Phosphorus effects on root growth and development in two maize genotypes

South Dakota State University Plant Science Department 57007 Brookings SD USA
Plant and Soil (Impact Factor: 2.95). 12/1993; 158(1):39-46. DOI: 10.1007/BF00007915


Soil phosphorus (P) availability is critical for the early growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.). Soil P also affects root morphological and physiological characteristics that are important for P uptake. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of P on seedling root growth and development of two maize genotypes differing in root system plasticity. Two maize genotypes, CM37 (high plasticity) and W153R (low plasticity), were selected based on a preliminary study. Maize plants were evaluated at six vegetative stages of development for three soil P treatments (0, 45, and 300 mg kg-1). Seedlings were grown in a controlled environment using a soil with low native P, Maddock sandy loam (sandy, mixed Udorthentic Haploborolls). The addition of P decreased the time to reach a given growth stage and increased the relative growth rate of roots to a greater degree in CM37 than in W153R. The effects of P on shoot dry weight and root surface area during the V4–V6 growth period appeared to be related to the effects of P on development and relative growth rates during the V1–V3 growth period. Evaluation of the time course of phenotypic change is an important consideration when developing adapted genotypes for specific environments.

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Available from: Thomas E. Schumacher
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    • "Maize being a nutrient exhaustive crop requires relatively high soil fertility to attain maximum yield. Soil P availability during seedling development is critical for early growth and grain yield of maize (Hajabbasi and Schumacherm 1994). Barry and Miller (1989) reported an increase in yield of maize in response to P fertilization before the 6-leaf stage compared to the addition of P after the 6th-leaf stage. "
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    ABSTRACT: A field experiment was conducted on maize hybrids (Bio-9681 and Pro-311) to illustrate the effect of phosphorus (P) on physiological growth analysis traits, anthesis-to-silking interval (ASI) and its correlation with yield. Hybrids were sown with two soil phosphorus (P) levels, viz., 60 and 0 kg ha−1, corresponding to soil P content of 41.5 and 7.4 mg P kg−1 soil, and observations were recorded at three growth stages, 10th leaf (V10), 15th leaf (V15) and tassel emergence (R1) stages. Significant increases were observed in crop growth rate (CGR), relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area index (LAI), leaf area ratio (LAR) and relative leaf extension rate (RLER) in hybrids in response to P application. Total plant P and grain P uptake increased with P application. The P utilization efficiency for biomass (PUEbm) and grain (PUEg) was higher at P60. Significant increase in cob weight, grain yield and harvest index were recorded at P60 as compared to P0. P stress adversely affected ASI resulting in an increase of 2.8 days in both the hybrids, with a concurrent reduction of 40 % in grain yield. Correlation studies showed significant association of plant P uptake with grain yield at all growth stages, while biomass accumulation at R1 determined grain yield. CGR, RGR, NAR, LAI and LAR exhibited positive correlation at R1 with grain yield, while the latter showed dependency on LAI at all stages. Thus, P fertilization is crucial in maize to maintain optimum yield potential.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Indian Journal of Plant Physiology
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    • "Effects of soil P availability for the root growth of maize have been demonstrated previously . Hajabbasi and Schumacher ( 1994 ) have reported a significant negative effect of soil P availability on the rate of appearance of axile roots of maize . Mollier and Pellerin ( 1999 ) showed reduction in both lateral root elongation and emergence of new axile roots of maize under low P availability . "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims This study of a maize-white lupin model cropping system was conducted to investigate the effects of rhizosphere-sharing of white lupin, a P-efficient plant, on growth and P accumulation of maize under different P rates and forms in two contrasting soils. Methods With Regosol and Andosol, a 42-day pot experiment was conducted for 0P (no P addition), 50Pi, 100Pi (50 and 100 mg P kg−1 soil by NaHPO4⋅2H2O respectively), and 100Po (100 mg P kg−1 soil by phytate). Plant growth, P uptake, rhizosphere pH, and different P fractions were investigated. Results Complementary effects of intercropping for maize were observed in Regosol, but not in Andosol. Total P uptake by intercropped maize in 0P, 50Pi, and 100Po was elevated by 46, 37, and 65 %, respectively, compared to when it was grown as a monoculture. White lupin mobilized P from sparingly soluble forms. Thereby, maize plant enhanced its P accumulation as a result of access to these two fractions in mixed culture in Regosol, where strong root intermingling occurred among intercropped plants. Conclusions Results suggest that the P mobilization strategy of white lupin from sparingly soluble P pools in soil can enhance the P acquisition efficiency of coexisting maize with P facilitation in this intercropping occurring in the direction of white lupin to maize. Achieving enhanced growth and P uptake by P-inefficient species in intercropping with white lupin is dependent on the type of soil in which those plants are grown.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Plant and Soil
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    • "According to Reynolds and Trethowan (2007), the use of such traits therefore requires proper definition in terms of stage of crop development at which they are relevant, the specific attributes of the target environment for which they are adaptive, and their potential contribution to yield. P availability has been shown to be critical in the early developmental stages (Barry and Miller, 1989; Rebafka et al., 1993; Hajabbasi and Schumacher, 1994; Plenet et al., 2000; Valluru et al., 2010) and therefore, P deficiency in early stages is a direct constraint for crop production, particularly under agricultural conditions where intensive soil fertilization is not affordable (Lynch, 1995; Calderon-Vazquez et al., 2008). PE can therefore be evaluated both at early and adult plant stages. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br] production on the acid sandy Sahelian soils in West Africa (WA) is severely limited bylaw plant-available phosphorus (P) in addition to erratic rainfall. We sought to examine the genetic variability for P uptake and P utilization efficiency in 180 WA pearl millet inbred lines or subsets thereof under low (LP) and high P (HP) conditions in one field and two pot experiments, determine the relationships among the measured traits and grain yield under field conditions at three other independent WA sites, and identify potential secondary selection traits for improving grain yield under LP. We observed genetic variation for P uptake and utilization in both seedling and mature plants. P utilization efficiency increased under LP conditions. Total P uptake was more important for grain production than P utilization under LP field conditions (r = 0.57*** vs r = 0.30***). The estimated response to indirect selection was positive for most of the measured morphological and P-efficiency parameters. We conclude that both seedling and mature plant traits are potentially useful as secondary traits in selection of pearl millet for low-P adaptation. These results should be validated using heterozygous pearl millet genetic materials. Ultimately, pearl millet breeding activities for low P tolerance in WA should be integrated with other system-oriented research such as nutrient cycling, intercropping or rotations with legumes, better crop-tree-livestock integration, and modest applications of locally available rock phosphate.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
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