Article

New York City property values: What is the impact of green roofs on rental pricing?

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  • University of Connecticut, School of Business
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Abstract

Green roofs have recently seen increasing popularity in many cities, such as New York, due to their cooling effects, stormwater control features, and aesthetics and amenity values. Few known studies, however, have attempted to quantify the benefits of green roofs into monetary values. We use hedonic regression techniques to obtain estimates that apartment rents in buildings with green roofs in the Battery Park City area of New York were about 16% higher on average than in buildings without green roofs. Battery Park City is located in the Upper Bay Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) watershed. If we were to extend the Battery Park City findings to the entire Upper Bay CSO watershed and if all buildings in the CSO watershed were to install green roofs, our results imply that rental receipts in the watershed could increase by as much as approximately $2.1 billion monthly. KeywordsGreen roofs–Apartment rental prices–Hedonic methods–Stormwater runoff

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... Historically, research valuing the urban environment focused on blue and greenspace (e.g., parks, cemeteries, open space, lakes, trails), and most commonly used hedonic housing models (e.g., Anderson and West, 2006;Cho et al., 2009;Waltert and Schläpfer, 2010;Brander and Koetse, 2011;Ichihara and Cohen, 2011;Saphores and Li, 2012;Panduro and Veie, 2013;Mazzotta et al., 2014;Escobedo et al., 2015;Schläpfer et al., 2015;Noor et al., 2015;Czembrowski and Kronenberg, 2016;Votsis, 2017;Belcher and Chisholm, 2018;Isely et al., 2018;Liebelt et al., 2018;Vandegrift and Zanoni, 2018). Many of these studies have shown an increase in property value with greater proximity to a desirable greenspace (e.g., park, water body, or lake), and a decrease in value for less desirable spaces like cemeteries (e.g., Waltert and Schläpfer, 2010;Panduro and Veie, 2013). ...
... Numerous studies on property value effects from greenspace exist in the literature, however the relationship between property values and GI is not as well examined. A search of the literature found some hedonic papers that examined the effect of GI on property values, notably Netusil et al. (2014); Ward et al. (2008); Ichihara andCohen (2011), andJarrad et al. (2018). Netusil et al. (2014) evaluated relationships between property values and green street projects (e.g., sidewalk bioswales, grassed swales, curb extensions, and corner bump-outs) in Portland, OR. Results from the preferred model specification revealed that property values were nonlinearly correlated with distance to the nearest project and the age of the nearest project. ...
... Numerous studies on property value effects from greenspace exist in the literature, however the relationship between property values and GI is not as well examined. A search of the literature found some hedonic papers that examined the effect of GI on property values, notably Netusil et al. (2014); Ward et al. (2008); Ichihara andCohen (2011), andJarrad et al. (2018). Netusil et al. (2014) evaluated relationships between property values and green street projects (e.g., sidewalk bioswales, grassed swales, curb extensions, and corner bump-outs) in Portland, OR. Results from the preferred model specification revealed that property values were nonlinearly correlated with distance to the nearest project and the age of the nearest project. ...
Article
Green infrastructure (GI), practices consisting of using vegetation and soil to manage stormwater runoff (e.g., rain gardens, vegetated roofs, bioswales, etc.), has been adopted by cities across the world to help address aging water infrastructure, water quality, excess water quantity, and urban planning needs. Although GI’s contribution to stormwater control and management has been extensively studied, the economic value of its benefits is less known. In Omaha, NE, GI projects have been completed in several public parks. Using a repeat-sales model based on 2000-2018 housing data, we examined the effect of GI on the value of single-family homes within various buffer distances of parks where GI was installed. After controlling for changes associated with home deterioration and renovation, non-stationary location effects, and time-invariant characteristics, we did not find any statistically significant relationships between housing values and GI. This finding is consistent with the notion that homeowners place little value on modifications to existing greenspace, but may also stem from homeowners’ lack of familiarity with GI practices or data limitations.
... The result of this study has evidenced that every $1 reduction on an annual electricity bill has the ability to increase the market value of the house by $20.73 (values were calculated in the year 1978). Ichihara and Cohen (2011) published their findings on the monetary values of green roofing practices. They conducted a regression analysis on rental values of green apartment buildings installed with green rooftops at Battery Park City, New York. ...
... The result indicated that a building apartment with a green roof is rented at 16.2 percent higher compared to an apartment without a green roof top. The study also calculated that if the entire apartment building within the area of Battery Park City was installed with a green roof top, the total rental could increase by as much $2.1 billion monthly (Ichihara and Cohen, 2011). ...
... Figure 7 below displays a chart showing green envelope components that were found to increase building value. The findings made by this study on green envelope components that increase building value were found to be significant compared with the findings of several studies dealing with the effect of green building components on building value (Ibrahim et al., 2014;Hoen et al., 2011;Dastrup et al., 2012;Ichihara and Cohen, 2011 Published literatures acknowledged the increment in building value due to the integration of solar photovoltaic with building is related to the benefits provided by the solar photovoltaic system which conveys annual energy saving on building particularly saving in annual electricity bills. The value increment is resultant to energy saving provides by the solar photovoltaic on building (Hoen et al., 2011;Dastrup et al., 2012;Johnson and Kaserman, 1983). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify green envelope building components of residential buildings applicable under hot and humid climates and to analyze the effect of these components on building value. Design/methodology/approach The authors place an emphasis on green envelope components that influence building value and which are derived based on their integration into a building envelope structure that is applicable under hot and humid climates. This is performed through identification of green benefits of each green envelope component based on literature reviews and in relation to green criteria listed by the Malaysia Green Building Index (GBI). Consequently, a quantitative analysis has been conducted to determine the effect of these green envelope components on building value by means of a questionnaire distribution among 550 property valuation practitioners in Malaysia. However, in order to certify respondents’ credibility, the authors analyzed questionnaires answered by property valuation practitioners with experience in green valuation. Findings The findings show that there are ten green envelope components currently certified under GBI Malaysia and applicable for hot and humid climates. There are three green envelope components that can increase property values, specifically: solar photovoltaic, green living wall and green roof. However, eight of the green envelope components have no effect on building value. Research limitations/implications Due to the relative immaturity of the green building market in Malaysia, the authors were unable to analyze the actual percentage of increment on building value as conveyed by each green envelope component. Originality/value This paper aims to provide understanding of the effect of individual green envelope components on building value rather than merely the value of green buildings in general. It proves that green building envelope components do in fact contribute to an increase in green building values. As the green building market in Malaysia is still in its infancy, this study is significant in that it prepares the Malaysian green building market to attain a new level by providing valuation practitioners with awareness of green building values and new knowledge concerning the effect of individual green components on building values. Hence, it is anticipated that this study can assist property valuation practitioners in conducting valuations of green buildings in the future.
... Based on these results an average increase of 8,24% was determined. Ichihara and Cohen [78] estimated an increase of 16,2% in rental prices in buildings with green roofs. Perini and Rosasco [68] identified a 2%-5% increase in property value due to the presence of green walls. ...
... Property value increase due to green roofs and green walls[68,[78][79][80]. ...
Article
Greening the urban environment can be an important strategy to tackle the problems of urban densification and meet the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Green infrastructures, like green roofs and green walls, have multiple associated environmental, social and economic benefits that improve buildings performance and the urban environment. Yet, the implementation of green roofs and green walls is still limited, as these systems often have additional costs when compared to conventional solutions. Recent studies have been comparing these greening systems to other solutions, balancing the long-term benefits and costs. Also, there is significant research on green roofs and green walls benefits. Although, green roofs and green walls economic analyses don't include all benefits due to measuring difficulties. The associated uncertainty regarding the quantification of the benefit makes it difficult to compare the research outcomes. This paper aims to provide a research review of existing benefits and costs of different types of green roofs and green walls. These were divided between building scale benefits, urban scale benefits and life cycle costs, focusing on the identification of results variability and assessment of their average quantification. The analysis shows that in general, there are few data regarding intangible benefits, as the promotion of quality of life and well-being. Also, there are still few studies quantifying green walls benefits and costs. High variability in data is mostly related to the different characteristics of systems, buildings envelope, surrounding environment and local weather conditions.
... Alternatively, a positive NPV can be achieved if the amenity value is equal to or greater than 7.2 percent of the property price. This level would be similar to the lower bound of Ichihara and Cohen's (2010) analysis of green roofs in New York City but much higher than Nurmi et al.'s (2016) estimates from Helsinki. Many small to midsize Midwestern cities have adequate access to ground-level public green space compared to highly urban New York City. ...
