Article

Victims from volcanic eruptions: a revised database

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Abstract

 The number of victims from volcanism and the primary cause(s) of death reported in the literature show considerable uncertainty. We present the results of investigations carried out either in contemporary accounts or in specific studies of eruptions that occurred since A.D. 1783. More than 220 000 people died because of volcanic activity during this period, which includes approximately 90% of the recorded deaths throughout history. Most of the fatalities resulted from post-eruption famine and epidemic disease (30.3%), nuées ardentes or pyroclastic flows and surges (26.8%), mudflows or lahars (17.1%), and volcanogenic tsunamis (16.9%). At present, however, international relief efforts might reduce the effects of post-eruption crop failure and disease, and at least some of the lahars could be anticipated in time by adequate scientific and social response. Thus, mitigation of hazards from pyroclastic flows and tsunamis will become of paramount importance to volcanologists and civil authorities.

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... In the last two centuries, volcanic hazards have claimed worldwide a few hundreds of thousands of people. A great part of such victims has been credited to wrong or false decisions in volcanic crisis situations especially during generation of lahars as shown in the case of the volcano Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia in 1985 (Sigurdsson, andCarey 1986;Naranjo et al. 1986;Tanguy et al. 1998). In the Andean, Cordillera of Ecuador is situated the Cotopaxi volcano, which is known for its far-reaching and lethal lahars generated due glacial ice melting during the last centuries (Barberi et al. 1995;Aguilera et al. 2004a, b;Pistolesi et al. 2014). ...
... So far, direct fatalities from volcanic activities in Ecuador are rare but the potential of future fatalities is extremely high due to population density and their vicinity to a number of active volcanoes. The known and recorded fatalities by volcanoes in Ecuador reach some 1000 residents died by lahars of Cotopaxi in 1877 (Tanguy et al. 1998), one person by gas inhalation in Guagua Pichincha in 1948, two persons by strombolian activity in Sangay in 1977(Snailman 1978, two more by gas inhalation in Chiles in 1990, two more by a phreatic explosion in Guagua Pichincha in 1993 (Annen and Wagner 2003), and six persons by pyroclastic flows in Tungurahua in 2006(Smithsonian Institution 1999. Furthermore, people deceased indirectly by volcanic activity such as by ash cleaning of the roofs in Quito in 1999 (2) and 2002 (1), while at the same time hundreds were injured by the same activity and these and other events (Tanguy et al. 1998;Smithsonian Institution 1999. ...
... The known and recorded fatalities by volcanoes in Ecuador reach some 1000 residents died by lahars of Cotopaxi in 1877 (Tanguy et al. 1998), one person by gas inhalation in Guagua Pichincha in 1948, two persons by strombolian activity in Sangay in 1977(Snailman 1978, two more by gas inhalation in Chiles in 1990, two more by a phreatic explosion in Guagua Pichincha in 1993 (Annen and Wagner 2003), and six persons by pyroclastic flows in Tungurahua in 2006(Smithsonian Institution 1999. Furthermore, people deceased indirectly by volcanic activity such as by ash cleaning of the roofs in Quito in 1999 (2) and 2002 (1), while at the same time hundreds were injured by the same activity and these and other events (Tanguy et al. 1998;Smithsonian Institution 1999. Inhalation of ash and gas are other described volcanic hazards aggravating health problems of the vicinities of a variety of cities like Quito (1999 and, Baños, Salcedo, Ambato, and Riobamba since 1999 and in the coast mainly in Guayaquil in 2006, and 2010 as well as in the surroundings of Latacunga, Salcedo, and Ambato due to the activity of Cotopaxi in 2015. ...
Book
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This book studies geoethics in Latin America and offers comprehensive research on geoethics and geoeducation. Its respective chapters explore geoethics in relation to UNESCO geoparks, mining activities in Latin America, natural hazards and risk management. Geoethics is a key discipline in the field of Earth and Planetary Sciences, and not only includes scientific, technological, methodological and social-cultural aspects, but also addresses the need to consider appropriate protocols, scientific integrity issues and a code of good practice when studying the abiotic world. The position of Latin America’s recently created geoethics associations is based on protection of the environment, together with a reassurance that the balance of nature and the rights of human beings to enjoy it will be preserved.
... Such powerful VEI 4 events represent only 5 % of the eruptions in the last 10 000 years (Pyle, 2015), and curiously two have occurred on Awu with a return period of 154 years. In the database of volcanic eruption victims compiled by Tanguy et al. (1998), Awu eruptions claimed a total of 5301 victims, including 963 casualties during the 1812 eruption, 2806 during the 1856 eruption, and 1532 during the 1892 eruption. This latter database did not take into account the 2508 victims of the 1711 eruption (Van Padan, 1983;Data Dasar Gunung Api, 2011) and 3200 deaths following the 1822 eruption (Lagmay et al., 2007). ...
... Lahar and pyroclastic flows have destroyed villages, destroying all the coconut trees along the coast. A total of 963 inhabitants were killed, particularly in the villages of Tabuhan, Khendar, and Kolengan (Tanguy et al., 1998;Data Dasar Gunung Api, 2011). ...
... Large phreatomagmatic eruption (VEI 3) with associated pyroclastic and lahar flows that killed 2806 inhabitants. The eruption also triggered a tsunami event (Wichmann, 1893;Siebert et al., 2010, Tanguy et al., 1998. ...
Preprint
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Abstract. The little-known Awu volcano (Sangihe Islands, Indonesia) is among the deadliest, with a cumulative death toll of 11 048. In less than 4 centuries, 18 eruptions were recorded, including two VEI 4 and three VEI 3 eruptions with worldwide impacts. The regional geodynamic setting is controlled by a divergent-double-subduction collision and an arc–arc collision. In that context, the slab stalls in the mantle, undergoes an increase in temperature, and becomes prone to melting, a process that sustained the magmatic supply. Awu also has the particularity of hosting alternatively and simultaneously a lava dome and a crater lake throughout its activity. The lava dome passively erupted through the crater lake and induced strong water evaporation from the crater. A conduit plug associated with this dome emplacement subsequently channeled the gas emission to the crater wall. However, with the lava dome cooling, the high annual rainfall eventually reconstituted the crater lake and created a hazardous situation on Awu. Indeed with a new magma injection, rapid pressure buildup may pulverize the conduit plug and the lava dome, allowing lake water injection and subsequent explosive water– magma interaction. The past vigorous eruptions are likely induced
... In the last two centuries, volcanic hazards have claimed worldwide a few hundreds of thousands of people. A great part of such victims has been credited to wrong or false decisions in volcanic crisis situations especially during generation of lahars as shown in the case of the volcano Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia in 1985 (Sigurdsson, andCarey 1986;Naranjo et al. 1986;Tanguy et al. 1998). In the Andean, Cordillera of Ecuador is situated the Cotopaxi volcano, which is known for its far-reaching and lethal lahars generated due glacial ice melting during the last centuries (Barberi et al. 1995;Aguilera et al. 2004a, b;Pistolesi et al. 2014). ...
... So far, direct fatalities from volcanic activities in Ecuador are rare but the potential of future fatalities is extremely high due to population density and their vicinity to a number of active volcanoes. The known and recorded fatalities by volcanoes in Ecuador reach some 1000 residents died by lahars of Cotopaxi in 1877 (Tanguy et al. 1998), one person by gas inhalation in Guagua Pichincha in 1948, two persons by strombolian activity in Sangay in 1977(Snailman 1978, two more by gas inhalation in Chiles in 1990, two more by a phreatic explosion in Guagua Pichincha in 1993 (Annen and Wagner 2003), and six persons by pyroclastic flows in Tungurahua in 2006(Smithsonian Institution 1999. Furthermore, people deceased indirectly by volcanic activity such as by ash cleaning of the roofs in Quito in 1999 (2) and 2002 (1), while at the same time hundreds were injured by the same activity and these and other events (Tanguy et al. 1998;Smithsonian Institution 1999. ...
... The known and recorded fatalities by volcanoes in Ecuador reach some 1000 residents died by lahars of Cotopaxi in 1877 (Tanguy et al. 1998), one person by gas inhalation in Guagua Pichincha in 1948, two persons by strombolian activity in Sangay in 1977(Snailman 1978, two more by gas inhalation in Chiles in 1990, two more by a phreatic explosion in Guagua Pichincha in 1993 (Annen and Wagner 2003), and six persons by pyroclastic flows in Tungurahua in 2006(Smithsonian Institution 1999. Furthermore, people deceased indirectly by volcanic activity such as by ash cleaning of the roofs in Quito in 1999 (2) and 2002 (1), while at the same time hundreds were injured by the same activity and these and other events (Tanguy et al. 1998;Smithsonian Institution 1999. Inhalation of ash and gas are other described volcanic hazards aggravating health problems of the vicinities of a variety of cities like Quito (1999 and, Baños, Salcedo, Ambato, and Riobamba since 1999 and in the coast mainly in Guayaquil in 2006, and 2010 as well as in the surroundings of Latacunga, Salcedo, and Ambato due to the activity of Cotopaxi in 2015. ...
Chapter
Ecological disasters are taking place in Latin America as a consequence of the development of extractive industries and the rising demand of commodities by international markets. The role of Latin America in the world system provides an insight into the concept of Geoethics. This article argues on the existence of theoretical and historical background in Latin American ideas to discuss the elaboration of a “Latin American Geoethics”.
... Although the actual number of fatalities from volcanism in Central America is uncertain, an estimated 12,000 to 18,000 people died in the last five centuries. No less than half of these fatalities were a result of post-eruption famine and epidemic diseases, and the other half by direct effects such as tephra fall, pyroclastic flows and surges [4]. The Central American population has significantly increased since the last century and mitigation of volcanic risk and designing emergency plans should become paramount to the volcanological and civil authorities in the coming years. ...
... Data taken from Sapper [11], Drexler et al. [24], Williams and Self [16] and Self et al. [25]. The 1300 people that died by the draining of crater lake of the Agua volcano (1541 AD) and the 400 people killed in an Indian village destroyed by a debris avalanche and/or debris flow from the Mombacho (1570 AD) are not included because they were not associated with a volcanic eruption (modified after [4,5] Equivalent DRE) was erupted in an 18-20-hr period. It produced a column at least 28 km high, reaching into the stratosphere. ...
... The ash facilitated the growth and spread of such dangerous coffee crop plagues as Leucoptera coffella and Olygonychus vothersi [66]. The most dramatic case is, again, Santa María, where 5000-10,000 people are estimated to have died because of epidemic diseases after the 1902 eruption [4]. ...
... In the last two centuries, volcanic hazards have claimed worldwide a few hundreds of thousands of people. A great part of such victims has been credited to wrong or false decisions in volcanic crisis situations especially during generation of lahars as shown in the case of the volcano Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia in 1985 (Sigurdsson, andCarey 1986;Naranjo et al. 1986;Tanguy et al. 1998). In the Andean, Cordillera of Ecuador is situated the Cotopaxi volcano, which is known for its far-reaching and lethal lahars generated due glacial ice melting during the last centuries (Barberi et al. 1995;Aguilera et al. 2004a, b;Pistolesi et al. 2014). ...
... So far, direct fatalities from volcanic activities in Ecuador are rare but the potential of future fatalities is extremely high due to population density and their vicinity to a number of active volcanoes. The known and recorded fatalities by volcanoes in Ecuador reach some 1000 residents died by lahars of Cotopaxi in 1877 (Tanguy et al. 1998), one person by gas inhalation in Guagua Pichincha in 1948, two persons by strombolian activity in Sangay in 1977(Snailman 1978, two more by gas inhalation in Chiles in 1990, two more by a phreatic explosion in Guagua Pichincha in 1993 (Annen and Wagner 2003), and six persons by pyroclastic flows in Tungurahua in 2006(Smithsonian Institution 1999. Furthermore, people deceased indirectly by volcanic activity such as by ash cleaning of the roofs in Quito in 1999 (2) and 2002 (1), while at the same time hundreds were injured by the same activity and these and other events (Tanguy et al. 1998;Smithsonian Institution 1999. ...
