Article

Anticariogenic and cytotoxic activity of clove essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllata) against a large number of oral pathogens

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Abstract

The occurrence of dental caries is mainly associated with oral pathogens, especially cariogenic bacteria. Numerous studies have validated the traditional use of medicinal plants by investigating the biological activity of essential oils. The Eugenia caryophyllata (clove) essential oil was tested in vitro against a large number of oral pathogens (114 streptococci and 46 yeast strains) using a disc diffusion method. The cytotoxicity assay of Eugenia caryophyllata essential oil on cancer cells (HT29, A549, Hep2, raw 264.7) and normal cells (MRC-5) was determined by the ability of the cells to metabolically reduce MTT to a formazan dye. Our results revealed that Eugenia essential oil possessed an excellent antibacterial activity against oral streptococci including the cariogenic bacteria as well as an excellent antifungal activity. Furthermore, the Eugenia caryophyllata essential oil showed significant cytotoxic effects against all studied cancer cell lines as judged by IC50 and its value ranges from 15.75 to 200μg/ml. In conclusion, it is clear that clove oil shows powerful antibacterial and antifungal activity. The cytotoxic activity of the essential oil was dependent on the tested cell lines. Keywords Eugenia caryophyllata -Clove essential oil-Antimicrobial activity-Antifungal activity-Cytotoxicity- Streptococcus spp.- Candida spp.

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... Furthermore, it was suggested that clove oil cytotoxicity can be attributed to eugenol, which is its major constituent [83]. Kouidhi and co-workers [84] investigated clove oil cytotoxicity in different cell types (macrophages RAW 264.7, adenocarcinoma cells-A549 and HT-29, human epidermoid cancer Hep-2, human fibroblast-like fetal lung cell MRC-5). They found higher oil toxicity in Fig. 4 Amount of AmB retained in a epidermis and b dermis after 8 h of ex vivo skin permeation study. ...
... They found higher oil toxicity in Fig. 4 Amount of AmB retained in a epidermis and b dermis after 8 h of ex vivo skin permeation study. Asterisk "*"means no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) according to t test MRC-5, HT29, and RAW 264.7 cells (IC 50 values lower than 30 μg/mL) than Hep-2 and A549 cells (IC 50 500 and 112 μg/ mL, respectively) [84]. ...
Article
Leishmaniasis is a neglected infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites from Leishmania genus species, affecting millions of people, in several countries. The current available treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has presented many side effects. In this way, micro- and nanotechnology are important processes, since they may be useful for release profile modulation of CL drugs improving their bioavailability. Amphotericin B (AmB) is a macrolide antibiotic used as a second-choice treatment. This study aimed the development of oil-water nanoemulsions (NEs) containing AmB for topical administration to treat CL. Furthermore, NEs were characterized by their droplet size, morphology, drug content, stability, in vitro release profile, and ex vivo skin permeation. In vitro anti-leishmanial activity using Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes was also evaluated. NEs containing AmB presented droplet size lower than 60 nm with a polydispersity index lower than 0.5. The best AmB-NEs were submitted to stability tests and these formulations presented excellent results after 365 days under refrigeration, confirming the maintenance of the drug content higher than 95%. AmB-NEs displayed slow and controlled AmB kinetic release and low skin permeation. These formulations presented lower cytotoxicity in comparison with free AmB and higher anti-leishmanial effect against L. amazonensis promastigotes. Therefore, the selected AmB-NE formulations, especially AmB-NE01, presented promising results as novel alternatives for CL treatment. Graphical abstract
... Some suitable dosage form like niosomes, phytosomes, cubosomes, transdermals needles also better opportunities to increases the bioavailability and other parameter like solubility, permeability of natural plants constituents for treatment of teeth diseases. 48,49,50,51,52,53 HERBAL DRUGS USED IN DENTISTRY 4,6,7,8,10,11,13,18,21,23,24,27,28,29,33,35,37,47 oil. Clove oil's main constituents includeeugenol, βcaryophyllene, eugenol acetate and in lesser amounts, benzyl alcohol, chavicol, acetyl salicylate and humulenes. ...
... Chemical constituents: It contains hentriacontane, betaine, beta-sitorol, achyranthes saponins A, achyranthes saponins B, achyranthes saponins C, achyranthes saponins D. 20 4,7,10,11,13,18,20,22,23,27,28,33,37,38 ...
Article
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Nowadays teeth related disease is common among all ages of people and children. Ten out of five children are suffering from tooth decay due to the consumption of more sweets, chocolates, and eatable items by children. Various eatables affect the teeth and decay the teeth rapidly, so we need to understand the phenomena of diseases which is responsible for infection in teeth. Main objective of this review project is to collect the information and role of various herbal drugs used in Dental Care and for its management. Also represent systematic plant profile which not only useful in treatment of the teeth but also give the phytochemicals and therapeutic information of plants used the in management of teeth diseases.
... The existence of dental caries is mainly associated with oral pathogens, especially cariogenic bacteria 9 . The biological nature of the disease is a microbial infection caused primarily by the bacterium S. mutans [10][11][12][13] and in second stage by the accumulation of acidogenic bacteria like Lactobacillus spp. ...
... An experimental data revealed that eugenol a component of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) bud essential oil can inhibit caries associated biofilm. Eugenol at a sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) can effectively suppress the virulence genes of S. mutans 9 . A study report that the treatment of C. albicans with tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) and its components 1,8cineole and terpinolene, at concentrations of between 0.25 and 1.0 % (v/v) altered both permeability and membrane fluidity 41 . ...
Article
Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases in humans which cause irreversible damage to the teeth. Plaque formation is the main cause of dental caries occurrence in human. Dental plaque is formed by the colonization and accumulation of oral cariogenic pathogens. The study aimed to emphasize the antimicrobial potency of herbal essential oils and other bioactive compounds against dental caries pathogens. In addition, there is a great demand to investigate potent traditional herbal formulation to inhibit the plaque formation to lower the risk of tooth loss. The study revealed that, essential oils and herbal extracts are considerably effective against cariogenic pathogens. The Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as a major etiological agent of dental caries, Streptococcus genus is always the foundation of dental plaque as they exhibit intergeneric co-aggregation. Most treatments are now aimed at either elimination of this bacterium or suppression of its virulence. Herbal alternatives are economic and ecofriendly, simultaneously alleviating many of the side effect that are often connected with synthetic antimicrobial agents.
... Clove infusion significantly reduced the number of proliferating cells and increased apoptotic cells. Kouidhi et al. (2010) [49] investigated the cytotoxic and anticarcinogenic activity of clove essential oil on normal cells (MRC-5) and cancer cells (A549, raw 269.7, HT29 and Hep2) through MTT colorimetric assay with IC 50 value ranging from 15.75 to 200 μg/ml. ...
... Clove infusion significantly reduced the number of proliferating cells and increased apoptotic cells. Kouidhi et al. (2010) [49] investigated the cytotoxic and anticarcinogenic activity of clove essential oil on normal cells (MRC-5) and cancer cells (A549, raw 269.7, HT29 and Hep2) through MTT colorimetric assay with IC 50 value ranging from 15.75 to 200 μg/ml. ...
Article
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Syzygium aromaticum (Family Myrtaceace) commonly called clove is most important and second valuable spice in world trade and is widely cultivated in North Maluku Islands in Indonesia. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometery (GC-MS) studies of essential oil revealed the presence of eugenol as major compound. Phytochemical analysis of essential oil showed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavanoids, glycosides, tannins and steroids. The essential oil of S. aromaticum possess various biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, herbicidal, nematicidal, antitumor and anti-inflammatory. This review covers the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of cloves, it's essential oil and various extracts.
... Dental caries is associated with acidogenic and aciduric bacteria that adhere to the tooth surface as an oral biofilm (dental plaque) [1]. Because this pathology can destroy dental hard tissues [2][3][4], it has become a major public health concern worldwide. The most efficient way to prevent caries and periodontal diseases is to reduce and eliminate bacterial accumulation on the top of and between teeth by brushing the teeth on a daily basis and conducting periodic dental cleaning or prophylaxis. ...
... Nevertheless, excessive use of these chemicals can disturb the oral and intestinal flora and cause microorganism susceptibility, vomiting, diarrhea, and tooth staining [8]. To find an alternative to the substances currently employed to prevent caries and to control plaques, researchers have investigated the antimicrobial activities of natural products, especially essential oils [1,3,7,[9][10][11]. ...
Article
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This work used the broth microdilution method to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Plectranthus neochilus (PN-EO) against a representative panel of oral pathogens. We assessed the antimicrobial activity of this oil in terms of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). PN-EO displayed moderate activity against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 250 μg/mL) and Streptococcus salivarus (MIC = 250 μg/mL), significant activity against Streptococcus sobrinus (MIC = 62.5 μg/mL), Streptococcus sanguinis (MIC = 62.5 μg/mL), Streptococcus mitis (MIC = 31.25 μg/mL), and Lactobacillus casei (MIC = 31.25 μg/mL), and interesting activity against Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 3.9 μg/mL). GC-FID and GC-MS helped to identify thirty-one compounds in PN-EO; α-pinene (1, 14.1%), β-pinene (2, 7.1%), trans-caryophyllene (3, 29.8%), and caryophyllene oxide (4, 12.8%) were the major chemical constituents of this essential oil. When tested alone, compounds 1, 2, 3, and 4 were inactive (MIC > 4000 μg/mL) against all the microorganisms. These results suggested that the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Plectranthus neochilus displays promising activity against most of the evaluated cariogenic bacteria, especially S. mutans.
