we examined how both groups of staff perceived their urban,102
Catholic University’s mission, vision, and values through the use of the DMV inven-103
tory. Moreover, we explored how these perceptions might be predicted by a school104
sense of community (SSOC). Previous interest in sense of community focused on the105
theoretical model proposed by
McMillan and Chavis (1986) in their refinement of106
Sarason (1974) notion of community. Research examined the sense of place a person107
may experience, a person’s identification with others, and a feeling of belongingness108
within a physical setting (see Chipuer and Pretty 1999; Hill 1996). Consequently, a109
person may experience multiple layers of community even while residing in the same110
physical setting ( Brodsky and Marx 2001).111
123
Journal: 11218-SPOE Article No.: 9093 TYPESET DISK LE CP Disp.:2009/5/12 Pages: 13 Layout: Small-X
Author Proof
uncorrected proof
J. R. Ferrari et al.
Persons with a strong sense of community report a need for affiliation (
Burroughs112
and Eby 1998; Davidson et al. 1991), sense of empowerment and perceived control113
over their lives (Chavis and Wandersman 1990), self-control and self-esteem (Ferrari114
et al. 1999b), and self-disclosure to others (Zaff and Devlin 1998). A strong sense of115
community also influences a tendency toward community volunteer service (
Ferrari116
and Chapman 1999) among both younger and older adults (Ferrari 2000; Ferrari et al.117
1999a). Alternatively, other studies, in contrast, found that a lack of a sense of com-118
munity among business employees promotes dissatisfaction at work and high rates of119
grievances (
Catano et al. 1993), physical ailments (Brodsky et al. 1999), greater prob-120
lems with health care costs, choices, and services (
Ahern et al. 1996), and child-raising121
problems by minority single mothers (
Brodsky 1996).122
Despite the plethora of research on sense of community, little published research in123
school settings focused on non-student populations (e.g.,
Kruger et al. 2001; Royal and124
Rossi 1996, 1999). For instance, McGinty et al. ( 2008) found that pre-school teachers125
expressed a strong sense of school community that was moderated by class size, and126
Schulte et al. (2003) reported that among high school teachers a sense of community127
promoted pro-social skills among their classes. Other researchers found that creating128
professional teaching communities where educators form working groups to improve129
student achievement promoted a greater sense of teacher responsibility for student130
learning and improved pedagogy focused on student academic performance (
Louis131
and Marks 1998; Louis et al. 1996).132
However, no published study focused on how a perceived community may i nflu-133
ence academic and administrative staff on their perception of their university’s stated134
mission. We investigated whether both sets of staff perceived a private, teaching uni-135
versity’s identity and how those perceptions related to a sense of community with136
colleagues and with school officials. In short, we examined how a school sense of137
community with fellow stakeholders at a university were enhanced through embrac-138
ing school’s mission, vision, and values plus activities in support of that mission.139
1 Method140
1.1 Participants141
A total of 305 teaching, academic staff and 596 administrative staff (33.4% personnel142
compliance) responded to an on-line survey administered by the university’s institu-143
tional research office. All university employees were affiliated with a medium sized,144
faith-based, urban mid-western university serving over 23,000 students across three145
main campuses located in and around Chicago, IL. Demographics for both the groups146
of staff samples closely matched the overall demographic breakdown for the university.147
For the teaching Academic staff sample (270 men, 135 women; M age = 45.7 years148
old, SD = 10.21), participants worked at campus sites located in the downtown, urban149
center of the city (n =129), in a metropolitan sector of the city (n = 1157), or a suburb150
to the city (n = 19). These staff typically self-identified as Caucasian ( 79.9%) and151
either Roman Catholic (33.4%) or Christian (26.2%). These employees frequently152
worked an average of 8.4 years (SD = 7.9), and either tenured (33.3%, n = 102) or153
123
Journal: 11218-SPOE Article No.: 9093 TYPESET DISK LE CP Disp.:2009/5/12 Pages: 13 Layout: Small-X
Author Proof
uncorrected proof
University mission perceptions by academic and administrative staff
part-time adjuncts (30.5%, n = 93), as opposed to tenure-track (19.7%, n = 60) or154
full-time visiting faculty (18.1%, n = 49).155
For the sample of Administrative Staff (394 women, 190 men; M age = 38.6 years156
old, SD = 11.3), participants worked at campus sites located in the downtown, urban157
center (n = 353), the metropolitan sector (n = 132), or the suburbs (n = 54).158
Staff participants typically self-identified as Caucasian (71.3%) and Roman Catholic159
(53.4%). These employees frequently worked an average of 6.2 years (SD = 5.7)160
in such administrative settings as student services (45.3%), facilities and operations161
(8.9%), advancement and procedures (16.3%), or administrative and information ser-162
vices (28.6%).163
1.2 Psychometric scales164
All participants completed a questionnaire composed of the DePaul Mission and Values165
Inventory, a measure of school sense of community, a measure of social desirability,166
and a brief explanation of the nature and purpose of the questionnaires. The complete167
instrument can be complete in under an hour with the majority of participants finishing168
it in 35–45 min.169
Participants were administered
Ferrari and Velcoff (2006) DePaul Mission and Val-170
ues (DMV) instrument, a 39-item survey divided into two sections believed to be reflec-171
tive of mission statements among contemporary urban, faith-based (Catholic) higher172
education institutions. One section contained questions rated along 7-point scales173
(1 = stronglydisagree;7= stronglyagree) tapping into the university’s benchmark174
institutional identity. Ten items inquired whether respondents perceived the university175
as inclusive and innovative, the belief that the institution is innovative in operational176
procedures, inclusive of persons from all backgrounds, takes risks in an entrepreneur-177
ial way, pragmatic in educational focus, remains relevant in a changing society, keeps178
its urban identity, and fosters mutual understanding and respect for others. The other 6179
items reflected the Catholic pluralism aspects of the mission relating to the university’s180
goal of inviting all faiths to examine Catholicism and other faiths, providing curricula181
on Catholicism and other faiths, offering ministry and programs for Catholicism and182
other faiths, while expressing its primary religious heritage. With the present sam-183
ple, coefficient alphas were acceptable for the institution as innovative and inclusive184
(0.855) and Catholic pluralism (0.818) sub-scales.185
The second section of the DMV inventory included 23 items each rated along a186
4-point scale (1 = notatallimportant;4= veryimportant) on the relevance of a set187
of mission-driven activities supporting the values and vision of the school in each188
of the three benchmark areas. The urban and global engagement opportunities sub-189
scale included eight questions that reflected the importance of support the mission of190
surrounding urban area (e.g., service learning programs) and global social engage-191
ment activities (e.g., study abroad and having international campus sites and students;192
coefficient alpha = 0.879). The institution’s religious heritage sub-scale included 9193
questions on the importance of a set of very specific activities held at the university.194
With the present sample, the overall coefficient alpha was 0.902. Finally, the Catholic195
and other faith-formation opportunities sub-scale included 6 questions reflecting the196
123
Journal: 11218-SPOE Article No.: 9093 TYPESET DISK LE CP Disp.:2009/5/12 Pages: 13 Layout: Small-X