... The known and recorded fatalities by volcanoes in Ecuador reach some 1000 residents died by lahars of Cotopaxi in 1877 (Tanguy et al. 1998), one person by gas inhalation in Guagua Pichincha in 1948, two persons by strombolian activity in Sangay in 1977(Snailman 1978, two more by gas inhalation in Chiles in 1990, two more by a phreatic explosion in Guagua Pichincha in 1993 (Annen and Wagner 2003), and six persons by pyroclastic flows in Tungurahua in 2006(Smithsonian Institution 1999. Furthermore, people deceased indirectly by volcanic activity such as by ash cleaning of the roofs in Quito in 1999 (2) and 2002 (1), while at the same time hundreds were injured by the same activity and these and other events (Tanguy et al. 1998;Smithsonian Institution 1999. Inhalation of ash and gas are other described volcanic hazards aggravating health problems of the vicinities of a variety of cities like Quito (1999 and, Baños, Salcedo, Ambato, and Riobamba since 1999 and in the coast mainly in Guayaquil in 2006, and 2010 as well as in the surroundings of Latacunga, Salcedo, and Ambato due to the activity of Cotopaxi in 2015. ...
Chapter
Geoethics was born in 1991 at the junction of ethics and geology. Dr. Vaclav Nemec is considered the father of this discipline. Geoethics has been accepted by both Earth and Social Sciences because of the necessity of an appropriate ethical attitude to the whole geosphere and of a critical analysis of geoethical dilemmas and finding ways how to solve them.
... The latest eruption was a VEI 2 in 2004. In the database of volcanic eruption victims compiled by Tanguy et al. (1998), Awu eruptions claimed a total of 5301 victims, mainly following lahar events, including 963 casualties during the 1812 eruption, 2806 during the 1856 eruption and 1532 during the 1892 eruption. But this latter database did not take into account the 2508 victims of the 1711 eruption (Van Padan, 1983;Data Dasar Gunung Api, 2011) and the 3200 inhabitants killed by lahar events following the 1822 eruption (Lagmay et al., 2007). ...
... Lahar and pyroclastic flows have destroyed villages, destroying all the coconut trees along the coast. 963 inhabitants were killed, particularly in the village of Tabuhan, Khendar and Kolengan (Tanguy et al., 1998;Data Dasar, Gunung Api, 2011). ...
... Large phreatomagmatic eruption (VEI 3) with associated pyroclastic and lahar flow that killed 2806 inhabitants. The eruption has also triggered a tsunami event (Wichmann, A., 1893;Siebert et al., 2010, Tanguy et al., 1998. ...
... As a result, in the literature, volcanic activity is typically measured through the intensity of its effect (e.g., mortality, economic costs of damages), although these effects obviously have an endogenous component. 7 Different databases exist that record the intensity of the impact in terms of the damage of volcanic activity (Simkin and Siebert 1994;Tanguy et al. 1998;Witham 2005;EM-DAT, CRED 2010, 8 DesInventar 9 ). ...
... Second, different historical records of casualties caused by volcanic events show considerable inconsistencies in the number of victims (Tanguy et al. 1998;Simkin et al. 2001;Witham 2005). There are several reasons behind these discrepancies. ...
Article
Full-text available
Volcanic hazards pose a potential threat to 8% of the world’s population, yet the economic literature on their short- and long-term consequences on household behavior and economic development is still in its infancy. In this article, we present the state of the literature and highlight knowledge gaps and methodological challenges inherent to the economic analysis of volcanic hazards and disasters. We first present the physical aspects of volcanic activity and describe available physical data. We then examine the concepts related to cost assessment of volcanic disasters. Finally, we discuss key micro and macroeconomic research questions economists should investigate and identify relevant methodological and data challenges. By highlighting research gaps in the “economics of volcanoes”, we provide future avenues of research that will address policy-relevant debates in the context of greater focus on risk mitigation, adaptation, and resilience policies aimed at mitigating natural hazards and disasters.
... Volcanoes and associated hazards have been responsible for the death of hundreds of thousands of people in the last two centuries worldwide [1,2], destroying a variety of strategic infrastructure throughout the world, changing the local and global climate [3][4][5][6][7] as well as nearby landscapes [8][9][10][11]. One of the most lethal volcanic hazards are lahars, as they are more devastating in terms of cumulative fatalities than all other volcanic hazards including pyroclastic flows [12,13]. ...
... The best-documented event took place in 1877 and ended up killing approximately 1,000 people in the area [2,40]. Glacier melting facilitated the creation of a lahar, which roared down the mountain at speeds of up to 70 km/h [15]. ...
Chapter
The Cotopaxi Volcano is one of the most dangerous volcanoes world- wide due to its potential of the generation of voluminous lahars of dozens of mil- lions of cubic meters capable of destroying infrastructure and endangering a lot of people living near major river drainages of this volcano. Our study describes such circumstances in the northern side of Cotopaxi Volcano and how we pro- pose to reduce the vulnerability of the public with new evacuation methods. Therefore, we have used geomatic tools, in order to shorten evacuation ways and directions. Based on the results, we determined different spatial variables or geographic coverage of the described and highlighted the main points of interest in each of them. The location of initial evacuation points of the population was determined within the lahar travel area being along the road axes. With these points we calculated security checkpoints outside the area lahar with additional margin. For this process the impedance was determined according to the average speed of a person in case of evacuation. In areas where the evacuation time has been longer than the arrival time of the lahar, vertical rather than horizontal evacuation points were determined by evaluating its coverage area depending on the time needed for the population to be safe.
... Figure 13 of Lowe (1988) shows expectable decreases in thickness with distance, using large New Zealand eruptions as examples. Falling ash and pumice is rarely lethal by itself, but it can kill by accumulating on roofs that then collapse (Blong, 1984;Tanguy et al., 1998;Witham, 2005;Auker et al., 2013). Farther away from the volcano, but still what we might consider proximal, it can damage crops and cause expensive damage in urban areas [e.g., with power lines, computers, water treatment facilities, centralized HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning) systems, machinery, and vehicles] (Heiken et al., 1995;Wilson et al., 2012b;Wardman et al., 2012;Wilson et al., 2012aWilson et al., , 2014. ...
... We also noted that pyroclastic flows from VEI 7 could erase an entire city or region, and ash fall and aerosols could have global impacts on air travel, supply chains, and climate. The worst death tolls in historical eruptions are in the tens of thousands (Tanguy et al., 1998;Witham, 2005;Auker et al., 2013), whereas a VEI 7 eruption near an urban area today potentially could kill millions. Some might say that an annual probability of ~2 × 10 -3 yr -1 is too small, or too daunting, to consider. ...
Article
Worst-case or high-end subduction-related earthquakes and tsunamis of 2004 and 2011 are painfully fresh in our memories. High-end subduction-related volcanic eruptions have not occurred in recent memory, so we review historical and geologic evidence about such eruptions that will surely recur within coming centuries. Specifically, we focus on Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) 7 eruptions, which occur 1-2 times per thousand years. A variety of environmental changes followed the VEI 7 eruption of Rinjani (Samalas), Indonesia, in CE 1257 and several more eruptions of VEI 6 or 7 that occurred in the succeeding few centuries. The Rinjani eruption and its impacts are relatively well documented, modeled, and, for the purposes of attribution, uncomplicated by antecedent eruptions. It seems likely that the Rinjani eruption triggered the onset of the Little Ice Age, and subsequent large eruptions sustained it. Although climatic effects of eruptions like Pinatubo (Philippines) and even Tambora (Indonesia) lasted only a few years, it seems that coupling of oceans, sea ice, and atmosphere after larger eruptions can force decade- to century-long cooling, decreased precipitation, and major impacts on crops. The next VEI 7 will affect a world very different from that of CE 1257. Today, populations within 100 km of candidate volcanoes range from fewer than 1000 people in remote areas to between 20 and 30 million people near several candidates in Indonesia and the Philippines. If a VEI 7 eruption occurs, those populations will be at dire risk, and eruptions in some locations could destabilize financial centers, national economies, and even peace between nations. Distal effects on air travel, the global positioning system, and climate will be felt by a high-technology, globally interdependent world. We suggest and apply criteria to identify candidates for future VEI 7 eruptions, and discuss likely challenges for short-range forecasting of such events. Preparation for such low-probability but high-consequence events is difficult to imagine, yet some modest early measures can be considered. Volcanologists should refine geologic histories and ensure at least baseline monitoring of candidate volcanoes, and consider how they will judge the likelihood that an impending eruption will be of VEI 7. Forward-thinking governments and industries would be wise to consider how a proximal or distal VEI 7 eruption will affect their jurisdictions, and what responses make the most economic and sociopolitical sense.
... Volcanic mass flows, particularly pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) emplaced above 600 °C are the deadliest hazards known from volcanic eruptions of tall subduction-related stratovolcanoes (Tanguy et al., 1998;Witham 2005). In volcanic chains in humid temperate or tropical environments as diverse as the Aleutian (Alaska, USA), Cascade (western North America), or Indonesian arcs, volcanic mass flows are ubiquitous during and following eruptions. ...
Article
Quantifying the spread of >600 °C pyroclastic flows (more broadly termed pyroclastic density currents—PDCs) is important because they regularly cause major volcanic catastrophes. Far from volcanic flanks, non-welded PDC deposits can be difficult to distinguish from cold-emplaced volcano-sedimentary units. A key indicator of high temperature is the coherence of magnetic remanence among different lithic clasts in a deposit. In long-runout PDCs, distal deposits are dominated by ash particles (<2 mm diameter), often lacking clasts large enough for conventional paleomagnetic sampling. Here we demonstrate a method of consolidating and sampling oriented blocks of friable ash material with a strengthening compound. This method was used to show that a >25 km runout mass-flow deposit from the 2518-m-high Mt. Taranaki (New Zealand) was emplaced as a hot PDC, contrary to an earlier cold lahar interpretation. We corroborate the results from ash with data from clast samples at some sites and show that the matrix was emplaced at temperatures of at least 250 °C, while clasts were deposited at up to 410 °C. Our case-study raises concerns for hazard-identification at stratovolcanoes worldwide. In the Mt. Taranaki case we demonstrate that PDCs traveled >9 km farther than previously estimated— also well beyond the “normal” PDC hazard zones at stratovolcanoes (10 or 15 km from source). Thus, attention should be paid to deposits in the 15−25 km range in other volcanic settings, where large populations are potentially unaware of PDC risk.
... Human societies have inhabited volcanic zones long before historical records, facing a range of both positive and negative consequences. Eruptions usually offer impressive and inspiring scenes that connect people with nature and shape their belief systems (e.g., Kilauea volcano in Hawaii; Swanson, 2008); but frequently, they also generate massive death, destruction and environmental change that demand major preparedness, responses and recovery efforts (e.g., Tambora volcano in modern day Indonesia; Tanguy et al., 1998). To minimize such negative environmental and social impacts, and to protect and ensure local livelihoods, latest approaches to disaster risk reduction (DRR) have highlighted the importance of traditional knowledge as a complementary source of information for decision-making (Mercer et al., 2007;Mercer et al., 2012;UNISDR, 2015). ...
Article
Human societies have inhabited volcanic zones since times immemorial, but only recently scientists and decision-makers have turned the attention to the study of such dwellings, aiming at reducing major risks and impacts involved. There is growing consensus about the importance of integrating natural and social sciences approaches and engaging with local communities. Nevertheless, such integration and dialogue among local actors, scientists and decision-makers is usually difficult to achieve. We present the case of the Rayün Yallel indigenous community, inhabiting in-between two mayor volcanic systems (Carrán Los Venados and Puyehue-Cordón Caulle), to explore their experience in relation with past and recent eruptions; to analyze the connections between the local communities’, scientists and decision-makers; and to identify gaps and potentials for risk reduction and livelihoods in volcanic environments. Results show that people have relied on the land and its resources over time, developing a sense of place with and a body of knowledge about volcanoes. But recent eruptions have challenged community perceptions of risk, showing fragmented and limited understanding of eruptions and disconnection with science and policy. Findings stress the potentials of interdisciplinary integration and the need for enhanced volcanic risk and hazard communication and community preparedness.