... The clove essential oil widely applied in medicine, food and cosmetics industries (Jirovetz et al., 2006). The clove essential oil and eugenol have been described as having useful acaricidal (Kim et al., 2003;Yang et al., 2003;Fichi et al., 2007;Kim and Sharma, 2011;Mahakittikun et al., 2014), insecticidal (Regnault-Roger and Hamraoui, 1994, 1995Bhat and Kempraj, 2009;Yang et al., 2009;Kafle and Shih, 2013;Sharawi et al., 2013;Jumbo et al., 2014), herbicidal (Evans and Bellinder, 2009;Park et al., 2011;Stoklosa et al., 2012), antifungal (Omidbeygi et al., 2007;Viuda-Martos et al., 2007;Pinto et al., 2009;Xing et al., 2012), antimicrobial (Mytle et al., 2006;Ayoola et al., 2008;Goni et al., 2009), antibacterial (Saeed and Tariq, 2008;Fu et al., 2009;Devi et al., 2010), antioxidant (Jirovetz et al., 2006;Whent et al., 2009;Ozcan and Arslan, 2011;Gulcin et al., 2012;Shi et al., 2014), antiinflammatory (Arung et al., 2011;Bachiega et al., 2012;Baker et al., 2013), anaesthetic (Javahery et al., 2012;Vazquez et al., 2013;Yildiz et al., 2013;Simitzis et al., 2014), anticariogenic (Kouidhi et al., 2010;Uju and Obioma, 2011), hypoglycemic (Kuroda et al., 2012; Adefegha et al., 2014), anti-stress (Singh et al., 2009), antimutagenic (Sultana et al., 2014), and anticancer characteristics (Dwivedi et al., 2011). Despite the previously large described studies of clove essential oil on diverse bioactivities, no information concerned the biological efficacy of clove essential oil against wood-rot fungi and termite. ...
Article
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Biodegradation of wood by fungi and termites is recognized as one of the most serious problems for wooden structures. In this study, we analyzed the antitermitic and antifungal activities of flower buds essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum and its dominant constituents. Essential oil components were analyzed by gas chromatography and the major compound of essential oil was eugenol (90.6%). The results demonstrated that at the dosage of 50μg/g, clove essential oil had 100% mortality to Reticulitermes chinensis after testing for 5 d. Furthermore, we found eugenol killed all termites after testing for 3 d, with an LC50 value of 12.1μg/g. Meanwhile, we also found clove essential oil and eugenol displayed activity against three fungi, Trametes hirsuta, Schizphylhls commne, and Pycnoporus sanguineus. We found eugenol was principal antifungal constituent of clove oil. The IC50 values of eugenol against T. hirsuta, S. commne, and P. sanguineus were 83.6, 116.1, and 102.4μg/mL, respectively. In addition, comparisons of the termite mortality and antifungal indices of eugenol and its congeners proved that eugenol exhibited the strongest antitermitic and antifungal activities. The clove oil and eugenol have potential for the development of natural wood preservatives.
... (Jirovetz et al., 2006;Chaieb et al., 2007). Eugenol has a multitude of properties making it useful in a wide variety of applications, including as an antioxidant (Kramer, 1985;Pulla and Lokesh, 1992), antifungal (Kamble and Patil, 2008;Hoskonen et al. 2015), antibacterial (Karapmar and Aktug,1987;Kouidhi et al., 2010) or as an antiparasitic agent (Machado et al., 2011). Several studies have shown that clove oil is an effective agent in the sedation of larvae (Akbulut et al., 2011a), fry (Endo et al., 1972;Woolsey et al., 2004;Akbulut et al., 2012a), juvenile (Keene et al., 1998;Uçar and Atamanalp, 2010;Akbulut et al., 2011b) and adult fish of various species (Hikasa et al., 1986;Wagner et al., 2002;Hoskonen and Pirhonen, 2004). ...
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The effects of four concentrations of clove oil (150, 300, 450 and 600 mg L⁻¹) as ananaesthetic substance at three temperature levels (10, 15 and 20°C) and three fish size (as weight) groups (57.0±11.3, 103.0±11.9 and 457.0±89.8 g) on induction and recovery times in turbot (Psetta maxima) were investigated in this study. The fish were individually exposed to each clove oil bath in 10, 20 or 50L buckets with respect to fish size and were recovered in a 500-L tank with running seawater. Temperature, fish size and clove oil concentrations were found to have significant effects on induction and recovery times in turbot (P<0.01). Induction and recovery times were both less than half when the temperature was increased from 10 to 20°C (P<0.01). The duration to reach surgical anaesthesia and recovery times of small size turbot varied in relation to temperature, but were generally shorter than big size turbot (P<0.01). Overall, the increase of clove oil concentration from 150 to 600 mg L⁻¹decreased the induction time by a factor of 2.3 but on the contrary, prolonged the full recovery time by a factor of 1.92. The surgicalanesthesia was attained in all the groups under 4.45 min at 150 mg L⁻¹or even under 2 min at 600 mg L⁻¹ clove oil concentration. However, the time of recovery ranged from 4.32 min (150 mg L⁻¹) to 8.29 min (600 mg L⁻¹). Based on our results, the clove oil concentrations around 180-220 mg L⁻¹ appeared to be adequate to be used for fast anaesthesia and relatively short recovery time for turbot. Mean effective concentration (EC50) of clove oil was calculated as 190.00 ± 10.34 mg L⁻¹ with 95% confidence limits for overall three temperature and fish sizes. This study has demonstrated that clove oil can be safely and effectively used in the anaesthesia of turbot. © Published by Central Fisheries Research Institute (CFRI) Trabzon, Turkey.
... This plant has several compounds such as ter-penes, glycosides, flavonoids, and anthocyanins. The therapeutic uses of R. damascena in TPM include the treatment of abdominal, heart and lung diseases, menstrual bleeding, gums and dental weakness, halitosis , digestive problems the reduction of inflammation, coughing, thirst and wound healing .. In some animal Model studies, analgesic and antiinflammatory effects of Rosa damascena hydroalcoholic extract has been shown [58][59] .The effectiveness of mouthwash containing. Rosa damascena extract in the treatment of 50 patiant suffering recurrent aphthous stomatitis(comparing to the placebo) has been shown in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial study 60 .According to an in vitro study,the ethyl alcohol and acetone water extracts of R. damascene had antimicrobial effects against P.aueroginosa, C.albicans and E.coli. ...
Article
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Oral diseases such as tooth loss, periodontal disease, dental caries, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers are chief communal health troubles in the worldwide. Dental caries, as a type of dental diseases, affects 60-90% of school-aged children and the common of adults in the majority industrialized countries. Sanoon is a pharmaceutical dosage form designed for treatment of oral cavity diseasesin the traditional Persian medicine that contains all kinds of mono component or multi component dosage forms with the ability of gum tonic that is finely powdered and used by sprinkling or rubbing it to the gum and dental surfaces. The purpose of the present study is to discuss about different formulation of sanoon dosage form in traditional medicine and find confirmation of their effectiveness in the treatment of dental.
... The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistilation. 25,26 Animals Ten healthy adult mixed breed dogs aged 3 to 5 years (based on dental characteristics) with a body weight of 15 to 19 Kg were selected. A clinical examination and hemogram was performed on all animals. ...
Article
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Objective-To study a method of chemical sterilization and its efficacy in adult male dogs. Design-Experimental study. Animals-Ten healthy adult mixed breed dogs Procedures-Eugenia caryophyllata (EC) essential oil was injected into the dorsal cranial portion of each testicle of five dogs (treatment group). The same volume of normal saline was injected in the same site of testicles in the other five dogs (control group). Results-There were no significant adverse effects and no change in the dog behavior during the study. Histopathological findings showed total necrosis of testicular tissue with fibrosis and hyalinization in seminiferous tubules and interstitial spaces. Infiltration of leucocytes was also observed. The serum concentration of testosterone was decreased significantly in treatment group. There was also no significant change in the serum concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (CRE), total protein (TP) and cortisol level. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance-Single intratesticular injection of an appropriate dose of EC can result in sterilization, which is preferable to surgical castration in dog.
... Moreover, CEO possessed anti-mutagenic and anticancer activities (Miyazawa et al., 2003;Kouidhi et al., 2010). Eug was found to inhibit the proliferation of several cancer cell lines, such as melanoma by inhibiting E2F1 transcriptional activity (Ghosh et al., 2005), HL60 human leukemia cells (Yoo et al., 2005), HCT-15 and HT-29 human colon cancer cells (Jaganathan et al.,, 2011) by a molecular mechanism including reduction of intracellular non-protein thiols, dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species resulting in DNA fragmentation and activation of p53 and caspase 3 (Jaganathan et al., 2011;Yoo et al., 2005). ...
Book
Many essential oil constituents are volatile, poorly aqueous soluble and chemically unstable. Carrier systems including cyclodextrins, micelles, liposomes, nano- and micro-particles and supramolecular systems were emerged to allow their wide use in food and pharmaceuticals. The book provides an overview on the delivery systems applied to clove essential oil, chosen as a model. It highlights their preparation techniques as well as their physico-chemical and biological characteristics.
... Thus, the cytotoxicity activity of this oil against HT29 was more important than Vero and Hep2 cell lines, with CC 50 values of 13.73 ± 1.31 mg/ mL, 70.13 ± 1.72 mg/mL and 85.63 ± 2.38 mg/mL, respectively. In another work, more sensibility of the Human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT29) and human epidermoid cancer cells (Hep2) was detected against Eugenia caryophyllata EO, with CC 50 ¼ 0.03 ± 2.6 mg/mL and CC 50 ¼ 0.5 ± 10.2 mg/mL respectively [65]. Furthermore, a recent study revealed the antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic potential of O. majorana EO against prallethrininduced genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in rat bone marrow cells [66]. ...
Article
This study investigated the chemical composition and evaluated the antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anti-acetylcholinesterase properties of Tunisian Origanum majorana essential oil. The findings showed that the oil exhibited high activity, particularly in terms of reducing power and β-Carotene bleaching, inducing higher IC50 values than BHT. The oil showed an important antimicrobial activity against 25 bacterial and fungal strains. In fact, the IZ, MIC and MBC values recorded for the bacterial strains were in the range of 8±0 -18.33±0.57 mm, 0.097-3.125 and 0.39-6.25 mg/mL, respectively. The IZ, MIC and MFC values of the fungal strains varied between 11±0-28±0 mm, 0.058-0.468 mg/mL and 0.234-1.875 mg/mL, respectively. A low cytotoxic effect was observed against cancer (Hep-2 and HT29) and continuous cell lineage (Vero), with CC50 values ranging from 13.73 to 85.63 mg/mL. The oil was also evaluated for anti-acetylcholinesterase effects, which showed that it exhibited significant activity with IC50 values reaching 150.33±2.02 μg/mL.