Author Proof
uncorrected proof
J. R. Ferrari et al.
importance of faith-based activities, such as Catholic and interfaith worship services,197
religious education and spiritual programs, and sacramental and other faith worship198
opportunities. With the present sample, the overall coefficient alpha was 0.879.199
All participants completed parts of
Royal and Rossi (1999) school sense of commu-200
nity (SSOC) scale, a 5-point Likert scale (1 = stronglydisagree; 5 = stronglyagree).201
This measure is divided into three subscales; however, for the present study we only202
included the 30 items focusing on the relation among employees and co-workers and203
the 21 items examining the employee’s relation with university administrators and204
officials (we omitted the subscale devoted to teacher-student relationships). With the205
present sample, the overall coefficient alpha on the SSOC/co-worker sub-scale was206
0.822 and on the SSOC/administration subscale was 0.797. Royal and Rossi found207
scores on their SSOC sub-scales were predicted strongest by indices on perceived208
support for innovative activities i n and out of the class by the administration and by209
the number of available school-related activities present at their institution.210
In addition, all participants completed
Reynolds (1982)revisedMarlowe–Crowne211
Social Desirability Scale—Form C, a 13-item true/false uni-dimensional measure212
assessing a respondent’s global tendency to give socially appropriate responses on213
this new self-report inventory designed to tap employee perceptions. This scale is a214
revision of the original 33-item Marlowe–Crowne Scale (1960), and the short Form-C215
used in the present study has strong reliability and validity (see Reynolds). With the216
present sample, the overall coefficient alpha was 0.768.217
1.3 Procedure218
All teaching, academic staff (i.e., tenured, tenure-track, and non-tenure track) and of-219
fice, administrative staff (full and part-time) at the present university were requested to220
complete (in counterbalanced order) the DMV inventory, the SSOC scale, and the social221
desirability measure on-line, across a period of 6 weeks. The survey was administered222
via email by the Institutional Research office. At the present institution when this sur-223
vey was conducted, there were about 700 academic staff from the varied colleges and224
schools and approximately 2,000 eligible staff involved in overall academic, student,225
or business affairs of the university. All information was confidential and recorded226
anonymously by a r esearch associate in Institutional Research office. As an incentive227
to complete these items participants were entered in raffles for free I-Pods, CDs, and228
Amazon book gift certificates. It should be noted that there was no overall sense of229
reactance or negative feedback in completing t he measure.230
2 Results231
2.1 Preliminary analysis232
We first explored whether there were significant differences between academic and233
administrative staff in their self-reported scales assessing the institutional mission and234
mission-related activities, school sense of community, and social desirability respond-235
ing. Table
1 presents the mean scores for sets of staff on each scale score. Independent236
123
Journal: 11218-SPOE Article No.: 9093 TYPESET DISK LE CP Disp.:2009/5/12 Pages: 13 Layout: Small-X
Author Proof
uncorrected proof
University mission perceptions by academic and administrative staff
Table 1 Mean scores on institutional mission, school sense of community, and social desirability scales
for faculty and staff
Academic faculty Administrative staff
(n = 305) (n = 595)
DePaul mission & values
Institution is innovative & inclusive 57.33 (9.91) 56.97 (9.10 )
Catholic pluralism 33.74 (6.18) 33.44 (5.21)
Global/urban engagement activities 25.99 (4.83) 26.17 (4.88)
Catholic patron saint activities 24.49 (6.46) 26.07 (6.16)
∗∗
Faith-formation activities 14.49 (5.31) 15.78 (4.96)
∗∗
School sense of community
Relationship with co-workers 105.23 (11.42) 105.17 (11.85)
Relationship with administration 72.31 (9.69) 72.18 (9.99)
Social desirability 7.56 (3.15) 8.19 (3.13)
p <.01
∗∗
p <.001
Note: Value in parentheses is standard deviation
sample t-tests (with alpha set at p <.01) indicated that there were no significant237
differences on the mission-identity section of the DMV inventory. As noted from the238
table, both sets of staff perceived the university’s mission similarly. In addition, inde-239
pendent sample t-tests (with alpha set at p <.01) found no significant differences240
on mission-related activities reflective of civic and social engagement and a school241
sense of community with co-workers and administration (see Table
1). Both sets of242
staff believed the university’s mission-related activities of urban and global engage-243
ment were important reflections of the institution as an urban, faith-based university.244
Also, both academic and administrative staff reported similar levels of school sense245
of community with colleagues or co-workers and with administrative officials.246
However, independent sample t-tests (with alpha set at p <.01) found adminis-247
trative staff compared to academic staff felt stronger that the university’s focus on248
the Catholic religious programs, t (890) = 3.47, p <.001, and the varied campus249
faith-formation and worship opportunities, t (890) = 3.56, p <.001, were impor-250
tant activities that reflected the mission of the institution. Furthermore, administrative251
staff compared to academic staff reported significantly higher social desirability ten-252
dencies, t (890) = 2.58, p <.01. Consequently, we then conducted further analyses253
separately for each set of staff.254
2.2 Relating institutional mission with sense of community255
Next, we performed zero-order correlates between scores on the DMV scale and256
SSOC measure with social desirability, separately for academic and administrative-257
staff. Social desirability was significantly related to mission identity inclusion and258
innovation for academic staff (r = 0.220, p <.001) and for administrative staff259
123
Journal: 11218-SPOE Article No.: 9093 TYPESET DISK LE CP Disp.:2009/5/12 Pages: 13 Layout: Small-X
