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Abstract

Because of its fatty acid composition, which includes 50% saturated and 50% unsaturated fatty acids, palm oil can readily be fractionated, i.e. partially crystallized and separated into a high melting fraction or stearin and a low melting fraction or olein. Three main commercial processes for fractionating palm oil are in use: the fast dry process, the slow dry process and the detergent process. All these processes lead to specific products of different quality with different yield and operating costs. The physical and chemical characteristics as well as the triglyceride compositions by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of palm oil fractions from these industrial fractionation processes are given. Other varieties of products produced by specific fractionation are presented with analytical data: the superoleins, palm-mid-fractions and cocoa butter substitutes.
... Kandungan asam lemak dalam minyak sawit menjadi faktor penentu konsistensinya pada suhu ruangan. Minyak ini memiliki konsistensi semi padat dan akan mengalami sedimentasi pada suhu ruangan di negara beriklim tropis (Deffense, 1985;Nusantoro, 2007). Minyak sawit mengandung asam lemak jenuh dan asam lemak tidak jenuh yang seimbang dengan kadar yang dengan angka iodin sekitar 53 (Dian, et al., 2017;Udeh, 2017;Deffense, 1985). ...
... Minyak ini memiliki konsistensi semi padat dan akan mengalami sedimentasi pada suhu ruangan di negara beriklim tropis (Deffense, 1985;Nusantoro, 2007). Minyak sawit mengandung asam lemak jenuh dan asam lemak tidak jenuh yang seimbang dengan kadar yang dengan angka iodin sekitar 53 (Dian, et al., 2017;Udeh, 2017;Deffense, 1985). ...
... Minyak sawit olahan sebagian besar difraksinasi menjadi fraksi olein dan stearin sehingga fraksi ini yang banyak dimanfaatkan dalam sektor industri pangan (Kanagaratnam, et al., 2020). Metode fraksinasi minyak sawit terdiri dari tiga metode utama, yaitu metode fraksinasi kering, metode fraksinasi dengan deterjen dan metode fraksinasi pelarut (England Patent No. 0081881, 1987;Deffense, 1985). Proses kering dilakukan dengan fraksinasi kristal secara langsung, sedangkan metode fraksinasi deterjen menggunakan larutan deterjen dalam air untuk memisahkan kristal dari olein melalui sentrifugasi (Deffense, 1985). ...
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Study about physicochemical properties of olein and stearin fraction of palm oil has been conducted. Research aim was to determine the chemical physical properties of the olein and stearin fractions of palm oil (Elaeis guineensi Jacq) that was originated from North Mamuju, West Sulawesi. Palm oil was fractionated by dry fractionation method to collect the olein and stearin fractions. The physical chemical characteristics of fractions were determined by acid value, saponification value, peroxide value, and iodine value parameters that measured by titrimetry method. The result of analysis showed that the acid values for the olein and stearin fractions acid were 7.04 and 5.83 mg NaOH/g, saponification values were 198.53 and 194.71 mg KOH/g, peroxide values were 0.77 mek O2/kg and 0.79 mek O2/kg, and iodine values were 34.12 and 32.87 g iod/100 g.
... The first detergent fractionation process was developed in Malaysia for palm oil fractionation. This detergent fractionation process, also known as Lanza process, can be defined as a separation of a mixture into fatty acid component fractions, such as low-melting fraction, commonly known as olein fraction, and high-melting fraction, termed as stearin fraction, in the presence of an aqueous solution of detergent to 'wet' the crystals, which are consequently transferred in the aqueous phase and contain magnesium or sodium sulphate at 17-20 C (Deffense, 1985;Gunstone, 2006;Huey et al., 2015;Kellens et al., 2007). The aqueous phase is then easily separated by centrifugation. ...
... These two fractions were washed with hot water and centrifuged for removing detergent as shown in Fig. 1. This detergent fractionation process was carried out in triplicate, and fractions were later dried (Deffense, 1985;Huey et al., 2015;Kellens et al., 2007). ...
