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Abstract and Figures

This article situates comic-based representations of teaching in the long history of tensions between theory and practice in teacher education. The article argues that comics can be semiotic resources in learning to teach and suggests how information technologies can support experiences with comics in university mathematics methods courses that (a) help learners see the mathematical work of teaching in lessons they observe, (b) allow candidates to explore tactical decision-making in teaching, and (c) support preservice teachers in rehearsing classroom interactions.
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Using comics-based representations of
teaching, and technology, to bring practice to
teacher education courses
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Abstract
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1. Introduction
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2. Evolving Relationships between Theory and
Practice in Teacher Preparation
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2.1. Teaching mathematics as a practice
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2.2. The central role of time in practices
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6. References
'
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:;<=>6"'?4&"#4(&/-4()'@-9#4()'-4'<(&6".(&/0 %'A290(&/-4'
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DQ'
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AK3(42/47'&6"'$-942(#/"%'-5'L/2"-'#"0-#2%'-5'3#(0&/0"*'?4'#"L/"J'(&'Teachers’-
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... In addition to standard videos, teacher educators have incorporated comic-based representations and animations (Herbst et al., 2011;Moreno & Ortegano-Layne, 2008) and, more recently, 360 videos. 360 video is a form of virtual reality (VR) in which special cameras record omnidirectionally. ...
... Further, the sample of these prior surveys are limited for speci c content foci; particularly regarding mathematics education (less than 1% of total sample: Arya et al., 2016;Christ et al., 2017). We considered both limitations signi cant, given the pioneering work by many mathematics teacher educators in studying and incorporating a wide range of media to represent pedagogical practice: comic-based representations (Herbst et al., 2011), wearable cameras (Sherin et al., 2008), 360 video (Buchbinder et al., 2021;Zolfaghari et al., 2020), and so forth. ...
... Use of animations and comics have emerged in teacher education over the past two decades (Earnest & Amador, 2019;Herbst et al., 2011;Moreno & Mayer, 1999;Moreno & Ortegano-Layne, 2008). With the rise of animation platforms such as GoAnimate and LessonSketch, teacher educators have been able to create classroom scenarios by scripting events that had happened in the past or were plausible to have happened. ...
Article
This preliminary study explored how many representations of standard videos, animations/comics, and 360 videos are being used in mathematics methods courses to teach future teachers. Drawing on knowledge from prior studies on standard videos, this study aimed to address the gaps in literature to encompass other representations that are being utilized and obtained. Analyses show that standard videos are the primary medium being used to teach future teachers in math methods, followed by animations/comics, and then 360 videos. Findings suggest that teacher educators are more likely to use a medium that they are more familiar with than a medium with greater perceived usefulness. Further, findings indicate that teacher educators perceived usefulness and frequency of use as not related to their level of familiarity with all representation types, suggesting more factors are at play.
... Dengan demikian, komik dapat dijelaskan sebagai pesan atau cerita yang disajikan secara visual dalam bentuk gambar berurutan dalam bingkaibingkai dengan dilengkapi teks narasi atau dialog dalam balon-balon kata. Tujuan utama komik adalah untuk menghibur pembaca dengan berita dan pandangan yang ringan dan lucu (Waluyanto, 2005;Herbts et al., 2010;Bolton-Gary, 2012;Amrizal, 2015;dan Ambaryani, 2017). ...
... Media ajar komik PETISI merupakan solusi yang dapat digunakan untuk membagikan dan memberikan informasi dan pesan-secara kreatif dan menarik untuk mahasiswa. Melalui komik cetak, yang dibuat, akan memberikan informasi tentang peran mahasiswa dalam gerakan anti-korupsi, yang seharusnya mereka lakukan didalam lingkungan keluarga, masyarakat, di kampus, di kelas, dan di tingkat nasional dengan memberikan pemahaman bahwa pentingnya karakter moral untuk mengimplementasikan gerakan anti-korupsi yang dibuat dalam kampanye melalui seminar, sosialisasi, dan dalam bentuk-bentuk kegiatan ekstrakurikuler lainnya (Waluyanto, 2005;Herbts et al., 2010;dan Ambaryani, 2017). ...