Author Proof
uncorrected proof
J. R. Ferrari et al.
Tab le 2 Partial correlates (controlling for social desirability) between institutional mission and sense of
community scores separately for academic and administrative staff
DePaul mission & values (DMV) School sense of community (SSOC)
Co-workers Administration
Innovative & inclusive
Acad. staff .508
∗∗
.519
∗∗
Admin. staff .378
∗∗
.500
∗∗
Catholic pluralism
Acad. staff .262
∗∗
.252
∗∗
Admin. staff .384
∗∗
.336
∗∗
Global/urban engagement activities
Acad. staff .139 .228
∗∗
Admin. staff .223
∗∗
.269
∗∗
Catholic patron saint activities
Acad. staff .196
.269
∗∗
Admin. staff .146
.183
∗∗
Faith-formation activities
Acad. staff .127 .143
Admin. staff .119 .106
Acad. staff = Academic staff, n = 305
Admin. staff= Administrative staff, n = 595
p <.01
∗∗
p <.001
(r = 0.244, p <.001). For administrative staff only, social desirability was signifi-260
cantly related with SSOC/co-workers (r = 0.164, p <.001) and SSOC/administration261
(r = 0.160, p <.001).262
Subsequently, we conducted partial correlates (controlling for social desirability)263
between DMV and SSOC scores, separately f or each set of staff. Table
2 presents these264
partial correlate coefficients. As noted from the table, perceptions by both staff groups265
of the university’s identity as innovative, inclusive, and a place where Roman Catho-266
lics and members of other faiths were welcomed were significantly, positively related267
to a school sense of community with co-workers and administrators.268
Furthermore, f or mission-driven activities both staff groups reported differences in269
their beliefs of how these programs related to a sense of community in their work-270
place (independent of social desirability responding). For instance, both groups of271
staff believed that community engagement activities and patron-saint programs were272
significantly, positively related to a sense of community with administrative officials.273
As noted from Table
2, however, administrative staff believed their sense of commu-274
nity with co-workers was significantly positively related to perceived importance of275
mission-related activities that included urban and global engagement, while teach-276
ing, academic staff believed that their sense of community with administrators were277
significantly, positively related to faith-formation activities that support the mission278
of the university. Both staff groups believed that their sense of community with co-279
123
Journal: 11218-SPOE Article No.: 9093 TYPESET DISK LE CP Disp.:2009/5/12 Pages: 13 Layout: Small-X
Author Proof
uncorrected proof
University mission perceptions by academic and administrative staff
Tab le 3 Regression analyses
for variables predicting SSOC
scores for academic staff only
a
R
2
= .298, p <.001
b
R
2
= .306, p <.001
n = 262,
∗∗
p.<. 01
Note: SSOC = School Sense of
Community
BSEBβ
Model 1
SSOC with co-workers
a
Innovative & inclusive .748 .085 .635
∗∗
Catholic pluralism .242 .135 .127
Catholic patron saint activities .056 .104 .032
Model 2
SSOC with administrators
b
Innovative & inclusive .622 .073 .622
∗∗
Catholic pluralism .303 .115 .188
∗∗
Global/urban engagement activities .099 .129 .050
Catholic patron saint activities .064 .118 .043
Faith-formation activities .015 .120 .008
workers was significantly, positively related to the university’s Catholic patron saint280
educational programs (see Table 2).281
2.3 Predicting school sense of community from university identity and activities282
Based on the aforementioned significant correlates we conducted separate multiple283
regression analyses for academic and administrative staff predicting a school sense284
of community from mission-perceptions and mission-driven activity importance (En-285
ter Method). For academic staff, SSOC with co-workers (Model 1) and administra-286
tors (Model 2) were regressed onto perception of DePaul’s mission and values (see287
Table 3). For administrative staff, SSOC with co-workers (Model 1) and administra-288
tors (Model 2) were regressed onto perception of DePaul’s mission and values (see289
Table
4). Predictors for both groups were entered based on the magnitude and signifi-290
cance of the predictors’ correlation with SSOC. For both groups of staff, none of the291
mission-driven activities were significant predictors of a school sense of community292
with colleagues and co-workers or administrative activities. Instead, perceptions of293
the university’s mission identity did predict SSOC for both staff groups.294
Analyses for academic staff only illustrated the perception of the university opera-295
tions as innovative and inclusive was the best predictor of a sense of community with296
colleagues. Results also illustrated that a sense of community with administrative offi-297
cials was best predicted by perceptions of the university as inclusive and innovative,298
as well as being less of a site where Catholic pluralism may be supported (see Table 3).299
Analyses for administrative staff only, illustrated that the perception of the university300
operations as innovative and inclusive was the best predictor of a sense of community301
with co-workers, and the university as a workplace that accepts Catholic pluralism.302
Furthermore, a sense of community with administrative officials was best predicted303
by perceptions of the university as inclusive and innovative (see Table 4).304
123
Journal: 11218-SPOE Article No.: 9093 TYPESET DISK LE CP Disp.:2009/5/12 Pages: 13 Layout: Small-X
