Article

Learner Control Over Full and Lean Computer-Based Instruction Under Differing Ability Levels

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This study examined the effects of type of instructional control and program mode on the achievement, option use, time in the program, and attitudes of higher-ability and lower-ability university students. Ability level was determined using participants' Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and American College Testing Assessment (ACT) scores. Participants were randomly assigned to four versions of a computer-delivered instructional program within higher-ability and lower-ability groups. The four versions of the instructional program were created by crossing the two control conditions (learner control, program control) with the two program modes (full, lean). Participants in the full program scored significantly higher on the posttest than those in the lean program, and higher-ability students scored significantly higher than lower-ability students. Learner-control participants chose to view 68% of the optional screens in the full program but only 35% in the lean one, and participants also spent significantly more time in the full version. Participants had more favorable attitudes toward learner control than program control.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Due to the possibility for personalization (i.e., adaptivity to learner needs and preferences), LCI was expected to be beneficial for students' learning processes and outcomes, as well as their motivation and involvement Niemiec, Sikorski, & Walberg, 1996;Williams, 1996). However, although research on LCI has shown that it can indeed enhance learners' motivation and involvement compared to other kinds of instruction Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000;Uden, McGuinness, & Alderson, 2000), most studies did not find any effects on learning (cf., Goforth, 1994;Niemiec et al., 1996;Steinberg, 1989;Uden et al., 2000;Williams, 1996), and for novices, it can have negative effects (Azevedo, Moos, Greene, Winters, & Cromley, 2008). When positive effects of LCI on learning have been reported, this is usually for learners with more prior knowledge (Lawless & Brown, 1997;Moos & Azevedo, 2008a;Niemiec et al., 1996;Scheiter & Gerjets, 2007;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000;Steinberg, 1989) or higher levels of metacognitive skills (Azevedo, 2005;Scheiter & Gerjets, 2007). ...
... However, although research on LCI has shown that it can indeed enhance learners' motivation and involvement compared to other kinds of instruction Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000;Uden, McGuinness, & Alderson, 2000), most studies did not find any effects on learning (cf., Goforth, 1994;Niemiec et al., 1996;Steinberg, 1989;Uden et al., 2000;Williams, 1996), and for novices, it can have negative effects (Azevedo, Moos, Greene, Winters, & Cromley, 2008). When positive effects of LCI on learning have been reported, this is usually for learners with more prior knowledge (Lawless & Brown, 1997;Moos & Azevedo, 2008a;Niemiec et al., 1996;Scheiter & Gerjets, 2007;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000;Steinberg, 1989) or higher levels of metacognitive skills (Azevedo, 2005;Scheiter & Gerjets, 2007). These findings are, however, not entirely surprising if we look at the cognitive demands imposed by LCI. ...
... In sum, inaccuracies in self-assessment and task selection may lead to ineffective self-regulated learning. Support for this assumption comes from studies that have shown that providing novice learners with control over their learning process may have beneficial effects on their motivation or involvement (e.g., Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000), but has detrimental effects on learning outcomes when compared to teacher or computer controlled fixed or personalized instruction (see e.g., Azevedo et al., 2008;Lawless & Brown, 1997;Niemiec et al., 1996;Williams, 1996). Beneficial effects on learning outcomes attained through self-regulated learning have been found mainly for learners with higher levels of prior knowledge (Lawless & Brown, 1997;Moos & Azevedo, 2008a, b;Niemiec et al., 1996;Scheiter & Gerjets, 2007;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000;Steinberg, 1989), who, as mentioned above, are better able to monitor and assess their own performance than novices. ...
Article
Kostons, D. (2010). On the role of self-assessment and task-selection in self-regulated learning. Doctoral Thesis. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.
... Students in the learner control group performed significantly better than did the students in the program control group. Schnackenberg (1997) also looked at the interaction between learner control conditions and program modes in a computer-based instructional program. In the "full" mode there were 240 screens, while in the "lean" mode there were 196 screens. ...
... Hicken, Sullivan, and Klein (1992) found that students using a lean version of a computer program spent more time in the program than students using the full version did. In addition, Hananfin and Sullivan (1995) and Schnackenberg (1997) reported that higher ability students using a lean version of a computer program chose to view optional elements significantly more than low-ability students did. Some researchers thus conclude that even if achievement is the same, learner control is better because of the shorter time on task. ...
... Previous research into learner control has produced mixed results, with some studies indicating that individuals perform better when given more control over their instruction (Campanizzi, 1978;Gray, 1987;Hannafin & Colamaio, 1987;Hannafin & Sullivan, 1995;Kinzie et al., 1988;Milheim, 1990;Shyu & Brown, 1995), other studies indicating that individuals perform worse when given more control (Coldevin et al., 1993;Gray, 1989;McNeil & Nelson, 1990;Paolucci, 1998;Pollock & Sullivan, 1990;Tovar & Coldevin, 1992), and a large majority of studies indicating no significant differences between the two (Burke et al., 1998;Coorough, 1991;Fredericks, 1976;Hicken et al., 1992;Murphy & Davidson, 1991;Pridemore & Klein, 1992;Quade, 1993;Schloss et al., 1988;Schnackenberg, 1997). Because of the conflicting results of previous studies, it was expected that any performance improvements in the current study would be seen in the middle navigational group (Branching). ...
... Rather than having all learners follow the same instruction or practice schedule, which is often targeted at the average learner, personalized instruction allows learners who have difficulty with a task or topic to start at a lower level of complexity or obtain more support, while learners who find the new material easy can quickly move on to more complex materials. Such personalized instruction is expected to enhance students' motivation and learning outcomes more than non-personalized instruction that is the same for all students (Niemiec et al., 1996;Pintrich, 2004;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000). However, there is little evidence for both assumptions. ...
... In sum, inaccuracies in self-assessment and task selection may lead to ineffective self-regulated learning when learners can select their own learning tasks. Support for this assumption comes from studies that have shown that providing novice learners with control over their learning process may have beneficial effects on their motivation or involvement (e.g., Corbalan et al., 2008;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000), but has detrimental effects on learning outcomes when compared to teacher or computer controlled fixed or personalized instruction (see e.g., Azevedo et al., 2008;Lawless & Brown, 1997;Niemiec et al., 1996;Williams, 1996). Beneficial effects on learning outcomes attained through selfregulated learning have been found mainly for learners with higher levels of prior knowledge (Lawless & Brown, 1997;Moos & Azevedo, 2008b, 2008cNiemiec et al., 1996;Scheiter & Gerjets, 2007;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000;Steinberg, 1989), who, as mentioned above, are better able to monitor and assess their own performance than novices. ...
... Support for this assumption comes from studies that have shown that providing novice learners with control over their learning process may have beneficial effects on their motivation or involvement (e.g., Corbalan et al., 2008;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000), but has detrimental effects on learning outcomes when compared to teacher or computer controlled fixed or personalized instruction (see e.g., Azevedo et al., 2008;Lawless & Brown, 1997;Niemiec et al., 1996;Williams, 1996). Beneficial effects on learning outcomes attained through selfregulated learning have been found mainly for learners with higher levels of prior knowledge (Lawless & Brown, 1997;Moos & Azevedo, 2008b, 2008cNiemiec et al., 1996;Scheiter & Gerjets, 2007;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000;Steinberg, 1989), who, as mentioned above, are better able to monitor and assess their own performance than novices. In addition, Kostons et al. (2010) investigated whether secondary education students who differed in the amount of knowledge gained from studying in a selfregulated learning environment, also differed in self-assessment and task-selection skills. ...
Article
For self-regulated learning to be effective, students need to be able to accurately assess their own performance on a learning task and use this assessment for the selection of a new learning task. Evidence suggests, however, that students have difficulties with accurate self-assessment and task selection, which may explain the poor learning outcomes often found with self-regulated learning. In experiment 1, the hypothesis was investigated and confirmed that observing a human model engaging in self-assessment, task selection, or both could be effective for secondary education students’ (N = 80) acquisition of self-assessment and task-selection skills. Experiment 2 investigated and confirmed the hypothesis that secondary education students’ (N = 90) acquisition of self-assessment and task-selection skills, either through examples or through practice, would enhance the effectiveness of self-regulated learning. It can be concluded that self-assessment and task-selection skills indeed play an important role in self-regulated learning and that training these skills can significantly increase the amount of knowledge students can gain from self-regulated learning in which they choose their own learning tasks.
... Learner control -in contrast to program control -enables learners to make instructional decisions according to their current knowledge, interests, and preferences (Merrill, 1980(Merrill, , 1994. This is believed to positively influence learning and motivation (Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000;Williams, 1996), provided that learners perceive the control given and use this control to select personally relevant tasks (Katz & Assor, 2007). ...
... Program control over task selection leaves learners with no freedom of choice, which may negatively affect their motivation, specifically their task involvement and interest. One way to overcome this problem is to give learners some control over the selection of learning tasks, which has positive effects on motivation (Kinzie & Sullivan, 1989;Ross, Morrison, & O'Dell, 1989;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000). ...