... This is a provisional file, not the final typeset article 26.8% of volcano-induced mortality resulted from PDCs (Tanguy et al., 1998;Witham, 2005). 37 Moreover, global and regional climatic effects can result from the injection of ash and sulfur aerosols 38 into the stratosphere during large explosive eruptions, leading to a "volcanic winter" (Rampino and 39 Self, 1992; Stuiver et al., 1995; Thordarson and Self, 1996). ...
... Additionally, if we assume that at least another~20,000 km 2 of the southeastern Maya periphery was left uninhabitable by heavy tephra fall of 35 cm or more (Fig. 10), with a modest population density over that area of 5e20 people/km 2 , then some 100,000e400,000 survivors may have attempted to flee the region. A significant fraction of the eruption survivors and refugees may well have perished due to post-eruption disease compounded by lack of food and clean water, as documented after Tambora in 1815 and Santa Maria, Guatemala in 1902 (Oppenheimer, 2003;Tanguy et al., 1998). Indeed, more than two-thirds of all fatalities attributed to volcanic eruptions globally since 1500 have occurred not during the eruptive phases, but in the days, months, and even years following eruptions (Simkin et al., 2001). ...
Article
Ilopango volcano (El Salvador) erupted violently during the Maya Classic Period (250–900 CE) in a densely-populated and intensively-cultivated region of the southern Maya realm, causing regional abandonment of an area covering more than 20,000 km². However, neither the regional nor global impacts of the Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ) eruption in Mesoamerica have been well appraised due to limitations in available volcanological, chronological, and archaeological observations. Here we present new evidence of the age, magnitude and sulfur release of the TBJ eruption, establishing it as one of the two hitherto unidentified volcanic triggers of a period of stratospheric aerosol loading that profoundly impacted Northern Hemisphere climate and society between circa 536 and 550 CE. Our chronology is derived from 100 new radiocarbon measurements performed on three subfossil tree trunks enveloped in proximal TBJ pyroclastic deposits. We also reassess the eruption magnitude using terrestrial (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras) and near-shore marine TBJ tephra deposit thickness measurements. Together, our new constraints on the age, eruption size (43.6 km³ Dense Rock Equivalent of magma, magnitude = 7.0) and sulfur yield (∼9–90 Tg), along with Ilopango's latitude (13.7° N), squarely frame the TBJ as the major climate-forcing eruption of 539 or 540 CE identified in bipolar ice cores and sourced to the tropics. In addition to deepening appreciation of the TBJ eruption's impacts in Mesoamerica, linking it to the major Northern Hemisphere climatic downturn of the mid-6th century CE offers another piece in the puzzle of understanding Eurasian history of the period.
... Volcanic landscapes offer multiple attractions for the population that coexist with them. Millions of people live in areas with active volcanoes [1,2], and their most important contributions include fertile soils for agriculture, geothermal energy, and materials for construction and tourism activities [3]. For tourism, diverse of natural and cultural heritage associated with volcanoes can serve as major attractions [4,5]. ...
Conference Paper
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In the Canary Islands, sixteen historical eruptions have been documented in Lanzarote, Tenerife, El Hierro, and La Palma. The latest eruption, the Tajogaite eruption, occurred in 2021 in La Palma and the richness and diversity of natural and cultural heritage associated with this eruption can be a valuable resource for attracting visitors and tourists. The main aim of this work is to select Sites of Geo-Tourist Interest (SGIs) in order to create geo-itineraries. The methodology used is based on fieldworks and drone flight videos and photos taken during and after the eruption. Sixteen SGIs have been selected and studied. Eleven sites represent geoheritage of the Tajogaite eruption and seven sites are related to the surrounding natural and rural landscapes. In the near future, geo-itineraries (for in-person and virtual visits) will be created for visitors to La Palma and for the interested online audience.
... Fra i possibili stili eruttivi presenti nelle eruzioni sostenute, s'intende analizzare quello in cui la colonna collassante è emessa con un flusso continuo ed i suoi margini esterni si allontanano ricadendo poi al suolo [Parfitt & Wilson (2008)]. Lo sviluppo di CDP è considerato uno dei fenomeni più pericolosi che possono prodursi durante un'eruzione vulcanica esplosiva [Tanguy et al. (1998)] e di solito comporta un'elevata distruzione dei territori colpiti [Blong (1984)]. Le simulazioni numeriche, perciò, sono state elaborate ponendo particolare attenzione allo sviluppo e alla dinamica delle CDP, e in particolare al comportamento delle particelle solide all'interno di esse. ...
... Tsunamis generated by events at coastal and submarine volcanoes can inundate distant coastal areas (e.g., Moore and Moore, 1988;Tinti et al., 2006), and landslide dams can block rivers and may then fail catastrophically, causing rapid flooding downstream (e.g., Costa and Schuster, 1988;Bovis and Jakob, 2000). Tanguy et al. (1998) estimated that 48% of the documented volcano-related fatalities from 1783 to 1998 (N100,000 total) were directly caused by pyroclastic density currents, debris avalanches, and mudflows, and another 17% by volcanigenic tsunamis, which are often related to gravitational movements. A tragic recent case occurred in 1985 when N23,000 people were killed by lahars during the eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia (Pierson et al., 1990), but examples stretch back in human history. ...
Article
Surficial mass movements, such as debris avalanches, rock falls, lahars, pyroclastic flows, and outburst floods, are a dominant hazard at many volcanoes worldwide. Understanding these processes, cataloging their spatio-temporal occurrence, and detecting, tracking, and characterizing these events would advance the science of volcano monitoring and help mitigate hazards. Seismic and acoustic methods show promise for achieving these objectives: many surficial mass movements generate observable seismic and acoustic signals, and many volcanoes are already monitored. Significant progress has been made toward understanding, modeling, and extracting quantitative information from seismic and infrasonic signals generated by surficial mass movements. However, much work remains. In this paper, we review the state of the art of the topic, covering a range of scales and event types from individual rock falls to sector collapses. We consider a full variety of volcanic settings, from submarine to subaerial, shield volcano to stratovolcano. Finally, we discuss future directions toward operational seismo-acoustic monitoring of surficial mass movements at volcanoes.
... Deep-sea turbidity currents deposit the largest sediment accumulations on the Earth 1 , density currents emplace ejecta blankets around bolide impact craters 2 and pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) can transport thousands of cubic kilometres of volcanic material during a single event 3 . These flows also pose a major geohazard, with deep-sea turbidity currents threatening seafloor infrastructure and PDCs being responsible for over 90,000 deaths since 1600 CE 4,5 . Understanding the behaviour of these particleladen, fast-moving currents is fundamental to decreasing the risks they pose to society. ...
Article
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Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are a life-threatening volcanic hazard. Our understanding and hazard assessments of these flows rely on interpretations of their deposits. The occurrence of stratified layers, cross-stratification, and bedforms in these deposits has been assumed as indicative of dilute, turbulent, supercritical flows causing traction-dominated deposition. Here we show, through analogue experiments, that a variety of bedforms can be produced by denser, aerated, granular currents, including backset bedforms that are formed in waning flows by an upstream-propagating granular bore. We are able to, for the first time, define phase fields for the formation of bedforms in PDC deposits. We examine how our findings impact the understanding of bedform features in outcrop, using the example of the Pozzolane Rosse ignimbrite of the Colli Albani volcano, Italy, and thus highlight that interpretations of the formative mechanisms of these features observed in the field must be reconsidered. In this study, Smith and colleagues employ analogue experiments to show the controlling parameters on sediment bedforms in pyroclastic density current deposits. The findings are applied and validated on natural deposits.
... Este peligro secundario es el que más vidas ha cobrado en los registros históricos del vulcanismo los gases son inyectados en la atmósfera y producen cambios en el clima de grandes regiones, provocando sequías y pérdida de cosechas ( Sigurdsson et al., 2000;Tilling, 2008). Este peligro secundario es el que más vidas ha cobrado en los registros históricos del vulcanismo ( Tanguy et al., 1998;Tilling, 2008) Cambios en la temperatura y calidad del agua Es la alteración y contaminación del recurso hídrico con partículas sólidas, líquidas y gaseosas que afectan sus características organolépticas (sabor, olor y color), además de que generalmente se vuelve nociva para los seres vivos. Los cambios en la temperatura (aumento, generalmente) en las aguas superficiales se presenta por la caída de material piroclástico, o porque la vegetación y los árboles fueron quemados o arrancados y no proporcionan sombra que ayude a disminuir la temperatura del agua. ...
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This article has two objectives: (1) provide a conceptual framework of volcanic risk, and (2) review research conducted since 1995 to define the prospects and challenges that exist in this science. A search by title, abstract, and keywords for the phrases "volcanic risk", "volcanic hazard" and "volcanic vulnerability" returned 161 articles in 39 journals, which are reviewed here. This review found that continued work is needed to build a general theoretical framework of volcanic risk that can be widely accepted and applied, and that avoids confusion and misuse of various terms. Also vital is continued work on aspects of risk perception, management, and policy, all of which are key elements of disaster prevention and mitigation.
... Highly explosive volcanic events are often associated with CFEs. These are extreme events that may involve the eruption of large volumes of pyroclastic material (in some cases VEI 8; Mason et al., 2004;Self, 2006 (Rampino and Self, 1982;Newhall and Punongbayan, 1996;Tanguy et al., 1998). ...
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The Azores archipelago has an extensive stratigraphic record of pyroclastic density current-forming eruptions. Such eruptions typically occur on active central volcanoes and are associated with paroxysmal events of caldera formation. This work focuses on two contrasting pyroclastic density current-forming episodes on the islands of Faial and Terceira, in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the diversity of eruptive styles that can produce ignimbrites. The ~1000 years BP eruption of Caldeira Volcano (Faial Island) was the last major pyroclastic density current-forming eruption associated with a caldera collapse in the Azores. It produced a complex pyroclastic succession, known as the C11 deposit, which is divided into three members with distinct lithofacies: a lower sequence of ash layers (Brejo Member) found in the NW sector of Faial, an intermediate pumice fall deposit (Inverno Member) restricted to the north flank of the volcano and an upper ignimbrite and associated lithic breccias (Cedros Member) exposed along the north and east flanks. These record three phases of the eruption with different eruptive styles. The eruption started with a phreatomagmatic phase that produced ash fallout and fully dilute density currents, followed by a magmatic fall-dominated phase with the establishment of a sub-Plinian column (up to 14 km high) and culminated with a climatic caldera-forming phase that generated extensive pyroclastic density currents and led to caldera collapse. This marked the first stage of formation of an incremental caldera at the volcano. Overall, a minimum bulk volume of at least 0.18 km3 was estimated for this caldera-forming eruption, although a significant portion of material was deposited offshore. The juvenile products (light-coloured, dark-grey and banded pumices) have a homogeneous trachytic composition (59 wt% SiO2). However, petrographic and groundmass glass analyses indicate that the C11 magma resulted from the mingling/mixing between two trachytic batches of magma with different degrees of evolution. The emplacement temperatures of pyroclastic density currents on the north flank of the volcano were estimated at >550-560 ºC, while along Pedro Miguel Graben were at lower temperatures of 300-560 ºC. The Lajes-Angra Ignimbrite Formation (Terceira Island) is one of the largest and best exposed ignimbrite formations in the Azores. It is comprised of two members with ~21 ka: the Lajes and the Angra ignimbrites of Pico Alto Volcano. The Lajes Ignimbrite (0.59 km3 bulk volume) is a low-aspect ratio ignimbrite with vertical lithofacies variations marked by an upward coarsening of the sequence. It has a extensive distribution across much of the island, showing lateral thickness and lithofacies variations. The Angra Ignimbrite (0.08 km3 bulk volume) is a thick monotonous ignimbrite mostly restricted to one valley on the south part of the island. These ignimbrites record two closely spaced in time pyroclastic density current-forming events of Pico Alto. The first corresponds to the Angra Ignimbrite eruption and was characterized by a short-lived pyroclastic fountain that generated a small volume sustained pyroclastic density current, almost totally channelled along a valley. The second eruptive event is recorded by the Lajes Ignimbrite and was marked by vigorous and prolonged pyroclastic fountaining that formed a sustained quasi-steady pyroclastic density current. It spread radially from Pico Alto caldera to the north and south coasts. The low-aspect ratio of this ignimbrite resulted from the widespread deposition of a relatively low velocity pyroclastic density current over the smooth palaeotopography of Terceira. The juvenile clasts of the two ignimbrites include pumices and porphyritic scoriae (dense vitrophyres are only found on Lajes Ignimbrite) with similar peralkaline comenditic trachyte composition (65-66 wt% SiO2) and mineral assemblage. Despite of relatively homogenous major element compositions, disequilibrium textures in crystals (especially alkali feldspars) and trace element variability suggest that the magma reservoir was compositionally zoned before the eruption of the ignimbrites. The zonation seems to have been disrupted by pre- and syn-eruptive mixing/mingling of magmas. The presence of two different types of anorthoclase phenocrysts in the Lajes Ignimbrite confirmed the occurrence of crystal convection in the reservoir and interaction with a hotter magma.