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ABSTRAKSI: Pengembangan media ajar mata kuliah PETISI, atau Pendidikan Anti-Korupsi, berbasis visual komik diharapkan dapat membantu mahasiswa dan generasi muda untuk menjadi agen perubahan, kaderisasi, dan pengenalan tindakan korupsi yang dilakukan mahasiswa dalam keseharian melalui media gambar yang mudah dipahami. Komik juga bisa digunakan untuk berbagai tujuan, dari adanya transformasi tujuan dimana komik bisa menjadi media yang informatif dan edukatif. Penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif yang mengacu pada Teori Pengembangan dengan pendekatan 4-D, yakni: Pendefinisian atau “Define”, Perancangan atau “Design”, Pengembangan atau “Develop”, dan Penyebaran atau “Disseminate”. Aspek efektivitas penggunaan media ajar PETISI ini cukup baik dan efektif untuk mengenalkan dan mengoptimalkan peran mahasiswa dalam gerakan anti-korupsi di Pulau Madura, Jawa Timur, Indonesia. Dengan diberikan media ajar PETISI, ianya lebih memudahkan mahasiswa untuk mendiskusikan segala bentuk gerakan anti-korupsi yang dapat dilakukan di lingkungan kampus. Perlu adanya peranan yang lebih spesifik terkait dengan bidang pembelajaran pendidikan anti-korupsi itu dimasukkan pada materi mata kuliah dan komik seperti apa yang akan disampaikan. Tindak lanjut terkait dengan komik PETISI adalah perlu adanya peran dan gerakan yang lebih mengilustrasikan mahasiswa di luar kampus.KATA KUNCI: Media Ajar; Pendidikan Anti-Korupsi; Komik; Peran Mahasiswa. ABSTRACT: “Development of Educational Media on PETISI or Anti-Corruption Education”. The development of teaching media on visual comic-based of PETISI, or Anti-Corruption Education, course is expected to help students and young generation to become agents of change, regeneration, and recognition of corruption acts done by students in everyday life through an easily understood media. Comics can also be used for various purposes, from the transformation of purpose itself where comics can be an informative and educative media. This research is descriptive refers to Development Theory that is 4-D approaches include: Define, Design, Development, and Disseminate. Effectivity aspects of the use of teaching media of PETISI is quite good and effective to introduce and optimize the role of students in the anti-corruption movement in the island of Madura, East Java, Indonesia. With the given teaching media of PETISI, it is easier for students to discuss all forms of anti-corruption movement that can be done in the campus environment. The need for a more specific role related to the field of learning anti-corruption education was included in the subject matter and what’s kind of the comics will be dessiminated. Follow up related to the comic of PETISI is necessary for the role and movement that illustrate the students in the outside of campus.KEY WORD: Teaching Media; Anti-Corruption Education; Comics; Students Role. About the Authors: Citra Nurmalita, M.Pd. dan Moh Ari Wibowo, M.Pd. adalah Dosen di STKIP PGRI (Sekolah Tinggi Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Persatuan Guru Republik Indonesia) Sampang, Jalan Raya Torjun Indah No.122 Sampang, Pulau Madura, Provinsi Jawa Timur, Indonesia. Untuk kepentingan akademik, penulis dapat dihubungi dengan alamat e-mails: citranurmalita@stkippgrispg.ac.id dan moh.ariwibowo@stkippgrispg.ac.id Suggested Citation: Nurmalita, Citra Moh Ari Wibowo. (2018). “Pengembangan Media Ajar PETISI atau Pendidikan Anti-Korupsi” in MIMBAR PENDIDIKAN: Jurnal Indonesia untuk Kajian Pendidikan, Volume 3(1), March, pp.31-44. Bandung, Indonesia: UPI [Indonesia University of Education] Press, ISSN 2527-3868 (print) and 2503-457X (online). Article Timeline: Accepted (November 25, 2017); Revised (January 30, 2018); and Published (March 30, 2018).