... Recent instructional theories advocate on-demand methods of education in which learners are given freedom to choose their own learning path (Bell & Kozlowski, 2002;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000;Williams, 1996). In contrast to program controlled instruction, learner controlled instruction allows learners to make their own decisions on specific elements of instruction. ...
... Several research often report a detrimental or negligible impact of learner influence on the effects of cognitive learning. In terms of influence over material and mission selection, non-positive relationships have clearly seen (Bell & Kozlowski, 2008;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000), although several research also report detrimental consequences of influence over navigation and architecture (Fulton et al., 2015). In order to address the possibly detrimental influence of learner regulation, study has also explored the implications of additional feedback and support systems. ...
... These effects on affective results comprise of affirmative happiness impacts Sun & Hsu, 2013;Zhang et al., 2006) and mood, decreased distress and increased self-efficiency (Bell & Kozlowski, 2008;Chang & Ho, 2009). A small degree of learner regulation was typically explored by research that recorded unfavourable or negligible results on affective outcomes (Behrend & Thompson, 2012;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000). In addition, as learners are equipped with influence over the simulated contact with the teacher or fellow participants, satisfaction with the course improves dramatically (Sun & Hsu, 2013). ...
Chapter
Online education is not new to the twenty-first century, especially to higher education. It is known since early 2000 and continues. Traditional education is offered in all government institutions in India. However, in March 2020, Education turned 360° immediately after the COVID-19 pandemic, which allegedly originated in Wuhan city of China in late December 2019. Since then, all the Educational Institutions including schools, colleges, universities, coaching centers insisted to shut down for an unknown time by the government to maintain social distancing and mitigating COVID-19 spread. Due to this, the traditional system was bound to shift to Online Education (OE). In this chapter, challenges that occurred due to the immediate shift to the online education system are discussed.
... LC methods provide learners with varying degrees of active decision making control over specific dimensions of a structured learning environment, and can range from control of a single training variable, such as the pace of training, to control over multiple aspects of the learning process (Kraiger & Jerden, 2007). Additional LC variables include branching or sequencing through the learning content (e.g., Tang, 2004), how much of a lesson to review (e.g., skip introductory lessons; e.g., Taylor, 2005), the amount to practice the content (e.g., Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000) or feedback to receive (e.g., Pridemore & Klein, 1991), and program-generated advice (e.g., suggestions for next task; e.g., Shyu, 1993). ...
... This additional dimension differentiates EL and LC training methods; LC provides learners with options to adapt the learning content to their learning style, skill, or experience; EL requires learners to discover relationships and interactions between variables through exploring the learning content. Proponents emphasize a benefit of LC to learner motivation, level of active involvement (e.g., Corbalan et al., 2009;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000), and trainee satisfaction with the learning environment (Fisher, Wasserman, & Orvis, 2010;Granger & Levine, 2009;Orvis et al., 2009), which should affect learning and transfer. EL proponents argue that it encourages metacognitive activity and self-regulation of learning skills required for developing adaptable complex skills (e.g., Bell & Kozlowski, 2008;Heimbeck, Frese, Sonnentag, & Keith, 2003;Ivancic & Hesketh, 2000;Keith & Frese, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Individual meta-analyses were conducted for six training methods as part of a U.S. Army basic research project. The objective was to identify evidence-based guidelines for the effectiveness of each training method, under different moderating conditions, for cognitive skill transfer in adult learning. Results and implications for two of these training methods, learner control (LC) and exploratory learning (EL), are discussed. LC provides learners with active control over training variables. EL requires learners to discover relationships and interactions between variables. Background: There is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of both LC and EL learning methods on transfer relative to more guided training methods. Cognitive load theory (CLT) provides a basis for predicting that training strategies that manage intrinsic load of a task during training and minimize extraneous load will avail more resources that can be devoted to learning. Method: Meta-analyses were conducted using a Hedges's g analysis of effect sizes. Control conditions with little to no learner freedom were contrasted with treatment conditions manipulating more learner freedom. Results: Overall more LC was no different from training with limited or no learner control, and more EL was less effective than limited or no exploration; however, each can be effective under certain conditions. Both strategies have been more effective for cognitive skill learning than for knowledge recall tasks. LC exhibited more benefit to very near transfer, whereas EL's benefit was to far transfer. Conclusion: Task type, transfer test, and transfer distance moderate the overall transfer cost of more learner freedom. Application: The findings are applicable to the development of instructional design guidelines for the use of LC and EL in adult skill training.
... This learning trajectory is set in an iterative cycle of performing a task, assessing the quality of their own performance, and selecting a new task to perform. Theoretically, on-demand education (1) could help learners develop domain-specific skills by following this adapted learning trajectory and (2) could increase learners' motivation, feelings of responsibility, and self-efficacy (Corbalan, Kester, & Van Merriënboer, 2009a;Kinzie & Sullivan, 1989;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000;Topping, 2003). However, in the literature divergent results are found regarding the effects of on-demand education on learning (e.g., Corbalan et al., 2009a;Ross, Morrison, & O'Dell, 1989;Shute, Gawlick, & Gluck, 1998;Williams, 1996). ...
... For instance, while learners may prefer to use a learner-controlled eLearning course (i.e., the learner controls the interactions and pace of the eLearning course) there are no definitive achievement advantages of such instruction over the more traditional program-controlled eLearning courses (i.e., the pace and interactions of the eLearning course are pre-programmed and unchanged by the learner). In fact, learner-controlled courses may not be appropriate for all learners, and creating these types of courses involves far more programming time than program-controlled courses (Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Given the rapid growth of technology use in business and industry, there is an increasing need to research best practices for producing online learning materials. For behavior analysts, eLearning is a topic worth researching, as it can potentially merge the promise of Skinner’s teaching machines with the growing area of organizational behavior management (OBM). This paper presents an overview of some of the published research that addresses three components of generating palatable and effective eLearning: characteristics of eLearning users, the most critical components of instructional design, and how technology can be used effectively to enhance eLearning. The results show that using technology provides both aesthetic benefits through multimedia and visual effects, as well as instructional benefits that can maximize learner retention of the course material. Understanding the best practices for creating eLearning allows all of these benefits to be realized and put into action.
... An on-demand environment allows learners with welldeveloped domain-specific skills to choose more complex tasks and learners with less developed domain-specific skills to choose less complex ones. Other benefits of such an environment are increased learner motivation (Kinzie & Sullivan, 1989;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000;Topping, 2003) and more positive feelings of control and responsibility over one's learning pathway (Corbalan, Kester, & Van Merriënboer, 2006;Topping, 2003). These benefits may positively affect learning outcomes. ...
Article
On-demand education enables individual learners to choose their learning pathways according to their own learning needs. They must use self-directed learning (SDL) skills involving self-assessment and task selection to determine appropriate pathways for learning. Learners who lack these skills must develop them because SDL skills are prerequisite to developing domain-specific skills. This article describes the design of an on-demand learning environment developed to enable novices to simultaneously develop their SDL and domain-specific skills. Learners received advice on their self-assessments and their selections of subsequent learning tasks. In the domain of system dynamics – a way to model a dynamic system and draw graphs depicting the system's behaviour over time – advice on self-assessment is provided in a scoring rubric containing relevant performance standards. Advice on task selection indicates all relevant task aspects to be taken into account, including recommendations for suitable learning tasks which meet the individual learner's needs. This article discusses the design of the environment and the learners' perceptions of its usefulness. Most of the times, the learners found the advice appropriate and they followed it in 78% of their task selections.