Author Proof
uncorrected proof
J. R. Ferrari et al.
Tab le 4 Regression analyses
for variables predicting SSOC
scores for administrative staff
only
a
R
2
= .198, p <.001
b
R
2
= .259, p <.001
n = 472,
p <.05
∗∗
p <.05
Note: SSOC = School Sense of
Community
BSEBβ
Model 1
SSOC with co-workers
a
Innovative & inclusive .310 .070 .248
∗∗
Catholic pluralism .525 .121 .236
∗∗
Global/urban engagement activities .187 .130 .078
Catholic patron saint activities .117 .103 .062
Model 2
SSOC with administrators
b
Innovative & inclusive .483 .056 .449
∗∗
Catholic pluralism .102 .096 .054
Global/urban engagement activities .214 .105 .105
Catholic patron saint activities .089 .083 .055
3 Discussion305
Academic and administrative staffs sense of community with coworkers and admin-306
istrators was significantly correlated (independent of social desirability tendencies)307
with their perceptions of the university’s mission identity and mission-driven activities308
(see Table
2). Stepwise r egression analyses (Tables 3 and 4 illustrated that innovative,309
inclusive, pragmatic, risk-taking institutional practice collectively was the greatest pre-310
dictor for a sense of community between both groups of staff and their coworkers and311
administrators. However, a feeling of Catholic pluralism ( in which all stakeholders are312
free on campus to their personal religious beliefs, customs, and practices—Catholic313
or otherwise) was a predictor (negative) for sense of community between academic314
staff and administrators. In contrast, administrative staffs sense of community with315
administrators was predicted positively by Catholic pluralism believes.316
These results have implications for understanding a school sense of community317
(SSOC) in general and higher education officials in particular. In terms of SSOC, the318
present study demonstrated that is was possible to differentiate the importance of dis-319
tinguishing aspects for a sense of community among employees at private teaching320
universities. Employee satisfaction with their educational work settings has been dem-321
onstrated (e.g.,
Royal and Rossi 1996, 1999). The present study extends that research322
with university teaching, academic staff and office, administrative staff, suggesting323
that the work climate is an i mportant variable to be considered.324
In addition, the results of the present study suggest that administrators within higher325
education settings need to consider how their teaching, academic staff separate from326
their office staff view the institution’s mission. It seems that while both groups of327
staff value a school’s practice of being innovative in programs and inclusive of diverse328
ideas, the role of faith-formation programs have different relevance. Administrative329
staff seemed to welcome these religious programs to strengthen their SSOC with co-330
workers and the administration, while academic staff considered such programs as an331
adverse activity on their SSOC with administrators.332
123
Journal: 11218-SPOE Article No.: 9093 TYPESET DISK LE CP Disp.:2009/5/12 Pages: 13 Layout: Small-X
Author Proof
uncorrected proof
University mission perceptions by academic and administrative staff
Clearly, the present study has limitations. That is, all data were self-reported. We did333
not have any actual behavioral indices, for example of faith-related activities. Future334
studies may need to consider such measures. Also, all data were collected at the same335
institution. While the sample sizes were relatively large, it is unknown how these336
results might replicate across similar Catholic colleges and universities, as well as337
Christian and secular institutions. In addition, there may be differences within office,338
administrative staff (e.g., by administrative departments) and by teaching, academic339
staff (e.g., by majors) in their perception of SSOC and/or institutional mission. Future340
research by these breakdowns may yield useful information for higher education offi-341
cials interested in understanding a SSOC on campus. All data reported in the present342
study were quantitative, and it might be useful for future studies with both types of343
staff to explore qualitative, open-ended comments and viewpoints.344
Nevertheless, we considered the present study an important step toward understand-345
ing a SSOC among teaching, academic and office, administrative staff. The present346
study was the first published study to compare these two important institutional stake-347
holders. The importance of creating educational communities where diverse ideas,348
opinions, and viewpoints may grow and develop seem to be a goal of higher education349
administrators. The present study found that links between an institution’s mission350
identity and mission-driven activities may influence a school sense of community351
among university staff.352
Acknowledgements Funding for this project was made possible in part through a DePaul University353
Office of Mission and Values grant. Portions of this paper were presented at the 2007 Institute on College354
Student Values. Gratitude is expressed to Fr. Ed Udovic, Georgianna Torres Reyes, and Tom Drexler for355
their support.356
References357
Ahern, M. M., Hendryx, M. S., & Siddharthan, K. (1996). The importance of sense of community358
on people’s perceptions of their health-care experiences. Medical Care, 34, 911–923. doi:
10.1097/359
00005650-199609000-00004.360
Amis, J., Slack, T., & Hinings, C. R. (2002). Values and organizational change. The Journal of Applied361
Behavioral Science, 38, 436–465. doi:
10.1177/002188602237791.362
Berg, G. A., Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Nakamura, J. (2003). Mission possible? Enabling good work in higher363
education. Washington, DC: Heldref Publications.364
Bingham, F. G., Quigley, C. J., & Murray, K. B. (2001). A response to “Beyond the mission statement:365
Alternative futures for today’s universities”. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 11, 19–27.366
doi:
10.1300/J050v11n04_02.367
Bourne, B., Gates, L., & Cofer, J. (2000). Setting strategic directions using critical success factors. Planning368
for Higher Education, 28, 10–18.369
Brodsky, A. E. (1996). Resilient single mothers in risky neighborhoods: Negative psychological sense of370
community. Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 347–363. doi:
10.1002/(SICI)1520-6629(199610)24:371
4<347::AID-JCOP5>3.0.CO;2-R.372
Brodsky, A. E., & Marx, C. M. (2001). Layers of identity: Multiple psychological sense of com-373
munity within a community setting. Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 161–178. doi:
10.1002/374
1520-6629(200103)29:2<161::AID-JCOP1011>3.0.CO;2-1.375
Brodsky, A. E., O’Campo, P. J., & Aronson, R. E. (1999). PSOC in community context: Multi-level correlates376
of a measure of psychological sense of community in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Journal of Com-377
munity Psychology, 27, 659–679. doi:
10.1002/(SICI)1520-6629(199911)27:6<659::AID-JCOP3>3.0.378
CO;2-#.379
123
Journal: 11218-SPOE Article No.: 9093 TYPESET DISK LE CP Disp.:2009/5/12 Pages: 13 Layout: Small-X