... The amenity values for rain gardens and green roofs in particular are understudied. Our literature review found one study of rain garden amenity values (Polyakov et al., 2015) and one for green roofs (Ichihara and Cohen, 2010). Rain gardens have grown in popularity so it should be possible to see whether their presence affects housing values. ...
Article
Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA is a medium-sized city located within the Lake Michigan watershed. Grand Rapids spends a considerable amount of money managing stormwater. Impervious surfaces collect and concentrate volumes of water and associated sediments and pollutants creating flooding, erosion, and pollution problems especially, for downstream communities. An ecological paradigm has emerged that places stormwater quantity and quality within the context of integrated watershed management. Stormwater quantity can be reduced and quality can be improved by, for example, mimicking natural hydrology. Detailed benefit-cost analyses, however, are still lacking. Therefore, the research team estimated the economic benefits and costs of various green infrastructure (GI) practices. Each GI practice was standardized to treat 84.95 m³ (3000 ft³) of stormwater per 25.4 mm (1.0 inch) event plus the first 25.4 mm of stormwater from larger events. This equates to about 3030 m³ (107,000 ft³) of stormwater per year. A benefit transfer approach was used to estimate the net present value (NPV) of capital, operations, and maintenance costs, as well as the direct and indirect benefits. The suite of benefits varied for each GI practice and included flood risk reduction; reductions in stormwater volume, total phosphorus, total suspended solids, and air pollution; scenic amenity value; and CO2 storage. A 3.5 percent discount rate was applied to all costs and benefits, and each practice was analyzed over 50 years. Conserved natural areas had the largest NPV at $109/m³ of water quality volume (WQv) reduced, followed by street trees at $46/m³ WQv, rain gardens at $37/m³ WQv, and porous asphalt at $21/m³ WQv. Infiltrating bioretention basins and green roofs had negative NPVs of $-3.76/m³ WQv and $-47.17/m³ WQv, respectively. If the green roof is used to attain certification such as Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, then the net benefits turn positive. This paper will help both academic researchers and stormwater managers in the Great Lakes region and beyond understand the relative benefits and costs of stormwater GI so cost-effective practices can be implemented. The calculations presented here form the basis of the www.RainwaterRewards.com stormwater GI calculator.
... The multiple benefits that green roofs offer to urban areas are well-known and studied. The most prominent are the: mitigation of the "heat island" effect in cities (Schmidt, 2006); reduction of total air conditioning energy requirements of buildings (Ip et al., 2010;Kontoleon and Eumorfopoulou, 2010;Schmidt, 2007;Wong et al., 2010a); increase in air quality in cities (Currie and Bass, 2005); stormwater runoff reduction (Bengtsson, 2005;Bengtsson et al., 2005;Stovin, 2010); increase in biodiversity and habitats (Dunnett and Kingsbury, 2004;Fernandez-Canero and Gonzalez-Redondo, 2010;Francis and Lorimer, 2011); emergence of new opportunities for technological, economic, and employment development (Bass and Baskaran, 2003); increase in property values (Ichihara and Cohen, 2010); and provision of spaces for recreation and amenity (Dunnett and Kingsbury, 2004). ...
... In Ichihara and Cohen [88], green roofs are found to increase rental prices in a (very high-end) apartment complex in New York City by as much as 16%. Results may be somewhat skewed by the high-end location of the complex. ...
Article
Full-text available
Green and blue-green roofs are emerging as an increasingly popular feature of rooftops, particularly in urban areas. Particular problematic conditions render their usage complex in the Nordic countries. In order to ensure that green roofs are built durable and with the service life expected of them, it is important to know all the relevant factors surrounding their construction and operation. A scoping study was conducted in order to gain an overview on green roof research and available scientific literature. One hundred articles of particular interest for Nordic climates were retrieved and their findings summarized. It is found that the vast majority of green roof research has been conducted on a theoretical basis, or with practical measurements on green roof test beds or isolated components. There is scarcely any literature on the operation of full-scale, building-implemented green roofs, and no articles were found on the building technical performance of aged green roofs. These knowledge gaps indicate a major risk factor in green roof operation, as their performance and integrity over time has not been documented. This despite the fact that green roofs have been implemented and in operation worldwide for decades.
... The environmental benefits [13] provided by GW and GR include improvements in indoor and outdoor thermal comfort and air quality [14][15][16][17][18]; reductions in energy consumption via enhancing building thermal performance [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]; the mitigation of the UHI effect and global climate change by cooling the urban area and lessening of GHG emissions [28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]; decreased urban noise pollution [36,37]; relief of urban drainage pressures via storm water management, which is mainly provided by GR (the role of GW on storm water management is limited) [38,39]; and the promotion of biodiversity in urban environment [40,41]. In addition, GW and GR can also bring about many social benefits, such as improving a city's image [42], enhancing the well-being of citizens [43], and increasing property values [44]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The impacts of greenery systems (GSs) on microclimate conditions and building energy performance have been frequently investigated using experiments and simulations during the past decades, especially in summer and winter. However, few studies have focused on the performance of GSs in transition seasons. The ambient weather conditions vary with great fluctuations during transition seasons, which may result in severe oscillations in indoor environments. To investigate the impacts of GSs on indoor environments, an experiment was conducted using a contrastive test platform, which consisted of two experimental rooms, one equipped with a GS and the other without, from 1 April 2019 to 31 May 2019 in Hunan, China. Both rooms were free-running. The experimental results showed that the GS had the ability to reduce the oscillations in the indoor environment. The oscillations in indoor dry-bulb temperature (DBT) and relative humidity (RH) were reduced by 39.3% and 28.8%, respectively. The maximum daily DBT and RH ranges were, respectively, cut down by 3.5 °C and 12.4%. The maximum reductions in external and internal surface temperatures were 29.5 °C and 9.4 °C, respectively, for the GS, while the average reductions were 1.6~4.1 °C and 0.2~1.3 °C, respectively, depending on the orientation of the surfaces. The operative temperature (OT) during the daytime on sunny days was also lowered by the GS. The differences in OT between the two rooms ranged from −1.8 °C to 8.2 °C, with an average of 1.0 °C. The GS can improve the indoor thermal comfort during transition seasons. The thermal dissatisfaction was decreased by 7.9%. This lengthened the thermal comfort time by 15% across the whole day and by 28% during the daytime. This indicates reductions in airconditioning system operating times, leading to energy savings.
... This urban design solution proposes a huge space for greenery, and a new housing neighbourhood based on singlehouses in order to keep the low-density has an identity feature of the place. The benefits of the greenery at the urban context are very well known, including its contribute to the improvement of property value [3], regarding the rehabilitated buildings, streets and neighbourhood improvements. ...
Article
Universities are dealing with strategies in order to improve their performances in terms of ranking classification, struggling for a good position. At the spatial planning and urban design domains the river fronts are very challenging territories to deal with, because they are sensitive areas, not only in environmental terms but also considering the requirements of the urban continuity. Urban projects for the places of contact in between the urban fabric and rivers are mainly focused on building issues and urban development questions, rather than of ecological approaches encouraging the contact of inhabitants with nature. Therefore, this research presents solutions of rethinking the territories of contact in between the urban fabric and the river water fronts, having as pivotal concern the ecological solutions. These urban projects are focused on the requalification solutions in order to ensure a better urban continuity from the buildings to the water front. The strategy is driven by the river activities, nautical sports, low density buildings, preservation of local heritage and paths for pedestrians. The case study is a quiet town in the central region of Portugal, well known by its thermal baths, which are coming from the roman times. Every year, the city of São Pedro do Sul is visited by many tourists, looking for a very pleasant place, allowing them to improve their health condition going to the thermal baths, or the contact with nature going to the Vouga river water front. This is a city plenty of greenery, high natural potential, no pollution, and where the majority of dwellings are single houses. The main architectural landmark of the case study area is the old train station, a building from the 19th century. In fact, since a long time ago, there are no more trains arriving to this city. Recently, the train track line was converted into an ecological corridor for pedestrians and bicycles. Besides of this effort, the place remains waiting for an urban rehabilitation opportunity as a whole, with several urban voids, buildings in bad status of conservation, car parking with no planning or a lack of functional diversity. Its huge potential regarding the presence of the river water front is, consequently, not preserved nor enhanced. In this sense, there was an international research, on behalf of the Urban Planning Unit at the Master Degree in Architecture at the University of Beira Interior, resulting from an agreement with the Municipality of São Pedro do Sul. The urban project solutions were proposed in this academic environment comprising several teams of international students, not only coming from Portugal, but also from Greece, Brazil, Slovakia, Lithuania and Poland. There was a competition and monetary prizes to the best urban projects, sponsored by the city hall. This was a motivation for students along to the project process. The conclusions show that all the solutions are proposing strategies to preserve and to enhance the ecological identity of the place. Thus, this article will present the contents, options and solutions of the second best urban project, which was designed by a team of international students from Poland. This experience is an example of a key strategy in the internationalization process of the university.