... PDCs are mixtures of volcanic fragments, ash and gas that are initially denser than the surrounding atmosphere and travel across the ground under the effect of gravity ( Carey, 1991;Druitt, 1998;Freundt and Bursik, 1998;Sulpizio et al., 2014;Dufek, 2016). Historical evidence and past studies have shown that PDCs can cause near complete destruction of widespread areas and represent serious threats to surrounding populations and infrastructure ( Tilling and Lipman, 1993;Tanguy et al., 1998). Due to these risks, assessment and mitigation of PDC hazards has been a main focus of the international volcanology community during the last 30 years. ...
Article
The July 2015 block-and-ash flow (BAF) events represent the first documented series of large-volume and long-runout BAFs generated from sustained dome collapses at Volcán de Colima. This eruption is particularly exceptional at this volcano due to (1) the large volume of BAF material emplaced (0.0077±0.001km³), (2) the long runout reached by the associated BAFs (max. ~10km), and (3) the short period (~18h) over which two main long-sustained dome collapse events occurred (on 10 and 11 July, respectively). Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the 2015 BAF deposits exposed in the southern flank of the volcano based on lithofacies description, grain size measurements and clast componentry allowed the recognition of three main deposit facies (i.e., valley-confined, overbank and ash-cloud surge deposits). Correlations and lithofacies variations inside three main flow units from both the valley-confined and overbank deposits left from the emplacement of the second series of BAFs on 11 July provide detailed information about: (1) the distribution, volumes and sedimentological characteristics of the different units; (2) flow parameters (i.e., velocity and dynamic pressure) and mobility metrics as inferred from associated deposits; and (3) changes in the dynamics of the different flows and their material during emplacement. These data were coupled with geomorphic analyses to assess the role of the topography in controlling the behaviour and impacts of the successive BAF pulses on the volcano flanks. Finally, these findings are used to propose a conceptual model for transport and deposition mechanisms of the July 2015 BAFs at Volcán de Colima. In this model, deposition occurs by rapid stepwise aggradation of successive BAF pulses. Flow confinement in a narrow and sinuous channel enhance the mobility and runout of individual channelized BAF pulses. When these conditions occur, the progressive valley infilling from successive sustained dome-collapse events promote the overspill and lateral spreading of the upper and marginal regions of the main flow body, generating highly mobile overbank flows that travel outside of the main valley. Volume- and distance-dependent critical channel capacities for the generation of overbank flows are used to better estimate the inundation area of these hazardous unconfined pyroclastic flows. These results highlight the importance of including and correctly assessing the hazards posed by large volume and long runout BAFs associated with frequent, small VEI, sustained dome-collapse eruptions.
... This was not just from academic authors (e.g. Tanguy et al. 1998;Witham 2005;Cashman and Giordano 2008), but from organizations which have included: the Brussels-based Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (or CRED); and re-insurance companies, in particular Munich Re (Auker et al. 2013). Advances continue to be made in the second decade of the twenty-first century as witnessed by the new data-base of large magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions (LaMEVE), which forms part of the larger Volcanic Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA) (Crosweller et al. 2012), and the improved catalogue of fatalities caused by volcanic activity from 1600 to 2010 (Auker et al. 2013). ...
Chapter
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Volcanoes hold a fascination for human beings and, before they were recorded by literate observers, eruptions were portrayed in art, were recalled in legend and became incorporated into religious practices: being viewed as agents of punishment, bounty or intimidation depending upon their state of activity and the culture involved. In the Middle East the earliest record dates from the third millennium BCE and knowledge of volcanoes increased progressively over time. In the first century CE written records noted nine volcanoes in the Mediterranean region plus Mount Cameroon in West Africa, yet by 1380 AD the record only totalled 48, with volcanoes in Japan, Indonesia and Iceland being added. After this the list of continued to increase, but important regions such as New Zealand and Hawaii were only added during the last 200 years. Only from 1900 did the rate of growth decline significantly, but it is sobering to recall that in the twentieth century major eruptions have occurred from volcanoes that were considered inactive or extinct, examples including: Mount Lamington—Papua New Guinea, 1951; Mount Arenal—Costa Rica, 1968 and Nyos—Cameroon, 1986. Although there were instances where the human impact of historical eruptions were studied in detail, with
... In particular, coastal communities living close to active volcanoes are commonly unprepared for tsunamis generated by underwater explosions, slope instabilities (submarine and subaerial landslides, flank collapses), caldera collapses, pyroclastic flows, or shock waves due to large explosions (Paris, 2015). However, volcanic tsunamis are not anecdotal phenomena as they cause about 20% of fatalities attributable to volcanic activities (Latter, 1981;Tanguy et al., 1998), even without taking into account the recent landslide-tsunami of December 2018 caused by the Anak Krakatau eruption (Indonesia) with a death toll of approximatively 400 people (Gouhier & Paris, 2019;Grilli et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Novel laboratory experiments of fluidized granular flows entering water are reported, for the purpose of investigating tsunamis generated by pyroclastic flows. Qualitatively, the impact of a fluidized granular flow into water leads to (i) an initial vertical granular jet over water, (ii) a leading and largest wave, and (iii) a turbulent mixing zone forming a turbidity current. The present study focuses on the leading wave features in the near‐field region, as a function of the mass flux per width qm and the volume per width υ of the flow, the maximum water depth Ho, and the slope angle θ of the inclined plane. The obtained waves are of Stokes and cnoidal types, for which the generation is mostly controlled by qm and υ. By contrast, Ho plays no role on the wave generation that occurs in the shallowest region. Moreover, a comparison between fluidized granular, dry (nonfluidized) granular, and water flows entering water is addressed under similar flow conditions. The dimensionless amplitude scales as A/Ho=f(ζ), where ζ=FrSMsinθ is a dimensionless parameter depending on the Froude number Fr, the relative slide thickness S, the relative mass M, and the slope angle θ. Data of fine fluidized granular, fine dry granular, and water flows collapse on a master curve, which implies that the nature of the flowing material is of lesser importance in the current setup. By contrast, coarse granular flows generate lower amplitude waves, which is attributed to the penetration of water into the porous granular medium.
... The historical eruptions of Tambora (Indonesia) in 1815, Pinatubo (Philippines) in 1991, and Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) in 1985, respectively ranked 7, 6, and 3 in the VEI (Volcanic Explosivity Index, , were powerful and led to huge casualties making them almost legendary. Death tolls generally assumed for these eruptions indeed reach a total of 65,000 for the Tambora eruption, 23,000 for the Nevado del Ruiz event (caused by volcanic mudflows), and 1,200 only for the Pinatubo eruption (thanks to early warning indicators and effective evacuations) (Tanguy et al., 1998;Oppenheimer, 2003). In addition, all three eruptions ejected huge amounts of sulfure dioxide in the atmosphere leading to drastic decrease of global temperatures (about 0.5 • C for the Tambora and Pinatubo eruptions, D'Arrigo et al. 2009;Self et al. 1996) causing famine and epidemic diseases all around the globe. ...
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Volcanic plumes produced by explosive eruptions represent a major threat in areas located near volcanoes. Physical models have been developed over the past forty years with an aim of better understanding these eruptions and assessing associated hazards. To test these models, we need robust and detailed field data from past and historical eruptions at active volcanoes. In this PhD work, we revisit the Plinian eruptive history of the Mount Pelée volcano in Martinique (Lesser Antilles) for the last 24,000 years. Our results combining new extensive field studies and carbon-dating measurements allow us to establish a new chronology of past eruptions, consistent with volcanic deposits identified in a deep-sea sediment core. We then reconstruct the dynamical evolution of the newly discovered eruptions of Bellefontaine (13,516 years cal BP), Balisier (14,072 cal BP), Carbet (18,711 cal BP) and Étoile (21,450 cal BP), whose great interest stems from their unusual southward dispersal axis encompassing areas that are considered to be safe in current hazard maps. The strong similarities observed between all documented Plinian eruptions of Mount Pelée volcano allow us to draw an accurate picture of the Plinian eruptive scenario most likely to occur in the future. This scenario may include a column collapse and the production of deadly pyroclastic density currents; we thus upgrade a 1D physical model of volcanic plume in order to improve its predictions. We first study the impact of the total grain-size distribution on the transition from a stable Plinian plume to a collapsing fountain. The effect of wind is then taken into account using laboratory experiments simulating turbulent jets rising in a windy environment. This new theoretical model, validated by laboratory experiments, is consistent with field data from several major historical Plinian eruptions. We then study the southward dispersal axis of the Bellefontaine and Balisier eruptions using a 2D physical model, in order to better understand this unusual dispersion towards Fort-de-France, capital of Martinique. Our results allow identifying peculiar atmospheric circulations associated to a modification of the subtropical jet-stream path, thus producing northerly winds over Martinique and spreading tephra towards the most populated areas of the island. This integrated approach, combining field studies, theoretical predictions and laboratory experiments, allows us to build a new volcanic hazard map for Martinique by taking into account for the first time the Plinian eruptions of the Mount Pelée volcano of the last 24,000 years, together with monthly variability of atmospheric winds.
... Sin embargo, en ciertos casos, ocurre lo opuesto debido a la compleja interacción entre los balísticos y el arrastre generado por la nube expansiva de piroclastos y aire (Clarke, 2013). La balística volcánica representa apenas el 1-4 % de las muertes a nivel mundial por actividad volcánica (Tilling, 1989;Tanguy et al., 1998;Brown et al., 2017), cifra muy parecida a nivel nacional, donde el número porcentual de muertes por balística es del 3 % (Aguilar y Alvarado, 2014). Sin embargo, se estima que dentro de los primeros 5 km, la balística es la causante del 40 % de los accidentes fatales (Brown et al., 2017). ...