... This choice is based on the simplicity of CEO composition since the three main components eugenol, eugenyl acetate and ␤-caryophyllene represent more than 99% of CEO constituents (Alma, Ertas, Nitz, & Kollmannsberger, 2007;Edris & Malone, 2012). Moreover, CEO components possess remarkable biological effects including antioxidant (Baskaran, Periyasamy, & Venkatraman, 2010;Teixeira et al., 2013), anti-inflammatory (Bachiega, De Sousa, Bastos, & Sforcin, 2012), antibacterial (Teixeira et al., 2013), antifungal (Vazquez, Fente, Franco, Vazquez, & Cepeda, 2001), antiviral (Hussein et al., 2000), anti-acaricidal (Kim & Sharma, 2011), anticarciogenic (Kouidhi, Zmantar, & Bakhrouf, 2010), analgesic, anesthetic (Jadhav, Khandelwal, Ketkar, & Pisal, 2004), and neuroprotective (Müller, Pape, Speckmann, & Gorji, 2006), making them strong potential agents in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. Eug is considered non-mutagenic, non-carcinogenic, and recognized as safe by Food and Drug administration. ...
Article
This work is dedicated to prepare liposomal dry powder formulations of inclusion complexes of clove essential oil (CEO) and its main component eugenol (Eug). Ethanol injection method and membrane contactor were applied to prepare liposomes at laboratory and large scale, respectively. Various liposomal formulations were tested: (1) free hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin loaded liposomes; (2) drug in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in liposomes (DCL); (3) DCL2 obtained by double loading technique, where the drug is added in the organic phase and the inclusion complex in the aqueous phase. Liposomes were characterized for their particle size, polydispersity index, Zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency of CEO components and Eug loading rate. Reproducible results were obtained with both injection devices. Compared to Eug-loaded liposomes, DCL and DCL2 improved the loading rate of Eug and possessed smaller vesicles size. The DPPH• scavenging activity of Eug and CEO was maintained upon incorporation of Eug and CEO into DCL and DCL2. Contrary to DCL2, DCL formulations were stable after 1 month of storage at 4 °C and upon reconstitution of the dried lyophilized cakes. Hence, DCL in aqueous and lyophilized forms, are considered as a promising carrier system to preserve volatile and hydrophobic drugs enlarging their application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries.
... The analysis of the cytotoxicity effect of clove, lemon peel and thyme essential oils and their combination showed no toxicity for the cells with a considerable viability of 85.71%, 99.73%, 93.64% and 90.48%, respectively for a dose between 50 µg/mL and 100 µg/mL ( Table 2). Results confirmed that these bioactive essential oils and their combination had not toxic effect and they could be used to determine their anti-inflammatory activities (Kouidhi et al., 2010;kummer et al., 2013;Rodrigues et al., 2019). In addition, the analysis of the results of antiinflammatory activity of the studied essential oil samples showed that the blended essential oil exhibited a considerable anti-inflammatory activity (IC 50 = 23.236 ...
Article
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Essential oils are natural products composed of a mixture of volatile and aromatic compounds extracted from different organs of plants that have been widely studied for their antibacterial activities against pathogens. In this study, clove, lemon peel and thyme essential oils and their mixture were assessed for their antimicrobial activities using a panel of pathogenic Gram-positive, and Gram-negative, strains. Cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity were also evaluated. Lemon peel essential oil was characterized by the predominance of limonene. Eugenol was the main component in clove essential oil and thymol in thyme essential oil. Clove, lemon peel and thyme essential oils and their combination had potent antibacterial, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities. This study demonstrates that the use of essentialvoils is an effective alternative for pathogenic bacterial control, alone or in combination with antibiotic therapy.
... The antioxidant activity of water, ethanol extract, and essential oil of clove was determined 18 . Among the medicinal plants, clove is a plant that has been studied very much, but previous studies on antimicrobial effect of clove essential oil evaluate its activity on different kind of microorganisms separately 3,[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] which makes it difficult to compare and confirm results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clove essential oil against a diverse range of microorganisms comprising Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria, yeast and fungi as well as to identify the chemical constituents responsible for such activity. ...
Article
In the present study, the essential oil was extracted from the buds of Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae) by hydrodistillation method and the chemical composition of essential oil was identified by GC and GC-MS. A total of 26 components were identified accounting for 99.8 % of the oil composition. Eugenol (68.9 %), trans-caryophyllene (12.6 %) and eugenol acetate (12.4 %) were the main components of E. caryophyllata essential oil. The efficacy of the oil against foodborne and pathogenic microorganisms was evaluated by disc diffusion and micro broth dilution assays. The inhibition zone diameter against different kinds of microorganisms was increased in dose dependent manner. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) values were found in the range of 0. 25-4 and 0.25-8 µl/ml. The most sensitive microorganisms were Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and β-carotene/linoleic acid system and strong activity were found for this oil.
... In this regard, clove oil has been reported to be used in preparation of certain toothpastes and mouth washes (1). In the recent past, studies have demonstrated that clove is antimutagenic (2), antioxidant, antithrombotic, antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory (3). In addition, clove oil is stated to possess antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties (4Á6). ...
Article
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Clove oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) is a light yellowish fluid obtained from dried flower buds. Clove oil is used traditionally to relieve toothache. The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic potential of clove oil in mice. Analgesic activity was examined using acetic-acid-induced abdominal constrictions and the hot plate test. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's-yeast-induced pyrexia were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity and the antipyretic effects, respectively. The oil was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) at a dose of 33 mg/kg body weight and the effects were compared with reference drugs. In the antinociceptive test, mice treated with clove oil exhibited significantly decreased acetic-acid-induced writhing movements by a maximum of 87.7% (p<0.01) compared with a decrease of 77.7% (p<0.01) in response to aspirin injection (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, i.p.). Similarly, in the hot plate test, clove oil significantly increased the reaction latency to pain after 60 min by 82.3% (p<0.05) compared with morphine value of 91.7% (p<0.01). In addition, clove oil and indomethacin produced anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by respectively 50.6% (p<0.05) and 70.4% (p<0.01) inhibition of mouse paw edema induced by carrageenan. Furthermore, clove oil significantly attenuated the hyperthermia induced by yeast at ΔT-max by 2.7°C (p<0.001), and time of peak effects was 30-180 min compared with a paracetamol value ΔT-max of 3.2°C (p<0.001). The estimated i.p. LD50 of clove oil was 161.9 mg/kg. Phytochemical screening of the oil showed the presence of eugenol. The present findings demonstrate the potential pharmacological properties of clove oil and provide further a support for its reported use in folk medicine.
... Previous data reported the toxicity of clove oil at a concentration of 0.03% on human skin cells, toxicity attributed to eugenol [22]. Clove oil proved to be cytotoxic for mouse fibroblast cell line (3T3) [41], non-cancer human fibroblasts (MRC-5) (IC50 = 15.75 ± 2.4 µg/mL) [54], HEL 12469 human embryo lung cells [55] and HaCaT cells [39], data that are in agreement with our results. Clove oil and its main component, eugenol, have already been investigated as anticarcinogenic agents in prostate and oral squamous cancers [56]. ...
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Medicinal plants and essential oils (EOs), in particular, were intensively studied in recent years as viable alternatives for antiproliferative chemical synthetic agents. In the same lines, the present study focuses on investigating the effects of natural preparations (emulsions) based on EOs obtained from Citrus bergamia Risso (bergamot-BEO), Citrus sinensis Osbeck (orange-OEO), and Syzygium aromaticum Merill et L. M. Perry (clove-CEO) on different healthy (human immortalized keratinocytes—HaCaT and primary human gingival fibroblasts—HGF) and human tumor cell lines (human melanoma—A375 and oral squamous carcinoma—SCC-4) in terms of the cells’ viability and cellular morphology. The obtained results indicate that the CEO emulsion (ECEO) induced a dose-dependent cytotoxic in both healthy (HaCaT and HGF) and tumor (A375 and SCC-4) cells. OEO emulsion (EOEO) increased cell viability percentage both for HaCaT and A375 cells and had an antiproliferative effect at the highest concentration in HGF and SCC-4 cells. BEO emulsion (EBEO) decreased the viability percentage of SCC-4 tumor cells. By associating OEO with CEO as a binary mixture in an emulsified formulation, the inhibition of tumor cell viability increases. The E(BEO/OEO) binary emulsion induced an antiproliferative effect on oral health and tumor cells, with a minimal effect on skin cells. The non-invasive tests performed to verify the safety of the test compound’s emulsions at skin level indicated that these compounds do not significantly modify the physiological skin parameters and can be considered safe for human skin.
... Many studies are found in the literature regarding the antimicrobial activity of essential oils against oral pathogens. In August 2011 about 49 items were found in the SciFinder Scholar searching both terms "essential oil" and "oral pathogens", among them are: Carvalho et al. 19 , Koba et al. 25 , Bernardes et al. 26 , Kouidhi et al. 27 , Botelho et al. 28 . The MICs of the assayed oils of C. pubescens were smaller than the values found for Lippia sidoides essential oil, indicating a greater antibacterial effect 28 . ...
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In this study, the essential oil composition, total contents of phenolics and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities from different plant parts (root, stem, leaf and fruit) of Campomanesia pubescens (DC) O. Berg from Brazilian Cerrado are reported. The root essential oil is distinguished from others by having only one representative of monoterpenes (alpha-terpenylacetate). The aerial parts of C. pubescens are rich in volatile terpenes, as expected, especially in fruits whose essential oil contained approximately 80 % of monoterpenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. The root essential oil showed the strongest inhibition against Fusobacterium nucleatum (ATCC 25586). The leaf extract presented the highest concentration of phenolic and proanthocyanidins compounds. The lowest concentration necessary for inhibition of DPPH to 50 % ranged between 6.6 ± 1.6 and 56.6 ± 2.3 μg/mL. The leaf extract exhibited the highest inhibition, close to BHT.
... The essential oil was extracted by traditional hydrodistillation method. 21,22 After providing the essence, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis (Model 17A-GC & QP5000-MS; Shimadzu Kyoto, Japan) was done to identify of essence component. ...