... Besides the profound effects on environment, the greenery systems provide additional benefits to the public such as social and economic aspects. The presence of greenery has a major psychological impact on urban dwellers as well as enhancing the visual aesthetics of the cities, and raising prices of real estate [17,21]. Moreover, greenery systems are capable of being devised as one of the passive design solutions which provide additional benefits such as insulating impact in winter and shading feature in summer. ...
... In addition, these systems are used as passive design, which offers insulation, shading for heating, and cooling period for buildings, respectively. By applying the GSs to existing buildings, building dwellers could reach improved indoor microclimatic conditions by cost-effective and eco-friendly means [9,[49][50][51]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Fossil fuel-based energy consumption is still dominant in the world today, and there is a consensus on the limited reserves of these energy resources. Therefore, there is a strong stimulation into clean energy technologies to narrow the gap between fossil fuels and renewables. In this respect, several commitments and codes are proposed and adopted for a low energy-consuming world and for desirable environmental conditions. Sectoral energy consumption analyses clearly indicate that buildings are of vital importance in terms of energy consumption figures. From this point of view, buildings have a great potential for decisive and urgent reduction of energy consumption levels and thus green-house gas (GHG) emissions. Among the available retrofit solutions, greenery systems (GSs) stand for a reliable, cost-effective and eco-friendly method for remarkablemitiga-tion of energy consumed in buildings. Through the works comparing the thermal regula-tion performance of uninsulated and green roofs, it is observed that the GS provides 20°C lower surface temperature in operation. Similar to green roofs, vertical greenery systems (VGSs) also reduce energy demand to approximately 25% as a consequence of wind blockage effects in winter. Therefore, within the scope of this chapter, GSs are evaluated for a reliable and effective retrofit solution toward low/zero carbon buildings (L/ZCBs). Keywords: buildings, energy consumption, energy-efficient retrofit, green roofs and facades
... One of the most important benefits of roof greening concerns the aesthetic improvement of urban areas, in which GRs can reduce the perceived monotony of anthropic surfaces. An analysis based on the stated preference method valued the aesthetic features of GRs, thus overtaking the difficulties of an objective valuation of the economic impact [34,35]. Rosato and Rotaris [5] asked individuals to quantify their willingness to pay for a widespread diffusion of GRs in the surroundings of their house. ...
Article
This paper evaluates the private and social costs and benefits of adopting an extensive green roof as opposed to a cool roof in an existing industrial building in Trieste (North-Eastern Italy). The evaluations from social and private viewpoints both consider costs and benefits of refurbishments, energy consumption, and maintenance. From the social side, the externalities derived from green or cool roofing, such as aesthetic aspects, biodiversity preservation and natural habitat provision, carbon reduction, air quality improvement, and hydrological aspects, are monetized using cost-benefit transfer approaches. The first analysis result is the poor convenience of adopting a green roof compared to a cool one from the private investor's viewpoint. The second finding is the positive net present value of the social cost-benefit analysis for the green roof compared with the cool roof, due to the positive externalities of the former. Monetization of externalities allows calculating the economic incentives needed to promote the spread of green roofing in the Mediterranean area. Consequently, two different types of incentives are proposed: direct contribution for refurbishment intervention and annual reduction of local property tax. A final sensitivity analysis using the Monte Carlo method is performed on intrinsic and random variables, defined by triangular or uniform distributions. The probability evaluation of economic affordability is provided from the private investor's viewpoint, first considering private costs and benefits and, second, introducing the financial incentives for balancing the public benefits provided by an extensive green roof.
... At the same time, the application of greening systems can have, besides the environmental aspects, social and economic benefits. These systems encourage the fruition of urban areas [17], have a therapeutic effect by inducing a psychological wellbeing through the presence of vegetation, improve cities image [7], increase property value [18] and function as a complementary thermal [19] and acoustic protection [20,21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
a b s t r a c t Current systems for greening the buildings envelope are not just surfaces covered with vegetation. Greening systems, as green roofs and green walls, are frequently used as an aesthetical feature in buildings. However, the current technology involved in these systems can maximize the functional benefits of plants to buildings performance and make part of a sustainable strategy of urban rehabilitation and buildings retrofitting. During the last decades several researches were conducted proving that green walls can contribute to enhance and restore the urban environment and improve buildings performance. The aim of this paper is to review all types of green wall systems in order to identify and systematize their main characteristics and technologies involved. So, it is important to understand the main differences between systems in terms of composition and construction methods. Most recent developments in green walls are mainly focused in systems design in order to achieve more efficient technical solutions and a better performance in all building phases. Yet, green wall systems must evolve to become more sustainable solutions. In fact, continuing to evaluate the contribution of recent green wall systems to improve buildings performance and comparing the environmental impact of these systems with other construction solutions can lead to an increase of their application in buildings and therefore result in a reduction on these systems cost. The decision of which green wall system is more appropriate to a certain project must depend not only on the construction and climatic restrictions but also on the environmental impact of its components and associated costs during its entire lifecycle.
... (Ajuntamient de Barcelona, 2015). A study carried out by Ichihara and Cohen (2011) analysed the impact of green roofs on rented property value in New York. They calculated that apartments with green roofs were on average valued at 16.2% higher than those without green roofs. ...
Thesis
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With the detrimental impacts posed on our world’s ecosystems as a result of population growth and urban migration, strategies aimed at curbing such effects are continually analysed and implemented across the globe. Due to the residential sector’s relatively large influence on this issue, this study assesses the potential which residential roofs possess in combating these problems which society faces, focusing on reducing and substituting the source of domestic resource consumption from unsustainable to more sustainable, decentralised sources. The study assesses the role of the fifth façade (the roof) and examines those most predominantly present in Spain, before analysing the opportunities presented by the implementation of green roofs, rooftop photovoltaic systems, rooftop solar thermal energy collectors, and rainwater harvesting systems on Spanish residential rooftops in a Mediterranean climate. Quantitative energy- and resource-saving results of such strategies are realised over an area of Sant Boi de Llobregat, Catalonia, Spain, composed of 1,202 residential buildings. The analysis concludes that on average, a square metre of rooftop is able to annually generate or save a maximum of 24.00kWh of energy via green roofs, 27.76kWh of energy via photovoltaic systems, 49.97kWh of energy via solar thermal collectors, or 338.85 litres of water via rainwater harvesting systems.
... 3below displays a chart showing green envelope components that were found to increase building values. The findings made by this study on green envelope components that increase building values were found to be significant and in alignment with the findings from other similar studies([38,39,66]; Ruth et al., 1983;[41]). ...
Article
The practice of providing property tax assessment incentives within the green building sector has been empirically documented to encourage the growth of green buildings. However, no definite and uniform basis has been adopted in the development of these incentive models. Additionally, these incentives require local authorities to bear the implementation costs. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop property tax assessment incentive models through the evaluation of their effects on the tax revenue of local authorities and the amount of tax imposed on properties for the taxpayers. There are two incentive models developed in this paper, namely the property tax assessment exemption model and the reduction model. Cost-Benefits analysis between the amount of tax assessment increment and the annual energy savings conveyed by the green envelope components were conducted to determine the appropriate percentage of reduction. Through the exemption model, local authorities do not experience any increment on their existing tax revenue, and taxpayers do not have an increased amount of tax imposed on their properties. However, through the reduction model, local authorities do experience a tax increment of $4 to $9 on their existing tax revenue. As for the taxpayers, annual energy savings conveyed by the green envelope components compensate the amount of their tax increment.
... There are justifiable reasons for the non-priority of greenery or so-called 'ecological' matters in cities, nevertheless, there are non-deniable advantages and benefits coming from their presence in urban spaces. In terms of socioeconomic aspects, greening the buildings can contribute to the improvement of property value [8], not only of rehabilitated buildings, but also of streets and neighbourhood in which they are integrated. While improving the quality of human experience in packed areas [9] green walls have the ability to become a landmark, which contributes to clarify the city's order, helping to state clearly and visually that a place is significant [10]. ...