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From April 12 until April 22 2017 Poás volcano experienced a new explosive phase with ballistic fragments reaching up to ~2,2 km. At its final phase non juvenile bocks predominated, product both of a 1953 lava body destruction and a lacustrine floor, followed by an increment of juvenile fragments (glassy bread crust blocks, scoriaceous bombs and, rarely, fusiform bombs). The largest ones measured up to 20 m in diameter and 1,5 m in thickness, reaching up to 200 m from the crater. The juvenile fragments showed a varied vesiculation (15-50% vesicles) with a basaltic andesitic composition (phenocrysts of plag 20- 22%, cpx 6-8%, opx 3-5%, lo 1-3%, mt 0-1%) within an intersertal matrix. The juvenile phreatomagmatic ash content increased from approximated 9% to 85% at the end, consisting of a strombolian activity. When hitting the floor, the bombs generated perpendicular cooling joints and shear stress conjugate pairs. While cooling, the joints were parallel to impact surface generating a symmetric conjugated rectangular pattern. When fallon surfaces with a slope the pattern was more complex due to viscous flow. The ballistic initial velocity was estimated in the 100-300 ms-1 range, the final velocity was estimated in the 36-120 ms-1 range, and a terminal velocity (defined in the text) in the 124-250 ms-1 range. Flight time from bottom of Main crater to the visitor area (View point) was estimated in the 8-15 secs range. At the end, a set of recommendations for future volcanic ballistic studies is included based on a totally new physics model using actual range and impact angle. It is here recommended that more shelters be built on the path between the active and Botos craters.
... At the regional scale, two recorded tsunamis were triggered by the 1856 and 1892 eruptions [39,40]. These intense eruptive events have claimed a total of 11,048 victims on the island of Sangihe [24], mainly through lahars and pyroclastic flows [30,[41][42][43][44]. Awu is thus one of the deadliest volcanoes on Earth [24] (Bani et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Awu is a remote and little known active volcano of Indonesia located in the northern part of Molucca Sea. It is the northernmost active volcano of the Sangihe arc with 18 eruptions in less than 4 centuries, causing a cumulative death toll of 11,048. Two of these eruptions were classified with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 4. Since 2004, a lava dome has occupied the centre of Awu crater, channelling the fumarolic gas output along the crater wall. A combined Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) and Multi-component Gas Analyzer System (Multi-GAS) study highlight a relatively small SO2 flux (13 t/d) sustained by mixed magmatic–hydrothermal emissions made-up of 82 mol.% H2O, 15 mol.% CO2, 2.55 mol.% total S (ST) and 0.02 mol.% H2. The CO2 emission budget, as observed during a short observation period in 2015, corresponds to a daily contribution to the atmosphere of 2600 t/d, representing 1% of the global CO2 emission budget from volcanoes. The gas CO2/ST ratio of 3.7 to 7.9 is at the upper limit of the Indonesian gas range, which is ascribed to (i) some extent of S loss during hydrothermal processing, and perhaps (ii) a C-rich signature of the feeding magmatic gas phase. The source of this high CO2 signature and flux is yet to be fully understood; however, given the peculiar geodynamic context of the region, dominated by the arc-to-arc collision, this may result from either the prolonged heating of the slab and consequent production of carbon-rich fluids, or the recycling of crustal carbon.
... The eruption of Tajogaite has been devastating for the local populations with the destruction of thousands of homes, crops, equipment, and infrastructure. However, volcanic regions also generate socio-economic opportunities [73][74][75][76] and millions of people live on and around active volcanoes around the world [77,78] in order to take advantage of the variety of resources available (soils, building materials, geothermal energy, tourism and others) [73]. Tourism is one of the greatest resources volcanoes can offer [73][74][75][76]79], which was evident in La Palma when tourist arrivals recovered slightly from mid-October to mid-December 2021 (Figure 3). ...
Article
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Before the COVID-19 pandemic, the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) stated that "sun and beach" tourist destinations needed to direct more resources towards innovation, sustainability and accessibility. This is related to the crisis that many sun and beach tourist destinations are experiencing. In the Canary Islands, changes to legislation together with urban and tourist products have been made in accordance with UNWTO proposals. For many years the island of La Palma has been offering tourists hiking, stargazing and volcano tourism besides "sun and beach holidays". However, the 2021 eruption of Tajogaite, Cumbre Vieja aggravated the island's tourism crisis and caused very negative effects on the economy. This work identifies, selects and characterizes places of interest for geotourism development in the two largest population centers (Santa Cruz de La Palma and Los Llanos de Aridane). Santa Cruz de La Palma has 20 points of interest; Los Llanos de Aridane has 14. All sites contribute to showcasing the diversity of the natural and cultural volcanic and non-volcanic heritage of the regions. The geotourism product in La Palma is relatively new and exploits the topography present, including natural outcrops (cinder cones, lava fields, ravines, cliffs, sedimentary deposits or beaches), and also the cultural heritage (religious and civil architecture, streets or town planning, planes). These proposals for urban geotourism take advantage of the volcanic geoheritage of La Palma and increase the breadth and quality of tourism on offer.
... Agung poses a serious threat to more than 100,000 residents who live in the volcanic hazard zone, 9-12 km from the crater. The last recorded eruption in 1963 is one of the ten most devastating volcanic eruptions of the twentieth century (Self and Rampino, 2012), with a volcanic explosivity index of 4-5 (Fontijn et al., 2015); approximately 1000 people were killed by pyroclastic flows (Tanguy et al., 1998). The secondary volcanic hazard, lahars, reportedly wiped out the landscape and killed at least 200 people from the intense rainfall after the eruption (Zen and Hadikusumo, 1964). ...
Article
Mount Agung (the highest volcano in Bali, Indonesia) began to erupt on November 21, 2017, after having been dormant for 53 years. More than 100,000 people were evacuated within the hazard zone between September 2017 (when the highest volcanic alert was issued) and early 2018. The eruptions continued until June 2019, accompanied by at least 110 explosions. During the eruptive crisis, the observation of the lava dome's emplacement was essential for mitigating the potential hazard. Details of the lava dome growth, including the volumetric changes and effusion rates, provide valuable information about potential eruption scenarios and lahar depositions. In this paper, the essential role of multi-temporal unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images in the monitoring of Mt. Agung's lava dome, and in determining the areas of potential lahar hazards during the crisis between 2017 and 2019 is described. A fixed-wing UAV was launched outside the hazard zone to photograph the lava dome on five occasions. Image enhancement, machine learning, and photogrammetry were combined to improve image quality, remove point clouds outliers, and generate digital terrain models (DTMs) and orthoimages. The analysis of the obtained DTMs and orthoimages resulted in qualitative and quantitative data highlighting the changes inside the crater and on the surrounding slopes. These results reveal that, from November 25 to December 16, 2017, the lava dome grew vertically by 126 m and reached a volume of 26.86 ± 0.64 × 10⁶ m³. In addition, its surface experienced a maximal uplift of approximately 52 m until July 2019 with the emergence of a new dome with a volume estimated at 9.52 ± 0.086 × 10⁶ m³. The difference between the DTMs of 2017 and 2019 reveals the total volume of erupted material (886,100 ± 8000 m³) that was deposited on the surrounding slopes. According to the lahar inundation simulation, the deposited material may cause dangerous lahars in 21 drainages, which extend in the north (N), north-east (N-E), south (S), south-east (S-E), and south-west (SW) sectors of the volcano. This paper presents the use of UAV remote sensing for the production of high-spatial resolution DTMs, which can be used to both observe the emplacement of a lava dome, and to identify areas with potential lahar risk during a volcano crisis.
... For example, there are different fatality records from different sources for the 1815 volcanic eruption of Mount Tombora in Indonesia. "Victims from volcanic eruptions: A revised database" (Tanguy et al. 1998) recorded 11,000 fatalities due to the volcanic eruption (with an additional 49,000 fatalities associated with the eruption but caused by post-eruption famine and epidemic disease). However, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) database recorded 10,000 fatalities from the eruption (with 117,000 total fatalities in the aftermath of the eruption) (National 2013a). ...
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The magnitude of a disaster’s severity cannot be easily assessed because there is no global method that provides real magnitudes of natural disaster severity levels. Therefore, a new universal severity classification scheme for natural disasters is developed and is supported by data. This universal system looks at the severity of disasters based on the most influential impact factor and gives a rating from zero to ten: Zero indicates no impact and ten is a worldwide devastation. This universal system is for all types of natural disasters, from lightning strikes to super-volcanic eruptions and everything in between, that occur anywhere in the world at any time. This novel universal severity classification system measures, describes, compares, rates, ranks, and categorizes impacts of disasters quantitatively and qualitatively. The severity index is useful to diverse stakeholder groups, including policy makers, governments, responders, and civilians, by providing clear definitions that help convey the severity levels or severity potential of a disaster. Therefore, this universal system is expected to avoid inconsistencies and to connect severity metrics to generate a clear perception of the degree of an emergency; the system is also expected to improve mutual communication among stakeholder groups. Consequently, the proposed universal system will generate a common communication platform and improve understanding of disaster risk, which aligns with the priority of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. This research was completed prior to COVID-19, but the pandemic is briefly addressed in the discussion section.
... Volcanoes and associated hazards have been responsible for the death of hundreds of thousands of persons in the last two centuries worldwide (Peterson,1988;Tanguy et al. 1998 ). They destroyed a variety of strategic infrastructure throughout the world, changed the local and global climate (Pinatubo Volcano Observatory Team 1991;Hansen et al. 1992;Briffa et al. 1998). ...
Conference Paper
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With an analysis of the main hydraulic structures existing in the world for the control and mitigation of lahars flows, we established that mixed dams, composed of loose materials and concrete cells, are the most suitable for mitigate the impact of the lahars in the case of an eruption of Cotopaxi, an Ecuadorian volcano located in the center of the country. At least six structures for the retention of sludge have been designed within the probable volumes that could be presented. These structures are of a very low cost in comparison with the possible damages that would occur in the case that these works are not built, without considering the possible human losses.
... Every year on average about 50-70 active volcanoes erupt, posing a serious threat at both local and global scale (e.g., [1,2]). Pyroclastic flows, lava flows, ashfall, gas emissions, tsunami and lahars induced by volcanic eruptions, may kill people and destroy infrastructure and vegetated areas (e.g., [2][3][4][5][6]). During strong explosive eruptions, huge quantities of gas and ash particles may be injected into the atmosphere, with a global effect on climate change (e.g., [4,7]). ...
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Several satellite-based systems have been developed over the years to study and monitor thermal volcanic activity. Most of them use high temporal resolution satellite data, provided by sensors like the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that if on the one hand guarantee a continuous monitoring of active volcanic areas on the other hand are less suited to map thermal anomalies, and to provide accurate information about their features. The Multispectral Instrument (MSI) and the Operational Land Imager (OLI), respectively, onboard the Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 satellites, providing Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) data at 20 m (MSI) and 30 m (OLI) spatial resolution, may make an important contribution in this area. In this work, we present the first Google Earth Engine (GEE) App to investigate, map and monitor volcanic thermal anomalies at global scale, integrating Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2 MSI observations. This open tool, which implements the Normalized Hot spot Indices (NHI) algorithm, enables the analysis of more than 1400 active volcanoes, with very low processing times, thanks to the high GEE computational resources. Performance and limitations of the tool, such as its next upgrades, aiming at increasing the user-friendly experience and extending the temporal range of data analyses, are analyzed and discussed.
... Sin embargo, en ciertos casos, ocurre lo opuesto debido a la compleja interacción entre los balísticos y el arrastre generado por la nube expansiva de piroclastos y aire (Clarke, 2013). La balística volcánica representa apenas el 1-4 % de las muertes a nivel mundial por actividad volcánica (Tilling, 1989;Tanguy et al., 1998;Brown et al., 2017), cifra muy parecida a nivel nacional, donde el número porcentual de muertes por balística es del 3 % (Aguilar y Alvarado, 2014). Sin embargo, se estima que dentro de los primeros 5 km, la balística es la causante del 40 % de los accidentes fatales (Brown et al., 2017). ...
