Evolutionary Discontinuity of the Carabine Ground Beetles

Journal of Molecular Evolution (Impact Factor: 1.68). 01/2001; 53(4):517-529. DOI: 10.1007/s002390010242
Source: PubMed


The Carabine ground beetles are mostly hind wing-less and cannot fly, so that there is more chance of diversification by
geographic isolation compared with winged insects. The relationships between morphological diversification and phylogeny of
the ground beetles of the world have been inferred mainly by comparisons of mitochondrial ND5 gene sequences. Based on dating
by a mitochondrial DNA ``clock,'' it has been deduced that an explosive radiation of the major carabine groups took place
50–40 MYA. This was followed by occasional radiations on various scales, sometimes accompanied by parallel morphological changes.
There are also a good number of examples showing that the fundamental morphology has remained unchanged for a long time among
geographically isolated populations within the same species. Thus, carabid evolution would have proceeded discontinuously,
with phases of rapid morphological change alternating with silent phases.

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Available from: Zhi-Hui Su, Sep 16, 2014
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    • "DNA 1 mL using primer made according to the existing report (Table 2; Su et al. 2001). The PCR conditions were set as follows: going through a metamorphic process at 94 C for 2 minutes , 48 C for 15 seconds, and then 72 C for 45 secondsdthis process was defined as one reaction cycle and was repeated 35 times in total. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to know some regional gene difference in carabid beetle, Coptolabrus jankowskii. There are eight subspecies of this species in Korea and it was very difficult to identify by morphological similarity. The mitochondrial ND5 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5) gene of Coptolabrus jankowskii from four regions, Sangju, Daegu, Jumbongsan Mountain and Jejudo Island, was compared. The results showed the differences of the base sequence of total 57 sites and the amino acid variation of the 25 sites. The Neighbor-joining tree and Maximum parsimony tree were established based on sequence data of the ND5. In the NJ tree, the Jeju area except Songdangri, and Jumbongsan region showed close relationship group. In the case of Maximum parsimony tree, the result divided to three separated groups: the first connected group was Songdangri, Jeju area and the other the Korean peninsula regions except Jumbongsan. Others were Jeju area except Songdangri, and Jumbongsan region.
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    • "McHugh (2000, 2001) proposed the same reason to explain the poorly resolved Annelida phylogeny. Their arguments are based on short internal and long external branches in the respective phylogenetic trees, which have been suggested as clear evidence of rapid divergence, or radiation (Martin et al. 2000; Mawkawa et al. 2001; Su et al. 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: 2012 is the 10th anniversary of the publication of the first molecular phylogenetic study of earthworms by Jamieson and colleagues in 2002. Since then, a total of 29 papers on earthworm molecular phylogenetics have been published in peer-reviewed journals. However, only five of these focused on intergeneric or higher level systematics; moreover, no systematic revisions have been made. On the other hand, studies related to DNA barcoding and population genetics are flourishing, comprising more than half of published papers. In this review, we present a synthesis based on published papers of earthworm molecular phylogenetic studies, and discuss the evolutionary history and sequence characteristics that have caused the contrasting results found in the literature. We argue that multiple levels of rapid divergence in the evolutionary history of earthworms make phylogenetic reconstruction difficult. Many previous studies also suffered from using sequences that were too short and choosing genes that evolve too slowly. In response to this challenge, we recommend a strategy that involves analyzing long sequences (>2000bp) by combining several genes with different evolutionary rates to provide enough information for different taxonomic levels, and we point out three genes (28S, 16S, and 12S rRNAs) suitable for intergeneric (within-family) analyses. Furthermore, the studies on closely related species demonstrate how molecular systematic and phylogeographic analyses have improved our understanding of earthworm speciation and intraspecific genetic variation. This knowledge about intra- and inter-specific genetic variations among closely related species provides information that can be further used for species delimitation in other earthworm groups. The numerous DNA barcoding studies have highlighted the usefulness of this technique in earthworm taxonomy, its possible applications in ecological studies, and an ongoing integrative taxonomic approach that combines morphology, DNA barcoding, and other independent data sources in species identification, discrimination and delimitation, plus new species description. Altogether, we believe that molecular phylogenetics is now on the verge of revolutionizing earthworm systematics.
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    • "The ND5 gene sequences were AT-rich (around 80%) and their G+C contents were nearly constant (21 T 2%). These facts, together with linearity between the chronology and evolutionary distances in the carabid beetles (see Fig. 1 of Su et al., 2001), suggest that the DNA clock has been working at a nearly constant rate, without any appreciable influence of base composition bias or multiple substitutions. "
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    ABSTRACT: We deduced the phylogenetic relationships of 54 individuals representing 27 species of the Calosomina (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from various regions of the world from the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND 5) gene sequences. The results suggest that these Calosomina radiated into 17 lineages within a short time about 30 million years ago (Mya). Most of the lineages are composed of a single genus containing only one or a few species. In some cases, several species classified into the same genus (e.g., Calosoma maximowiczi, Calos. inquisitor and Calos. frigidum) appear separately in independent lineages, while in others a series of species classified into different genera fall into one lineage (e.g., Chrysostigma calidum, Blaptosoma chihuahua, Microcallisthenes wilkesi and Callisthenes spp.). Based on this molecular phylogeny and morphological data, the probable evolutionary history and mode of morphological differentiation of the Calosomina are discussed.
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