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This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of injection of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in the kid horn buds, as a new chemical technique for disbudding. Five-day-old healthy goat kids from both sexes (n = 16) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. In groups 1, 2 and 3, 0.2 mL of clove essence and in group 4 (control) 0.2 mL of normal saline was injected into the left horn bud of goat kids. Right horn bud in all kids was considered to ensure that they are horned. During the study, the rate of horn growth were evaluated in determined time intervals between groups 1 and 4. Tissue samples were taken from right and left horn bud in groups 2 and 3, at five and ten days after clove essence injection, for microscopic study. The results of the study showed that the clove essence stopped horn growth, whereas there was no significant difference in horn growth rate between left and right horns after injection of normal saline, in group 4. Histopathological study showed that injection of clove essence caused complete necrosis of epidermis and underlying dermis with collagenolysis in horn bud tissues, 5 days after injection and then progress in healing process was observed after 10 days. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the injection of clove essence is an effective method to stop horn growth without any undesirable effects on clinical parameters in goat kids.
... Essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata has been recognized as an effective, safe and inexpensive anesthetic for fishes and amphibians (Kildea et al., 2004). It was reported that clove essential oil has cytotoxic and anti-cancerogenic properties (Kouidhi et al., 2010). Also, analgesic effect of eugenol in different models of pain has been well documented (Park et al., 2011;Lionnet et al., 2010;Kurian et al., 2006;Peana et al., 2004;Okhubo and Shibata, 1997). ...
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Background & Aim: Eugenia caryophyllata well known as Clove is a tree from Myrtaceae family that several parts of this plant traditionally used in dental care as an analgesic. This study aimed to assess the chemical composition, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of the essential oil extracted from Clove buds. Experimental: The essential oil of Clove buds (EOC) was extracted by Clevenger type apparatus and its chemical composition determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Analgesic activities of EOC were measured by formalin-induced orofacial pain and tail immersion test in rat. Also anti-inflammatory effect of the EOC was evaluated by using xylene induced ear edema test in mice. Results: EOC (100, 200 mg/kg, SC) and ketoprofen (80 and 160 mg/kg, IP) inhibit only the second phase of orofacial pain. Morphine (5 mg/kg) as a positive control significantly (p <0.05) reduced pain response in the both phases of pain. Pre-treatment of animals with naloxone did not prevent the EOC (200 mg/kg) analgesic activity. Co-administration of sub-analgesic doses of EOC (50 mg/kg) and ketoprofen (40 mg/kg) significantly (p <0.05) reduced nociceptive behavior in second phase. Also EOC (100 and 200 mg/kg) failed to increase nociceptive response latency in the tail immersion test. Meanwhile, EOC (100 and 200 mg/kg) and ketoprofen (80 mg/kg) significantly (p <0.001) attenuated xylene-induced ear edema in mice. Also according to GC-MS results the major components of the EOC were eugenol (54.86%), β-Caryophyllene (20.19%), α-Humulene (7.11%), eugenol acetat (4.85%) and Chavibetol (2.23%). Recommended applications/industries: These data showed that EOC possessed potent anti-inflammatory activity and produced non-opioid mediated analgesia in the second phase of orofacial pain without any effect on tail immersion response.
... Clove oil is traditionally used in dental care as an antiseptic and analgesic. It is active against oral bacteria associated with dental caries and periodontal disease [127,128] and effective against a large number of other pathogenic bacteria [129]. Eugenol, the major phenolic component of clove essential oil, is widely used in medical and dental practice, due to its potent fungicidal, bactericidal and anesthetic properties [130]. ...
... Some components of clove have been advised against bacterial and fungal infections (Zhang and Chen, 1997;Zheng et al., 1992). It has also been documented that some parts of the plant and its ingredients have a good cytotoxic and even anti-cancerogenic properties (Kouidhi et al., 2010;Zhang and Chen, 1997;Zheng et al., 1992). The extracts of this plant have been considered to have benefits against oral bacteria especially those which are accompanied with dental caries and periodontal diseases (Cai and Wu, 1996). ...
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Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone. Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1) Saline, (2-4) Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100, and Aq 200) groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of clove, respectively, (5-7) Ethanolic (Eth 50, Eth 100, and Eth 200) groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of clove, respectively, and (8-9) Aq 100- Naloxone and Aq 200- Naloxone which were pretreated with 4 mg/kg of naloxone before injection of 100 or 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. The hot plate test was performed as a base record 10 min before injection of drugs and consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the injection. Results: The maximal percent effect (MPE) in the animal groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract was significantly higher than the control group. Pretreatment with naloxone reduced the analgesic effects of both 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. Administration of all three doses of the ethanloic extract also non-significantly increased the MPE. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that aqueous extract of clove has analgesic effect in mice demonstrated by hot plate test which is reversible by naloxone. The role of opioid system in the analgesic effect of clove might be suggested. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism(s).
... (Jirovetz et al., 2006;Chaieb et al., 2007). Eugenol has a multitude of properties that make it useful in a wide variety of applications, including: as an antioxidant (Kramer, 1985;Pulla and Lokesh, 1992), as an antifungal agent (Kamble and Patil, 2008), as an antibacterial agent (Karapmar and Aktug˘, 1987;Kouidhi et al., 2010), and as an antiparasitic agent (Machado et al., 2011). ...
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The efficacy of clove oil as an anaesthetic in juvenile flounder was evaluated at two temperatures (10–12 and 16–18 °C) and the effective concentration determined. Flounder juveniles with a body length of 9.0–10.2 cm and a weight of 6–14 g were individually exposed to clove oil at concentrations ranging from 200 to 1000 mg L−1 in a 5‐L bath with three replicates per treatment with 10 fish. The induction and recovery times were recorded in seconds for all doses and temperatures. Temperature had no effect on induction, but higher temperature shortened the recovery time. The effective concentration (EC50) was estimated as 753 (692–820) mg L−1 for ≤3 min with 95% confidence limits. The study demonstrated that clove oil can be used as an effective anaesthetic in juvenile flounder and that temperature has an effect on recovery time from anaesthesia with clove oil.
... The Eugenia caryophyllata essential oil showed significant cytotoxic effects against HT29, A549 and Hep2 cancer cell lines. The cytotoxicity is likely due to the high concentrations of phenolic compounds, particularly eugenol [173]. ...
... In addition to their anti-inflammatory properties, CEO and eugenol have been shown to possess anticancer properties against breast, colorectal, lung, and leukaemia cancer cells (Yoo et al. 2005;Kouidhi et al. 2010;Kumar et al. 2014). These previous findings are largely consistent with the findings of the current study, which indicate that CEO affected cell cycle control and cancer biology. ...
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Context: Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. [Myrtaceae]) essential oil (CEO) has been shown to possess antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. However, few studies have focused on its topical use. Objective: We investigated the biological activity of a commercially available CEO in a human skin disease model. Materials and methods: We evaluated the effect of CEO on 17 protein biomarkers that play critical roles in inflammation and tissue remodelling in a validated human dermal fibroblast system, which was designed to model chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Four concentrations of CEO (0.011, 0.0037, 0.0012, and 0.00041%, v/v) were studied. The effect of 0.011% CEO on genome-wide gene expression was also evaluated. Results and discussion: CEO at a concentration of 0.011% showed robust antiproliferative effects on human dermal fibroblasts. It significantly inhibited the increased production of several proinflammatory biomarkers such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), interferon γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interferon-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC), and monokine induced by γ interferon (MIG). CEO also significantly inhibited tissue remodelling protein molecules, namely, collagen-I, collagen-III, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2). Furthermore, it significantly modulated global gene expression and altered signalling pathways critical for inflammation, tissue remodelling, and cancer signalling processes. CEO significantly inhibited VCAM-1 and collagen III at both protein and gene expression levels. Conclusions: This study provides important evidence of CEO-induced anti-inflammatory and tissue remodelling activity in human dermal fibroblasts. This study also supports the anticancer properties of CEO and its major active component eugenol.
... Eugenol and dehydrodieugenol could be among the active compounds that induce cancer cell death [17]. Similar activities were studied by Kouidhi et al. [18] and Kumar et al. [19] against breast, colorectal, leukemia and lung cancer cells. Another study performed using triterpenes isolated from S. kusukusense on breast (MCF-7), prostate (PC-3) and oral squamous (SCC2095) cell cancers reported their high potent cytotoxic activity with best depicted by betulinic acid (IC 50 , 5.7-7.6 µM) and ursolic acid (IC 50 , 1.7-3.7 µM) [20]. ...
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Cancer, pain and inflammation have long been a cause for concern amongst patients, clinicians and research scientists. There is an alarming increase in the demand for medicines suppressing these disease conditions. The present study investigates the role of Syzygium mundagam bark methanol (SMBM) extract against MCF-7 breast cancer cells, pain and inflammation. The MCF-7 cells treated with SMBM were analyzed for adenosine triphosphate (ATP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, changes in cell morphology and nuclear damage. Hot plate, acetic acid and formalin-induced pain models were followed to determine the analgesic activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was studied using carrageenan, egg albumin and cotton pellet induced rat models. Microscopic images of cells in SMBM treated groups showed prominent cell shrinkage and nuclear damage. Hoechst stain results supported the cell death morphology. The decline in ATP (47.96%) and increased LDH (40.96%) content indicated SMBM induced toxicity in MCF-7 cells. In the in vivo study, a higher dose (200 mg/kg) of the extract was found to be effective in reducing pain and inflammation. The results are promising and the action of the extract on MCF-7 cells, pain and inflammation models indicate the potential of drugs of natural origin to improve current therapies.