... The olein and stearin fractions demonstrate significant differences in fatty acid composition and UM compositions. The composition pattern simulates that of the fatty acid compositions of stearin fraction and olein fraction from palm oil (Deffense, 1985). ...
Article
Detergent fractionation (Lanza process) offers a valuable separation process for edible oils that contain varying amounts of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The rice bran oil fatty acid distillate (RBOFAD), obtained as a major byproduct of rice bran oil deacidification refining process, was fractionated by detergent solution into a fatty acid mixture as follows: low‐melting (19.00 °C) fraction of fatty acids as olein fraction (44.50 g/100 g) and high‐melting (49.00 °C) fatty acids as stearin fraction (37.15 g/100 g). A high amount of palmitic acid (42.75 wt%) is present in stearin fraction, while oleic acid is higher (48.21 wt%) in the olein fraction. The stearin and olein fractions of RBOFAD with very high content of free fatty acids are converted into neutral glycerides by autocatalytic esterification reaction with a theoretical amount of glycerol at high temperatures (130–230 °C) and at a reduced pressure (30 mmHg). Acid value, peroxide value, saponification value, and unsaponifiable matters are important analytical parameters to identity for quality assurance. These neutral glyceride‐rich stearin and olein fractions, along with unsaponifiable matters, can be used as nutritionally and functionally superior quality food ingredients in margarine and in baked goods as shortenings.
... Therefore, solvent fractionation is usually only applied for the production of highly valuable confectionery fats (shea stearin). Dry fractionation is less efficient and involves a discontinuous process (Deffense, 1985). It also requires high pressure filtration equipment but operational costs are reduced and the process can be easily divided into a series of fractionations to produce a variety of products with different properties and melting profiles. ...
... Dry fractionation involves TAG crystallization, filtration of the resulting slurry and squeezing the filtrate at high pressure. This procedure requires specific equipment allowing pressures up to 30 bars and involves work in batches (Deffense, 1985). Crystallization of the oil is the most important step in this process, since large well-formed crystals that can be easily filtered and squeezed are required; small crystals can clog the filter medium making difficult or impossible separation and conditioning of the solid phase. ...
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Regular sunflower oil is rich in linoleic acid. To improve its properties for different applications several genotypes with modified fatty acid compositions have been developed. Amongst them, the most remarkable have been high oleic and high stearic types. High stearic sunflower lines reported to date have been produced by traditional methods of breeding and mutagenesis. The mutations affected the expression of enzymes responsible for stearate desaturation in developing seeds. This trait has been combined with standard and high oleic backgrounds, giving high stearic lines with high contents of linoleic or oleic acids and thus different physical properties, increasing their functionality and potential applications. Nevertheless, for applications requiring plastic or confectionery fats, the oils have to be fractionated to obtain derived fats and butters with higher levels of solids. In the present review we present recent advances for the above mentioned topics related to high stearic sunflower oils.
... The oil consists of a wide array of triacylglycerols (TAG) which predominantly contribute to its distinct physical and chemical properties. In its natural state, palm oil is semisolid at room temperature which allows the oil to undergo fractionation to enhance its characteristics while increasing its functionality as an ingredient in a multitude of edible and non-edible applications (Deffense, 1985;Deffense, 1998). Over the last half century, the fractionation process has become the dominant modification process for the Malaysian palm oil industry, together with the steady growth in palm oil production (Kellens et al., 2007). ...
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To cite: Hishamuddin, E. and Saw, M. H. (2021). The Role of Liquid Entrainment and its Effect on Separation Efficiency in Palm Oil Fractionation, Palm Oil Engineering Bulletin, 137, 23-29.
... Over the years, numerous approaches has been developed for oil modification. The conventional techniques include: hydrogenation, fractionation or chemical interesterification [5][6][7]. These modified fats are often referred as structured or designed lipids [1]. ...
