Emotion Regulation: Antecedents and Well-Being Outcomes of Cognitive Reappraisal and Expressive Suppression in Cross-Cultural Samples

Journal of Happiness Studies (Impact Factor: 1.88). 06/2009; 10(3):271-291. DOI: 10.1007/s10902-007-9080-3


Habitual emotional state is a predictor of long-term health and life expectancy and successful emotion regulation is necessary
for adaptive functioning. However, people are often unsuccessful in regulating their emotions. We investigated the use of
cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression in 489 university students in Norway, Australia, and the United States and
how these strategies related to measures of well-being (affect, life satisfaction, and depressed mood). Data was collected
by means of selfadministered questionnaires. The major aims of the study were to begin to explore the prevalence of use of
cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression across gender, age and culture, possible antecedents of emotion regulation
strategies, and the influence of emotion regulation upon well-being. Results showed that the use of emotion regulation strategies
varied across age, gender and culture. Private self-consciousness (self-reflection and insight) was found to be a central
antecedent for the use of cognitive reappraisal. Use of emotion regulation strategies predicted well-being outcomes, also
after the effect of extraversion and neuroticism had been controlled for. Generally, increased use of cognitive reappraisal
predicted increased levels of positive well-being outcomes, while increased use of expressive suppression predicted increased
levels of negative well-being outcomes.

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Available from: Silje Marie Haga, Nov 09, 2015
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    • "However, the research results on specific ER strategies, such as suppression, are contradictory: ES is associated with a low level of satisfaction and wellbeing (John & Gross, 2004), whereas the behavioral modulation of the response through ES is associated with high levels of life satisfaction and positive moods (Schutte, Manes & Malouff, 2009). Cognitive reappraisal is positively correlated with wellbeing, life satisfaction, positive affects (independent effect of extraversion) and negatively with depressive mood and negative affects (Haga, 2009; Sheppes & Meiran, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: This research integrates three concepts (personality, family correlates and emotion regulation) in a predictive model of wellbeing. We measured the impact of the personality structure, the adult attachment style, the style for socializing internalizing and externalizing emotions and the emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression) on general wellbeing. A set of eight self-administered scales were filled up by 516 subjects, aged between 14 and 34 (M = 18.62; SD = 3.32). The results show that emotional stability predicts wellbeing on all four dimensions: positive affects, negative affects, emotional distress and life satisfaction. Emotion regulation strategies are predictors for (positive and negative) affects only, and not for emotional distress or life satisfaction.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences
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    • "These two processes are most pertinent to the use of music to regulate emotions as they occur in everyday life, and more importantly, these two processes are differentially related to mental health outcomes. The capacity to use cognitive reappraisal, a cognitive change strategy, is linked with greater positive affect, higher levels of well-being, diminished negative affect and lower levels of psychopathology symptoms (Aldao et al., 2010; Gross and John, 2003; Haga et al., 2009; John and Gross, 2004). In contrast, the habitual use of expressive suppression, a response-focused strategy, is linked with lower levels of positive affect and well-being, as well as elevated levels of negative affect and psychopathology symptoms (Aldao et al., 2010; Gross and John, 2003; John and Gross, 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Mental health is not only the absence of mental illness, but also the presence of positive well-being. Music is often cited as an effective tool for regulating emotions and may also promote well-being because music facilitates one’s ability to regulate the experience and expression of emotions. This study aimed to examine the pathways by which music use for cognitive and emotional regulation purposes may predict mental health outcomes, as measured by self-reports of well-being and negative emotional states, while controlling for trait affect. The mediating effects of emotion regulation were examined in a diverse sample of 565 working adults (126 male, 439 females) between the ages of 18 and 68 (M = 24.00, SD = 6.21). Results demonstrated that music engagement for the purposes of cognitive and emotional regulation predicts flourishing in life, through the mediation pathway of cognitive reappraisal, even after controlling for trait affect. This study provides new evidence that purposeful music use for cognitive and emotional regulation may promote mental health beyond levels normally associated with positive consequences of balanced affective states.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014
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    • "Karademas (2007) found that positive reappraisal and problemfocused coping (including planning) predicted higher well-being, while distancing (e.g., trying to forget) predicted lower well-being. Finally, habitual use of cognitive reappraisal has been found to relate to the experience of less negative and more positive affect, as well as with greater life satisfaction and psychological well-being (Gross and John 2003; Haga et al. 2009; McRae et al. 2012). Overall, existing studies suggest that—just as some regulation strategies are more closely associated with emotional problems than others—regulatory strategies may be differently effective in promoting individual's well-being as well. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although research has extensively examined the link between cognitive emotion regulation and psychopathological symptoms, scant attention has been given to the relationship between dispositional use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies and individuals’ positive functioning. In a cross-sectional study on 470 adults, we examined whether individual differences in the use of nine cognitive strategies were associated with subjective and psychological well-being. Results show that positive reappraisal and refocus on planning are positively related to both subjective and psychological well-being. Rumination, catastrophizing and self-blame are linked to poorer well-being, while positive refocusing, putting into perspective, and acceptance show few significant associations. These results suggest that cognitive emotion regulation strategies may be differently effective in promoting individual’s well-being.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Happiness Studies
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