Article
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Greenery has always played an important role in the construction of cities. The need for green spaces has been present at city level since ancient times. However, the description of the evolutionary process of form and function of urban green spaces as it has developed from antiquity depends greatly upon the different roles played by these places throughout history. Nowadays, given that the main part of the world population is living in cities, it can be said that greenery has a strategic importance in the contemporary urban fabric. Therefore, urban design solutions should always consider both buildings and vegetation as being defining city's elements. However, the city is currently dominated by building structures which are detrimental to green spaces, causing problems of congestion and pollution. The most recent and compulsory Portuguese urban rehabilitation principles emphasize the improvement of sustainability. It is, therefore, critical to draw attention to this area and find innovative solutions in this domain, especially with regards the integration of vegetation in historical areas. In this sense, this research aims to present an approach about the importance of greenery in cities, referring some examples of green spaces as landmarks in the urban historiography. It is also focused on the benefits of green spaces in dense urban areas and their contribution for the sustainability of the cities.
... Lower values (increase 3.9% of the property value) are estimated by Franç ois et al. (2002) using a regression model for hedges or green walls. In the case of green roofs higher values were found with an increase of house property values in New York City of 16.2% compared with houses without green roof (Ichihara and Cohen, 2011). According to Tomalty and Komorowski (2010) the green roof type highly affects the property price increase: 20% for recreational green roofs and 7% for "productive" green roofs (including vegetables and fruit). ...
Article
A wide replication of green envelopes can be a good opportunity to improve urban environment conditions, as demonstrated by several studies. Greening systems increase also building envelope performances; however their economic sustainability has not been fully investigated. This study evaluates the economic sustainability of two combined greening systems installed on an office building: a vertical greening system and a green roof, and it evaluates the advantages of economy of scope. The Cost-Benefit Analysis on two different combinations of vertical greening and green roofs considers personal benefits and costs over their life cycle. The results demonstrate the advantages of economy of scope, due to the additional benefits coming from the combination of two different systems. The results show that the tax incentives and the combination of green systems can make the installation and the maintenance costs economically sustainable during the life span of a greening system; this could lead to a wider diffusion of greening systems with higher environmental and aesthetic performances.
... At the same time, the integration of vegetation in the urban environment makes a positive impact on human health and has economic benefits [17]. The presence of green areas influences aesthetically the surrounding urban area and contributes to increase property value [18]. ...
Article
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Green walls can protect building envelope from surrounding environment while contributing to improve buildings design and thermal performance. The design concept of a new modular system (Geogreen) for vegetated surfaces has been developed to create more sustainable green roofs and green walls. This paper aims to present the study of Geogreen system thermal performance in a Mediterranean climate. This work is based on the evaluation of local meteorological conditions in three different periods. The Geogreen system is tested in an exterior test cell, comprising a reference wall and a wall covered with Geogreen modules. The analysis is based in the interior surface temperatures and interior surface heat fluxes of two compartments with the same dimensions and thermal characteristics. Resuts show that Geogreen system contributes to: reduce maximum interior surface temperatures and increase minimum interior surface temperatures up to 7 °C; mitigate heat transfer, reducing maximum income heat flux by 75% and maximum outgoing heat flux by 60%; enhance thermal insulation of a wall; and increase thermal delay between the exterior and the interior. These aspects can lead to reduce and shift air-conditioning power loads and to improve buildings thermal performance.
... Obviously, these estimates are very sensitive with respect to the area assumption. [16] found that homes in New York with green roofs had as much as 16.2% higher price than homes without green roofs. Relative to an annual rental price of USD 4000, we calculate a unit value per square meter green roof of ca EUR 17. ...
Article
The soundscape perspective has brought a new awareness of the direct and indirect effects of vegetation on the propagation of sounds in outdoor areas, parks, and urban canyons. However, green roofs and walls, trees, bushes and other vegetation also have important non-acoustic effects. Soundscape research thus needs to take into account aesthetics, air quality, and other environmental effects. One challenge is to integrate the results of some decades of non-acoustic research on the value of green areas, recreational and restorative qualities, aesthetics, and biodiversity into soundscape design, and incorporate these non-acoustic properties in the overall economic assessment of noise control and soundscape improvement measures. Valuation of greenery and green areas, as well as changes in noise exposure, usually rely on hedonic pricing methods, and are usually expressed as an percentage of the dwelling prices. In this paper we go through a varied literature presenting economic value estimates of single trees or lines of trees in streets, and of green walls (vertical gardens) and green roofs. These types of greenery and green areas have an impact on the soundscape (sound propagation). Whereas valuation of soundscape changes directly or indirectly can be related to equivalent decibel changes, and thus given a unit price, e.g., EUR/dB(A), there is no readily applicable unit price for greenery and green areas. In valuation studies each case is considered unique. Acknowledging the theoretical and practical objections and challenges to unit pricing of greenery and green areas, we nevertheless apply a practitioner approach by proposing initial classification and unit valuation based on greenery area size.
... Although in an ideal situation the benefits of LID are also important to weigh against the costs, the benefits often involve estimation of intangibles that introduce additional challenges; as a result, little known published work has addressed the benefits. An exception is Ichihara and Cohen (2011), who estimate the potential benefits of retrofitting apartment buildings with green roofs in New York City, although they do not address the associated costs. The primary contribution of this case study on Kansas City, MO is the comparison of costs for a decrease in the diameters and lengths of gray CSO storage tunnels and for widespread use of rain gardens to replace the gray tunnels storage capacity. ...
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This paper outlines a life-cycle cost analysis comparing a green (rain gardens) and gray (tunnels) infrastructure combination to a gray-only option to control combined sewer overflow in the Turkey Creek Combined Sewer Overflow Basin in Kansas City, MO. The area of this basin is 2,248 ha (5,554 acres). A set of spreadsheets was developed upon which this life-cycle cost analysis is based. The spreadsheets allow the user to vary the length and/or the diameter of the tunnels. The spreadsheets calculate the additional number of rain gardens needed to handle a given amount of stormwater when the tunnel sizes are reduced. The difference in life-cycle costs between the green/gray and gray-only alternatives is calculated. For a range of options for the number of rain gardens, the green/gray combined alternative is more cost-effective than the gray-only option. The potential present worth of the cost savings for the 50-year expected lifespan of both the gray and green infrastructure could reach as much as $35 million for the Turkey Creek Basin.
... Among the benefits provided by green envelopes, the mitigation of the UHI [10][11][12], the improvement of stormwater management [13][14][15], the improvement of energy performances of buildings [8,[16][17][18] and air quality [19,20], improvement of citizens health [9,21] and the contribution to the biodiversity increase [22] can be mentioned. Furthermore, urban greening encourages the use of the public spaces [23], has a therapeutic effect (i.e., psychological wellbeing through the view of vegetation) [23], improves cities' aesthetics [24], real estate value [25] and acoustic wellbeing by mitigating noise [26,27]. There are currently many systems of vertical greening and green roofs on the market [28,29], however they often show limitations to their introduction on a large scale within cities (due to high costs and maintenance) [30]. ...
Article
A low cost and lightweight moss envelope system for buildings has been developed to address the problem of the lack of greening in densely urbanized areas. Several moss species have been sampled in the wild, selected, based on their ability to tolerate the abiotic stresses of urban environments, cultivated in controlled conditions and tested for their growth capacity on different (building) materials. Five of these showed the most promising results in terms of growth speed and coverage, proving the most suitable for the development of the greening system: Homalothecium sericeum, Barbula unguiculata, Pseudoleskea incurvata, Grimmia pulvinata and Hypnum cupressiforme. An in vitro growing method was also set up for large scale moss cultivation and application. A modular multi-layer panel, with a built-in irrigation system, has been developed, designed and tested. MosSkin is a low-cost low maintenance, versatile and lightweight system, with interesting performances in terms of water management and surface temperature reduction (up to 14 °C).
... Ichihara and Cohen found that homes in New York with green roofs had as much as 16.2% higher price than homes without green roofs [43]. Relative to an annual rental price of USD 4,000, a unit value per square metre green roof of ca EUR 17 can be estimated. ...
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Economic unit values of soundscape/acoustic effects have been based on changes in the number of annoyed persons or on decibel changes. The normal procedure has been the application of these unit values to noise-attenuation measures affecting the noisier façade of a dwelling. Novel modular vegetation-based soundscape measures, so-called green walls, might be relevant for both noisy and quieter areas. Moreover, their benefits will comprise noise attenuation as well as non-acoustic amenity effects. One challenge is to integrate the results of some decades of non-acoustic research on the amenity value of urban greenery into design of the urban sound environment, and incorporate these non-acoustic properties in the overall economic assessment of noise control and overall sound environment improvement measures. Monetised unit values for green walls have been included in two alternative cases, or demonstration projects, of covering the entrances to blocks of flats with a green wall. Since these measures improve the noise environment on the quiet side of the dwellings and courtyards, not the most exposed façade, adjustment factors to the nominal quiet side decibel reductions to arrive at an estimate of the equivalent overall acoustic improvement have been applied. A cost-benefit analysis of the green wall case indicates that this measure is economically promising, when valuing the noise attenuation in the quieter area and adding the amenity/aesthetic value of the green wall.