Article
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The issue of the adverse effects of trans-fatty acids has become more transparent in recent years due to researched evidence of their link with coronary diseases, obesity or type 2 diabetes. Apart from conventional techniques for lipid structuring, novel nonconventional approaches for the same matter, such as enzymatic interesterification, genetic modification, oleogelation or using components from nonlipid origins such as fat replacers have been proposed, leading to a product with a healthier nutritional profile (low in saturated fats, zero trans fats and high in polyunsaturated fats). However, replacing conventional fat with a structured lipid or with a fat mimetic can alternate some of the technological operations or the food quality impeding consumers’ acceptance. In this review, we summarize the research of the different existing methods (including conventional and nonconventional) for tailoring lipids in order to give a concise and critical overview in the field. Specifically, raw materials, methods for their production and the potential of food application, together with the properties of new product formulations, have been discussed. Future perspectives, such as the possibility of bioengineering approaches and the valorization of industrial side streams in the framework of Green Production and Circular Economy in the production of tailored lipids, have been highlighted. Additionally, a schematic diagram classifying conventional and nonconventional techniques is proposed based on the processing steps included in tailored lipid production as a convenient and straightforward tool for research and industry searching for healthy, sustainable and zero trans edible lipid system alternatives.
... Fractionation is an important process for the palm oil industry due to its composition of having almost equal amounts of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Palm oil is semi-solid in tropical climates, allowing it to separate into a low melting fractionolein and a high melting fraction -stearin (Deffense, 1985). The common techniques used for fractionation are fractional crystallisation, short-path distillation, fractional distillation, supercritical fluid extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption and membrane separation (Kellens et al., 2007). ...
Article
Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the mixing behavior of triacylglycerol (TAG) mixtures of PPP/PPO (tripalmitoyl glycerol/1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-oleoyl-rac-glycerol) and PPP/MCPOP/PPO (where MCPOP/PPO is the equimolecular blend of 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol and PPO forming a molecular compound) under metastable and stable conditions. During cooling and reheating treatments at moderate rates, the eutectic properties of the two systems examined were mainly governed by the crystallization, transformation, and melting behavior of structurally similar β' forms. In addition, steric and kinetic effects determined the formation of solid solutions with up to 10% and 20% of mixed-acid components in PPP/PPO and PPP/MCPOP/PPO mixtures, respectively. These values increased to 30% and 35% when thermodynamically stable β crystalline phases were obtained. In PPP/MCPOP/PPO mixtures, the diffraction data suggested that POP and PPO acted as a single component by dissolving in similar amounts in the solid solution phases and forming molecular compound crystals in eutectic compositions. This fundamental research shows the important role of specific combinations of mixed-acid TAGs and their interaction with high-melting components on the solidification behavior of edible lipids.
Article
Fractionation is a well-established process adopted in the fats and oils industries. It involves the separation of low and high melting TAG under controlled cooling conditions into olein and stearin fractions with distinct chemical and physical properties. Amongst the other vegetable oils, palm oil is one of the most fractionated oils in the past few decades mainly attributed to its semi-solid properties. The various fraction of palm oil allowed it to be used in different types of food products such as margarine, frying oil and cocoa butter substitute. In fractionation, proper control of the fractionation conditions is important to produce the fractions with desirable stearin and olein quality. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the fractionation conditions (crystallisation temperature, agitation, cooling rate and crystallisation time) that affect the yield and quality of the oil produced. Additionally, it also provides the latest updates on the influence of seeding agents (diacylglycerol, monoacylglycerol, hard fat, phytosterol, phospholipid, lecithin, essential oil, sugar, polyglycerol ester and talc) used in fractionation. This article is useful to provide a fundamental understanding of fractionation to scientists from the industries or academia working in the fats and oils industries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Conference Paper