Article
The most dynamic demographic process of the past 250 years has been the movement of people from rural areas to cities. For most of this period urbanisation has been concentrated in economically more developed parts of the world, but during the last 50 years the focus has shifted to economically less developed regions. Urbanisation, particularly in developing countries, has led to increasing global exposure to a variety of natural hazards, not the least of which are risks posed to large cities by volcanoes. In this paper we monitor these demographic changes and detail the various types of volcanic hazard to which cities are exposed. A major eruption affecting a city in a developing country could cause widespread loss of life and regional disruption. Effective response, however, might minimise casualties in a city within a developed nation affected by a major eruption, but the economic impact could have global consequences. We argue that global hazard exposure is often subtle and involves not only the size of a city and the types of volcanic product that may occur, but also the strategic position of the threatened city within the economy of a country and/or region and the fact that volcano-induced tsunami and other consequences of eruptions, such as climatic change, may affect cities far removed from a given eruption site. Mitigation measures informed by both specifc prediction (surveillance) and general prediction (hazard mapping) are providing the potential to reduce hazard exposure. The paper concludes with a consideration of ongoing research, in particular the emphasis currently being placed on conflating hazard analysis with studies of place, economy, society and culture.
Chapter
Volcanoes are an extreme expression of the mostly invisible movements of the fragments of the earth’s crust connecting the interior of the earth to its exterior. Since eons, they have had a major impact on the exterior surface of the earth and its gaseous envelope modulating the earth’s surface and its atmosphere. Depending on the type, intensity, and location of an eruption, the impacts can be both short term and long term, mild to extreme. The intensity of a volcanic eruption represents its explosivity in terms of volume of material ejected, ejection height, and distance the volcanic cloud travels away from its origin, which can span a wide range of scales. The requirement of a logarithmic scale to classify an eruption itself indicates how extreme one volcano can be compared to another. Volcanic emissions encompass all the three states of matter with tephra in solid form, lava in liquid form, and several acidic gases. The volume of ejected material for a very large eruption can amount to several cubic miles as in case of Krakatau (1883). Strong eruption can be related to silica-rich magma leading to large viscosity enabling trapping of gases until pressure builds up high enough to cause explosive eruption. The atmospheric impacts of volcanic eruptions range from small particles and ash playing havoc with aviation to ozone-depleting gases to global cooling as a result of emitted sulfur gases. The most explosive volcanoes can easily reach over 20 km and can lead to several feet of ash even 150 km away from the eruption site. Relationships between volcanic events and ENSO are an active field of research. Severe volcanic eruptions like Mt. Pinatubo have had an impact in all the five major spheres of the earth including the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and the anthroposphere. The potential severe consequences of volcanic eruptions demand greater awareness and investigation of these extreme events with extreme consequences.
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The Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai submarine volcano erupted on Saturday 15, 2022 leading to a VEI 5 eruption at 17.27 local time, shaking the earth with a M5.8. As result of this explosion a tsunami was triggered. The reasons of the tsunami may have been by a complex magma-water interaction or by repeated submarine mass movements. However, this tsunami impacted most of the Pacific during the following couple of hours, reaching also Central and South America. There, local monitoring organizations handled differently this information provided by the PTWC, and so did authorities and local mass media in the transmission of information and consequences for the public. We report the events as occurred in the countries between Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Chile and the respective degree of reaction of the public.
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Kiematubu volcano is often considered as non-volcanic, even though it consists of basalt material, since it has never erupted before. In fact, that small volcanic islands have a high risk due to their restriction on means and resources. The study aims to assess the social vulnerability of the community in Tidore Island that may be exposed to the eruption of the Kiematubu volcano. There has not been previous research in Tidore Island regarding volcanic vulnerability yet. The social vulnerability is an initial assessment of disaster management, which will affect in optimizing community’s capacity then minimizing the disaster impacts. Social parameter of demographic condition, health facilities, and education facilities was weighted to assess social vulnerability. The result shows that the social vulnerability class of Tidore Island is dominantly low, approximately 80%, the rest is middle and high, with a percentage of 13% and 7%, respectively. Mostly, the low vulnerable villages are due to less population density. However, the highly vulnerable villages, Gamtufkange and Indonesiana, consist of very high and high population density. The southeast part of Tidore Island, where both villages are situated, is the center of human activities, such as governmental, trades, and education.
Chapter
Risk monitoring, knowledge management, and communication skills play a key role in managing volcanic crises, and being the scientific knowledge, the transversal Achilles heel in risk perception, decision-making, general politics, and the main generator of confidence in population. During this study, we analyzed the ethical behavior of the policy in the risk management carried out in Ecuador on the Cotopaxi volcano after its most recent reactivation in 2015. This analysis clearly demonstrates evidence of both an inadequate risk assessment and an inadequate transmission of information to the authorities and afterward to the population, which led to loss of lives and a complicated social and economic situation throughout the affected zones. As a result of this study, important lessons were extracted and are provided here with the aim to prepare technicians and authorities to manage future volcanic crises in a more adequate form.
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The magnitude of a disaster’s impact cannot be easily assessed because there is no global method that provides real magnitudes of natural disaster severity levels. Therefore, a new universal severity classification scheme for natural disasters is developed and is supported by data. This universal system looks at the severity of disasters based on the most influential impact factor and gives a rating from zero to ten; zero indicates no impact and ten is a world-wide devastation. This universal system is for all types of natural disasters, from lightning strikes to super volcanic eruptions and everything in between, that occur anywhere in the world at any time. This novel universal classification system measures, describes, compares, rates, ranks, and categorizes impacts of disasters quantitatively and qualitatively, thereby making the severity index applicable to diverse stakeholder groups, including policy makers, governments, responders, and civilians, by providing clear definitions that help convey the impact levels or severity potential of a disaster. Therefore, this universal system avoids inconsistencies and, primarily, connects severity metrics to generate a clear understanding of the degree of an emergency and improves mutual understanding among stakeholder groups. Consequently, the proposed universal system generates a common communication platform and improves understanding of disaster risk, which aligns with the priority of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. This research was completed prior to Covid-19, but the pandemic is briefly addressed in the discussion section.
Chapter
The chapter starts with the uptake of minerals in the elemental form by the human body, minerals that could be either beneficial or harmful, the uptake involving four sources (food, soil, water, and air) and three pathways (ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption). Afterward the minerals’ geochemical classification, exposure, bioavailability, bioaccumulation, bio-essentiality, and toxicity are the subjects dealt with. Man and minerals are chemical systems which have in common in their constitution of chemical elements or minerals called major, minor, and trace which are essential not only for life and life quality but for minerals formation too. Even these bio-essential minerals in the elemental form can provide toxicity caused by excess and deficiency. Sources and pathologies that can be caused by potentially toxic minerals in the elemental form and by some minerals stricto sensu are identified and discussed. Some metals are essential for life, living quality, and health conditioning, as essential constituents of metalloproteins and metalloenzymes. Some metals, as is the case of heavy metals, may cause health hazards. Nutritional supplements based on minerals and vitamins are dealt with. The chapter ends with the health risks caused by airborne minerals existing in both natural and anthropogenic dust, gas, ash, and smoke.
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Assessments of the volcanic hazard for the territory of the Matua Island are based on incomplete data collected in a short observation period (less than 100 years), and therefore cannot reliably characterize the frequency and scale of hazardous events. In addition to the phenomena recorded during the strong eruption of the Sarychev Peak volcano in 2009 (and during a number of eruptions of the 20th century), which scale and range of impact on the nature of the island has not been sufficiently studied, new signs of potential hazards have been revealed. These are gas emissions that caused damage to woody vegetation in 2007, as well as data on the large-scale destruction of woody vegetation that occurred about 150 years ago. These can also include particularly high eruptive columns (the 2009 eruption). The high frequency of strong eruptions was revealed: during the last century and a half, apparently 4 eruptions of the VEI 4 class occurred, not counting the smaller ones. During strong eruptions, a combination of unfavorable factors can develop suddenly and unpredictably, it will lead to devastating consequences in the south-eastern half of the island. In the aspect of the new colonization phase of the island, potential hazard may be represented by pyroclastic flows and surges on the southeastern slopes of the volcano, lahars, and the impact of strong gas emissions. A powerful ashfall can cause damage to ecosystems, including contaminating and poisoning accessible sources of water, damaging the infrastructure. The obtained data allow drawing a conclusion that in the next 30-50 years no part of the island can be considered safe.
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This paper asserts that both Christian and Islamic traditions of faith affect the ways in which people both try to make sense of, and respond to, disasters. This contention is supported by the results of empirical research, which demonstrates that differing Islamic and Christian perspectives on human suffering caused by disasters are neither as diverse, nor are they so intractable, as is commonly supposed. Today pastoral convergence between the two traditions may also be discerned, together with a general acceptance of the policies of both State agencies and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) which are concerned with hazard relief and the propagation of policies of disaster risk reduction (DRR). Indeed some important disaster relief NGOs have emerged from Islamic and Christian faith communities and are supported by charitable donations.
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Guci Hot Spring is one of the tourist destinations in Central Java Province renowned for its beautiful scenery as well as its health-healing benefit. In 2016, this touristic destination attracted more than 650.000 visitors, this number is growing each year. However, this touristic spot has its hidden hazard and risk of the Slamet Volcano eruption. The historical eruptions of this volcano, recorded since the 18th century, have shown that this volcano is known for its explosive type of eruption. Despite its potential hazard and risk, this hot spring area is growing continuously as a touristic spot. Therefore, this study aims to understand tourists’ perception on volcanic hazard and risk in this area, by interviewing 31 respondents using questionnaires. The results show that 74% of respondents are aware that Slamet Volcano has different potential hazards such as volcanic ashfall, lahars, lava and pyroclastic flows. Although Guci Hot Spring is located in Slamet volcanic hazard area, only a few tourists know this information (42%). Majorities of the respondents did not have any experience on volcanic disaster (68%). Most of the respondents did not get any information on Slamet volcanic hazard (58%), while others only get information through television and/or social media. Nevertheless, almost all of the respondents claimed that they will follow any instructions given by government or related institutions if any volcanic eruption occurs (97%). Therefore, awareness program towards tourists in the volcanic touristic spot should be strengthened through different means to give information on volcanic hazard, its risk as well as mitigation and crisis management.
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The dangerous juxtaposition of human populations and active volcanic arcs worldwide makes elucidating the history of explosive eruptions of these arcs a crucial endeavor. The well-preserved Deschutes Formation, which forms part of the Deschutes Basin of central Oregon, USA, contains a distal record of a period of unusually frequent explosive eruptions between 5.45 and 6.25 Ma, which is atypical of the Cascades arc as a whole. However, no previous study has established the chronology, frequency, or total volume of all of the ignimbrites and tephra-fall units exposed within the Formation in order to compare to baseline activity of the arc. We use multivariate statistics on major and trace element compositions of pumice glass to correlate pyroclastic units across the Deschutes Basin, and combine these with recently published ⁴⁰Ar/³⁹Ar dates to establish, for the first time, a detailed and comprehensive tephrochronology of the Deschutes Formation. Our results suggest that at least 77 statistically distinct explosive eruptions occurred between 6.25 and 5.45 Ma. Eruption frequency is not constant throughout the 800 kyr of pyroclastic volcanism; a maximum rate of 1.7 to 3.0 explosive eruptions per 10 kyr occurred between 5.76 and 5.68 Ma and decreased for 340 kyr prior to graben formation. We estimate that the volume for 51 ignimbrite eruptions is 290 to 565 km³ (170 to 280 km³ DRE), assuming an equal westward flow component and a fall:flow ratio of 0.5:1 to 1.9:1. Using a single isopach method, we also estimate that a minimum volume of 110 km³ (45 km³ DRE) was deposited as 27 pumice-fall units which have no correlated ignimbrites. Thus, we estimate a that a cumulative pyroclastic volume of 400 to 675 km³ (210 to 330 km³ DRE) was erupted in the central Oregon Cascades during this time. The volumetric rate (2.7 to 4.1 km³/10 kyr, DRE) and average frequency of ignimbrite eruptions (1.0 to 1.5 eruptions/ 10kyr) are more than a factor of ten greater than the Quaternary Cascades arc. Thus, the Deschutes Formation records North America's most recent arc-sourced ignimbrite flare-up. Although smaller in volume than most well-recognized flare-up events, this represents an important category of flare-ups that may be more common in arcs than previously recognized. We hypothesize that a heightened flux of basalt, possibly induced by slab-rollback, was focused beneath the arc, and led into the shallow crust by minor amounts of crustal extension. This extension allowed for the high flux of basalt to be stored at shallow levels beneath a new arc locus within fertile crust, resulting in an unusually silicic and explosive period of Cascade arc history.