... Also, phenylpropanoid compounds occurring in the Eugenia species have also showed cytotoxic activity, as seen with the E. caryophyllata oil (clove oil) that was effective against the fibroblast-like fetal lung cancer cell line (MRC-5, IC 50 = 15.7 µg/mL) and the murine leukemia macrophages raw cancer cell line (raw 264.7) (IC 50 = 18.8 µg/mL), whose cytotoxic activities was attributed to the high content of eugenol in the oil (Kouidhi et al., 2010). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Oils and extracts of Eugenia uniflora have been reported as antimicrobial, antifungal, antinociceptive, antiprotozoal, antioxidant and cytotoxic. Aim of the study The oils of five specimens (E1 to E5) that occur in the Brazilian Amazon were extracted, analyzed for their chemical composition, and submitted to antioxidant and cytotoxic assays. Material and methods Oils were hydrodistilled, analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and submitted to PCA and HCA analyses. The antioxidant activity of the oils was evaluated by the DPPH radical scavenging and the β-carotene/linoleic acid assays. Antiproliferative effects of the oils and curzerene were tested against colon (HCT-116), gastric (AGP-01), and melanoma (SKMEL-19) human cancer cell lines and a normal human fibroblast cell line (MRC-5), using MTT assay. Results Oxygenated sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as curzerene, selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-2-one, selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-2-one epoxide, germacrene B, caryophyllene oxide, and (E)-caryophyllene were predominant in the oils. PCA and HCA analyses classified the oils samples into four chemotypes. TEAC values of chemotype II (E3 oil, 228.3±19.2 mg TE/mL) and chemotype III (E4 oil, 217.0±23.3 mg TE/mL) displayed significant antioxidant activities. The oils E2 and E4 showed cytotoxic activity against all cell lines tested HCT-116 (IC50 E2: 16.26 μg/mL; IC50 E4: 9.28 μg/mL), AGP-01, (IC50 E2: 12.60 μg/mL; IC50 E4: 8.73 μg/mL), SKMEL-19 (IC50 E2: 12.20 μg/mL; IC50 E4: 15.42 μg/mL), and MRC-5 (IC50 E2: 10.27 μg/mL; IC50 E4: 14.95 μg/mL). Curzerene showed the more significant activity against melanoma cells (SKMEL-19, IC50: 5.17 μM), induced apoptosis at 5.0 μM and 10.0 μM compared to DMSO, exhibiting a decrease in the cell migration at 5.0 μM and 10.0 μM, after 30 h of treatment. Conclusion The curzerene chemotype oil and E. uniflora oils can be indicated as drug candidates for anticancer activity of the lung, colon, stomach, and melanoma, with a real prospect to their subsequent phytotherapeutic development.
... The anti-bacterial property of clove oil nanoemulsion [15] alone/in combination with cinnamon oil [16], anti-fungal properties of eugenol, clove oil nanoemulsion alone/in combination with other spices have been reported [17][18][19]. In addition to this, the antioxidant, insecticidal and antiviral properties were also extensively studied [20,21]. However, scanty reports are available for cytotoxicity and haemolytic activity of clove oil nanoemulsions. ...
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The therapeutic properties of clove oil is known for centuries, however the pungent nature, chemical instability and low water solubility pose the challenge in harnessing its therapeutic potential. The nanoencapsulation of clove oil was performed to overcome the above constraints and control its in-vitro release. The properties of clove oil nanoemulsion were observed to be influenced by the hydrophile/lipophile balance (HLB) of the surfactant used. The non-ionic surfactants Tween 20, 40 and 80 with HLB 16.7, 15.6 and 15, respectively were used to study the stability of clove oil nanoemulsion (CON). The creaming index was 22.75 and 17.5 and 1.5% in CON prepared with Tween 20, 40 and 80, respectively after 8 days of storage at room temperature. Further, Tween 20, 40 (HLB >15) produced particles >300 nm while Tween 80 (HLB 15) resulted in particles of size ~150 nm. Transmission electron microscopic image of spray dried CON prepared with Tween 80 showed particle size in the range 150-190 nm after one month of storage at room temperature. The in vitro release studies showed 76% and 42% cumulative release of CON and native clove oil (NC), respectively at pH 7.4. The cellular toxicity of NC was 80% whereas the CON showed less than 20% at the concentration of 60 [mu]g/mL when tested on Caco2 cells. Similarly, haemolytic activity on red blood cells revealed less than 10% haemolysis signifying the compatibility of CON for its nutraceutical applications. In addition, the in-vitro antioxidant capacity of CON was significantly higher than NC as shown by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity. The work is unique from earlier reports in terms of using cost effective polysaccharide (maltodextrin), surfactant for CON and reporting their possible interaction with core material in stabilizing the nanoemulsion for increased bioactivity.
... Many studies have been conducted to assess the cytotoxicity of Zinc Oxide nanoparticles, clove and cinnamon. [22][23][24][25][26][27] The mechanisms of cytotoxicity from Zinc Oxide nanoparticles are not yet entirely understood, but the generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH • ), superoxide anion, and perhydroxyl radicals from the surface of Zinc Oxide are believed to be major components. [28] High eugenol content in clove makes it cytotoxic. ...
... In vitro studies in various cancer cell lines have also revealed cinnamaldehyde to be both anti-proliferative (Lin et al., 2013) and pro-apoptotic (Lin et al., 2013;Wu & Ng, 2007). Clove oil has been shown to possess anticancer properties against breast, colorectal, lung, and leukemia cancer cells (Kouidhi, Zmantar, & Bakhrouf, 2010;Kumar, Febriyanti, Sofyan, Luftimas, & Abdulah, 2014;Yoo et al., 2005). Rosemary oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cell lines (Wang, Li, Luo, Zu, & Efferth, 2012), prevented the spread of breast and androgensensitive prostate cancer cells (Hussain et al., 2010), and promoted apoptosis of liver cancer cells (Melusova, Slamenova, Kozics, Jantova, & Horvathova, 2014), presumably via cell-membrane disruption (Wei, Liu, Wang, Li, & Luo, 2008). ...
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In the current study, we examined the biological activities of an essential oil blend (EOB) in validated human cell cultures, which model the molecular biology of autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation. EOB is primarily composed of essential oils from wild orange, clove, cinnamon, eucalyptus, and rosemary. These disease models allow the measurement of changes in protein biomarkers induced by EOB treatment. Four T cell autoimmune disease systems and one skin cell system were used for biomarker analysis. Biomarkers levels were measured both before and after EOB treatment for statistic analysis. EOB exhibited significant effects on the levels of protein biomarkers that are critically involved in inflammation, immune modulation, and tissue remodeling processes. The overall inhibitory effect of EOB on these protein biomarkers suggests that it has anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties. EOB also showed significant anti-proliferative activity against these cells. We next investigated the effect of EOB on genome-wide gene expression in a skin disease model. EOB significantly modulated global gene expression in the skin disease model. Further analysis showed that EOB robustly affected signaling pathways related to inflammation, immune function, and cell cycle control. This study documents the biological activities of EOB in complex human disease models, and indicates that EOB affects various biological and physiological processes in human cells. This study suggests that EOB possesses significant anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties.
... Natural products have confirmed to be the most efficient in terms of their ability to change the function of proteins related to cancer [85]. Kouidhi et al. [86] and Kumar et al. [87] established that CEO and eugenol possess anticancer activities against leukemia, lung, breast, and colorectal cancer cells. Clove exerted anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities by suppressing the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) action as well as the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. ...
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Herbal medicinal products have been documented as a significant source for discovering new pharmaceutical molecules that have been used to treat serious diseases. Many plant species have been reported to have pharmacological activities attributable to their phytoconstituents such are glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, alkaloids, terpenes, etc. Syzygium aromaticum (clove) is a traditional spice that has been used for food preservation and possesses various pharmacological activities. S. aromaticum is rich in many phytochemicals as follows: sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, hydrocarbon, and phenolic compounds. Eugenyl acetate, eugenol, and β-caryophyllene are the most significant phytochemicals in clove oil. Pharmacologically, S. aromaticum has been examined toward various pathogenic parasites and microorganisms, including pathogenic bacteria, Plasmodium, Babesia, Theileria parasites, Herpes simplex, and hepatitis C viruses. Several reports documented the analgesic, antioxidant, anticancer, antiseptic, anti-depressant, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antifungal, and antibacterial activity of eugenol against several pathogenic bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus. Moreover, eugenol was found to protect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and showed a potential lethal efficacy against the multiplication of various parasites including Giardia lamblia, Fasciola gigantica, Haemonchus contortus, and Schistosoma mansoni. This review examines the phytochemical composition and biological activities of clove extracts along with clove essential oil and the main active compound, eugenol, and implicates new findings from gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis.
... Natural essential oils have an important role in killing oral pathogens by its antimicrobial action and hence been widely used in dentistry [12] . Essential oils inhibit the bacterial enzymatic activity, prevent co-aggregation of colonizing bacteria and thereby reduce dental plaque formation [13] . Essential oil extracted from the buds of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) has been used as an antiseptic and analgesic agent in dental practices. ...
... Attempts have been made to develop eugenol derivatives as intravenous anesthetics, as an alternative to propanidid which produces unacceptable side effects around the site of injection in many patients. It can be used to reduce the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus sakei in food (Kouidhi et al, 2010). ...
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A Bioactive/Biodegradable film is typically produced from food-derived ingredients using certain manufacturing process. WPC (Whey Protein Concentrate) exhibit excellent nutritional and functional properties that are most important for the formation of edible films. WPC based films are water based coatings showing certain characteristics that is these are flavor less, tasteless and flexible materials. Some antimicrobial agents are used as food preservatives that have been used to inhibit food borne diseases and also increases the shelf life of food products. The mechanism of developing Whey Protein Concentrate Edible Films involves use of certain types of essential oils.
... Han & Parker (2017) has been shown that clove essential oil (CEO) and its main active constituent eugenol, have antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties and that CEO affected cell cycle control and cancer biology. This was largely consistent with previous findings of Kouidhi et al. (2010) and Kumar et al. (2014) who confirmed that CEO and eugenol appear to possess anticancer properties against breast, colorectal, lung and leukaemia cancer cells. Therefore the objective of this investigation was to study the antimicrobial performance of different clove extracts and the possibility to be used as successful antimicrobial agents against gram positive and negative bacteria as well as pathogenic fungi. ...
... The anti-bacterial property of clove oil nanoemulsion (Shahavi, Hosseini, Jahanshahi, Meyer, & Darzi, 2016) alone/in combination with cinnamon oil (Zhang, Zhang, Fang, & Liu, 2017), anti-fungal properties of eugenol, clove oil nanoemulsion alone/in combination with other spices have been reported (Acosta et al., 2016;Dehghani, Hosseini, Golmakani, Majdinasab, & Esteghlal, 2018;Ortiz, Salgado, Dufresne, & Mauri, 2018). In addition to this, the antioxidant, insecticidal, and antiviral properties were also extensively studied (Cortés-Rojas, de Souza, & Oliveira, 2014;Kouidhi, Zmantar, & Bakhrouf, 2010). However, scanty reports are available for F I G U R E 1 Chemical structure of clove oil components and surfactants used in the study. ...