Author Proof
uncorrected proof
J. R. Ferrari et al.
Burroughs, S. M., & Eby, L. T. (1998). Psychological sense o f community at work: A measurement380
system and explanatory framework. Journal of Community Psychology, 26, 509–532. doi:
10.1002/381
(SICI)1520-6629(199811)26:6<509::AID-JCOP1>3.0.CO;2-P.382
Carroll, M. G. (2002). Exploring the relationship between organizational commitment and employee beliefs,383
expectations, and experiences of mission in a values-based organization. Dissertations Abstracts Inter-384
national: Humanities and Social Sciences, 26(11-A), #3847.385
Carver, J. (2000). Managing your mission—advice on where to begin. About Campus, 4, 19–23.386
Catano, V. M., Pretty, G. M., Southwell, R. R., & Cole, G. K. (1993). Sense of community and union387
participation. Psychological Reports, 72, 333–334.388
Chavis, D. M., & Wandersman, A. (1990). Sense of community in the urban environment: A catalyst for389
participation and community development. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 55–81.390
doi:
10.1007/BF00922689.391
Chipuer, H. M., & Pretty, G. M. H. (1999). A review of the sense of community index: Current uses, factor392
structure, reliability, and further development. Journal of Community Psychology, 27, 643–658. doi:1
0.393
1002/(SICI)1520-6629(199911)27:6<643::AID-JCOP2>3.0.CO;2-B.394
Davidson, W. B., Cotter, P. R., & Stovall, J. G. (1991). Social pre-dispositions for the development of sense395
of community. Psychological Reports, 68, 817–818. doi:
10.2466/PR0.68.3.817-818.396
Detomasi, D. (1995). Mission statements: One more time. Planning for Higher Education, 24, 31–35.397
Diamond, R. M. (1999). Aligning faculty rewards with institutional mission: Statements, policies, and398
guidelines. Jaffrey, NH: Anker Publishing Company.399
Ehrlich, T. (2000). The impact of higher education on moral and civic responsibility. Journal of College400
and Character, 2, 1–11.401
Emery, M. (1996). Mission control. Training and Development Journal, 50, 51–54.402
Ferrari, J. R. (2000). Contributing to the community: The impact of service learning on students and com-403
munity agencies. Proceedings of the International Education Conference on Community Building in a404
Global Context. ACEA/OCEAM.405
Ferrari, J. R., & Chapman, J. G. (1999). Educating students to make a difference: Community-based service406
learning. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press.407
Ferrari, J. R ., & Cowman, S. E. (2004). Toward a reliable and valid measure of institutional mission and408
values perception: “The DePaul Values” inventory. Journal of Beliefs and Values, 25, 43–54.409
Ferrari, J. R., Dobis, K., Kierawski, S., Boyer, P., Kardaras, E. I., Michna, D. M., & Wagner, J. M. (1999).410
Community volunteerism among college students and professional psychologists: Does taking them to411
the streets make-a-difference? Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community, 18, 35–51.412
Ferrari, J. R., Loftus, M. M., & Pesek, J. (1999). Young and older caregivers at homeless animal and human413
shelters: Selfish and selfless motives in helping others. Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, 8,414
37–49.415
Ferrari, J. R., & Velcoff, J. (2006). Measuring staff perceptions of university identity and activities: The mis-416
sion and values inventory. Christian Higher Education, 5, 243–261. doi:
10.1080/15363750600685522.417
Finley, D. S., Rogers, G., & Galloway, J. R. (2001). Beyond the mission statement: Alternative futures for418
today’s universities. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 10, 63–82.419
Gardiner, L. F. (1988). Planning for a ssessment: Mission statements, goals, and objectives—a guide for420
colleges and universities. Newark, NJ.: Rutgers University.421
Haynes, J. K. (2002). Linking departmental and institutional mission. New Directions for Higher Education,422
119, 65–68.423
Hill, J. L. (1996). Psychological sense of community: Suggestions for future research. Journal of Community424
Psychology, 24, 431–438.425
Holland, B. A. (1999). From murky to meaningful: The role of mission in institutional change. In R. G.426
Bringle, R. Games, & E. A. Malloy (Eds.), Colleges and universities as citizens (pp. 48–73). Boston:427
Allyn & Bacon.428
Kruger, L. J. S., Maital, G., Macklen, C., Shriberg, D., Burgess, O. M., Kalinsky, R., & Corcoran, K. (2001).429
Sense of community among school psychologists on an internet site. Professional Psychology: Research430
and Practice, 32, 642–649.431
Louis, K. S., & Marks, H. M. (1998). Does professional community affect the classroom? Teachers’ work432
and student experiences in restructuring schools. American Journal of Education, 106, 532–575.433
Louis, K. S., Marks, H. M., & Kruse, S. (1996). Teachers’ professional community in restructuring schools.434
American Educational Research Journal, 33, 757–798.435
123
Journal: 11218-SPOE Article No.: 9093 TYPESET DISK LE CP Disp.:2009/5/12 Pages: 13 Layout: Small-X
Author Proof
uncorrected proof
University mission perceptions by academic and administrative staff
McGinty, A. S., Justice, L., & Rimm-Kaufman, S. E. (2008). Sense of school community for preschool436
teachers serving at-risk children. Early Education and Development, 19, 361–384.437
McMillan, D. W., & Chavis, D. M. (1986). Sense of community: A definition and theory. Journal of438
Community Psychology, 14, 6–23.439
Merline, A. M. (1998). Higher education, opportunity, and democracy: The survival and demise of private,440
non-selective liberal arts colleges in the United States, 1980–1989. Dissertation Abstracts International:441
Humanities and Social Sciences, 5 8 (11-A), #4205.442
Moldenhauer-Salazar, J. C. (2000). Visions and missions: A case study of organizational change and443
diversity in higher education. Dissertation Abstracts International: Sciences and Engineering, 61 (2-B).444
#1120.445
Murphy, J. P. (1991). Visions and values in Catholic higher education. Kansas City, MO: Sheed & Ward.446
Pohl, S. (2002). Personal values: Variables moderating the relationship between organizational practices447
and affective commitment to the organization. European Review of Applied Psychology, 52, 13–23.448
Reynolds, W. M. (1982). Development of reliable and short forms of the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desir-449
ability Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 119–125.450
Rowley, D. J., Lujan, J. D., & Dolence, M. G. (1997). Strategies change in colleges and universities.San451
Francisco: Jossey-Bass.452