... Sehubungan itu, kebosanan dapat dielakkan kerana pelajar boleh melangkau kandungan yang telah mereka fahami dan mengelak kandungan yang mereka belum bersedia untuk pelajari (Li & Soh, 2003). Namun, memberi kebebasan penuh kepada pelajar untuk mengawal paparan segmen animasi tidak semestinya membawa hasil positif pembelajaran (Boucheix & Schneider, 2009;Ahmad Zamzuri, 2007) dan ianya juga mempunyai implikasi pelajar melangkau maklumat (Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000). Malahan pula, terdapat juga kajian yang mendapati pelajar novis tidak mempunyai pengetahuan untuk mengenalpasti bahagian paling relevan animasi untuk dipelajari serta mereka tidak menggunakan kebebasan kawalan secara efektif (Lowe, 2003;Kettanurak, Ramamurthy & Haseman, 2001). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstrak Jabatan Pengurusan Politeknik (JPP) berperanan untuk menyediakan tenaga kerja separuh mahir bagi memenuhi keperluan negara. Bagi tujuan tersebut, pelbagai program pengajian telah diperkenalkan antaranya ialah program Diploma Sistem Rangkaian (DNS) yang kandungannya diintegerasikan dengan program persijilan professional CISCO, di kenali sebagai Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA). Inisiatif ini adalah selaras dengan permintaan pihak industri yang memerlukan tenaga kerja yang kompetan. Walau bagaimanapun berdasarkan keputusan peperiksaan pelajar, didapati mungkin ada kekurangan dari sudut kaedah pengajaran matapelajaran ini yang mengandungi banyak isi kandungan abstrak yang memberi kesan terhadap pencapaian pelajar. Sehubungan itu, kajian tentang keberkesanan penggunaan animasi berintruksi telah di usul sebagai satu kajian ilmiah. Pembangunan medium animasi instruksi yang mempunyai empat fitur ciri kawalan seperti Kawalan Program Linear (KPL), Kawalan Program Rawak (KPR), Kawalan Program (KP) dan Tanpa Kawalan (TK) akan dirangka. Antara topik abstrak yang akan di pilih ialah 'Open Sistem Interconnection', atau di kenali sebagai OSI. Kajian ini akan melibatkan lima buah politeknik yang telah menawarkan program pengajian Diploma Sistem Rangkaian. Kumpulan sasaran pelajar dipecahkan kepada dua; iaitu kumpulan visualisasi rendah dan visualisasi tinggi. Kedua-dua kumpulan pelajar tersebut akan melalui ujian Pos 1 dan ujian Pos 2, iaitu ujian ketekalan. Sehubungan dengan itu, dalam konteks keberkesanan pengajaran, animasi intruksi di lihat dapat meningkatkan tahap kecenderungan pelajar untuk mengulangkaji topik-topik abstrak dengan kerap. Selain dari itu, dapatan kajian ini kelak, sekurang-kurangnya dapat mengenalpasti teknik reka bentuk animasi instruksi yang baik untuk di jadikan medium pengajaran dan pembelajaran di peringkat politeknik.
... Experienced learners are often considered to be capable of effectively choosing instructional tasks and practicing for themselves because, compared with novices, they are more accurate self-assessors (Dunning, Heath, & Suls, 2004;Dunning, Johnson, Erlinger, & Kruger, 2003), they are better in self-monitoring and planning (Moos & Azevedo, 2008), and they may show improved learning outcomes when offered a choice (Scheiter & Gerjets, 2007;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000). Some researchers have suggested that the ability to choose instructional tasks is beneficial for all learners. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the influence of deliberate practice, defined as practice specifically aimed at learners' weak areas and only their weak areas, on 8th graders performance in geometry. A control group had a choice over practice problems and their sequencing. Experiment 1 indicated a disordinal practice schedule by knowledge interaction. Simple effects tests indicated that the interaction was primarily caused by less knowledgeable learners benefiting more from a self-selected practice schedule than deliberate practice. Two subsequent experiments explored the cognitive mechanisms behind this effect by using learners with different levels of prior knowledge. Whereas the relatively more knowledgeable learners in Experiment 2 benefited by concentrating only on their weak areas during practice, the less knowledgeable learners in Experiment 3 improved their skills when they practiced on problem sets combining some of their weak and some of their strong areas or by concentrating on only a limited number of weak areas for a given problem area. These findings have important implications for the design of curriculum materials and implementation of deliberate practice techniques in secondary classrooms. Prior to attaining a sufficient level of familiarity with the subject matter, learners should be encouraged to continue practicing in areas in which they have some degree of competence. Only after competence is attained in several related areas should an exclusive emphasis be placed on practice in weak areas only. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
... Learners determine their own learning pathway and can adapt it to their own learning needs. Theoretically they could benefit from this control by selecting tasks with optimal levels of difficulty and support and should be more motivated (Kinzie & Sullivan, 1989;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000). Another benefit is that it may help develop self-regulated learning skills (Corbalan, Kester, & Van Merriënboer, 2006) because learners must assess their own performance and select suitable next tasks. ...
Article
Full-text available
Learner-controlled education gives learners control over their learning pathways. They assess their own performance and select a task out of a large set of learning tasks, accommodating their own learning needs. However, novice learners often do not possess the self-assessment and task-selection skills necessary for determining an appropriate path. Especially if they are novices in the learning domain too, it is even harder to set an appropriate path. They will be overloaded by both the unfamiliar learning environment and the unfamiliar domain. Moreover, they will not know what performance standards are relevant for performance assessment, and what task characteristics to take into account for task selection. Consequently, they probably will neither gain a great deal of knowledge nor improve domain-specific skills. This is an explorative study to test the effect of a procedural advisory model providing self-assessment and task-selection advice, and if it helps learners in learner-controlled education to determine an appropriate learning pathway. The self-assessment advice provides a scoring rubric for assessing performance. The task-selection advice provides a rule for an appropriate task-selection which is based on the learner’s self-assessment, learner’s mental effort, and the task aspects of the prior task. These learners might be better able to determine their own learning pathway, in turn enhancing learning performance. It will be explored if the model benefits the learners’ development of self-assessment and task-selection skills, and, in addition, positively affect the acquisition of the learners’ domain-specific skills. This experiment will be followed by a second one, which will not be discussed in this paper, testing another advisory model. This second advisory model extends the procedural advisory model with more advice on self-assessment and task-selection. In order to test the effects of providing more advice on the development of self-assessment and task-selection skills, and, in addition, on the acquisition of domain-specific skills.
... Über das Geben von Feedback hinaus sollten den Studierenden wo immer möglich Handlungsspielräume eröffnet werden (Berendt, 2000;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000;Schrader & Helmke, 2000;Winteler & Forster, 2007). Diese können beispielsweise in der Möglichkeit zur freien Wahl von Referats-oder Hausarbeitsthemen bestehen, sie können sich aber auch auf die Auswahl von Prüfungsaufgaben beziehen, beispielsweise auf die Bearbeitung eines von mehreren zur Wahl stehenden Schreibimpulsen. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ziel dieses Beitrages ist es, ausgehend vom Stand der Forschung Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten für gute Praxis in der Lehre an Hochschulen vorzustellen und aufzuzeigen, wie sich diese in einen kontinuierlichen Optimierungs- und Qualitätssicherungsprozess einbetten lässt. Vor diesem Hintergrund werden insbesondere zwei derzeit viel diskutierte Aspekte in den Blick genommen: (a) die veränderte Perspektive weg vom Handeln der Lehrperson und hin zum Kompetenzerwerb der Studierenden (shift from teaching to learning) und (b) das Prinzip, die Lehre so auszurichten, dass ein größtmöglicher Grad an Konsistenz in den gesetzten Lehr- bzw. intendierten Lernzielen, den auf Studierendenseite angeregten Lernaktivitäten und den gewählten Prüfungsformen erreicht wird, so dass die Studierenden bestmöglich beim Kompetenzerwerb unterstützt werden (constructive alignment). Abschließend ziehen wir ein Fazit und geben einen Ausblick auf weitere Themen im Kontext der Hochschullehre.
... Students are timed to key in the missing words. The great amount of learner control influence students' motivation and performance in computer-based instruction (Becker & Dwyer, 1994;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000). This game encouraged students to use their organizing schemes to explore language, thus, students are active participants rather than passive recipients in learning. ...
Article
Over the past decades, the education of students has progressively shifted from the traditional teaching environments to technology-assisted settings. In Taiwan, the preference to provide students with multimedia in environments shared by their peers is gaining acceptance and public attention. Therefore, “Chinese Idioms String Up Puzzle game,” a new text reconstruction online program was developed by the Digital Game-Based Learning Laboratory, National Taiwan Normal University in Taiwan to encourage students to use their organizing schemes to learn Chinese Idioms. A survey was conducted to examine participants' anxiety, interest and cognitive load by using this new computer-assisted game. According to the survey, students felt this new program is interesting and would like to play again in the future. For those students who believe anxiety helps their performance, and for those students whose degree of anxiety lowered after completing the test, they tended to have greater interests in playing the game. Findings of the Partial Least Squares (PLS) contribute to an expanded understanding of both psychological anxiety and somatic anxiety influence their cognitive load, whereas both anxieties was not significantly related to their playing interest. In addition, the study results indicated that the higher degree of psychological and somatic anxiety, the greater cognitive load participants had.
... Viau and Larivée 1993), whilst others did not find such an effect (e.g. Schnackenberg and Sullivan 2000). The same is true for learning style, for which some studies found an effect (e.g. ...
Article
Open learning environments (OLEs) assume that learners are good self-regulators. In such environments, learners have a large amount of control and decide on the use of different support devices (i.e. tools). However, research clearly suggests that, because students often do not possess the necessary regulation skills, they cannot decide what tool might be beneficial for their learning. This contribution deals with the impact of three metacognitive variables on tool use in OLEs: students’ regulation activities; help-seeking behaviour; and instructional conceptions. Results reveal that these student characteristics affect tool use and that their impact is moderated by environmental factors, especially advice.