... Thirteen studies evaluated outcomes relating to GI for stormwater and flood management on economic well-being ( Fig. 3; Table 3). The types of GI varied in scale, from green roofs for stormwater management (Ichihara and Cohen, 2011), green streets and tree canopy (Donovan and Butry, 2010;Netusil et al., 2014Netusil et al., , 2010, urban drain restoration (Polyakov et al., 2017), greenways for preserving floodplains (Kousky and Walls, 2014), urban riparian corridors (Bark et al., 2009;Netusil, 2006), stormwater retention basins (Irwin et al., 2017), restored wetlands (Pan et al., 2011), preserved urban forests (Thorsnes, 2002), and a combination of low impact development (Tupper, 2012;Ward et al., 2008). ...
Article
Background: The increase in frequency and intensity of urban flooding is a global challenge. Flooding directly impacts residents of industrialized cities with aging combined sewer systems, as well as cities with less centralized infrastructure to manage stormwater, fecal sludge, and wastewater. Green infrastructure is growing in popularity as a sustainable strategy to mimic nature-based flood management. Although its technical performance has been extensively studied, little is known about the effects of green stormwater infrastructure on human health and social well-being. Methods: We conducted a multidisciplinary systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature on the effects of green infrastructure for stormwater and flood management on individuals', households', and communities' a) physical health; b) mental health; c) economic well-being; and d) flood resilience and social acceptance of green infrastructure. We systematically searched databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus; the first 300 results in Google Scholar; and websites of key organizations including the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Study quality and strength of evidence was assessed for included studies, and descriptive data were extracted for a narrative summary. Results: Out of 21,213 initial results, only 18 studies reported health or social well-being outcomes. Seven of these studies used primary data, and none allowed for causal inference. No studies connected green infrastructure for stormwater and flood management to mental or physical health outcomes. Thirteen studies were identified on economic outcomes, largely reporting a positive association between green infrastructure and property values. Five studies assessed changes in perceptions about green infrastructure, but with mixed results. Nearly half of all included studies were from Portland, Oregon. Conclusions: This global systematic review highlights the minimal evidence on human health and social well-being relating to green infrastructure for stormwater and flood management. To enable scale-up of this type of infrastructure to reduce flooding and improve ecological and human well-being, widespread acceptance of green infrastructure will be essential. Policymakers and planners need evidence on the full range of benefits from different contexts to enable financing and implementation of instfrastructure options, especially in highly urbanized, flood-prone settings around the world. Therefore, experts in social science, public health, and program evaluation must be integrated into interdisciplinary green infrastructure research to better relate infrastructure design to tangible human outcomes.
... Greening systems, such as green roofs, have several environmental [1,2], social, and economic benefits [3][4][5][6]. Moreover, these systems can increase biodiversity [7][8][9], improve water quality [10][11][12][13][14], decrease noise level [15][16][17], and increase life quality [18][19][20]. These systems are widespread in different climates-mostly for rainwater harvesting [21][22][23][24][25] and stormwater management [26][27][28]-by decreasing the peak of urban runoff [29][30][31][32][33]. ...
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Conventional green roofs, although having numerous advantages, could place water resources under pressure in dry periods due to irrigation requirements. Moreover, the thermal efficiency of green roofs could decrease without irrigation, and the plants could get damaged. Therefore, this study aims to improve the efficiency of conventional green roofs by proposing a new multipurpose green roof combined with fog and dew harvesting systems. The analysis determined that the average water use of green roofs in the summer (in humid regions) is about 3.7 L/m2/day, in the Mediterranean regions about 4.5 L/m2/day, and in arid regions about 2.7 L/m2/day. During the dry season, the average fog potential in humid regions is 1.2 to 15.6 L/m2/day, Mediterranean regions between 1.6 and 4.6 L/m2/day, and arid regions between 1.8 and 11.8 L/m2/day. The average dew potential during the dry season in humid regions is 0.1 to 0.3 L/m2/day, in the Mediterranean regions is 0.2 to 0.3 L/m2/day, and in the arid regions is 0.5 to 0.7 L/m2/day. The analysis of the suggested multipurpose green roof combined with fog/dew harvesting systems, in the summer, in three different climates, show that fog harvesting could provide the total water requirement of the green roofs, and that dew harvesting by PV (photo-voltaic) panels could provide 15 to 26% of the water requirements. Moreover, it could show a higher thermal impact on the building, higher efficiency in stormwater management, less dependence on the urban water network, and greater efficiency in decreasing urban air, water, and noise pollution. Finally, the novel green roof system could consume less water due to the shaded area by mesh and solar PVs and maximize the utilization of the roof area, as solar panels could be applied on the same green roof.
... Paradoxically, greening strategies can increase housing costs and property values (Ashley et al., 2018;Hamann et al., 2020), leading to gentrification and displacement of disadvantaged communities (Wolch et al., 2014). Installation of green roofs can increase rental prices in surrounding areas (Ichihara and Cohen, 2011) and the high cost of green roof construction and ongoing maintenance can mean that these projects do not benefit disadvantaged communities (Sharma et al., 2018). To avoid gentrifying processes and democratise the benefits of green infrastructure such as green roofs, a "just green enough" (Curran and Hamilton, 2012;Wolch et al., 2014) approach conceives greening projects based on socio-ecological need rather than normative design or species conservation outcomes. ...
Article
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Green roofs have the potential to provide socio-ecological services in urban settings that lack vegetation and open space. However, implementation of green roofs is limited by high construction and maintenance costs. Consequently, green roof projects often disproportionately benefit wealthy communities and can further marginalise disadvantaged communities by increasing property values and housing costs. Vegetation cover on green roofs is crucial to their provisioning of socio-ecological services. Evidence suggests that green roof plantings change over time, especially with limited maintenance, and are replaced with spontaneous “weedy” species. This is often perceived as a failure of the original green roof design intent and spontaneous species are usually removed. However, where good coverage is achieved, spontaneous vegetation could provide beneficial services such as stormwater mitigation, habitat provision, and climate regulation. While social norms about “weediness” may limit the desirability of some spontaneous species, research suggests that their acceptability on green roofs increases with coverage. As spontaneous species can establish on green roofs without irrigation and fertiliser, reduced input costs could help facilitate adoption particularly in markets without an established green roof industry. Construction costs may also be reduced in hot and dry climates where deeper substrates are necessary to ensure plant survival, as many spontaneous species are able to colonise shallow substrates and can regenerate from seed. If implemented based on socio-ecological need, green roofs with spontaneous vegetation coverage may apply less pressure to property values and housing costs than conventionally planted green roofs, increasing the resilience of urban communities while limiting gentrification.
... The most common techniques used for estimating the monetary value of the different benefits of GSI practices are hedonic pricing (Mazzotta et al., 2014) and stated preference techniques such as contingent valuation method (CVM) and discrete choice experiment (DCE). Hedonic pricing is used to investigate the property value effects of different GSI practices such as stormwater ponds (e.g., Irwin et al., 2017;Lee and Li, 2009), urban wetlands (e.g., Lupi et al., 1991;Mahan et al., 2000;Tapsuwan et al., 2007), green streets (e.g., Donovan and Butry, 2010;Netusil et al., 2014Netusil et al., , 2010, green roofs (e.g., Ichihara and Cohen, 2011), and combination of different types of GSI practices (e.g., Bowman et al., 2012;Conway et al., 2010;Ward et al., 2008). While the property value effects of GSI practices could be observed using consumer behavior in real estate, willingness-to-pay (WTP) and preferences for their additional benefits are often estimated using hypothetical markets since there is typically no actual market for these benefits (Meng and Hsu, 2019). ...