Royal, M. A., & Rossi, R. J. (1996). Individual level correlates of sense of community: Findings from453
workplace and school. Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 395–416.454
Royal, M. A., & Rossi, R. J. (1999). Predictors of within-school differences in teacher’s sense of community.455
Journal of Educational Research, 92, 259–266.456
Sarason, S. B. (1974). The psychological sense of community: Prospects for a community psychology.San457
Francisco: Jossey-Bass.458
Schulte, L. E., Shanahan, S., Anderson, T. D., & Sides, J. (2003). Student and teacher perceptions of their459
middle and high schools’ sense of community. School Community Journal, 13, 7–33.460
Smith, P. E. (1998). The mission of rhetoric and the rhetoric of mission statements. ADE Bulletin, 121,461
30–36.462
Sterns, J. M., & Borna, S. (1998). Mission statements in business higher education: Issues and evidence.463
Higher Education Management, 10, 89–104.464
Sullivan, L. (1997). The core values of Vincentian education. Niagara, NY: Niagara University Press.465
Tyson, L. A., & Birnbrauer, H. (1985). High-quality evaluation. Training & Development Journal, 39,466
33–37.467
van der Vorm, P. T. (2001). The well-tempered search: Hiring faculty and administrators for mission.468
Academe, 87, 34–37.469
Wright, J. N. (2002). Mission and reality and why not? Journal of Change Management, 3, 30–44.470
Zaff, J., & Devlin, A. S. (1998). Sense of community in housing for the elderly. Journal of Community471
Psychology, 26, 381–397.472
123
Journal: 11218-SPOE Article No.: 9093 TYPESET DISK LE CP Disp.:2009/5/12 Pages: 13 Layout: Small-X
Author Proof
... Experiences of community and belonging exist in a range of group contexts, culminating in a general shared understanding and belief, which for some may define a religious faith . As a result of its seemingly universal application, scholars use sense of community to investigate the interconnectedness of student outcomes such as faith development, academic success, and peer engagement with a variety of academic environments (Ferrari et al., 2009;Yang & Liu, 2008;Yasuda, 2009). ...
... Researchers who study student outcomes have collected empirical evidence of sense of community through both quantitative and qualitative methods in relation to the college or university setting (Brandon et al., 2008;Bronkema & Bowman, 2017;Devlin et al., 2008;Hill et al., 1999;Li et al., 2005), institutional mission (Bottom et al., 2013;Ferrari et al., 2009), racial identity (Ferrari et al., 2014), and gender (Hagborg, 1998;Wang et al., 2004). Despite differences in measurable levels of community in relation to such factors, conclusions persist in connecting the importance of sense of belonging, individual and group accountability, and shared community association (all attributes of SOC) to student success and retention (Jacobs & Archie, 2008). ...
... Within this collection of scholarly work, gender is identified as an indicator in determining students' satisfaction or dissatisfaction with residential college experiences. First and foremost, of notable significance are the studies by Bottom et al. (2013) and Ferrari et al. (2009Ferrari et al. ( , 2014, Uniquely understanding the varying perspectives and lenses through which students experience physical space may help in decision-making processes connected to campus master planning and inevitably student success. ...
Article
Full-text available
STUDENTS IN THE AUTISM COMMUNITY are a currently underrepresented, yet growing, population in higher education, which strives to understand student experiences on campus and find ways to better support students with autism. This qualitative research study examined the expectations and experiences of seven students on the autism spectrum in relation to residence life. Participants expressed having expectations related to academics, campus housing, community, roommates, and the overall collegiate experience. As expectation confirmation theory suggests, if the expectations of students with autism are met, satisfaction and success may be bolstered. The article provides insights on how to fulfill expectations unique to this student population and provides recommendations for practice.
... A psychological sense of community (PSOC) refers to feelings of membership, shared emotional connections, influence, and the ability of the community to meet a member's needs (Community Science, 2018). While PSOC was developed initially to understand how residents "fit-in" to neighborhoods , it has been explored in many other contexts including universities (Ferrari et al., 2009) and workplaces (Burroughs and Eby, 1998;Chipuer and Pretty, 1999;Manion and Bartholomew, 2004). McMillan and "Those few American corporations that manage to convey a genuine sense of community and belonging to their employees are thriving as a consequence" (Tom Peters, as cited in Naylor et al., 1996, p. 43). ...
... The analysis extends the work on understanding the PSOC within working environments by Chipuer and Pretty (1999) and Ferrari et al. (2009) by collecting survey data from a wide range of occupational and employment contexts using MTurk, Amazon's online data collection website. Online data collection strategies, such as Amazon MTurk, have been criticized for a variety of reasons, including concerns that online study participants are more depressed (Kraut et al., 1998), non-representativeness of samples (Paolacci and Chandler, 2014), and social desirability (Behrend et al., 2011). ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to develop and psychometrically assess an individual’s perception of their work unit’s psychological sense of community (PSOCw) scale. This new scale is designed to capture the unique characteristics of a contemporary work unit that might include current practices such as hot-desking and workers located in physically separate locations. Design/methodology/approach This paper develops and then psychometrically accesses a new scale designed to better capture the psychological sense of community in a contemporary work unit. Findings The managerial implications for the PSOCw scale that is a psychometrically sound measure of work engagement, civility and collegiality in a work unit allow managers to audit a work unit based on these three dimensions and then take corrective actions to enhance the work unit’s sense of community. Originality/value The present study adapts previous work on PSOCw to a contemporary work environment where members of a work unit are often in physically separate locations and largely connect virtually.