... Many people are short of the confidence, self-esteem and belief in their ability to learn. After the using of ICT, they have positive attitudes toward learning (Clarke 2007;Schnackenberg, Sullivan 2000;Yeh, Lehman 2001). E-learning provides means of communication within a learning environment that removes the geographical and temporal boundaries which can impede group learning activities (Dark, Perrett 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
In our contribution, we focused on using of information and communication technologies in the biology lessons concretely on birdsclass. We find out the studentspoints of view of this lesson. The five-point Likert scale questionnaire was used as a measurement tool. The questionnaire included 27 statements and there was a place for expressing of the own student's opinion there. The results were processed by using of factor analysis and ANOVA. The sample consisted of 70 secondary grammar schools students. General results should goes first - it means what was found in the research? Was ICT assistance considered to be important for students/ positively appreciated? In every dimension, the students from bigger town (according to the number of inhabitants) reached more positive score in questionnaire than the other students in sample.Gender differences were generally weak.
... Cet aspect a été abordé et mis en évidence dans les travaux classiques qui ont étudié le rôle du contrôle dans les apprentissages utilisant l'EAO (Apprentissage Assisté par Ordinateur) ou la CAI (Computer Assisted Learning), Gray (1988) ; Merrill (1994) ; Milheim & Martin (1991). Mais, en ce qui concerne les acquisitions réelles, le bilan des recherches concernant l'effet du contrôle des systèmes d'apprentissages informatisés est assez contradictoire (Barnard, 1993 ;Chung & Reigeluth, 1992 ;Filipczak, 1996 ;Friend & Cole, 1990 ;Gray, 1988 ;Kirsh, 1997 ;Milheim & Martin, 1991 ;Nimieck, Sokorski, Walberg, 1996 ;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000 ;Shute, Galwick, & Gluck, 1998 ;Reiber, 1990Reiber, , 1991. Bien que dans la majorité des cas les apprenants utilisent activement le contrôle, certains travaux montrent des effets positifs sur l'apprentissage, d'autres n'indiquent aucun gain lié au contrôle, d'autres enfin concluent à des effets négatifs, en particulier pour les mesures d'apprentissage à long terme. ...
Article
EnglishThis experiment aimed at studying how high and low spatial abilities adult learners understood an animation. Two factors were manipulated when learners were studying a threepulley system device: the controllability of the animation and the orientation of the attention of the participant by an explicit task. Off-line (comprehension questions) and on-line (eye tracking) measures were used. The comprehension test results indicated that, more than controllability, the specific orientation of the attention of the participant on the relevant features of the animation had a positive effect on the elaboration of a high quality dynamic mental model of the device. This positive effect appeared particularly when the attention of the learner was focused on the functional model and on local kinematics. The eye tracking data indicated that the learners attend more to the areas of the animations where a great amount of motion is involved along the causal chain of events. We showed an effect of the controllability of the system and of the orientation of the learner�s attention on the amount of eye fixations and on the number of transitions between areas that included the causal chain. The elaboration of the mental model of an animation seemed to require a piecemeal processing, step by step, of the operations of the system et not the direct analogue and holistic mapping of the device. francaisL' objectif de cet article est l' etude du traitement cognitif necessaire a la comprehension d' une animation. Deux facteurs ont ete examines : la controlabilite de l' animation et le l' orientation de l' attention des participants, a travers le type de tâche qui leur etait donnee, pour l' etude d' un systeme de trois poulies. Les resultats des epreuves de comprehension ont montre que l' orientation de l' attention de l' apprenant vers les informations pertinente du systeme, bien plus que le controle, avait un effet favorable sur l' elaboration du modele mental du fonctionnement des trois poulies, en particulier, quand la tâche orientait l?attention du sujet vers la cinematique des elements. L' analyse des mouvements des yeux a montre que les participants traitaient preferentiellement les aires dans lesquelles un grand nombre de mouvements etait implique dans la chaine causale du systeme. La controlabilite de l' animation et la specialisation de l' orientation ont augmente le nombre des fixations et de transitions oculaires le long de la chaine causale. L' elaboration du modele mental d' une animation semble impliquer un processus d' elaboration pas a pas du fonctionnement du systeme plutot que la memorisation d' une image analogique holistique de l' animation percue.
... This tool incorporates computer features along with the spirit of competition to create a fun and enjoyable task for students to learn Chinese idioms. Research has indicated providing students with a high degree of learner control positively influences student motivation and performance in computer-based instruction environments (Becker & Dwyer, 1994;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000). As this game encourages students to use their organisation schemes to explore language, the students are active rather than passive learners. ...
... Similar to "Learning environments", "Learner control" is not an area per se in the co-readership visualization, but learner control issues are discussed in other areas, primarily those that deal with participatory culture and online learning: digital natives, the future of learning, online learning and technology acceptance, and personal learning environment. The emphasis on participatory culture in the co-readership visualization indicates that the discussion has changed from "allowing learners to choose the amount of practice, feedback, and review as they desire" (Schnackenberg and Sullivan 2000) to "the ability to create, to share ideas, to join groups, to publish" (Attwell 2007) and "new media literacies: a set of cultural competencies and social skills that young people need in the new media landscape" (Jenkins 2009). Furthermore, "Learner control" is a rather small area, whereas the corresponding areas in the co-readership visualization are among the largest in the visualization. ...
Article
In this paper, I present the evaluation of a novel knowledge domain visualization (KDViz) of educational technology. The interactive visualization is based on readership patterns in the online reference management system Mendeley. It comprises of 13 topic areas, spanning psychological, pedagogical, and methodological foundations, learning methods and technologies, and social and technological developments in educational technology. The visualization was evaluated with (1) a qualitative comparison to knowledge domain visualizations based on citations, and (2) expert interviews. The results show that the co-readership visualization has similarities to recent knowledge domain visualizations based on citations, but that it is a more up-to-date representation of the field. It also showed that a broad range of research areas are covered, but that areas related to computer science are missing. Finally, even though the visualization is easy to use and understand, more research is needed to explore the interpretations of size and placement of research areas in the visualization.
... Sehubungan itu, kebosanan dapat dielakkan kerana pelajar boleh melangkau kandungan yang telah mereka fahami dan mengelak kandungan yang mereka belum bersedia untuk pelajari (Li & Soh, 2003). Namun, memberi kebebasan penuh kepada pelajar untuk mengawal paparan segmen animasi tidak semestinya membawa hasil positif pembelajaran (Boucheix & Schneider, 2009;Ahmad Zamzuri, 2007) dan ianya juga mempunyai implikasi pelajar melangkau maklumat (Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000). Malahan pula, terdapat juga kajian yang mendapati pelajar novis tidak mempunyai pengetahuan untuk mengenal pasti bahagian paling relevan animasi untuk dipelajari serta mereka tidak menggunakan kebebasan kawalan secara efektif (Lowe, 2003;Kettanurak, Ramamurthy & Haseman, 2001). ...
Article
Tujuan - Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menilai kesan animasi bersegmen dengan pelbagai strategi kawalan pengguna terhadap prestasi pelajar. Lima strategi kawalan tersebut ialah strategi Kawalan Pengguna Linear (KPL), Kawalan Pengguna Rawak (KPR), Kawalan Program (KP), Kawalan Berterusan (KB) dan Tanpa Kawalan (TK). Metodologi - Reka bentuk kajian berbentuk kuasi eksperimen dan data kajian dianalisis melalui pendekatan kuantitatif. Seramai 265 orang pelajar semester 2 kursus Diploma Sistem Rangkaian dari lima buah Politeknik dipilih sebagai sampel kajian. Penilaian dilakukan melalui ujian pos. Dapatan - Secara keseluruhan, ujian statistik ANCOVA digunakan untuk menjawab persoalan kajian. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan dari sudut prestasi ujian pos antara kumpulan pelajar yang menerima strategi kawalan paparan animasi bersegmen yang berbeza. Kepentingan - Dapatan kajian menunjukkan faktor reka bentuk paparan animasi bersegmen yang disertakan dengan strategi kawalan pengguna yang bersesuaian berkemampuan mengatasi masalah keciciran maklumat. Strategi KPR dan KPL didapati membantu dalam memperuntukkan masa yang bersesuaian bagi memori sensori pelajar untuk mengekstrak maklumat bermakna daripada animasi untuk diproses di dalam memori jangka pendek yang agak terbatas sebelum didaftarkan ke dalam memori jangka panjang. Kedua-dua strategi ini juga didapati berupaya meningkatkan prestasi pencapaian pelajar.
... Furthermore, learners generally seem to like being in control of their own learning process (cf. Orvis, Fisher & Wasserman 2009;Schnackenberg & Sullivan 2000). Freedom to choose by one's own control can even be seen as an important motivation for using computer-based learning resources (Henning et al. 2014) per se. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
We are now facing an ever-increasing amount of knowledge which is becoming obsolete at an ever-faster rate. This requires us to select from this virtually infinite amount of digital information and decide what to consume and when. Fast evolving technological innovations facilitate guidance and assistance during the learning processes. Sensors emerging from novel devices such as face-readers, eye-trackers and wearables are promising to help learners to show and develop appropriate learning behaviour, strategies or processes. Such technological opportunities may deliver more accurate data for decision-making than students can access through their own self-perception. These developments lead to further questions: Who makes the better decisions about the right learning process and material: the learner or an intelligent system? Does the learner benefit from free choice or is he/she distracted and overburdened by too much freedom of decision? The dilemma of how much self-regulation (control) should be left to the learner is discussed here and different approaches in formal and informal learning environments are presented.