Article
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With population growth driving urban expansion in many cities in the United States, there is a need for a sustainable way to manage stormwater. Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) is considered an innovative way to handle stormwater because of its potential to provide multiple ecosystem services (ES) beyond flooding reduction. However, there is limited research regarding the society's perceived value for GSI practices' co-benefits. This study utilized stated-preference data obtained from a choice experiment in an online survey of 1159 South Carolina (SC) residents to estimate a monetary value for the ES provided by wet detention ponds-the most widely adopted stormwater practice in coastal counties of SC. The benefits examined are flooding reduction , water quality, wildlife habitat, recreation, and scenic beauty. The data were analyzed using a Mixed logit formulation. Considering the differences across the state, the model was estimated separately for five counties. Findings indicate that residents are willing to pay $13.8 to $37.8 annually for a 50% improvement in pollutant removal efficiency of ponds in addition to their current stormwater fee. Also, they are willing to pay $12.5 to $42.9 per year for the nearest pond to have buffer vegetation and wildlife. They are also likely to pay $5 to $22.5 for ponds to contribute to their neighborhood's scenic beauty. Furthermore, the results indicate that respondents from three counties are willing to pay $5.4 to $13.2 for a 50% improvement in flooding reduction, while those from two counties are likely to pay $3.9 to $4.9 for ponds to have recreational benefits. The findings of the study could help stormwater managers in designing their stormwater management programs, especially for better evaluation of stormwater utility fees.
... Also, it provides socio-economic benefits such as improved scenic beauty (Tupper, 2012;BenDor et al., 2018) and property values of the surrounding neighborhood (Ward et al., 2008;Donovan and Butry, 2010;Netusil et al., 2010;Ichihara and Cohen, 2011). Some examples of GSI practices include rain gardens, bioretention cells, vegetative swales, permeable pavements, and green roofs. ...
Article
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Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) is promoted to sustainably manage stormwater in the United States. Aside from mitigating floods, it provides other ecosystem services such as improved water quality, scenic beauty, and an increase in property values of surrounding houses, among others. Because of the importance of community participation in the success of GSI, we investigated the factors affecting the household's intention to adopt GSI practices on their properties. We sent out an online survey to the coastal residents from eight coastal counties of South Carolina. The final samples included 1,031 residents. Using generalized ordered logit models (GOLM), we assessed the factors affecting their level of intention to adopt three common GSI practices— rain gardens, rooftop disconnection, and rain barrels. We also applied logit regression to identify the determinants of their intention to adopt one or more GSI practices. Household characteristics such as age, house ownership, property flooding history, and perception of flooding impacts and stormwater management were found to be significant in most of the models. On the other hand, only a few adoption barriers and ES became significant across the models. The findings of this study could help stormwater professionals in encouraging residents to participate in onsite stormwater management.
... The value of property is increased due to the aesthetic factors and an extra space for socialising. For instance, using a green roof increases the price of renting a flat by 16.2% in New York (Ichihara and Cohen, 2011). ...
... The largest increase in property values is found in studies where houses directly back to a forest preserve (35%) or are close to a community garden (9%) (Thorsnes 2002;Voicu and Been 2008). Ichihara and Cohen found that apartments with green roofs in an upscale neighborhood of New York City were able to charge 16% higher rents (Ichihara and Cohen 2011). Existing studies that look at the impacts of SCMs on property values have found that values may even decrease due to proximity to stormwater management structures (Irwin et al. 2017; Lee and Li 2009). ...
Article
As we move into an era of increased urbanization, stormwater practitioners are charged with creating multibenefit solutions through the installation of stormwater control measures (SCMs). Two drivers facilitate the accrual of benefits in SCMs: hydrologic or water quality process and vegetation. This study investigated the feasibility of incorporating benefits beyond water quality and quantity control into the SCM planning process. A critical review was used to determine which benefits would be assessed with hydrologic and water quality modeling or a complementary conceptual framework. Drawing on common themes in the literature, the conceptual framework of the 4 Cs (community, context, connectivity, and canopy) was created to assess vegetation-based benefits. To demonstrate the coupled benefit assessment, a case study was performed in a neighborhood of Denver, Colorado. Results from hydrologic and water quality modeling show that vegetated swales provide the most preferred solution. From the vegetation-based benefit perspective, we find that the modeled area of the vegetated swales is only 0.2% by area, which is likely too small to have a measurable benefit effect at the neighborhood scale. We show how the 4 Cs can be used to leverage existing greenness to maximize the potential vegetation-based benefit of swales and consider how existing sociodemographic and vegetation trends can be leveraged to make benefit-driven decisions.
... green infrastructure not only reduces water pollution (Gregoire & Clausen 2011) and decreases temperatures in cities (Santamouris 2014), but it also creates and connects habitats for a diversity of invertebrates, like native bees 4 (Braaker et al. 2014), birds (Strohbach et al. 2013) and small mammals such as bats (Oprea et al. 2009). Additionally, green roofs have been shown to provide residents with increased apartment value (Ichihara & Cohen 2011) and improved mental well-being (Lee et al. 2015). ...
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The world is increasingly urbanized and yet, even in urban areas, humans remain dependent on the ecosystem services that nature provides. This case study and exercise explore selected aspects of the dynamic between humans and urban ecology in three parts. First, we briefly discuss urban ecosystems and the context of biodiversity conservation in urban areas. Then, through a case study of the Million Trees program in New York City, we provide evidence and start a discussion about the possible benefits—as well as potential negative social, ecological, and economic consequences—of urban trees. And finally, we introduce biodiversity conservation in urban green spaces through an exercise on native bees. After reading about the importance of, and threats to, native bees, students take on stakeholder roles to decide if their neighborhood should accept a grant to create and maintain bee habitat in an urban park. Students are tasked with conducting additional research and participating in a classroom town hall meeting to present and support their argument for or against the creation of native bee habitat.
... Green walls can improve the building's aesthetic and property values and quality of life [106][107][108]. ...
Article
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The advantages of low-impact development approaches, such as green walls in an urban environment, are numerous. These systems can be applied for managing stormwater, saving energy consumption, decreasing noise pollution, improving runoff quality, improving life quality, and so forth. Besides, atmospheric water harvesting methods are considered a nonconventional water source. There are many studies about the analysis and advantages of green walls and atmospheric water harvesting conducted separately. However, the use of a combined system that uses fog harvesting in the irrigation of green walls has received less attention in previous studies, and therefore in this research, the feasibility of a novel green wall platform was investigated. At first, the potential of using green walls and atmospheric water harvesting in different climates was analyzed. Then a new combined system was proposed and explained. The study results determined that atmospheric water harvesting can be applied as a source of irrigation for green facilities, particularly in the dry season and in periods with lower precipitation. In the Mediterranean climate, summer fog harvesting yields 1.4-4.6 L/m 2 /day, and the water consumption of green walls is about 4-8 L/day/m 2. This can improve one issue of green walls in an urban environment, which is irrigation in summer. Furthermore, the novel system would protect plants from severe conditions, improve buildings' thermal behavior by decreasing direct sunlight, and increase conventional green walls' efficiency and advantages.
... Using the hedonic price model (HPM), many scholars have identified residents' willingness to pay for local public goods (such as medical care, education, transportation, and urban parks) through the capitalization effect of local public goods on the housing sales market [3][4][5][6]. Compared to the abundant research on the capitalization effect of green space on housing prices, a small amount of research also confirms the positive impact of green spaces on rent [7,8]. Previous research on the demand for urban parks only confirms that residents have a strong demand for urban parks [9][10][11][12][13]. ...
Article
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Many studies have confirmed that there is demand among urban residents and renters for urban parks. Moreover, as renters and home buyers have very different levels of ownership over their housing resources, their demands for amenities can be heterogenous. To discover and identify such heterogeneous demands is worthy of attention. Using the micro-housing resale transactions and listing data for housing leases in Beijing during 2019, this paper explores the difference between the demand for urban parks among home buyers and renters outside the community from the perspective of the internal quality of the community by using the hedonic price model (HPM). Specifically, from the dimension of the property management service fee and greening rate, we find that for home buyers, compared to residents living in relatively poor-quality communities, a better-quality community will reduce the demand for urban parks outside the community. Conversely, for renters, the higher the quality of the community is, the higher the demand for urban parks outside the community will be.