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The therapeutic properties of clove oil are well known, however, the pungent nature, chemical instability, and low water solubility impose limitations in harnessing its potential. Nanoemulsion of clove oil (CON) was prepared to overcome the above constraints. The non‐ionic surfactants Tween 20, 40, and 80 with hydrophile lipophile balance (HLB) of 16.7, 15.6, and 15, respectively, were used to stabilize CON. The creaming index of CON prepared with Tween 20, 40, and 80 was 22.75, 17.5, and 1.5%, respectively, after 8 days of storage at room temperature. Tween 20 and 40 produced particles >300 nm while Tween 80 produced ~150 nm. Transmission electron microscopic image of spray‐dried CON (with Tween 80) showed particles in the range of 150–190 nm. The in vitro release studies showed 76 and 42% cumulative release of CON and native clove oil (NC), respectively, at pH 7.4. The cellular toxicity of CON was significantly reduced by fourfold compared to NC at a concentration of 60 μg/ml when tested on CaCO2 cells. Similarly, hemolytic activity on red blood cells revealed less than 10% hemolysis. In addition, CON also exhibited higher in‐vitro antioxidant compared to NC as shown by 1, 1‐diphenylpicrylhydrazyl and 2,2′‐azino‐di‐[3‐ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonate (6)] (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Practical application The study highlights the development of clove oil nanoemulsion using cost‐effective, commercially important polysaccharide (maltodextrin) and surfactant for increased bioactivity. The spray‐dried nanoparticle showed high retention (95%) of oil and small particle size even after 1 month of storage at room temperature. The biological studies signify the compatibility of nanoparticle for its nutraceutical applications because of its low cytotoxicity (fourfold reduction), hemolytic activity, and high anti‐oxidant property. The clove oil nanoparticles can replace the clove oil/microencapsulated particles in food product development due to their high water dispersibility and loading content (25% on dry weight basis).
... The main active agent of clove oil is eugenol [2-methoxy-4-2-(2-propenyl)-phenol] (British Pharmacopoeia 1993; Noga 2010). Clove oil has several uses, among which are its property as antimicrobial antiinfl ammatory, antifungal, anesthetic and analgesic (Curtis 1990;Kouidhi et al. 2010;Kamatou et al. 2012). The anesthetic effect of clove oil is its capacity of reversibly inhibit the action potentials and voltage-gated sodium channel in nociceptive neurons (Chul-Kyu et al. 2009). ...
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Cephalopods are infested by a wide variety of internal and external parasites, and although they have the ability to remove them, this ability may be limited when a high parasitic load occurs. Additionally, when the parasite is harmful, it may cause adverse effects on the health of the host and even death if not timely eliminated. Several treatments have been applied to eliminate the parasites in cephalopods but few have proved to be effective. This study examines an effective treatment for the elimination of the leech Stibarobdela moorei present in the epidermis of the adult of Octopus bimaculatus (Verril, 1883) captured in the Mexican Pacific Ocean, which, if used properly, does not have any side effects on humans or organisms in cultivation. The treatment consists of immersions in seawater with clove oil at a concentration of 0.45 ml l⁻¹ for two minutes; the advantage is that it can be applied as often as necessary until the leeches are eliminated completely from the octopods. It is recommended that the treatment be applied with a minimum interval of 3 days between each application with the purpose of reducing the stress of the octopuses, caused by the manipulation.
... The essential oil of Myrcia ovata showed significant antimicrobial activity against C. albicans (30 mm) [46]. In another study, the essential oil of E. caryophyllata was effective against C. albicans (18.4 mm) and C. tropicalis (19 mm) [47]. These inhibition potentials were higher than those found in our study, which may be somehow related to the chemical type presented in each of the essential oils [48]. ...
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The essential oils of three specimens of Myrcia multiflora (A, B and C) and Eugenia florida were extracted by hydrodistillation, and the chemical compositions from the essential oils were identified by gas chromatography and flame ionization detection (CG/MS and CG-FID). The fungicide potential of the EOs against five fungicide yeasts was assessed: Candida albicans INCQS-40175, C. tropicalis ATCC 6258, C. famata ATCC 62894, C. krusei ATCC 13803 and C. auris IEC-01. The essential oil of the specimen Myrcia multiflora (A) was characterized by the major compounds: α-bulnesene (26.79%), pogostol (21.27%) and δ-amorphene (6.76%). The essential oil of the specimen M. multiflora (B) was rich in (E)-nerolidol (44.4%), (E)-γ-bisabolene (10.64%) and (E,E)-α-farnesene (8.19%), while (E)-nerolidol (92.21%) was the majority of the specimen M. multiflora (C). The sesquiterpenes seline-3,11-dien-6-α-ol (12.93%), eremoligenol (11%) and γ-elemene (10.70%) characterized the chemical profile of the EOs of E. florida. The fungal species were sensitive to the essential oil of M. multiflora (B) (9–11 mm), and the lowest inhibitory concentration (0.07%) was observed in the essential oil of M. multiflora (A) against the yeasts of C. famata. Fungicidal action was observed in the essential oils of M. multiflora (A) against C. famata, with an MIC of 0.78 µL/mL and 3.12 µL/mL; C. albicans, with an MFC of 50 µL/mL and M. multiflora (C) against C. albicans; and C. krusei, with a MFC of 50 µL/mL.
... Clove infusion has significantly reduced the count of proliferating cells and the count of apoptotic cells. Kouidhi et al. [58] have investigated the cytotoxic and anticancer activity of clove essential oil on normal cells (MRC-5) and cancer cells (A549, raw 269.7, HT29 and Hep2). ...
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Background Nowadays, researchers are moving toward a herbal approach to cancer treatment because of the harmful effects of synthetic anti-tumor drugs. The evaluation of active compounds with plant origin may help in the remedy of human illnesses in the future. These active compounds have direct or indirect curative efficacies on difficult to cure diseases such as cancer. Investigation of nanoforms of these active compounds is one of the curious topics of the scientific community. Main body Saffron and its components obtained from Crocus sativa , essential oils obtained from lavender, Syzygium aromaticum called cloves and Beta vulgaris are known for their anticancer effects. Nano-drugs are designed to increase the anticancer activity of plant-derived drugs. Herbal extracts operate very great in the production of nanoparticles. The aim is to ensure that only the nano-drug is delivered to the tumor site. Furthermore, nanoparticles have hazardous effects when analyzed at elevated doses, but this issue can be doped together with plant extracts. Short conclusions The nanocomposites (graphene oxide, solid lipid nano and nanoemulsion) of phytomolecules obtained from saffron, clove, lavender and red beet may be effective in minimizing these toxic effects. In the near future, detecting the anticancer molecular mechanisms of these naturally derived compounds and nanocomposites could contribute to further cancer research. Apart from these, these compounds and its nanocomposites could have antiviral effects against today's threat covid-19 virus. Consequently, more promising anticancer and antiviral agents would be discovered. Graphical abstract
... The cytotoxicity assay of clove essential oil on cancer cells (HT29, A549, Hep2, raw 264.7) and normal cells (MRC-5) was determined using MTT assay. Clove oil showed significant cytotoxic activities against all studied cancer cell lines with IC 50 ranging from 15.75 to 200 mg/ml (73). ...
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Cancer is the second leading cause of death with profound socio-economic consequences worldwide. Growing evidence suggests the crucial role of diet on cancer prevention and treatment. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) there is a major focus on contribution of special diet and foods to cancer management. In the present article, the cytotoxic and antitumor activities of several food items including plants and animal products recommended by TPM as anticancer agents are discussed. Strong evidence supports the anticancer effects of beetroot (Beta vulgris) and its major compound betanin, cinnamon and cinnamaldehyde, barley (H. vulgare) and its products, extra-virgin olive oil, black pepper (P. nigrum) and its piperine, grapes (V. vinifera) and its compound resveratrol, ginger and its compound 6-gingerol, whey protein, fish, and honey. However, additional pharmacological studies and clinical trials are needed to elucidate their molecular and cellular mechanisms of actions, frequency, and amount of consumption, possible adverse effects, and optimum preparation methods. Moreover, studying mechanisms of actions of the bioactive compounds present in the discussed food items can be helpful in identifying and development of new anticancer agents.
... Cytotoxic activity-Clove oil has cytotoxic property towards human fibroblastsand endothelial cells. [19] 14. Fungicidal activity-It has been seen that euginol has anti candidial effect in oral candidiasis [20] 15. ...
... After filling a dentinal cavity with ZOE temporary cements, low amounts of eugenol slowly diffuse through the dentin tubules and exert anti-inflammatory, immunemodulatory [32], antinociceptive effects on the dental pulp, and sensitive teeth [29,33,34] together with antibacterial and anticariogenic activities [35,36]. The anti-inflammatory effect of eugenol has been widely reported by several studies, being ascribed to the following mechanisms: (i) inhibition of the synthesis of inflammatory mediators by interference with the arachidonic acid metabolism [37], particularly via the cyclooxygenase pathway (decreased prostaglandins and thromboxanes) and less via the lipooxygenase pathway (decreased leukotrienes) [38][39][40], (ii) inhibition of neutrophil chemotaxis and decreased superoxide generation [41], and (iii) reduction of pain via inhibition of the periapical/intradental nerve activity [42,43]. ...
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These data provide convincing, albeit circumstantial, evidence that S. mutans, possibly S. sobrinus, and lactobacilli are human odontopathogens. As such, dental caries is a diagnosable and treatable infection. Aciduricity appears to be the most consistent attribute of S. mutans that can be associated with both its selection in stagnant areas and its cariogenicity. Other aciduric species such as S. sobrinus appear to be important primarily in smooth-surface decay and, as such, may be a cariogenic determinant when rampant decay occurs. Colonization by S. mutans occurs after tooth eruption, and if the fissures become colonized in their depths, then decay may be inevitable. However, if this colonization is delayed until the fissure depths are occupied by other bacteria, there is the possibility that decay will not occur or its occurrence will be greatly reduced. This understandingg of the ecology of S. mutans suggests that treatment strategies which interfere with the colonization of S. mutans may have a profound effect on the incidence of dental decay in human populations.