... The issue of learner control has been the focus of educational research for quite a long time (see Kalyuga, 2009). Although it has been expected that providing more learner control would increase students' motivation, feelings of responsibility, and self-efficacy (e.g., Corbalan, Kester, & Van Merriënboer, 2009;Kinzie & Sullivan, 1989;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000) and would foster their self-regulated learning skills (e.g., Kostons et al., 2012), the empirical evidence supporting these expectations is not consistent (for recent meta-analyses on learner control, see Karich, Burns, & Maki, 2014;Kraiger & Jerden, 2007). Overall, the findings indicated that learner control is detrimental for low prior knowledge students, but beneficial for high prior knowledge students (e.g., Kopcha & Sullivan, 2008;Niemiec, Sikorski, & Walberg, 1996;Williams, 1996). ...
... In competencybased education students are often given more responsibility for their own learning, for example, by giving them more control over their individual learning trajectories. Such increased control over learning likely motivates students through increased autonomy (e.g., Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000;Vansteenkiste et al., 2008) and gives them the opportunity to develop skills for self-directed learning (SDL; e.g., Knowles, 1975). ...
Article
Full-text available
This quasi-experimental study investigates the effects of using an electronic development portfolio (PERFLECT) with teacher-guided student self-coaching on the development of students' self-directed learning skills and motivation. In a 12-week program in senior vocational education, students in the PERFLECT group used the portfolio to help self-direct their learning, while the REGULAR group followed the regular educational program. Students in the PERFLECT group reported higher levels of self-direction, intrinsic goal orientation, and self-efficacy than students in the REGULAR group. Using an electronic development portfolio with a student self-coaching protocol constitutes a promising approach to support students' self-directed learning skills and motivation.
... Considering individual differences among learners will improve learning achievement (Shute and Towle, 2003;Tseng et al., 2008). Personalized activity selection yields more effective and efficient learning outcomes, with researchers reporting a positive effect on learners' motivation and learning efficiency (Schnackenberg and Sullivan, 2000;Corbalan et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates how humans adapt next learning activity selection (in particular the knowledge it assumes and the knowledge it teaches) to learner personality and competence to inspire an adaptive learning activity selection algorithm. First, the paper describes the investigation to produce validated materials for the main study, namely the creation and validation of learner competence statements. Next, through an empirical study, we investigate the impact on learning activity selection of learners' emotional stability and competence. Participants considered a fictional learner with a certain competence, emotional stability, recent and prior learning activities engaged in, and selected the next learning activity in terms of the knowledge it used and the knowledge it taught. Three algorithms were created to adapt the selection of learning activities' knowledge complexity to learners' personality and competence. Finally, we evaluated the algorithms through a study with teachers, resulting in an algorithm that selects learning activities with varying assumed and taught knowledge adapted to learner characteristics.
... Dit is tegengesteld aan externe controle, waarbij leerlingen het leertraject volgen dat door een externe bron (leraar en/of computerprogramma) is vastgesteld. Alhoewel een positief effect van learner control op leerprestaties niet altijd wordt gevonden, heeft het meestal wel een positief effect op motivatie (Corbalan, Kester, & Van Merriënboer, 2006; Flowerday & Schraw, 2000;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000). Learner control doet een groot beroep op zelfregulerend leren vaardigheden zoals voorbereiding op de taak (self-assessment), uitvoeren van de taak (taakselectie door de lerenden) en reflecteren op de taak (zelfbeoordeling prestatie). ...
... Results revealed that students who engaged through linear navigation did not perform differently from those who engaged in a non-linear pathway. This finding is consistent with previous studies conducted by Aly, Elen, and Willems (2005), Schnackenberg and Sullivan (2000), and Swaak and de Jong (2001). However, other studies (Corbalan, Kester, & Van Merriënboer, 2006;van Merriënboer, Schuurman, de Croock, & Paas, 2002) reported that allowing learners to control their learning, can improve their performance. ...
Chapter
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have become the center of much media hype and have been considered to be disruptive and transformational to traditional education practice. This chapter employs two methods: (i) a clustering technique to characterize users and their behaviors and (ii) a classification model in order to infer participants' goals from the behavioral engagement with the course. It provides the design context for the specific MOOC used in our analysis, learning to teach online (LTTO). The chapter describes the sense-making process required to use the data available from the activity logs. This includes data preparation, the identification of metrics and methods to understand what participants do, and study the relationships between their explicitly stated goals and the behavioral traces emerging from the logs. Finally, the chapter evaluates the freedom in self-determined learning paths and how this may relate to the pedagogical design of the MOOC.
... This will motivate them to learn, and can lead to higher performace (Doherty, 1998). Schnackenberg and Sullivan (2000) noted that when learners are more in control of the learning experience in situ, their boredon, anxiety, and frustration decrease, and their motivation and attention increase. Jonassen and Grabinger (1990) argued that this notion is supported by the theory that learners know what is best for them and will invest more mental effort in their learning if they have some control, but they do not make the best decisions when given totally unrestricted control. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to investigate the question of whether the interaction effects of hypervideo navigation variables (navigation control and navigation links) would affect college students' self-regulated learning just after their learning from instructional hypervideo programs. Navigation control (free navigation or free navigation with advisement) and navigation links (video-based links or video/text-based links) were independent variables in this 2x2 factorial design quantitative study. instructional content was the same in four experimental treatments: FN/Vbl environment (free navigation via video-based links); FN/VTbl environment (free navigation via video/text-based links); FNwa/Vbl environment (free navigation with advisement via video-based links); and FNwa/VTbl environment (free navigation with advisement via video/text-based links. Participants in the study were (60) pre-service teachers ran domly assigned to one of the four experimental groups. Data analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses derived from research questions. Two-way aNO-Va test was used to investigate the main effects of the two independent variables on the ten (10) separate self-regulated learning strategies, and on the overall self-regulated learning strategies (SRl). This study pro vided statistical evidence that free navigation fosters 100% of the separate and overall self-regulated strategies without the need for advisement at all; that Vbl fosters about (91%) of the separate and overall self regulated strategies; and that no effects were found for the interaction between the two independent variables in terms of 7 separate strategies and the overall strategies.
... Instead of having all learners follow the same uniform instruction, which is often more appropriate for the average learners, personalized instruction permits learners who have difficulty with a task or topic to start at a lower level of intricacy or gain more assistance, while learners who find the new material easy can quickly move on to more complex materials. As a result, such a personalized and individualized instruction is believed to foster students' motivation and learning outcomes more than public instruction prescribed for all students (Niemiec et al., 1996;Pintrich, 2004;Schnackenberg & Sullivan, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Like other types of assessment subscribing to edumetrics as a reaction against traditional psychometrics paradigm, self-assessment and peer-assessment have enjoyed much popularity among various types of alternative assessment. Additionally, alternative assessments, especially self- and peer-assessments have been the focal point of departure as far as L2 writing has been concerned. Furthermore, self-regulation as a burgeoning area of research in L2 learning refers to the degree to which language learners can regulate aspects of their thinking, motivation and behavior during learning. Given the significance of both assessment and self-regulated learning in ELT, the present paper investigated the effect of the implementation of self-assessment and peer-assessment in a writing course on the self-regulated learning of a sample of Iranian EFL students. In so doing, sixty three English major Iranian students who were the students of three intact classes at Islamic Azad University participated in this study. One of the classes was regarded as the self-assessment group, the other group was assigned to peer-assessment group and the third class served as the control group of the study. The ANCOVA analyses of the self-regulation scale scores for the control and experimental groups revealed that both self-assessment and peer-assessment practices had a positive impact on the self-regulated learning of the participants. The results will have theoretical and pedagogical implications for Iranian English language education.
Article
Based on evidence from the learner control literature, a study was designed that aimed to identify the conditions and individual characteristics that would best support learners' acceptance of control within hypermedia. The effects of prior domain knowledge, learning activity structure, ability, and attitudes on acceptance of control opportunity, knowledge acquisition, and attitudes were investigated. The study was conducted in two single-gender schools to remove the effects of gender interaction while using computers. Confirmatory analysis of a covariance structure model did not provide support for the hypothesized effects, with the exception of a weak effect for the variable ability on acceptance of control opportunity. Analysis of a substantively-based alternative model identified an effect of the school students attended on students' choices within the software. The effect of the "school" variable was stronger than the hypothesized variables. Qualitative analysis of interview and audit-trail data further supported the quantitative results showing a difference in preferences and navigational strategies for students at the two schools. Qualitative results and existing literature suggest factors that may contribute to the effect of the "school" variable are the epistemological beliefs of students, school culture, and gender. Further research attention to these variables is recommended.