... In this regard, exterior surfaces, especially the roof area, provides plenty of space for planting (Yuen and Nyuk Hein, 2005) referred to as a "Rooftop garden" (Niekerk et al., 2011). Benefits associated with roof gardening include mitigation of 'Heat Island' effect (Oberndorfer et al. , 2007;Malakar et al., 2017), reduction in the energy requirements for air conditioning of the building (Wong et al., 2010;Muñoz et al., 2015), improvement in air quality (Malakar et al., 2017), reduction in stormwater runoff (Stovin, 2010), an increase in biodiversity as well as habitat (Francis and Lorimer, 2011), property value enhancement (Ichihara and Cohen, 2010), emergence of technologic, economic and employment opportunities (Malakar et al., 2017), and recreation (Dunnett and Kingsbury, 2004). There is limited research data available on people's perception for the adoption of the rooftop gardens even though understanding people's behavior regarding the adoption of rooftop gardening is important for future urban planning (Cañero et al., 2013;Jungels et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Rooftop gardening is a sustainable approach for mitigating the environment complexities of the urban world. This is a well established technology in many areas although in developing countries rooftop gardening often seems to be a novelty. The environmental benefits of rooftop gardening have been well reported however people’s social and aesthetic perception have received less attention. This study is the first report on the survey within the Faisalabad (Pakistan) community assessing of the public perception and visual appeal (aesthetic reactions) of rooftop gardening. A rooftop garden was established on the roof of a single story building and a visitor survey was taken on the site, to assess the visitor’s general attitude and visual aesthetic preferences in this concern. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to solicit opinions from the 387 visitors and the collected data were subjected to statistical analysis. The results illustrated visitor’s positive response regarding auditioning technique. Moreover, 45% visitors felt that green roof gardening possess high value up to 50%. In conclusion, the majority of the respondents favored the adoption of the rooftop gardening technique. Insights obtained from this report may prove useful for future town planning with the focus on promoting rooftop gardening to ease environmental effects of urban areas.
... Over the last decade, VGS and GR have attracted much attention from building designers and researchers, and there are many systematic review articles on VGS and GR [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. The direct and indirect benefits of VGS and GR include environmental, social and economic benefits [12], such as the reduction of building energy consumption [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20], the mitigation of the urban heat island effect [21][22][23], improvements in atmospheric air quality [24][25][26], better management of storm water and relief from urban drainage pressures [27][28], the promotion of urban biodiversity [29][30], a reduction of noise [31][32], the enhancement of psychological wellbeing [33], improvements of a city's image [34], and increased property value [35]. ...
Article
Over the last decade, the influences of vertical greenery systems (VGSs) and green roofs (GRs) on indoor air temperature, surface temperature of walls, and energy consumption have been widely investigated. There is little information on how VGSs and GRs influence the indoor operative temperature of an air-conditioned space, even though it is a measure of human thermal comfort. This study experimentally investigates the effects of VGS and GR on indoor operative temperatures. Two experimental rooms, one equipped with VGS and GR and the other without, are constructed in Xiangtan, China, which is located in the hot summer and cold winter climate zone. The rooms are controlled using identical indoor air temperature set-points. During the experiments in summer 2018, the indoor and outdoor thermal environmental parameters were measured and recorded automatically. The results indicate that the operative temperature of the room with VGS and GR was reduced by 0.4 °C on average and a maximum of 2.1 °C compared to the room without VGS and GR. The impact of VGS and GR on the operative temperature in the daytime is greater than at night. In addition, the VGS and GR also decrease the oscillation of the operative temperature, and a more stable thermal environment can be achieved with VGS and GR. A computer program was developed using EnergyPlus, and the results were validated using experimental data. By performing computer simulations during the whole cooling season (from June 1 to September 30), it was found that the operative temperature of the room with VGS and GR was reduced by 0.59–0.65 °C during the daytime (7:00 AM–7:00 PM) and remained almost unchanged at night. Further, the set-point temperature of the room with VGS and GR can be 0.76–0.84 °C higher than that of the room without VGS and GR in the daytime to maintain the same level of thermal comfort. An energy saving correction from 7% to 8% on the daytime energy consumption is proposed with this increased set-point temperature.
... For the cultural ecosystem service of aesthetic improvements, we valued increases in the property values of buildings with green roofs. Although a study in New York identified an increase of 16% in rental rates for buildings with green roofs (Ichihara and Cohen, 2011), most studies estimate property value increases in the range of 2-5% (e.g. Bianchini and Hewage, 2012;Perini and Rosasco, 2016). ...
Article
Urban heat islands are an increasing concern even in small- to medium-sized cities, although these areas are still understudied especially in terms of the economic feasibility of adaptation options. This paper uses adaptation scenarios produced by an urban climate model as inputs to a social cost–benefit analysis in three small- to medium-sized cities in Austria: Mödling, Klagenfurt, and Salzburg. The adaptation scenarios, which consider measures such as increasing the reflectivity of different sealed surfaces (referred to as the White City scenario) as well as greening measures (i.e. the Green City scenario), show decreases in the number of hot days (T max ≥30°C) when implemented. Benefits include reductions in heat-related mortality, which are modeled based on trends of daily mortality and climate data, reduced morbidity, productivity loss, and numerous urban ecosystem services. The results demonstrate favorable benefit–cost ratios of a combination of measures (White and Green City) of 1.27, 1.36, and 2.68 for Mödling, Klagenfurt, and Salzburg, respectively, indicating positive economic grounds for supporting policies in line with the adaptation scenarios. Furthermore, results of the Green City vs. White City showed higher benefits for the combined and Green City scenarios despite higher costs for each of the cities.
Article
In order to improve the utilization of solar energy absorbed by the building wall, a passive building technology, that is the wall implanted with heat pipes, had been proposed. In the present study, two rooms with the same environmental conditions were built, and the one with a wall implanted with heat pipes installed was taken as a test room and the other as a control. The dynamic heat transfer characteristics of a wall implanted with heat pipes in transition season and its impact on indoor thermal environment were studied experimentally. The results showed that the application of a wall implanted with heat pipes could increase the indoor temperature by about 0.5 °C and would assert a positive influence on the vertical distribution of temperature. The PMV-PPD values of two rooms were calculated to compare and evaluate the improvement in thermal comfort, and the results indicated that the wall implanted with heat pipes reduced the dissatisfaction rate by more than one seventh in comparison to the indoor thermal environment. Also, it enhanced the PMV value. Therefore, wall implanted with heat pipes as an auxiliary heat source has a good effect on the indoor thermal environment during the transition season.
Article
Green roofs are being incorporated into stormwater management programs around the world. While numerous studies have estimated the private benefits to the owners and residents of buildings with green roofs, the value of the multiple public benefits received by non-building residents are less well known. We use a choice experiment survey to estimate the public benefits for a proposed green roof program in Portland, Oregon, USA. These benefits include reduced combined sewer overflows, reduced urban heat island effects, and an increase in pollinators such as birds, bees and butterflies. Past investments in stormwater infrastructure have exposed some residents to poor water quality and urban flooding, so we also explore if respondents’ willingness to pay varies based on where new green roofs are located. Across models, the largest estimated benefit in our study area is from a reduction in combined sewer overflows. Model results also show that respondents prefer to not fully concentrate new green roofs in Portland’s Central City area, which is where most green roofs are currently located. Total willingness to pay estimates for the 1-year program range from around $202 to $442 per household, or $54.4 to $116.8 million for the city of Portland, Oregon, depending on program characteristics.
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Urban population is becoming less likely to contact with nature. Yet, green infrastructure, as green roofs, provide multiple ecosystem services, as promoting citizens physical and psychological well-being. With the Coronavirus 19 world pandemic public spaces, like parks and other recreational areas, were closed and most citizens were confined to their dwellings. In this context, the need for outdoor space in the housing environment became more necessary than ever. This study is based on a survey performed to citizens living in 35 different countries to identify their access and value given to existing green areas in the home environment during and after confinement, and their willingness to pay (WTP) for an accessible green roof. Results indicate that 68% of respondents missed having a garden during the confinement and the outdoor space value increased after the confinement. Most are willing to pay for a medium sized accessible green roof and their WTP increases if the green area is bigger. WTP for medium sized green roofs is higher in other countries than in Portugal but not significantly different for larger green roofs. To promote private investment in green roofs, citizens WTP should be considered when designing new urban green infrastructure incentive policies.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to consider how biophilic urbanism complements and potentially enhances approaches for the built environment profession to holistically integrate nature into cities. Urban nature – also referred to as urban greening and green infrastructure – has increasingly been considered from many perspectives to address challenges such as population pressures, climate change and resource shortages. Within this context, the authors highlight how “biophilic urbanism” complements and may enhance approaches and efforts for urban greening. Design/methodology/approach – The paper provides a review of existing literature in “urban nature” to clarify and discuss the concept of biophilic urbanism. Drawing on this literature review, the authors present a systematic clustering and scaling of “biophilic elements” that could facilitate responding to twenty-first century challenges. Findings – Biophilic urbanism can be applied at multiple scales in urban environments, through a range of multi-functional features that address the pervasive false dichotomy of urban development and environmental protection. Biophilic urbanism can complement urban greening efforts to enable a holistic approach, which is conducive to comprehensive, intentional and strategic urban greening. Originality/value – This paper situates the emerging concept of biophilic urbanism within existing research from multiple disciplines, providing insight for how this can be applied in practice, particularly to the topical challenge of “urban renewal”.