Technical Report
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El Rincón de la Vieja (9°58’36.16’’N y 83°51’11.27’’W) es el único volcán activo de la cordillera de Guanacaste con una elevación 1916 m s. n. m. y una altura de 1500 m. Constituye un macizo estratovolcánico complejo con una docena de cráteres y conos cuspidales, así como una caldera de avalancha. Su edificio volcánico cubre un área de 400 km2 para un volumen de 118 km3 y una edad ≥ 564 000 años (= 564 ka), el cual creció posterior al colapso de al menos dos calderas de subsidencia con ignimbritas asociadas. El Rincón de la Vieja posee un registro de depósitos de tefras, coladas de lava, lahares del Holoceno relativamente bien estudiados, así como erupciones históricas freatomagmáticas y freáticas (surtseyanas y freatosurtseyanas) con actividad estromboliana subordinada. Las erupciones históricas hasta el momento han sido pequeñas (VEI 0-3), con pocos efectos en la población, la economía pecuaria (ganadería de leche), la agricultura y el turismo y ninguno sobre las plantas geotérmicas y producción de electricidad. En el presente informe se actualizan y se analizan los peligros volcánicos (directos e indirectos). Las consecuencias más probables a mediano plazo son: en el campo proximal (< 10 km de radio), la caída de tefras, los gases, la lluvia ácida, los aerosoles; la balística y las corrientes de densidad piroclástica han estado restringidas en las erupciones históricas a ≤ 2 km. En la parte media (< 10 km), los lahares (calientes sineruptivos y pos-eruptivos) suelen estar asociados con las erupciones, discurriendo principalmente sobre su flanco N; mientras que la lluvia ácida y las cenizas continúan siendo un peligro inherente, particularmente en su eje de dispersión W y SW. Se han registrado varios eventos prehistóricos de coladas de lava, el último relevante hace unos 5 ka y al menos uno de colapso sectorial de edad no establecida. La peligrosidad por la formación de conos piroclásticos y coladas de lava es muy baja. Sobresale una erupción pliniana del año 300 d. C. con importantes efectos por la caída de pómez hacia el WSW y de flujos piroclásticos hacia el flanco N con recorridos de al menos 12 km. Dado que ha transcurrido más de un mileno desde este evento eruptivo relevante, su probabilidad es baja. Los lahares (volcánicos, cosísmicos y secundarios) y los flujos piroclásticos representan un peligro elevado, particularmente para los turistas ilegales que ascienden al cráter Activo y, en relativo menor grado, a los pobladores del flanco N. Con base en los eventos eruptivos (mejor registro para los últimos 6000 años) se puede inferir la ocurrencia de un evento eruptivo importante (índice de explosividad volcánica con sus siglas en inglés: VEI 3-4) quizás a mediados o finales del presente siglo y uno mayor en las próximas centurias (VEI 5). Dichos registros permiten analizar las posibles amenazas y riesgo a la que están expuestas las obras geotérmicas, relacionado con la caída de ceniza, oleadas piroclásticas lahares calientes y eventos más grandes, como lo son las erupciones plinianas y subplinianas, que podrían tener un período de recurrencia de unos 600 años. El peligro y el riesgo asociado para las obras de generación geotérmica es muy bajo, aunque no nulo. Además, el análisis de los flujos de lodos (lahares) con el programa LAHARZ indica que, en general, la peligrosidad para las obras de generación del ICE debido a lahares es muy baja a muy baja, esto en dependencia que se presenten los factores necesarios para que se de este tipo de evento. Una serie de recomendaciones se brindan al final del trabajo, así como una síntesis de los aspectos relacionados con la gestión del riesgo. Se aportan algunas sugerencias para que puedan ser consideradas dentro de los procesos de planificación territorial y regulación del uso del suelo, aspectos turísticos y del manejo e información del Parque Nacional Rincón de la Vieja y sus áreas vecinas.
Chapter
Volcanoes can hold a deep fascination. Images of erupting volcanoes grab our attention as we marvel at the sight of the Earth in violent movement, and tourists flock to view steaming craters to sense the enormous energy lying dormant beneath their feet. Volcanoes are often striking features in landscapes of great beauty, and people have been drawn over the centuries to live on their flanks with the promise of verdant agricultural land. But many communities have learned that years of peace can be brutally interrupted by the return of volcanic activity, and in some parts of the world such as Hawaii and Indonesia, volcanoes have even been granted the status of gods. In most active volcanic areas, however, burgeoning populations have no memory of past eruptions when they recur with intervals of hundreds or thousands of years, and no feeling for the disaster that can lie ahead when the sleeping giant awakes. The destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum in the eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79 has the same hold on the popular imagination as the sinking of the Titanic by an iceberg, with the spectacle of normal living being abruptly halted by catastrophe and the evidence of extinguished life locked deep beneath the ground or sea. The collapse of the Minoan culture after the eruption of Santorini some 3600 years ago is perhaps the stuff of legend, but a huge eruption did occur which buried or swept away the settlements on the island and had impacts on other islands of the Aegean, such as Crete.
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A review of hazards mitigation approaches and techniques indicates that significant advances have been made in hazards assessment, volcano monioring, and eruption forecasting. For example, the remarkable accuracy of the predictions of dome-building events at Mount St. Helens since June 1980 is unprecedented. Yet a predictive capability for more voluminous and explosive eruptions still has not been achieved. Studies of magma-induced seismicity and ground deformation continue to provide the most systematic and reliable data for early detection of precursors to eruptions and shallow intrusions. In addition, some other geophysical monitoring techniques and geochemical methods have been refined and are being more widely applied and tested. Comparison of the four major volcanic disasters of the 1980s (Mount St. Helens, U.S.A. (1980), El Chichon, Mexico (1982); Galunggung, Indonesia (1982); and Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia (1985)) illustrates the importance of predisaster geoscience studies, volcanic hazards assessments, volcano monitoring, contingency planning, and effective communications between scientists and authorities. -from Author
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Since 1980, volcanologists have confronted more volcanic crises than any time since the Mont Pelee catastrophe in 1902. Good science alone will not do the job of reducing volcano risk.
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The Laki (Skaftr Fires) fissure eruption in southern Iceland lasted for eight months during 1783 to 1784, and produced one of the largest basaltic lava flows in historic times (14.71.0 km3). In addition, neighboring Grmsvtn central volcano was frequently active during the period from May 1783 to May 1785. The combined activity is interpreted as having been the result of a two-year-long volcano-tectonic episode on the Grmsvtn volcanic system. Contemporary descriptions of the explosive activity make it possible to relate the tephra stratigraphy to the progress of the eruption on a weekly basis and show that activity on the fissures propagated to the NE with time, towards Grmsvtn. The eruption at Laki began on 8 June with a brief explosive event on a short fissure, and lava rapidly began to flow into the Skaft river gorge. It reached the lowlands, 35 km away, four days later and continued to flow, with variable discharge, until 7 February 1784. Approximately 90% of the lava was emplaced in the first five months of activity. The 27-km-long vent complex is composed of tenen echelon fissures distributed on both sides of the much older Laki hyaloclastite mountain. The surface expression of each fissure is a continuous row of vents consisting of scoria cones, spatter cones, and tuff cones. Six tephra fall units are positively identified; two units are completely compsed of phreatomagmatic tephra derived from two tuff cones and the others are Strombolian deposits. The volume of tephra, including ash fall that extended to mainland Europe, is 0.4 km3 dense rock equivalent volume, or 2.6% of the total erupted volume. Interpretation of contemporary descriptions of tephra falls, combined with the preserved stratigraphy, allow the identification of ten eruptive episodes during the eight months of activity on the Laki fissures. These eruptive episodes are inferred to have resulted from the unsteady flow of magma in the feeder system. In addition, at least eight eruption episodes occurred at Grmsvtn in 1783 to 1785, five in 1783, two in 1784, and one in 1785. Each episode at Laki began with a seismic swarm of increasing intensity that led to the formation of a new fissure, the opening of which was followed by short-lived phreatomagmatic activity caused by the high water table around the eruption site. Activity usually changed to violent Strombolian or sub-Plinian, followed by Hawaiian fire fountaining and effusive activity as the availability of groundwater dwindled. Thus, the explosive activity associated with the opening of each fissure was largely controlled by external watermagma interactions. Maximum effusion rates, occurring in the first two episodes, are estimated to have been 8.5x103 and 8.7x103 m3 s-1 from fissures totaling 2.2 and 2.8 km in length, respectively, and, in general, discharge gradually decreased over time. The highest rates are equivalent to 5.6x103 and 4.5x103 kg s-1 per meter length of fissure, values that could conceivably be similar to those that produced some flood basalt lava flows. Maximum fire fountain heights are estimated to have varied from 800 m to 1400 m and convecting eruption columns above the vents rose to a maximum altitude of about 15 km. The release of sulfur gases during fountaining produced an acid haze (aerosol) which spread widely and had a considerable environmental, and possibly climatic, impact on the Northern Hemisphere.
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The eruption of 1631 A.D. was the most violent and destructive event in the recent history of Vesuvius. More than fifty primary documents, written in either Italian or Latin, were critically examined, with preference given to the authors who eyewitnessed volcanic phenomena. The eruption started at 7 a.m. on December 16 with the formation of an eruptive column and was followed by block and lapilli fallout east and northeast of the volcano until 6 p.m. of the same day. At 10 a.m. on December 17, several nuées ardentes were observed to issue from the central crater, rapidly descending the flanks of the cone and devastating the villages at the foot of Vesuvius. In the night between the 16th and 17th and on the afternoon of the 17th, extensive lahars and floods, resulting from rainstorms, struck the radial valleys of the volcano as well as the plain north and northeast.
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This paper seeks to analyze in an objective way the circumstances and events that contributed to the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz catastrophe, in order to provide useful guidelines for future emergencies. The paper is organized into two principal parts. In the first part, an Anatomy of the catastrophe is developed as a step-by-step chronicle of events and actions taken by individuals and organizations during the period November 1984 through November 1985. This chronicle provides the essential background for the crucial events of November 13. This year-long period is broken down further to emphasize important chapters: the gradual awareness of the awakening of the volcano; a long period of institutional skepticism reflecting an absence of credibility; the closure of the credibility gap with the September 11 phreatic eruption, followed by an intensive effort to gird for the worst; and a detailed account of the day of reckoning. The second part of the paper, Retrospection, examines the numerous complicated factors that influenced the catastrophic outcome, and attempts to cull a few “lessons from Armero” in order to avoid similar occurrences in the future.