Article
The “computers are social actors” paradigm asserts that human-to-computer interactions are fundamentally social responses. Earlier research has shown that effective management of the social presence in user interface design can improve user engagement and motivation. Much of this research has focused on adult subjects. This study discusses the effects of social presence management in child e-learning environment development by specifically examining the role of interactivity in a computer-mediated learning environment in relation to the development of children's attitudes toward computers as well as their intrinsic motivation. A quasi-experimental methodology was adopted for this study. It was found that interactivity had a significant effect on the computer's social presence, its social attraction to children and children's involvement, and intrinsic motivation. The findings suggest that enhancing the interactivity of an e-learning environment can stimulate the presence of social actors, which in turn can enrich a children's learning experience and increase their motivation.
Article
This article provides an overview of the empirical effects of students' academic choices on academic performance (e.g., amount, quality, and rate of work). Twenty-nine separate experiments within 26 publications were included in the review. The choices involved performance goals and standards, the nature of assignments, instructional support within assignments, and rewards for academic performance. Experiments with students with significant cognitive or behavioral problems (approximately 17% of the experiments) yielded better performance under student choices than external choices in 80% of those experiments, whereas experiments including general education students (86% of the experiments) showed superior academic performance for students over external choices in only 12% of the experiments. Nearly 45% of the experiments included students' attitudinal perspectives of their experiences of choice. In all studies, attitudinal comparisons either favored choice, or students' judgments were similar across choice and no-choice conditions, with only one of these four studies also reporting superior performance under student choice.
In this paper, we review the literature on learner control and discuss the implications that increased control may have for training in e-learning environments. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the learner control literature, focusing on adults and workplace training. We begin by reviewing the literature on learner control, focusing on the positive and negative effects associated with providing adult learners with control in e-learning environments. We organize our review into instructional design factors that have been manipulated to provide learners with control and person issues that moderate the relation between learner control and outcomes. Then, we summarize developments in training research and in adult learning that relate to learner control in order to provide a theoretical context for understanding learner control in adult workplace e-learning.
This article presents a survey of computer-based tracking in CALL and the uses to which the analysis of tracking data can be put to address questions in CALL in particular and second language acquisition (SLA) in general. Adopting both quantitative and qualitative methods, researchers have found that students often use software in unexpected ways, a finding which has consequences for the notion of learner autonomy and underscores the need for learner training. In addition, researchers, especially those in computer-mediated communication (CMC), have demonstrated the operation of fundamental SLA principles and also extended our understanding of those principles. Finally, comparison of students' actual use of software and their self-reported use of software reveals the danger of over reliance on self-report data. Although logistically challenging and potentially time-consuming, analysis of tracking data goes a long way in putting CALL on solid empirical footing.
Article
This study compared the effects of grouping students with different levels of persistence on their ability to learn in cooperative learning groups while working at the computer. A total of 138 sixth grade students were classified as high, average, or low in terms of persistence and assigned to dyads. Students completed a workshop on small-group interaction methods, a computer-based tutorial, a posttest, and a survey. Results indicated that average persisters interacted more than either high or low persisters. Promotive verbal interaction correlated positively with achievement, and grouping increased partner liking. The implications for forming effective cooperative learning groups is discussed.
Article
The study of motivation in E-learning is an emerging field but there is a paucity of data about what learners and facilitators believe are the important factors involving and sustaining the interest of the learner. It is emphasised that more prominence needs to be given to the key players' perspectives in balancing what is known about E-learning motivation. In this literature review, consideration is given to how E-learning evolved and impacted upon learners. Theoretical approaches to understanding learning and motivation are discussed and the importance of instructional design as a motivating factor identified. Research concerning the motivational matrix of the E-learner, facilitator, and educational environment is then detailed to provide a context for understanding E-learner motivation. Following this, phenomenologically-oriented research related to learner and facilitator perspectives on what motivates the E-learner is discussed and links to the social cognitive theory are acknowledged. Implications and an exploratory model of E-learners' motivation are detailed followed by recommendations for future research.
Article
The goal of this study is to examine the effects of learner control on information security (ISec) training effectiveness. While organizations recognize the importance of education and training in security and invest in such efforts, the design of these programs often lacks theoretical grounding and the outcomes are often not critically evaluated. This paper attempts to fill these gaps by (1) identifying desirable characteristics for the design of such training programs, (2) using these characteristics as guidelines to design a web-based information security training (3) experimentally evaluating the effectiveness of the training using critical outcomes such as training satisfaction, security training performance, self-efficacy, perceived threat severity and susceptibility. We find that web based ISec training that incorporates learner control positively affects training reactions and learning outcomes.
Conference Paper
E-learning systems are changing education and organizational training considerably. With the advancement of online-based learning systems, learner control of the instructional process has emerged as a decisive factor inherent to technology-based learning. However, the conceptual work on the role of learner control in e-learning has not advanced sufficiently to predict how learner control impacts e-learning effectiveness. To extend the research on the role of learner control in e-learning, we derive a conceptual framework as a reference model, which is based on cognitive and motivational learning theories. We then apply our framework to review 58 articles on learner control during the period 1996-2013. Our findings reveal how different individual characteristics, as well as the characteristics of the course and learning environment moderate the impact of learner control on learning effectiveness. Our analysis provides new insight into the role of learner control for e-learning effectiveness, as well as directions for further research. © (2013) by the AIS/ICIS Administrative Office All rights reserved.
Article
In a three-group, gender-matched, preexisting knowledge-controlled, randomized experiment, we evaluated the effect of learner control over study pace on healthcare executives' performance in an online statistics course. Overall, frequent deadlines enhanced distribution of practice and improved learning. Students with less control over pace (in groups with weekly deadlines) spaced their study episodes to a greater extent than their peers with more control over pace (in groups with monthly and end-of-course deadlines). Online learning experience and technology self-efficacy did not explain practice distribution effects. Student perceptions of control over how, when and in which order they learn did not differ significantly across experimental groups. However, perceived control and spaced practice were positively and significantly related to performance on tests of short delayed retention and near transfer. In addition, perceived control and spaced practice predicted performance on a test of delayed retention and far transfer. Locus of control did not explain differences in performance.
Article
The purpose of this study was to conduct a citation network analysis of Educational Technology Research and Development (ETR&D) to examine the trends and issues of the educational technology field's scholarly community that have evolved in the past two decades. The distinctive features of citation network analysis used in this study derive from a social network analysis approach to see relational and network patterns in the citation data. From this citation network analysis, we obtained the following results: (1) the ETR&D network revealed structural attributes that help us understand the features regarding how the field has developed and how scholarly works have interacted; (2) the most influential papers and scholars in the field were identified; (3) frequently co-cited papers were recognized as having a strong relationship by a few researchers and (4) five cohesive subgroups (factions) generated key research themes in the field including: instructional design, learning environments, the role of technology, educational technology research and psychological foundations. Implications and limitations of the study were discussed for future research.
Chapter
Full-text available
E-learning platforms are experiencing major improvements in curriculum and corporate preparation. Through the development in online learning platforms, learning influence of the teaching phase has arisen as a core element in technology-based learning. However, the methodological work on the role of learner control in e-learning has not progressed enough to foresee how autonomous learning influences e-learning efficacy. In order to expand research on the function of learner control in e-learning and to analyse its effects on e-learning efficacy, this review explores literature on learner control to derive a conceptual construct as a theoretical model to explain how learning regulation impacts the success of e-learning. This review offers fresh insights into the function and aspects of learning regulation in online learning, with consequences for both learning processes and learning outcomes.
Chapter
This work proposes an instructional design within a Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) setting. The aim of this design is to examine if the provision of illusionary adaptive support, in the form of control that resides at the collaborators, could be perceived as such and cause intrinsic motivation toward better collaborative performance. Two conditions, i.e., control and experimental, of collaborative concept mapping were applied to 11 groups of dyads. The groups during the experimental condition, unlike the control one, received an illusionary type of support and, according to the experimental results, they produced better collaborative performance, on the basis of relevant indicators, as compared to their performance during the control condition. The proposed approach extends previous relative work from individual to collaborative settings and reveals new possibilities in the design of adaptive CSCL support, under the perspective of illusion of control.
Article
Full-text available
Project management training is an important component in engineering education; in particular, simulation-based training (SBT) is considered a valuable teaching strategy. However, the effectiveness of SBT in project management education has not been empirically examined and it remains unclear in the literature why some trainees benefit from SBT more than others. To address this gap, the authors conducted two pre-/post-test experimental design studies, involving area experts and graduate students with a range of individual differences in two project management courses in the United States and Australia. The results suggest that SBT (1) enhances trainees' declarative knowledge only in cases of successful performance in the simulation, and the existence of an appropriate gap (discussed in the paper) between the trainees' prior knowledge and the challenges presented by the simulator; and (2) energizes trainees' learning processes only in cases of success in the simulation, high prior knowledge level, and positive prior attitude toward SBT. These findings advance existing theory by revealing some conditions under which SBT is more effective in project management education, and identifying individual differences that, if taken into account, may improve its value. Practical implications suggest that SBT designers should integrate various levels of difficulty into the design, and lecturers should ensure that trainees possess the required theoretical knowledge before the SBT session. (C) 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Article
Full-text available
This article reports on the results of a representative sample meta-analysis that explored the effects of interactive versus didactic pedagogy using computer-assisted instruction on measures of academic achievement. A systematic literature search revealed 40 studies, from which 55 effect sizes were extracted. The random effects model of analysis of these effect sizes revealed that the overall positive mean effect size of 0.175 was significantly different from zero; indicating that, on average, students receiving computer-assisted instruction within interactive learning settings outperformed students receiving computer-assisted instruction within didactic learning settings on measures of academic achievement. The mixed effect analysis of moderator variables revealed statistical significance for the "education level" (i.e., elementary, secondary, higher education), "nature of technology" (i.e., interactive, presentation), and "technology saturation" (i.e., 100%, 50-99%, less than 50%) variables. The theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as future research recommendations are discussed.