... Individuals who have a strong sense of community might be more likely to endorse organizational values and goals. Often, an institution's purpose, objectives, expectations, and values are exemplified through a university mission statement (Ferrari, Cowman, Milner, Gutierrez, & Drake, 2009). Ferrari et al. (2009) examined the impact of sense of community on one's perceptions of the salience of the university's overall mission-driven activities and goals. ...
... Often, an institution's purpose, objectives, expectations, and values are exemplified through a university mission statement (Ferrari, Cowman, Milner, Gutierrez, & Drake, 2009). Ferrari et al. (2009) examined the impact of sense of community on one's perceptions of the salience of the university's overall mission-driven activities and goals. Their sample included 901 university faculty and administrative staff. ...
Article
Full-text available
Psychological sense of community (PSOC) is a construct that may facilitate social action in university students. Similarly, a social justice-focused university mission statement might also facilitate social action and interest. The current study investigated whether psychological sense of community, agreeing with the mission statement, and taking diversity courses or service-learning courses impacted university students' social justice attitudes and student activism. Results indicated that students with higher PSOC were more likely to agree with the university's social justice-related mission statement, and agreement with the mission was strongly associated with favorable social justice attitudes and activism. Taking service-learning courses was also associated with favorable social justice attitudes and a greater likelihood of engaging in activism.
... A teaching and student success focus is certainly true for NLU's full-time and adjunct faculty, even beyond those in the teaching and learning leadership track (NLU, 2013). As institutional documents should guide operations (Tierney, 2002;Ferrari et al., 2009), it is telling that the mission, vision, values, strategic planning pillars, and tenure components all mention teaching and excellence in education (Megahed, 2016;NLU, 2013, n.d.-c). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Despite assessment of student learning being essential work in higher education, a number of institutions have noted faculty could more effectively be using assessment results (Jankowski et al., 2018; Kuh et al., 2015; Metzler & Kurz, 2019; Suskie, 2014). This study applied Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as a theoretical framework to provide context for faculty behavior associated with assessment actions (Fuller et al., 2016; Ryan & Deci, 2000). Mostly quantitative data were collected via electronic survey of faculty program leaders at a single institution, National Louis University (NLU). Results indicated a significant and positive relationship suggesting an increase in meeting the collective SDT needs would be met with an increase in faculty program leaders use of assessment evidence. Implications for further research are provided, as well as recommendations for changes to be made at NLU for the betterment of faculty experience and assessment culture.
... A clear and relevant school mission has been associated with student achievement levels in British Columbia (Boerema 2009) and Texas (Slate et al. 2008). Research also suggests that the sense of community is related to the mission and identity in a Catholic university context (Ferrari et al. 2009). Mission can clearly play a role in the experiences of school teachers and may contribute to teacher self-efficacy. ...
Article
Private Christian schools in North America endeavour to provide an educational experience that integrates religious and academic training for their preK-12 students. The integration of faith and academics has been studied in higher education institutions in North America, but not substantially in preK-12 schools. This study uses the lens of teacher self-efficacy to examine Christian school teachers’ confidence to integrate faith into their instructional practices. A survey was conducted that drew responses from 390 educators from 18 Mennonite-affiliated schools across North America. Responses indicated generally high levels of faith integration self-efficacy for all teachers; however, teachers felt least confident in drawing parents into the process. Regression analysis showed that individual factors did predict faith integration self-efficacy. Implications of these findings are discussed.
... Evidence on the influence of mission statements within higher education is scarce, but insitutions with a missions statement containing ethical content have been associated with increased ethical orientation among students (Davis et al., 2007). Moreover, a perceived sense of community among administrative and academic staff has been associated with positive perceptions of the university mission (Ferrari, Cowman, Milner, Gutierrez, & Drake, 2009). These studies indicate the potential importance of including specific language about community engagement in mission statements of higher education institutions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Student engagement has become a priority in higher education with the increased urgency for institutions to improve the citizenship of their student body (Bringle & Hatcher, 1996). This emphasis has been echoed by the NCAA, who views community service as a means to providing additional development to student-athletes (NCAA, 2007). Additionally, community service has shown to improve academic development, interpersonal skills, and civic responsibility for the participants (Astin & Sax, 1998). With athletic departments motivated to provide community service opportunities for their student-athletes both athletically and academically, this study employed content analysis to explore similarities and differences among NCAA Division I and Division II athletic departments in how they communicate community service efforts both internally (student-athlete handbook) and externally (mission statement). The results show a relative lack of community service within athletic department mission statements, while those that did mention community service were not always indicative of the amount of service efforts communicated via department websites. Additional concerns include student-athlete handbooks mentioning community service as punishment and too few NCAA Division II institutions mentioning community service, especially after the implementation of the Division II Philosophy Statement.
... identity characteristics (Ferrari et al. 2009). Ferrari, McCarthy, and Milner (2009) found that strong mission perceptions of university identity and engagement in mission-driven activities impacted student academic goals and SSOC. ...
Article
Full-text available
For decades researchers assessed sense of community (SOC), inclusion, and pluralism within academic settings. In the present study, 2,220 undergraduate students (1,442 women, 778 men; M age = 23.42 years; SD = 7.84) at two Catholic universities responded to perceived levels of school sense of community, inclusion, and religious pluralism. Analyses of covariance assessing participants’ university setting, religious affiliation, and racial identification showed no significant interaction or main effects for setting and racial identity with regard to inclusion. However, a significant interaction for university setting and religious affiliation for sense of community was found. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
Article
With institutions of higher education recognizing the importance of implementing sustainability education, universities have begun exploring the driving factors of sustainable teaching innovation among higher education faculty. However, the crucial role of higher education faculty in the educational innovation process has been neglected. This study adopted a two-wave tracking survey method, collected 354 valid questionnaires from the university innovation and entrepreneurship education alliance of the eastern coastal provinces of China, and tested the research model using hierarchical regression. The findings indicate that (1) university playfulness climate can predict teachers' sustainable teaching innovation; (2) job engagement positively mediates the relationship between university playfulness climate and sustainable teaching innovation; and (3) the sensitivity of teachers’ teaching and learning positively moderates the effects of university playfulness climate and job engagement on teachers' sustainable teaching innovation. These findings suggest that the role of the university playfulness climate is being considered and may be closely related to university social innovation through teachers' sustainable teaching innovation.