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A tetrazolium salt has been used to develop a quantitative colorimetric assay for mammalian cell survival and proliferation. The assay detects living, but not dead cells and the signal generated is dependent on the degree of activation of the cells. This method can therefore be used to measure cytotoxicity, proliferation or activation. The results can be read on a multiwell scanning spectrophotometer (ELISA reader) and show a high degree of precision. No washing steps are used in the assay. The main advantages of the colorimetric assay are its rapidity and precision, and the lack of any radioisotope. We have used the assay to measure proliferative lymphokines, mitogen stimulations and complement-mediated lysis.
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The antimicrobial activity of thymol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol alone or combined was tested by micromethods on eight oral bacteria. The compounds showed an inhibitory activity on seven microorganisms and a synergistic effect was observed with certain combinations. The four compounds can be used alone or combined, as eugenol and thymol, eugenol and carvacrol, thymol and carvacrol, during the treatment of oral infectious diseases.
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A crude MeOH extract of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) exhibited preferential growth-inhibitory activity against Gram-negative anaerobic periodontal oral pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia. By means of bioassay-directed chromatographic fractionation, eight active compounds were isolated from this extract and were identified as 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchromone 8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside, biflorin, kaempferol, rhamnocitrin, myricetin, gallic acid, ellagic acid, and oleanolic acid, based on spectroscopic evidence. The antibacterial activity of these pure compounds was determined against Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces viscosus, P. gingivalis, and P. intermedia. The flavones, kaempferol and myricetin, demonstrated potent growth-inhibitory activity against the periodontal pathogens P. gingivalis and P. intermedia.
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The antibacterial activity of selected fatty acids and essential oils was examined against two gram-negative (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia liquefaciens) and four gram-positive (Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium piscicola, Lactobacillus curvatus, and Lactobacillus sake) bacteria involved in meat spoilage. Various amounts of each preservative were added to brain heart infusion or MRS (deMan, Rogosa and Sharpe) agars, and the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for each organism. Essential oils were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography to determine the concentration of selected components commonly found in spices. B. thermosphacta, P. fluorescens and S. liquefaciens were not affected by fatty acids, and generally overcame the inhibitory effect of essential oils after 24 h of exposure. Among the fatty acids, lauric and palmitoleic acids exhibited the greatest inhibitory effect with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 250 to 500 micrograms/ml, while myristic, palmitic, stearic and oleic acids were completely ineffective. For essential oils, clove, cinnamon, pimento, and rosemary were found to be the most active. The 1/100 dilution of those oils inhibited at least five of the six tested organisms. A relationship was found between the inhibitory effect of essential oils and the presence of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde.
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Different bacteria were separated from saliva and teeth of cariogenic patients and identified by a variety of morphological and biochemical tests. Extracts of green tea strongly inhibited Escherichia coli, Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus mutans. The antibacterial effect of green and black tea extracts were compared with those of amoxicillin, cephradine and eugenol.
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A methanol extract from clove (Syzygium aromaticum) showed a suppressive effect of the SOS-inducing activity on the mutagen 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide (furylfuramide) in the Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 umu test. The methanol extract was re-extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. The hexane fraction showed a suppressive effect. Suppressive compounds in the hexane fraction were isolated by silica gel column chromatography and identified as trans-isoeugenol (1) and eugenol (2) by GC, GC-MS, IR, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Compounds 1 and 2 suppressed the furylfuramide-induced SOS response in the umu test. Compounds 1 and 2 suppressed 42.3 and 29.9% of the SOS-inducing activity at a concentration of 0.60 micromol/mL. These compounds were assayed with other mutagens, 4-nitroquinolin 1-oxide (4NQO) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). In addition, compounds 1 and 2 were assayed with aflatoxin B(1) (AfB(1)) and 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), which require liver metabolizing enzymes. These compounds showed suppressive effects of the SOS-inducing activity against furylfuramide, 4NQO, AfB(1), and Trp-P-1. To research the structure-activity relationship, methyl esters of 1 and 2 (1Me and 2Me) and o-eugenol (3), as compounds similar to 2, were also assayed with all mutagens. Compounds 1Me, 2Me, and 3 showed weak suppressive effects of the SOS-inducing activity against furylfuramide.
Article
An improved method of sample preparation was used in a microplate assay to evaluate the bactericidal activity levels of 96 essential oils and 23 oil compounds against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica obtained from food and clinical sources. Bactericidal activity (BA50) was defined as the percentage of the sample in the assay mixture that resulted in a 50% decrease in CFU relative to a buffer control. Twenty-seven oils and 12 compounds were active against all four species of bacteria. The oils that were most active against C. jejuni (with BA50 values ranging from 0.003 to 0.009) were marigold, ginger root, jasmine, patchouli, gardenia, cedarwood, carrot seed, celery seed, mugwort, spikenard, and orange bitter oils; those that were most active against E. coli (with BA50 values ranging from 0.046 to 0.14) were oregano, thyme, cinnamon, palmarosa, bay leaf, clove bud, lemon grass, and allspice oils; those that were most active against L monocytogenes (with BA50 values ranging from 0.057 to 0.092) were gardenia, cedarwood, bay leaf, clove bud, oregano, cinnamon, allspice, thyme, and patchouli oils; and those that were most active against S. enterica (with BA50 values ranging from 0.045 to 0.14) were thyme, oregano, cinnamon, clove bud, allspice, bay leaf, palmarosa, and marjoram oils. The oil compounds that were most active against C. jejuni (with BA50 values ranging from 0.003 to 0.034) were cinnamaldehyde, estragole, carvacrol, benzaldehyde, citral, thymol, eugenol, perillaldehyde, carvone R, and geranyl acetate; those that were most active against E. coli (with BA50 values ranging from 0.057 to 0.28) were carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, eugenol, salicylaldehyde, geraniol, isoeugenol, citral, perillaldehyde, and estragole; those that were most active against L monocytogenes (with BA50 values ranging from 0.019 to 0.43) were cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, citral, geraniol, perillaldehyde, carvone S, estragole, and salicylaldehyde; and those that were most active against S. enterica (with BA50 values ranging from 0.034 to 0.21) were thymol, cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, eugenol, salicylaldehyde, geraniol, isoeugenol, terpineol, perillaldehyde, and estragole. The possible significance of these results with regard to food microbiology is discussed.
Article
In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural substances, and some questions concerning the safety of synthetic compounds have encouraged more detailed studies of plant resources. Essential oils, odorous and volatile products of plant secondary metabolism, have a wide application in folk medicine, food flavouring and preservation as well as in fragrance industries. The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been known for many centuries. In recent years (1987-2001), a large number of essential oils and their constituents have been investigated for their antimicrobial properties against some bacteria and fungi in more than 500 reports. This paper reviews the classical methods commonly used for the evaluation of essential oils antibacterial and antifungal activities. The agar diffusion method (paper disc and well) and the dilution method (agar and liquid broth) as well as turbidimetric and impedimetric monitoring of microorganism growth in the presence of tested essential oils are described. Factors influencing the in vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils and the mechanisms of essential oils action on microorganisms are reported. This paper gives an overview on the susceptibility of human and food-borne bacteria and fungi towards different essential oils and their constituents. Essential oils of spices and herbs (thyme, origanum, mint, cinnamon, salvia and clove) were found to possess the strongest antimicrobial properties among many tested.
Article
Pears are highly perishable products, especially during the post-harvest phase, when considerable losses can occur. Among the fungal diseases, blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum, grey mould caused by Botrytis cinerea, Mucor rot caused by Mucor piriformis are common on pear fruits. Other (weak) pathogens like Phialophora malorum, Alternaria spp., and Cladosporium herbarum tend to infect wounds and senescent fruits. A post-harvest fungicide treatment can reduce decay but effectiveness decreases with the appearance of resistant strains. There is a clear need to develop new and alternative methods of controlling post-harvest diseases. The emerging technologies for the control of post-harvest fungal diseases are essentially threefold: application of antagonistic microorganisms, application of natural antimicrobial substances and application of sanitizing products. Two biological control products, Aspire (Candida oleophila I-182) (Ecogen, Langhorne, PA, USA) and Bio-Save 110 (Pseudomonas syringae) (EcoScience, Worcester, MA, USA; formerly Bio-Save 11) are currently registered in the USA for post-harvest application to pears. Other potential biocontrol agents have been isolated from fruit and shown to suppress post-harvest decay in pear. It is important that evaluation of these microorganisms be carried out in a product formulation because the formulation may improve or diminish antagonistic efficacy depending on the concentration of chemical product and the duration of exposure to the treatment. Plants produce a large number of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial effects on post-harvest pathogens. Detailed studies have been conducted on aromatic compounds, essential oils, volatile substances and isothiocyanates, with encouraging results. In particular, allyl-isothiocyanate used as a volatile substance, controls blue mould in 'Conference' and 'Kaiser' pear inoculated with a thiabendazole-resistant strain. Sanitizing products such as chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozone have considerable fungicidal activity against P. expansum and M. piriformis, depending on the concentration of chemical product and the duration of exposure to the treatment. Sanitizing solutions can be integrated easily with current handling and storage practices; however, further research is required to define the effective procedures better.
Article
The interaction between saliva-coated tooth surfaces and pathogenic bacteria is partly governed by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, providing a solid rationale for using chemical agents as part of a plaque-control routine. Chlorhexidine works in several ways. For example, it binds to salivary mucins on the bacterial cell membrane, and penetrates the plaque biofilm. Essential oil (EO) mouthwashes kill micro-organisms by disrupting their cell walls and inhibiting their enzymic activity. They prevent bacterial aggregation, slow multiplication and extract endotoxins. Recent studies have shown that bacterial phenotypes are altered when organisms change from a planktonic to a sessile state. This suggests that an effective mouthwash must also penetrate the plaque biofilm. Two studies have demonstrated the ability of an EO mouthwash to penetrate the plaque biofilm.