E-learning systems are considerably changing education and organizational training. With the advancement of online-based learning systems, learner control over the instructional process has emerged as a decisive factor in technology-based forms of learning. However, conceptual work on the role of learner control in e-learning has not advanced sufficiently to predict how autonomous learning impacts e-learning effectiveness. To extend the research on the role of learner control in e-learning and to examine its impact on e-learning effectiveness, this study reviews 54 empirical articles on learner control during the period 1996-2013. The findings are then applied to derive a conceptual framework as a reference model to illustrate how learner control affects e-learning effectiveness. The findings provide new insights into the role and different dimensions of learner control in e-learning with implications for learning processes and learning outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown that differences in the method of operation of CAI systems may bring about substantially different effects on students’ gains in learning. Therefore, any report of research that involves a CAI system should include a description of the major features of that system. To help researchers in planning the content of these descriptions, and to alert designers of CAI systems, this article lists several characteristics underlying a certain type of CAI system. The CAI systems discussed here are those which present material for a full course; manage students’ learning with minimal teacher interventions; and involve primarily drill-and-practice. The characteristics identified are sorted into four categories: hardware, software, management system, and method of daily operation, and they are provided with rationale for the inclusion or non-inclusion of each.
Article
Here's an article that updates educators and lay people alike about the SAT. The author, who knows as much about the SAT as any educator, explains in this article the national test's pur pose and how well it is doing.
Article
One hundred fourteen sixth graders participated in a study designed to test the effects of a learner-control strategy involving choice of elaborative material in a computer-based tutorial. An Options treatment in which children were allowed to choose a variety of types of elaborative material was contrasted with two program-control treatments, including one in which all the elaborative material from the Options treatment was mandatory (Full treatment) and the other in which students saw only a core presentation but no elaborative material (Lean treatment). A second variable in the study was level of task persistence. Four levels of task persistence were created based on initial task behavior. Students within each of these four task persistence groups were randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups. A multivariate repeated measures analysis of covariance (using reading ability as the covariate) was conducted on immediate and retention posttests. Results showed that under both program-control treatments, persistence was curvilinearly related to performance; that is, extremely high and low persistence groups performed more poorly than did medium persistence groups. Under the learner-control treatment, however, the highest task persistence groups performed best. Additionally, when amount of material seen was controlled for, the learner-control treatment group outperformed the program-control groups.
Article
This study examined the effects of the locus of three computer-assisted instruction (CAI) strategies on the accuracy and efficiency of mathematics rule and application learning of low achieving seventh grade students. The three CAI treatments were an externally controlled adaptive strategy, an individually based learner control with advisement strategy, and a linear control design strategy. Effects were examined for CAI strategy, prior achievement, and sex of student. Significant differences were found for prior achievement and the prior achievement by scale interaction, with the below average group demonstrating better rule recall and proportionately greater application scores than low students. The linear control strategy, however, required less time to complete and resulted in more efficient learning.
Article
This study examined the effects of the locus of three computer assisted instruction (CAI) strategies on the accuracy and efficiency of mathematics rule and application learning of 47 low-achieving seventh grade students in remedial mathematics classes. The instructional task was a mathematics rule lesson concerning divisibility by the numbers two, three, and five. CAI treatments were an externally controlled adaptive strategy, an individually based learner control with advisement strategy, and a no-control linear design strategy. Dependent variables were immediate posttest and retention test scores for both rule recall and rule application; the time spent on the instructional task was also recorded. Teachers rated students on mathematics ability in relation to other seventh-grade students. Effects were examined for CAI strategy, prior achievement, and sex of student. Significant differences were found for achievement and the achievement by scale interaction, with the below average (above the 20th percentile) group yielding better rule recall and proportionately greater application scores than low (below the 20th percentile) students. The no-control linear strategy, however, required less time to complete and resulted in the most efficient treatment. Seventeen references are listed. (Author/LMM)
Article
124 undergraduates completed a self-paced lesson on math rules in which a number of supporting examples was adapted to pretest scores through program control, selected through learner control, or kept constant (nonadaptive). In a 4th treatment, the nonadaptive program was presented through lecture. On immediate and delayed tests of achievement, program control means were consistently highest while learner control means were lowest. Nonadaptive support and lecture treatments produced comparable, middle-range outcomes. Interaction patterns suggested increasing advantages of program control over learner control both across retention intervals and as subject-entry ability decreased. Results support the achievement–treatment interaction framework while elucidating possible advantages of program controlled adaptation for applied individualization models, such as the Keller Plan. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examined the effects of assigning high school students to a computer-delivered geometry program that either matched or did not match their preferred amount of instruction as measured by a preprogram questionnaire. Students could adjust their program length by adding screens in a lean version of the program or by bypassing them in a full version. Matching students with their preferred program length did not produce improved posttest achievement and was particularly ineffective with students who preferred a low amount of instruction. The full version of the program was somewhat more effective than the lean version, primarily because of the better performance of low-preference students in the full version (mismatched) than in the lean one (matched). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Theorists and researchers have suggested that some degree of individual control is an important and necessary instructional component. Students may better learn how to learn through making instructional choices and may feel more intrinsic motivation for learning, which ultimately results in better performance. In this study, learner and program control of content review were provided in science computer-assisted instruction (CAI). The instruction was completed by 98 eighth-grade students. Results indicate that students under learner control scored higher on the posttest than those under program control. Reading ability accounted for the highest proportion of variance in posttest scores. No differences were noted in time to completion between treatment groups. The overall results suggest that students given limited control over instruction can adjust their study behaviors appropriately and achieve greater learning in the same amount of time than can students not given such control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Ss were 185 undergraduates enrolled in a course which permitted them to select 1 of 3 instructional options: independent study, lecture, and lecture and discussion. Assignment to groups was on a random basis. All Ss received the same criterion test of cognition, a test of cognitive achievements, an attitude toward psychology questionnaire, course evaluation, and evaluation of a novel article. No difference in grades was found between the 3 instructional methods; students in lecture and lecture-discussion sections scored higher on the achievement test than did those in the independent study group. Students assigned to an instructional option of their choice held more favorable attitudes toward psychology. Groups did not differ with regard to application of course material. Those in the independent study group scored better than the other groups on the evaluation of the novel article. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A study with 67 undergraduates investigated design strategies for selecting number of instances needed in a concept learning task. Two strategies used adaptive procedures for the selection process, while a nonadaptive strategy selected instances by number of associated attributes. The data analysis showed that the full adaptive strategy (using pretask and on-task response data) required 25% less learning time and resulted in better posttest performance than the partial adaptive strategy (pretask data only). The partial adaptive strategy was 16% more efficient and demonstrated better performance than the nonadaptive strategy. An effectiveness ratio of 2 to 1 in favor of the full adaptive over the partial and nonadaptive strategies was obtained and illustrates the effect of using on-task data sources for instance selection. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the effects of 2 types of computer-assisted instruction (CAI): sequencing—linear and flip. Results from 80 undergraduates indicate that students in the flip sequence condition performed better on a comprehension measure but not on a retention measure. Having greater control over the sequencing of instructional content did not result in more positive attitudes toward CAI in general but resulted in a more negative attitude toward the specific CAI exercise. In spite of this, Ss with greater sequencing control performed better. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Studied 135 undergraduates to investigate 2 instructional design variables directly related to concept learning. The 1st variable, management strategy, tested the hypothesis that advising Ss of their learning need in relationship to acquisition of a task at a given criterion would be more effective than adaptive control or learner control strategies. Data analysis showed that the advisement condition resulted in better performance than the learner control condition and needed less instructional time and fewer instructional instances than the adaptive control condition. The 2nd variable contrasted 2 forms of content structure used in learning coordinate concepts. Ss given concepts simultaneously performed better on the posttest and needed less instruction than those who received concepts successively. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
44 7th graders, classified as field-independent ( n = 20) or field-dependent ( n = 24) on the basis of scores on the Group Embedded Figures Test were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments. Both groups studied a computer-based lesson dealing with the 4 advertising concepts of bandwagon, transfer, testimonial, and repetition. In the options treatment, Ss were given the choice to see 4 options: additional definitions, additional expository instances, additional practice instances, and analytical feedback. The no-options Ss were not given the choice to see any of the optional items. A 16-item posttest and identical retention test were administered immediately following the completion of the lesson and 5 days later, respectively. There were no differences due to treatment, but field-independent Ss outperformed the field-dependent ones. Some differences were found in the frequency of option selection between the 2 groups. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated aptitude–treatment interactions (ATI) in 100 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-grade students learning in large-group and small-group teaching approaches. Each of 2 elementary teachers taught a 2-wk fractions unit to 2 classes of randomly assigned Ss. Each class received only 1 approach. Students completed aptitude measures (Raven Progressive Matrices and Sequential Test of Educational Progress, Series II) at the beginning of the study and achievement, attitude, and retention measures (including the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire, the Math Anxiety Scale, and a test of attitudes towards math) at the end. Regression analyses showed significant ATI for preference for approach and for ability. Students who initially preferred small groups actually did worse in that approach than in the large-group approach. High-ability Ss and low-ability Ss did better and had more positive attitudes in the small-group and large-group approaches, respectively. High-ability Ss benefited by "teaching" their peers in the small group. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study investigated the effects of two general approaches to the provision of learner control and of two types of incentive on achievement, use of options, time, and attitude using computer-delivered instruction. Posttest scores for the “FullMinus” treatment for learner control, where learners could selectively bypass elements of a full instructional program, were marginally higher than those for the “LeanPlus” treatment, where learners could opt to add elements to a core program (p=.052). The FullMinus treatment resulted in more positive attitudes while requiring no more time. Performance-contingent incentive groups had higher post-test scores than task-contingent groups (p<.05), with no greater investment of learner time and no negative effect on attitude. The findings relate directly to the design of instructional computer programs as well as to the design of future studies on learner control.