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In comparison with research on contemporary natural hazards, little is known about response to historic disasters or about long-term processes of adaptation to impacts on population and settlement patterns. This paper describes a case study of the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Laki in 1783, a major disaster which killed 9000 people and several hundred thousand head of livestock. The population rapidly recovered, however, and a replacement of settlement took place in sites peripheral to the lava. The paper places the eruption within a physical environmental, political, and economic context and describes the event and its impacts on the basis of contemporary accounts and statistical data on population and settlement. Further questions for research on past natural disasters are suggested. -Author
Article
Small phreatic explosions on April 2, 1991, ended more than 400 yr of quiescence at Mount Pinatubo. A joint Philippine-US team worked quickly to understand the unrest and the eruptive history of Pinatubo, and to warn those at risk. These warnings led to the evacuation of at least 58 000 people prior to the volcano's climactic eruption on June 15. Although 320 people died in that eruption, mostly due to collapse of ash-covered roofs, the evacuations and other precautions averted a much greater loss of life and property. -Authors
Article
Although scientific understanding of volcanoes is advancing, eruptions continue to take a substantial toll of life and property. Some of these losses could be reduced by better advance preparation, more effective flow of information between scientists and public officials, and better understanding of volcanic behavior by all segments of the public. The greatest losses generally occur at volcanoes that erupt infrequently where people are not accustomed to dealing with them. Scientists sometimes tend to feel that the blame for poor decisions in emergency management lies chiefly with officials or journalists because of their failure to understand the threat. However, the underlying problem embraces a set of more complex issues comprising three pervasive factors. The first factor is the volcano: signals given by restless volcanoes are often ambiguous and difficult to interpret, especially at long-quiescent volcanoes. The second factor is people: people confront hazardous volcanoes in widely divergent ways, and many have difficulty in dealing with the uncertainties inherent in volcanic unrest. The third factor is the scientists: volcanologists correctly place their highest priority on monitoring and hazard assessment, but they sometimes fail to explain clearly their conclusions to responsible officials and the public, which may lead to inadequate public response. Of all groups in society, volcanologists have the clearest understanding of the hazards and vagaries of volcanic activity; they thereby assume an ethical obligation to convey effectively their knowledge to benefit all of society. If society resists, their obligation nevertheless remains. They must use the same ingenuity and creativity in dealing with information for the public that they use in solving scientific problems. When this falls short, even excellent scientific results may be nullified.
Article
Nevado del Ruiz, northernmost active volcano in the Andes, erupted on November 13, 1985, triggering lahars that killed at least 22,000 persons and destroyed more than $212 million in property. The eruption culminated a year of precursory earthquake and fumarolic activity that began in November 1984 and intensified in September 1985 with the start of phreatic eruption. Colombian and other international scientists, concerned that Ruiz might be building to a large eruption, initiated monitoring of Ruiz volcano on July 20, and in October completed hazard and risk assessments that correctly anticipated the disastrous effects of November 13. Although relatively small, the paroxysmal eruption at 9:08 P.M. produced pyroclastic flows and surges that scoured and melted part of the summit ice cap, generating lahars that swept down river valleys on the east, north, and west flanks of the volcano. A volcano observatory has been established in Manizales, Colombia, to monitor Ruiz's continuing activity.
Article
A largely submarine avalanche amphitheatre that formed catastrophically in 1888 on Ritter volcano has been identified from a bathymetric survey. Collapse of the volcano in 1888 therefore is considered to have been caused by rapid, large-scale slope failure, rather than by cauldron subsidence, as previously supposed. Escarpments of pre-historic slope failures are common on other Papua New Guinea volcanoes. Directions of avalanching on some volcanoes in the Bismarck volcanic arc appear to be controlled by a regional stress pattern, and those for some volcanoes in the Fly-Highlands province on mainland Papua New Guinea point away from the regional centre of Pliocene uplift. Large amphitheatres such as at Doma Peaks in the Fly-High-lands province probably originated by multiple collapses.
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Pyroclastic deposits from the 1883 eruption of Krakatau are described from areas northeast of the volcano on the islands of Sebesi, Sebuku, and Lagoendi, and the southeast coast of Sumatra. Massive and poorly stratified units formed predominantly from pyroclastic flows and surges that traveled over the sea for distances up to 80 km. Granulometric and lithologic characteristics of the deposits indicate that they represent the complement of proximal subaerial and submarine pyroclastic flow deposits laid down on and close to the Krakatau islands. The distal deposits exhibit a decrease in sorting coefficient, median grain size, and thickness with increasing distance from Krakatau. Crystal fractionation is consistent with the distal facies being derived from the upper part of gravitationally segregated pyroclastic flows in which the relative amount of crystal enrichment and abundance of dense lithic clasts diminished upwards. The deposits are correlated to a major pyroclastic flow phase that occurred on the morning of 27 August at approximately 10 a.m. Energetic flows spread out away from the volcano at speeds in excess of 100 km/h and traveled up to 80 km from source. The flows retained temperatures high enough to burn victims on the SW coast of Sumatra. Historical accounts from ships in the Sunda Straits constrain the area affected by the flows to a minimum of 4x103 km2. At the distal edge of this area the flows were relatively dilute and turbulent, yet carried enough material to deposit several tens of centimeters of tephra. The great mobility of the Krakatau flows from the 10 a.m. activity may be the result of enhanced runout over the sea. It is proposed that the generation of steam at the flow/seawater interface may have led to a reduction in the sedimentation of particles and consequently a delay in the time before the flows ceased lateral motion and became buoyantly convective. The buoyant distal edge of these ash-and steam-laden clouds lifted off into the atmosphere, leading to cooling, condensation, and mud rain.
Article
Major slope failures are a significant degradational process at volcanoes. Slope failures and associated explosive eruptions have resulted in more than 20 000 fatalities in the past 400 years; the historic record provides evidence for at least six of these events in the past century. Several historic debris avalanches exceed 1 km3 in volume. Holocene avalanches an order of magnitude larger have traveled 50–100 km from the source volcano and affected areas of 500–1500 km2. Historic eruptions associated with major slope failures include those with a magmatic component (Bezymianny type) and those solely phreatic (Bandai type). The associated gravitational failures remove major segments of the volcanoes, creating massive horseshoe-shaped depressions commonly of caldera size. The paroxysmal phase of a Bezymianny-type eruption may include powerful lateral explosions and pumiceous pyroclastic flows; it is often followed by construction of lava dome or pyroclastic cone in the new crater. Bandai-type eruptions begin and end with the paroxysmal phase, during which slope failure removes a portion of the edifice. Massive volcanic landslides can also occur without related explosive eruptions, as at the Unzen volcano in 1792. The main potential hazards from these events derive from lateral blasts, the debris avalanche itself, and avalanche-induced tsunamis. Lateral blasts produced by sudden decompression of hydrothermal and/or magmatic systems can devastate areas in excess of 500km2 at velocities exceeding 100 m s−1. The ratio of area covered to distance traveled for the Mount St. Helens and Bezymianny lateral blasts exceeds that of many pyroclastic flows or surges of comparable volume. The potential for large-scale lateral blasts is likely related to the location of magma at the time of slope failure and appears highest when magma has intruded into the upper edifice, as at Mount St. Helens and Bezymianny. Debris avalanches can move faster than 100 ms−1 and travel tens of kilometers. When not confined by valley walls, avalanches can affect wide areas beyond the volcano's flanks. Tsunamis from debris avalanches at coastal volcanoes have caused more fatalities than have the landslides themselves or associated eruptions. The probable travel distance (L) of avalanches can be estimated by considering the potential vertical drop (H). Data from a catalog of around 200 debris avalanches indicates that the H/L rations for avalanches with volumes of 0.1–1 km3 average 0.13 and range 0.09–0.18; for avalanches exceeding 1 km3, H/L ratios average 0.09 and range 0.5–0.13. Large-scale deformation of the volcanic edefice and intense local seismicity precede many slope failures and can indicate the likely failure direction and orientation of potential lateral blasts. The nature and duration of precursory activity vary widely, and the timing of slope faliure greatly affects the type of associated eruption. Bandai-type eruptions are particularly difficult to anticipate because they typically climax suddenly without precursory eruptions and may be preceded by only short periods of seismicity.
Article
Following a repose period of 500 to 600 years, El Chichón volcano in SE Mexico erupted explosively during the months of March and April, 1982. Three major eruptions involving trachyandesite magma injected ash into the stratosphere on 29 March at 0515 GMT and on 4 April at 0139 and 1110 GMT. The first major eruption generated only tephra-fall which was dispersed ENE in the troposphere over the Yucatan Peninsula and WSW in the stratosphere towards the Pacific Ocean. The second eruption produced tephra-fall and pyroelastic surges and pyroclastic flows by repeated collapse of a lithicrich eruption column. The surge and flow activity devastated a roughly circular area (153 km2) around El Chichón to a distance of about 6 km from the vent. Nine villages within the zone were either partially or completely destroyed and loss of human life was perhaps as high as 2000. Pyroclastic flows and surges were also generated during the third eruption although ash-fall was the primary activity. As a result of both the second and third eruptions tephra was transported ENE in the troposphere and WSW in the stratosphere. The total volume of material ejected during the three major eruptions (0.50 km3 D.R.E.) is represented by tephra-fall (0.37 km3) pyroclastic surges (0.09 km3) and pyroclastic flows and debris flows (0.04 km3). As a result of the eruptions a new 1-km-wide and 300-m-deep crater was formed by the disruption and excavation of a pre-existing summit dome.
Article
本書は、1990年11月に噴火を開始した雲仙岳の火山活動について地球物理学的、地球科学的、地質学的観測、溶岩組成に基づく噴火モデルおよび眉山崩壊の土質工学的予測を含む総括的報告である。 1.Chronological Table 2.Photographic Records of the 1990-1992 Eruptions at Unzen Volcano[Ohta] 3.Photographic Records of Eruption Products at Unzen Volcano during May 1991-May 1992[Nakada] 4.Photographic Records of People's Life during the Eruption[The Nishinippon] 5.Geological and Tectonic Setting of Unzen Volcano[Okada] 6.The 1990-1992 Eruption of Unzen Volcano[Ohta, Matsuo, Yanagi] 7.Seismological Observations of Unzen Volcano before and during the 1990-1992 Eruption[Shimizu, Umakoshi, Matsuo, Ohta] 8.Surface Temperature Measurements of Lava Domes and Pyroclastic Flows by Infrared Thermal Video System[Umakoshi, Shimizu, Matsuo, Ohta] 9.Seismological Comparison in Eruptive Activity between Mt.Unzen and Mt.Usu[Suzuki] 10.Lava Domes and Pyroclastic Flows of the 1991-1992 Eruption at Unzen Volcano[Nakada] 11.Debris Flows in Mt.Fugen[Hirano, Hashimoto, Moriyama] 12.Geochemical Stuudy of Unzen Volcano by Noble Gas Measurement[Takaoka, Tokunaga, Nagao] 13.Temporal Variation in Specific Gravity of the Lava Extruded from the Jigokuato Crater[Yanagi, Nakada, Maeda] 14.Temporal Variation in Chemical Composition of the Lava Extruded from the Jigokuato Crater, Unzen Volcano[Yanagi, Nakada, Maeda] 15.Batch Franctionation Model for the Evolution of Unzen Volcanic Rocks[Yanagi, Nakada, Maeda] 16.Geological Examination of the Two Old Maps from the Tokugawa Era Concerning the “Shimabara Catastrophe”[Miyachi] 17.Monitoring Ground Movements of Chijiwa Foult and Mt. Mayuyama Using the Global Positioning System for Surevying[Esaki, Aikawa, Okubo, Shimizu, Ohta] 18.Slope Stability of Mt. Mayuyama under the Volcanic Activity of Unzen Volcano[Ochiai, Hayashi, Umemura, Iryo] 19.Earthquake Observations at Mt. Mayuyama[Tsutsumi, Aso, Kitagawa, Uno] 20.Decision Making Process of Both the Administration Bodies and the Inhabitations for Evacuation during the Eruption of Mt. Fugen in Unzen Volcano[Matsunaga, Takahashi] 21.A Documentary of People's Life During the 1990-1992 Eruption of Unzen Volcano[Kawazoe, Okada] References
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A small Plinian eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia ejected 3.5 x 10(10) kilograms of mixed dacite and andesite tephra on 13 November 1985, with a maximum column height of 31 kilometers above sea level. Small pyroclastic flows and surges, generated during the initial stage of the eruption, caused surface melting of approximately 10% of the volcano's ice cap, leading to meltwater floods. The erosive floods incorporated soils and loose sediments from the volcano's flanks and developed into lahars, which claimed at least 25,000 lives.
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