Article
Various chemical agents have been evaluated over the years with respect to their antimicrobial effects in the oral cavity; however, all are associated with side effects that prohibit regular long-term use. Therefore, the effectiveness of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf extract against plaque formation was assessed in males between the age group of 20-30 years over a period of 6 weeks. Present study includes formulation of mucoadhesive dental gel containing Azadirachta indica leaf extract (25 mg/g). A 6-week clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of neem extract dental gel with commercially available chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% w/v) mouthwash as positive control. Microbial evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli species was carried out to determine the total decrease in the salivary bacterial count over a period of treatment using a semi-quantitative four quadrant streaking method. The results of the study suggested that the dental gel containing neem extract has significantly (P<0.05) reduced the plaque index and bacterial count than that of the control group.
Article
The antifungal effect of the essential oil from Satureja montana L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lavandula hybrida Reverchon, Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merril and Perry, Origanum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and six chemotypes of Thymus vulgaris L. on Candida albicans growth were studied. The most efficiency was obtained with the essential oil from Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype (MIC 80% = 0.016 microL/mL and Kaff = 296 microL/mL). The presence in the culture medium of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype (0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 microg/mL) and amphotericin B involved a decrease of the MIC 80% of amphotericin B. In contrast, the combination of amphotericin B and low concentrations (0.00031-0.0025 microg/mL) of essential oil was antagonistic. The strongest decrease (48%) of the MIC 80% was obtained with medium containing 0.2 microL/mL of essential oil. These results signify that the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype potentiates the antifungal action of amphotericin B suggesting a possible utilization of this essential oil in addition to antifungal drugs for the treatment of mycoses.
Article
The antifungal activity of Eugenia cariophyllata essential oil and eugenol, its major constituent, on fungal strains isolated from onychomycosis was evaluated. The natural products presented prominent antifungal action with MIC of 1% and 4%, respectively.
Article
The use of multiple freeze (-20 degrees C)-thaw cycles in combination with isoeugenol and polysorbate 80 was investigated as a method for the reduction of numbers of Listeria monocytogenes cells in a bacteriological medium. Three freeze (1 h, -20 degrees C)-thaw cycles in the presence of isoeugenol at concentrations of 0, 100, and 300 ppm resulted in average L. monocytogenes reductions of 0.69, 2.65, and 3.3 log10 MPN (most probable number) per ml, respectively. Increasing the number of freeze-thaw cycles further decreased cell numbers, with reductions of nearly 5 log10 MPN/ml being obtained with six freeze-thaw cycles. Freeze-thaw cycles were effective in reducing cell numbers at isoeugenol concentrations down to 25 ppm. Rapid freezing rates with liquid nitrogen were found to be less effective in reducing numbers of L. monocytogenes cells. Two rapid freeze-thaw cycles in the presence of 100 ppm isoeugenol and polysorbate 80 resulted in a reduction of 1.45 log10 MPN/ml. Two freezing (-20 degrees C) cycles involving slow freezing and thawing rates with samples being held frozen for 6 h for each cycle resulted in reductions larger than those obtained with faster freezing rates. It was found that complete thawing in freeze-thaw cycles was not necessary to achieve bactericidal action. The application of multiple freeze-thaw cycles in combination with low concentrations of isoeugenol could effectively reduce numbers of L. monocytogenes cells in bacteriological media.
Article
Many volatile oils are known to possess antifungal properties and are potentially applicable as antimycotic agents. By studying the efficacy of essential oils against different pathogenic mycetes, we have evaluated the in-vitro inhibiting activity of some essential oils and their main constituents against a strain of Candida albicans. Sixteen commercial essential oils and forty-two pure constituents (alcohols, aldehydes, ketons, phenols and hydrocarbons), were tested by using a semisolid agar antifungal susceptibility (SAAS) method. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analyses of the oils tested were performed. The essential oils of Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon flexuosus showed maximum inhibitory activity (MIC = 500 ppm) after 7 days. According to the results of the examination of pure constituents, beta-phellandrene proved to be the most interesting component among cyclic monoterpenic hydrocarbons as it showed a strong activity (MIC = 50 ppm). The most active of phenols was carvacrol (MIC 100 ppm). The open-chain alcohol 1-decanol was the most active of alcohols at 50 ppm. Finally, among aldehydes, a strong activity was shown by trans-cynnamaldehyde (MIC 50 ppm).
Article
Eugenol is a major component of essential oil isolated from the Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae), which has been widely used as a herbal drug. In this study, we investigated the effects of eugenol on the cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis, and the putative pathways of its actions in human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) under the standard laboratory illumination. Eugenol-treated HL-60 cells displayed features of apoptosis including DNA fragmentation and formation of DNA ladders in agarose gel electrophoresis. We observed that eugenol transduced the apoptotic signal via ROS generation, thereby inducing mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), reducing anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2 level, inducing cytochrome c release to the cytosol, and subsequent apoptotic cell death. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that ROS plays a critical role in eugenol-induced apoptosis in HL-60, and this is the first report on the mechanism of the anticancer effect of eugenol.
Article
The use of spices and herbs, their essential oils or their active compounds as means of control of pathogens constitutes an alternative to chemical additives In the present study the antibacterial activities of cloves, thyme, oregano, rosemary and basil on Shigella have been established. Although in a model system in agar media addition of 1% basil could contribute to the 'hurdle' principle and delay outgrowth of Shigella sp. this was not confirmed in real food conditions: the presence of 1% basil did not affect growth of Shigella in potato puree at 22 degrees C or survival at 7 degrees C in spaghetti sauce. Thyme and essential oils and thymol and carvacrol showed inhibition of Shigella sp. in the agar well diffusion method (MIC 0.1-1.0%) and they have potential to be used as a desinfectant in the washing water e.g. in the process line of minimal processed vegetables. However, more studies combining sensoric properties with microbial analysis are needed to investigated the possible use of these compounds.
Article
The antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) of cinnamon (Cinnamon zeylanicum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), basil (Ocimum basillicum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), dill (Anethum graveolens), and ginger (Zingiber officinalis) was evaluated over a range of concentrations in two types of contact tests (solid and vapor diffusion). The EOs were tested against an array of four Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Listeria monocytogenes), four Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella choleraesuis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and three fungi (a yeast, Candida albicans, and two molds, Penicillium islandicum and Aspergillus flavus). The rationale for this work was to test the possibility of creating a protective atmosphere by using natural compounds that could extend the shelf life of packaged foodstuffs while minimizing organoleptic alterations. In the solid diffusion tests, cinnamon and clove gave the strongest (and very similar) inhibition, followed by basil and rosemary, with dill and ginger giving the weakest inhibition. The fungi were the most sensitive microorganisms, followed by the Gram-positive bacterial strains. The Gram-negative strain P. aeruginosa was the least inhibited. The composition of the atmosphere generated by the EOs, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), were determined using a disk volatilization method, in which no inhibition from rosemary or basil was observed. Cinnamon and clove, once again, gave similar results for every microorganism. As a general rule, MIC (fungi) < MIC (bacteria) with no clear differences between Gram-positive or -negative strains except for P. aeruginosa, which was not inhibited by any of the EOs in the vapor phase. The atmosphere generated from the EOs was analyzed by means of solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Differences among the volatiles in the EOs, which may be responsible for the differences in their antimicrobial performances, were found.
Article
The antimicrobial properties of volatile aromatic oils have been recognized since antiquity. Oregano and clove oils have been shown to possess a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. In this paper, the fungicidal action of these two essential oils was studied on the yeast model Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cell lysis was shown by the release of substances absorbing at 260 nm. In addition, scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed that the surface of treated cells by oregano and clove oils was significantly damaged.
Article
The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis and the most prevalent Candida species as therapy-resistant microorganisms to gutta-percha points containing root canal medications. Gutta-percha points containing calcium hydroxide (Calcium Hydroxide Plus Points), chlorhexidine diacetate (Activ Points), or calcium hydroxide-chlorhexidine combinations (CHX/Ca Combi Points) were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of pure cultures of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Enterococcus faecalis. Approximately 2 x 10(7) microorganisms per assay were suspended in diluted human serum and co-incubated with the gutta-percha points placed in Eppendorf tubes in an incubator for up to 2 weeks. A tube was removed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14 days, and then opened and microorganism suspensions were serially diluted in a sterile 0.9% NaCl solution. Aliquots of the dilution steps were streaked onto solid medium. After incubating the plates in an incubator at 37 +/- 1 degrees C for 48 hours, CFU numbers per milliliter of suspension were calculated. Calcium Hydroxide Plus Points or Activ Points did not exhibit sufficient antimicrobial or anticandidal activity for Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, or C. tropicalis within 14 days. Only Saccharomyces cerevisiae was susceptible to the calcium hydroxide or chlorhexidine diacetate containing gutta percha points. CHX/Ca Combi Points killed C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, and S. cerevisiae completely. However, E. faecalis and C. parapsilosis were resistant to CHX/Ca Combi points within 14 days. The results show the gutta percha points containing a mixture of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine diacetate have efficacies superior to calcium hydroxide or chlorhexidine diacetate alone against some microorganisms except E. faecalis and C. parapsilosis.
Article
Ethanolic and aqueous extracts from seven plant species used in Turkish traditional medicine were evaluated for in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities; Helleborus orientalis Lam. roots and herbs, Juglans regia L. leaves, Laurocerasus officinalis Roemer leaves, Nerium oleander L. dried and fresh flowers and leaves, Rhododendron ponticum L. leaves, Rubus hirtus Walds. et Kit aerial parts and Rubus sanctus Schreber aerial parts and roots. All the plant extracts, except the aqueous extract of Rubus hirtus, were shown to possess significant antinociceptive activity in varying degrees against p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal contractions in mice. However, only the ethanolic extracts of Helleborus orientalis roots, Juglans regia leaves, Laurocerasus officinalis leaves, Nerium oleander dried and fresh flowers, and Rhododendron ponticum leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in mice without inducing any gastric damage. Results of the present study confirmed the folkloric claim that all the selected materials to possess potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity.
Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay
  • D A Kunicka
D, Kunicka A (2003) Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Curr Med Chem 10:813–829 Loesche WJ (1986) Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay. Microbiol Rev 50:353–380
In vitro fungitoxicity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum Inhibitory effects of spices and herbs towards Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri. Meded Rijksuniv Gent Fak Landbouwkd