Article
The building sector accounts for approximately 40% of total global energy usage. Energy consumption for space heating and cooling makes up 60% of the total consumed energy in buildings. This paper presents a comprehensive technical review of passive wall systems in building envelopes while discussing their respective capabilities in optimizing energy efficiency. Different types of energy efficient walls such as Trombe Walls, Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Walls, Double Skin Walls, and Green Walls are explored. Furthermore, novel concepts for optimizing energy efficiency in building envelopes are also introduced. Finally the utilization of passive wall systems to save energy while improving the building environmental impacts is discussed.
Article
Rapid urbanization not only helps the urban economy achieve rapid growth but also imposes great pressure on resources and the environment. The green and blue infrastructure (GBI) in urban areas appears to be an important measure to enhance the economic benefits of the urban environment, but related research is still limited. In this article, we combine big data and machine learning methods to investigate the economic benefits of GBI in the city of Wuhan in Hubei Province. Specifically, the daily travel routes of citizens are analyzed at two scale levels (the housing and neighborhood scales); in our analysis, we start with the structural attributes of citizens’ own houses, move on to the city street views that citizens walk through, pass by the locational amenities where citizens spend their leisure time, and arrive at open spaces located throughout the city. The above trajectory dataset includes 30 variables, which were used as the input into ordinary least squares (OLS), geographically weighted regression (GWR), and multiscale GWR (MGWR). The results show that MGWR (adj. R² = 0.524 at the housing scale, while adj. R² = 0.869 at the neighborhood scale) with all control variables and the GBI attribute variables have the highest goodness of fit: the closer GBI is to urban residents, the higher the economic benefits are regardless of the area; and the higher the street visible green rate is, the greater the economic benefits are. Therefore, urban areas can appropriately increase the number of well-designed small GBIs located near urban residents. Our research provides insights into how big data and machine learning can be employed in frameworks to characterize the economic benefits of GBI and can be applied in other countries and regions.
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In this paper, several steps for our research, in which the green walls are dealt with (documentation of the spread of green walls in Europe and housing by us with interior and exterior green walls), as well as continuous approaches (such as an invention patent for supporting green wall system), and in general the land art (contribution to the reconstruction of L’Aquila or simply representing the concept of space) are presented. Employing our experience, we will help the virtual and real land art work management, as well as contributing with two creations of us: virtual houses with green walls, which can be presented in real-time applications, and available on the Internet, as well as an alternative photographic exhibition in which the green plant materials as well as Art Nouveau wall drawings come to a dialogue. The research will help to highlight the contribution of green walls to landscape design and to the dissemination of this knowledge, which is currently not enjoying so much awareness. Increased awareness will help employment in post-disaster situations, which is the author’s area of research.
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This chapter discusses the most common and established, as well as emerging trends and summarises recent findings and literature around cost-benefit whole life costing (WLC) and valuation of multiple benefits. It explores relevant literature and touches on a variety of tools that can contribute to the estimation of the costs of implementing and maintaining sustainable drainage systems (SuDS), and the evaluation of flood damage reduction, stormwater management and other benefits associated with these approaches. The increasing use of benefits transfer via tools such as the CIRIA BeST tool, and green infrastructure valuation toolkit can help in making the case for SuDS, but it is important to continue to add to the evidence base supporting such tools given the scarcity of studies that demonstrate robust estimates of benefits achieved and even of the ongoing cost of maintaining SuDS under differing climatic and locational factors.
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While a relatively small body of research links green roofs to psychological benefits such as aesthetic enjoyment and improved concentration, these outcomes are becoming important objectives in green roof design. Claims regarding benefits of green roofs are therefore often derived from research on psychological benefits of ground-level urban greenspaces. Compared with other urban landscapes, green roofs have limited space and accessibility, reducing the opportunity for physical exercise and the opportunity for larger masses of vegetation, particularly trees. Given these differences, there is a risk that the psychological benefits of green roofs are overstated or may only apply to a subset of green roof designs. Guidance for designing green roofs for psychological benefits may also be misleading if it fails to consider the unique green roof context. To address these challenges, we review research on psychological benefits of green roofs through a social-ecological lens on human-environment interactions. We consider how experiences of green roofs arise from an interaction between characteristics of the physical environment (including characteristics of green roof vegetation, wind patterns, and surrounding buildings), social climate (including social factors influencing access and use, and social norms for nature in cities), activities that can be undertaken on a green roof (such as exercise, socialisation, rest and relaxation), and individual resources and adaptation (for example, prior mood and opportunities to change environments to support individual needs). We explore how these factors interact with each other and with broader natural, built and socio-cultural systems that might encourage or inhibit opportunities to view, access, and enjoy green roofs. We conclude with recommendations regarding how green roofs can be designed to promote psychological benefits and identify future research needs.
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Sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) offer solutions to water quality and quantity problems in stormwater management in urban areas in addition to numerous economic benefits in terms of urban ecosystem services. Cost-benefit analyses (CBA) of individual SUDS measures, such as green roofs and living walls, are investigated, but economic analyses of complete SUDS for neighborhood-level application are still missing. CBA of neighborhood-level SUDS applications can inform practitioners and decision makers for the proper assessment of planned stormwater management projects. This paper estimates the benefits and economic value of urban ecosystem services of SUDS for a neighborhood in Berlin, Germany, and compares these to typical cost estimates found in literature. Benefits quantified include both private and social benefits. Three separate SUDS scenarios with different combinations of measures for the same district are compared in terms of their net present values (NPV), benefit-cost ratio (BCR) and benefit and cost efficiencies. Parameters of the NPV analysis are also analyzed in a sensitivity analysis. Our results show positive NPVs and BCRs above 1 for one scenario in an analysis of private benefits. Inclusion of social benefits yields only slightly improved NPVs and BCRs. Overall, we demonstrate economic feasible SUDS for stormwater management.
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This paper outlines a life-cycle cost analysis comparing a green (rain gardens) and gray (tunnels) infrastructure combination to a gray-only option to control combined sewer overflow in the Turkey Creek Combined Sewer Overflow Basin in Kansas City, MO. The area of this basin is 2,248 ha (5,554 acres). A set of spreadsheets was developed upon which this life-cycle cost analysis is based. The spreadsheets allow the user to vary the length and/or the diameter of the tunnels. The spreadsheets calculate the additional number of rain gardens needed to handle a given amount of stormwater when the tunnel sizes are reduced. The difference in life-cycle costs between the green/gray and gray-only alternatives is calculated. For a range of options for the number of rain gardens, the green/gray combined alternative is more cost-effective than the gray-only option. The potential present worth of the cost savings for the 50-year expected lifespan of both the gray and green infrastructure could reach as much as $35 million for the Turkey Creek Basin.
Article
This paper develops and applies a space-based strategy for overcoming the general problem of deriving the implicit demand for nonmarket goods. It focuses specifically on evaluating one form of environmental quality, distance from Environmental Protection Agency designated environmental hazards, via the single-family housing market in the Puget Sound region of Washington State. A spatial two-stage hedonic price analysis is used to: ("i") estimate the marginal implicit price of distance from air release sites, hazardous waste generators, hazardous waste handlers, superfund sites, and toxic release sites; and ("ii") estimate a series of implicit demand functions describing the relationship between the price of distance and the quantity consumed. The analysis, which represents an important step forward in the valuation of environmental quality, reveals that the information needed to identify second-stage demand functions is hidden right in plain sight-hanging in the aether of the regional housing market. Copyright (c) 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Despite the refrain that housing prices are determined by "location, location, and location," few studies of airport noise and housing prices have incorporated spatial econometric techniques. We compare various spatial econometric models and estimation methods in a hedonic price framework to examine the impact of noise on 2003 housing prices near the Atlanta airport. Spatial effects are best captured by a model including both spatial autocorrelation and autoregressive parameters estimated by a generalized moments approach. In our preferred model, houses located in an area in which noise disrupts normal activities (defined by a day-night sound level of 70-75 decibels) sell for 20.8 percent less than houses located where noise does not disrupt normal activities (defined by a day-night sound level below 65 decibels). The inclusion of spatial effects magnifies the negative price impacts of airport noise. Finally, after controlling for noise, houses farther from the airport sell for less; the price elasticity with respect to distance is - 0.15, implying that airport proximity is an amenity. Copyright (c) 2008, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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We investigate the salary returns to the ability to play football with both feet. The majority of footballers are predominantly right footed. Using two data sets, a cross-section of footballers in the five main European leagues and a panel of players in the German Bundesliga, we find robust evidence of a substantial salary premium for two-footed ability, even after controlling for available player performance measures. We assess how this premium varies across the salary distribution and by player position.
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