Article
This study investigated achievement and motivation effects related to locus of control (internal and external) and three levels of learner control (no control, moderate control, and high control). The 101 seventh-grade and eighth-grade Hispanic subjects were classified as internal or external based on locus of control (loc) scores, blocked by sex and grade, then randomly assigned to the three levels of learner control in separate versions of a CAI instructional program in science. Internalloc subjects did not choose more en route practice than externals and did not perform better under high learner control. Theloc results raise questions about the usefulness of locus of control as it relates to instruction, at least with populations similar to the present one.
Article
Some studies of computer-assisted instruction have shown that when students control the amount of instruction they receive, they often terminate too early and fail to learn what they should. While sophisticated adaptive systems may eliminate the problem of premature termination of study, they neglect the important goal of learner responsibility. These researchers were interested in whether giving learners information about their achievement in relation to the criterion during instruction would improve learning in both learner-controlled and program-controlled systems. Success was measured in terms of posttest scores, time on task, and number of instructional examples required during instruction.
Article
This study examined the effects of program mode (i.e., a lean program version containing a basic amount of learner practice vs. a full mode containing expanded practice) and learner preference (matched or unmatched) for amount of practice on the achievement, time-in-program, and attitudes of university undergraduate students. Subjects completed a 10-item Likert-type prequestionnaire to indicate the amount of practice they preferred, then were randomly assigned to either the type of program they preferred or to the opposite type. Subjects who used the full version of the instructional program scored significantly higher on the posttest than those who used the lean version. Matching subjects to their preferred amount of practice did not yield a significant achievement difference over assigning subjects to their less-preferred amount. Subjects preferred the lean version of the program over the full one, even though the full version produced better test performance.
Article
The present study examines uses and effects of learner-control of the context or theme of practice examples on a statistics lesson in combination with learner control of the number of examples examined. Subjects were 227 undergraduate students assigned to 15 treatments formed by crossing five context conditions (learner control, education, business, sports, no-context) with three instructional support conditions (learner-control, maximum, minimum). No differences in achievement were attained as a function of either treatment variable. Findings showed, however, that learners who received preferred contexts (i.e., learner-control-context subjects) selected a greater number of examples than those who received prescribed contexts. In addition, achievement was positively related to the frequency with which subjects varied the number of examples selected across lessons. Despite the absence of achievement benefits, the learner-control-context strategy elicited highly favorable student reactions as a learning orientation.
Article
This study was conducted with 75 United States and Far East employees of a major corporation to investigate the effects of assigning learners to either the amount of instruction they preferred or to the contrasting amount. Subjects completed a 10-item Likert-type prequestionnaire to indicate whether they preferred a basic instructional program or a more comprehensive one, then were randomly assigned either to the type of program they preferred or to the opposite type. Subjects who received the amount of instruction that matched their preference scored significantly higher on the posttest, spent significantly less time in the program, and had significantly more positive attitudes on four of the six attitude items. Further research is recommended to determine the generalizability of the present findings to other subject populations.
Article
Cronbach and Snow (in press) have prepared an extensive review of the theoretical orientation and methodology of an aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) approach to revision of curriculum and instructional methods, and have summarized related research. In this paper, I attempt to state briefly their theoretical position and examine some of the premises that seem to provide the basis for their argument. Following a synopsis of their views, I propose alternative premises which seem to be less limiting than those of Cronbach and Snow. This paper is not a critique of ATI research. It discusses the philosophy and premises underlying the ATI approach, not ATI procedure and methodology. I have attempted to substantiate that ATI does represent a philosophy. And I suggest an alternative theoretical methodology that follows from revised premises. In my view, the study of aptitudeEditor's Note. The material in this article was prepared pursuant to a contract with the National Institute of Education, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Contractors undertaking such projects under government sponsorship are encouraged to express freely their judgment in professional and technical matters. Points of view or opinions do not necessarily represent the official view or opinions of the National Institute of Education.
Article
Learner-control strategies for selecting problem context and the level of instructional support were examined separately and in combination on a computer-based mathematics unit on the metric system. Subjects were 240 sixth-grade students assigned to 15 treatments formed by crossing five context conditions (animals, sports, clothing, nocontext, and learner control) with three instructional support conditions (minimum, maximum, and learner control). As hypothesized, comparisons of instructional support conditions on posttest achievement showed performance to be lowest under learner control. Subjects opted to view very few items and to decrease the amount they selected over the course of the instruction. No effects were associated with the context variable, although on one of the three lessons, learner-control subjects made significantly fewer on-task errors than did no-context subjects. Further analyses showed a strong tendency by learner-control context subjects to vary their selection of contexts across lessons. Subjects in the context and instructional support learner-control strategies indicated positive attitudes toward the strategies.
Article
This study investigated the effects of learner control and program control on the achievement and continuing motivation of high school students. The influence of the availability of computer-delivered instruction on student motivation was also examined. Continuing motivation was measured by student choice of learner control or program control as the mode for a second instructional program after subjects completed an initial program under their randomly assigned mode. Results revealed a highly significant difference in continuing motivation favoring learner over program control. The differences in posttest performance and performance during instruction between learner and program control were not significant. The data also revealed significant preferences to study both science and an alternative subject when they are presented by computer over when they are not.
Article
This study investigated the effects of two types of control over instruction (learner and program) and two modes of instructional programs (lean and full) on the achievement, option use, and time-in-program of 274 high-ability and low-ability students from grades 9 and 10. The basic instructional program in geometry was delivered by computer. Subjects under learner control scored significantly higher on the program posttest than those under program control, spent significantly more time in the program, and liked it better. Learner-control subjects appeared to “trust” their given version of the program, viewing many more optional screens in the full version than those in the lean one. High-ability learners adapted their study behavior to the lean version under learner control by choosing significantly more optional screens than their low-ability counterparts.
Article
This study investigated the effects of practice mode and learner control in computer-based instruction on the achievement and continuing motivation of 152 seventh graders. Subjects were blocked by sex and randomly assigned to either recall practice or recognition practice and either program control or learner control in a computer-delivered instructional program. The recall practice mode produced significantly higher scores than the recognition mode on the recall portion of the 30-item post-test and slightly higher scores on the recognition portion. Overall results also favored program control over learner control. Recognition subjects selected significantly more enroute practice than recall subjects, but recall subjects took significantly longer to complete the program. Both male and female subjects showed a very strong preference for computer-based instruction over paper-based programs. The stronger overall achievement of subjects who received recall practice is explained in part by the greater depth of information processing required by recall practice than by recognition practice.
Learner control over instruction and achievement goals in computer-assisted instruction
  • A R Igoe
Learner-controlled instruction-1958-1964
  • R F Mager
  • R.F. Mager
Scaling the ACT assessment and P-ACT+: Rationale and goals. Iowa City
  • R L Brennan
  • M J Kolen
Teaching for comptence
  • H Sullivan
  • N Higgins
  • H. Sullivan
Learner control over instruction and achievement goals in computer-assisted instruction. Unpublished doctoral dissertation
  • A R Igoe
  • A.R. Igoe
Scaling the ACT assessment and P-ACT+: Rationale and goals
  • R L Brennan
  • M J Kolen
  • R.L. Brennan