Article

Simultaneous Determination of Four Sudan Dyes in Egg Yolks by Molecularly Imprinted SPE Coupled with LC-UV Detection

Chromatographia (Impact Factor: 1.41). 02/2011; 73(3):227-233. DOI: 10.1007/s10337-010-1872-7

ABSTRACT

A highly selective molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) combined with liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection
was developed for the simultaneous isolation and determination of four Sudan dyes (I, II, III and IV) in egg-yolk products.
The imprinted microspheres synthesized by suspension polymerization using phenylamine–naphthol as mimic template show high
selectivity and affinity to the four kinds of Sudan dyes and were successfully applied as selective sorbents of solid-phase
extraction for the simultaneous determination of the four Sudans from egg-yolk samples. Good linearity was obtained in a range
of 0.062–10μgg−1 and the average recoveries of the four Sudans at three spiked levels ranged from 94.1 to 102.5% with the relative standard
deviations less than 5.8%. The developed extraction protocol eliminated the effect of template leakage on quantitative analysis
and could be applied for the determination of Sudans in complicated food samples.

KeywordsColumn liquid chromatography–Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction–Imprinted microspheres–Sudan dyes–Egg yolk

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    • "A highly selective molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) combined with liquid chromatography–ultraviolet detection was developed for the simultaneous isolation and determination of four Sudan dyes (I, II, III and IV) in egg-yolk products. The imprinted microspheres synthesized by suspension polymerization using phenylamine–naphthol as mimic template show high selectivity and affinity to the four kinds of Sudan dyes and were successfully applied as selective sorbents of solid-phase extraction for the simultaneous determination of the four Sudans from egg-yolk samples (Qiao et al., 2011). Zhan et al. (2013) synthesized Azo dye acid Orange II through using a semi-covalent method based on a specific thermally reversible bond for detecting the residual dyes in chilli powder and processed meat. "
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular recognition plays an indispensable role in nature for the recognition of antibodies, enzymes and nucleic acids. Biomimetic fibrous non-woven materials are being developed to act as highly sensitive and selective artificial receptors based on molecular recognition sites in the constituent fibres. Molecular imprinting technologies (MITs) with specific recognition abilities are currently being developed to produce versatile materials for the recognition of diverse species in various applications, but specifically in membrane separation to express permselectivity. Conventionally, the production of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) involves introducing binding sites where highly cross-linked copolymers are formed around the analyte molecules that act as cavity-creating templates. Subsequent removal of the template molecule provides recognition sites in the polymer that ideally resemble the template in terms of shape, size and functionality. Rebinding of the target molecule within these pre-formed sites can occur when the polymer is incubated in the presence of the template molecule. However, removing of template after polymerization is difficult because cross-linked polymer materials tend to be insoluble. This review paper describes work on new non-covalent molecular imprinting technologies applied to fibrous materials and electrospun fibres that are suitable for selected target recognition. This method has the potential of becoming a tool for producing truly simple, rapid and robust receptors on membranes of the type in regular use in the food industry, making the in-process simultaneous removal of undesirable co-product chemicals and microbial toxins a commercial possibility.
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    ABSTRACT: A highly selective molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ultraviolet-visible detection was developed for the simultaneous isolation and determination of four Sudan dyes (I, II, III and IV) in catsup products. The novel molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIM) were synthesized by aqueous suspension polymerization using phenylamine and naphthol as template, which showed high affinity to Sudan dyes in aqueous solution. In order to develop a selective extraction protocol for simultaneous determination the four Sudan dyes from catsup products, the molecular recognition properties of MIM as a SPE sorbent were evaluated. Under the optimized condition, good linearity was obtained from 0.01 to 2.5 μg g(-1) (r(2)≥ 0.9990) with the relative standard deviations of less than 3.4%. This proposed MISPE-HPLC procedure eliminated the effect of template leakage on quantitative analysis and could be applied to direct determination of four Sudan dyes in complicated food samples.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
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    ABSTRACT: A new single-hole hollow molecularly imprinted polymer (SHH-MIP) was prepared by multistep seed swelling polymerization using Sudan I as template molecule and successfully applied to selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) of Sudan dyes in chilli sauce samples. The polymers possessed high specific surface area obtained by nitrogen adsorption and good thermal stability without decomposition lower than 380 °C by thermogravimetry analysis. Much higher binding capacity was exhibited than with irregular solid MIP prepared by bulk polymerization, because most of the binding sites were located in the surface of the polymers, facilitating template removal and mass transfer. Accordingly, the SHH-MIP was employed as SPE adsorbent for chilli sauce analysis and offered high recoveries for Sudan I in the range of 87.5-103.4% with the precision of 1.94-5.33% at three spiked levels. The SHH-MIP with high selectivity and high stability was demonstrated to be potentially applicable for high selective preconcentration and determination of trace Sudan dyes in complicated samples.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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