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The increase of CPO production which is almost exported needs many attention because it’s economic value is lower than it’s derivation. Mono and diacylglycerol (MAG-DAG) can be made of glyceride compounds which almost found in oil materials or fat such as palm oil with glycerol by glycerolysis reaction. Tert-butanol is used as solvent in this research in order to improve the oil solubility in glyserol so that the reaction can be done at low temperature. This research aimed, to know the effect of temperature, glycerol/CPO ratio, and ammount of catalyst in glycerolysis; to determine the most affected variable; and to determine the optimum temperature, glycerol/CPO ratio, and ammount of catalyst in processing palm oil become to MAG-DAG. The experiment is designed by central composite design with 3 independent variable, such as reaction temperature, glycerol/CPO ratio, and ammount of catalyst (%w). While the dependent variable selected are the total weight of reaction mixture (300 gr), agitational speed (400 rpm), reaction time (240 minutes), and ammount of solvent (20 ml/10gr CPO). Surface respon method is used to optimize the process and it’s data processing use Statistica 6. An empirical model is obtained from the research result Y = 65,18345 + 0,54165 X1 + 3,95895 X2 – 0,89873 X3 – 0,02858 X1X2 – 0,00508 X1X3 + 0,48875 X2X3 – 0,00252 X21 - 0,25571 X22 – 0,10014 X23 where X1 is temperature, X2 is gliserol / CPO ratio and X3 is ammount of catalyst. Relation between conversion with the variable of ratio gliserol / CPO tend linear so that cannot be determined its optimum point. The optimum result is reachable if gliserol/ CPO ratio is between 4-6, temperature variable is between 70-90oC while the variable katalis reside in 1,5 - 5%w. MgO catalyst can improve the conversion until 97 %, and the use of tert-butanol as solvent can decrease the reaction temperature from 220-2500C to 70-900C without decreasing the conversion.
Chapter
Palm oil is consumed in over 150 countries worldwide. It plays a pivotal role in the socioeconomic development of Asian, Latin American, and African regions. Of all the palm oil and palm kernel oil entering global trade, Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than half the market share, dominating the international trade in palm oil. The increasing importance of palm oil has naturally led to a steady buildup of scientific, technical, and trade data and information. The success of the palm oil industry in Malaysia and Indonesia, in particular, has never been easy. It has been wrought with obstacles and has gotten harder in recent years. The industry has been inundated with issues of mistrusts and misconceptions about the oil, its composition, and its nutritional benefits. Other issues that have garnered attention include its trade and traceability, new process contaminants, environmental management, and other issues relating to the sustainable development of the palm oil industry. This article overviews the role of palm oil industry in the international oils and fats market, the technology involved in oil extracting and processing, palm oil quality parameters, and the applications of palm oil in food and nonfood products. The issues that are becoming relevant, namely the existence of process contaminants such as 3‐monochloropropane‐1,2‐diol (3‐MCPD) esters and glycidol esters, trade and traceability, together with other issues related to a sustainable development of the palm oil industry, have also been included.
Article
The free and esterified (“bound”) hydroxy acids from butterfat were isolated by column- and thin-layer chromatography on silica. The 4- and 5-hydroxy acids forming the γ- and δ-lactones were separated from the other hydroxy acids by TLC on silica. The concentrations of a number of free and bound lactones in butterfat were determined by means of a radio-gas chromatograph using the isotope dilution method. In addition the total concentration of the free and bound hydroxy acids which cannot be lactonized, was determined.
Article
Cocoabutter, Sumatra palm oil, lard, groundnut oil, soybean oil and cottonseed oil have been analyzed by separating the triglycerides according to their degree of unsaturation by means of thin-layer chromatography on silica impregnated with silver nitrate. Of each triglyceride fraction obtained in this way, the fatty acid composition—overall and at the 2-position—has been determined. Moreover, the triglyceride composition of the fractions of cocoabutter, Sumatra palm oil and lard has been determined by means of gasliquid chromatography. The results confirm the correctness of Vander Wal’s theory on the distribution of fatty acids in the triglycerides of vegetable natural fats.
Paper presented at seminar, Kuaia Lumpur, Malaysia
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