Article
Full-text available
The study aims to address two areas regarding preschool education: the participation of preschool practitioners in professional groups and communities and the views and understandings they hold on the ‘professional community’ concept. A survey was completed by teachers and specialists working with preschool children in all kindergartens of Sibiu (N=308) in July 2011. A quantitative and qualitative approach of the data was used, for processing a part of the survey’s items. Results show a high participation of practitioners in professional groups within their own institution, but less implication in national or international groups and communities. The respondents’ views on professional community show a basic understanding of it, as a place for interaction and communication in order to get support and advice when needed. Several practical implications are drawn after discussing the results.
Article
Full-text available
We examined perceptions on school sense of community and social justice attitudes among undergraduates (N = 427; 308 women, 115 men; M age = 19.72, SD = 1.91), and how year in school and club membership affected these constructs. Results demonstrated that involvement with a greater number of clubs was associated with having a stronger school sense of community and more positive social justice attitudes. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that year in school did not significantly predict social justice attitudes. Results suggested that greater involvement and sense of school belonging might be linked to social justice attitudes.
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about how senior administrators at a university (i.e., vice-presidents and deans) perceive their institution's mission, vision, and values. In the present study, we focused on perceptions of institutional mission statement and activities proposed to support that mission among senior leaders (18 vice-presidents, 17 deans) from a private midwestern, Roman Catholic university. Senior administrators completed reliable and valid inventories on mission identity and mission-related activities, social desirability responding, and faculty engagement related to the mission. Controlling for social desirability, results indicated that both women and men vice-presidents and deans reported similar, relatively high perceptions related to the mission and mission-driven activities of their university. These senior leaders believed there were activities that the faculty could engage that were mission-driven but not reflective of the university's identity.
Article
Developed, on the basis of responses from 608 undergraduate students to the 33-item Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, three short forms of 11, 12, and 13 items. The psychometric characteristics of these three forms and three other short forms developed by Strahan and Gerbasi (1972) were investigated and comparisons made. Results, in the form of internal consistency reliability, item factor loadings, short form with Marlowe-Crowne total scale correlations, and correlations between Marlowe-Crowne short forms and the Edwards Social Desirability Scale, indicate that psychometrically sound short forms can be constructed. Comparisons made between the short forms examined in this investigation suggest the 13-item form as a viable substitute for the regular 33-item Marlowe-Crowne scale.
Article
The short form of the Sense of Community Index (SCI) (Chavis, Hogge, McMillan, & Wandersman, 1986) was assessed in terms of the four dimensions of psychological sense of community (PSC) proposed by McMillan and Chavis (1986). Four sets of data were used. They measured PSC in the neighborhood for adults and adolescents, and workplace PSC for adults, using true/false and three-point response formats. Reliabilities for the total SCI scores ranged from .64 to .69. Most subscale reliabilities were below acceptable levels, ranging from a low of .16 to a high of .72. Factor analyses showed some support for the existence of the four dimensions of the McMillan and Chavis PSC model in the SCI. However, they were not consistent across data sets. Further work to develop the SCI as a measure representative of the PSC model is outlined, with implications for adult and adolescent populations. © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
The research on psychological sense of community leads to few firm conclusions. Among these are the idea that psychological sense of community is context specific, must be understood as involving more than individual behaviors, and should be researched at a community level. It is suggested that research on psychological sense of community could best be accomplished using a multidisciplinary approach and that the assumption that psychological sense of community is on the decline in modern American society should be empirically examined. Finally, it is suggested that in order to have a complete understanding of psychological sense of community, we need to begin to research its related construct, a sense of transcendence. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
Organizational research has long dealt with community-related themes such as organizational commitment, workgroup cohesion, psychological climate, and morale. More recently, psychological contracts and organizational citizenship behaviors have approached the concept of community in more specific terms (Rousseau, 1995; Graham & Organ, 1993; Van Dyne, Graham, & Dienesch, 1994). The present investigation integrated the existing literature on community-related variables. This theoretical and empirical foundation was used to operationalize the construct of psychological sense of community in the workplace (PSCW), develop a measurement system and assess its psychometric properties, and test an initial framework of antecedents and consequences of PSCW. A cross-organizational sample of 256 employees partially support the proposed framework. (C) 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
-The study examined whether two rypes of social variables set the stage for the development of sense of community in 236 adults (91 men, 145 women) from 41 of the 67 counties in Alabama. Multiple regression showed both types of social variables, the need for affiliation and having been raised with sibhngs, were significantly and positively related to scores on a measure of sense of commuruty Sense of community refers to strong feelings of belongingness, integration of needs, reciprocal influence, and shared history a person has toward a particular referent group (McMdan & Chavis, 1986). Previous research has explored the types of environmental or group circumstances that promote sense of community (e.g., Glynn, 1981; Pretty, 1990), but no attention has yet been directed toward personal predispositions or early social experiences that may set the stage for the development of this quality in adults. The current study examined the relationship between sense of community and two types of social precursors: the personality trait "need for affiliation" and a nuclear family variable, "the number of siblings with whom one was raised." We reasoned that both precursors promote later social contact basic to sense of community. Telephone interviews were conducted with random samples in 41 of the 67 counties in Alabama. There were 91 men, 145 women; 48 were black and 184 were white; nor report for 4. The total sample included 236 respondents (mean age 43.7 yr., SD: 17.5; 101 had 11 or 12 yr, of school and 102 had additional education), who were administered selected items from the Sense of Community scale (Davidson & Cotter, 1986), the need-for-affiliation scale of the Personality Research Form-E (Jackson, 1974), and queries about their demographic characteristics and the number of siblings with whom they were raised during the first 10 years of their lives. Responses to the sibling variable were grouped into three categories (percent of sample): 0-1 (30%),