... In the third stage, pre-service teachers build upon their experiences to develop comic representations of scenarios about classes engaged with the interactive materials. The comics are developed in LessonSketch (Herbst et al. 2011), a media-rich environment that "allows creating experiences around classroom scenarios performed with cartoon characters in the form of a slide show" (Naftaliev 2018, p. 305). During the fourth stage, teachers engage in learning mathematics units with interactive materials and reflect on their own processes of learning. ...
... All participants had had some experience working with elementaryschool students in their required practicum prior to the course. As preparation for their future teaching, during the course the participants completed several assignments whose goal was to serve as "approximation of practice" (e.g., Grossman et al., 2009;Herbst et al., 2011); meaning, assignments that included affordances for enacting certain aspects of the complex practice of teaching in a reduced-complexity setting of a teacher education course. One of these assignments involved the writing of a scripting task (Zazkis & Herbst, 2018;Zazkis et al., 2013), where the participants were given a beginning of a hypothetical dialogue between students and their teacher, and were asked to extend the dialogue in a way they found mathematically and pedagogically fit. ...
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We explore the responses of 26 prospective elementary-school teachers to the claim “1/6.5 is not a fraction” asserted by a hypothetical classroom student. The data comprise scripted dialogues that depict how the participants envisioned a classroom discussion of this claim to evolve, as well as an accompanying commentary where they described their personal understanding of the notion of a fraction. The analysis is presented from the perspective of productive ambiguity, where different types of ambiguity highlight the prospective teachers’ mathematical interpretations and pedagogical choices. In particular, we focus on the ambiguity inherent in the aforementioned unconventional representation and how the teachers reconciled it by invoking various models and interpretations of a fraction. We conclude with a description of how the perspective of productive ambiguity can enrich teacher education and classroom discourse.
... Because the work of early elementary students is so often observed as students share verbally, Depict allows for the student work to be portrayed as it occurs over time, rather than projected onto a written artifact as in research that examines how teachers respond to students' written work (Kazemi & Franke, 2004). The storyboard also represents the multimodality of classroom interaction much better than a classroom transcript (Herbst, Chazan, Chen, Chieu, & Weiss, 2011). An example of a student sharing their strategy for solving a problem modeled as 8 + __ = 13 is shown in Figure 3.1 below. ...
Thesis
This dissertation is an investigation into the nature of teachers’ formative assessment responses to students as they learn addition and subtraction. Teachers’ background experiences, including classroom experience and professional learning opportunities, were considered as factors which could play a role in accounting for that variation, both when teachers responded to individual students’ thinking and when they determined goals for group discussion based on students’ thinking. In particular, this study investigates whether the responses from teachers who had been trained in a learning trajectory for early addition and subtraction reflected a quality that had the potential to extend student learning opportunities. Data for the study came in the form of practicing elementary teachers’ responses to a multimedia scenario-based survey. In a series of classroom scenarios, participant teachers were shown instances of students solving problems of early addition and subtraction. Those teachers were asked to describe those instances of student thinking, indicate how they would respond to the student, and what learning goal they would set forth for the student. After seeing two individual students’ solutions, the teachers were also asked to choose a problem and set an instructional goal for a discussion of the problem with a group of students that included the two just observed. Twenty-two teachers teaching at the time in elementary schools in a Midwestern state participated; some of those teachers had previously participated in professional development related to a learning trajectory for early addition and subtraction. The results of the study indicate that teachers’ classroom and professional learning experiences were associated with higher rates of teachers interpreting student thinking. In addition to this, those teachers who taught in an early elementary classroom and had training in a learning trajectory were more likely to describe responses to student thinking that showed a potential to extend learning opportunities. Some differences were found among the instructional goals set for the group discussion of addition and subtraction word problems: Some early elementary teachers were open to students’ use of multiple methods, and a small number of early elementary teachers who had been trained in the learning trajectory discussed those multiple methods by connecting them in discussion in ways that attended to the mathematical sophistication of those methods. The findings suggest that when supporting or studying teachers’ formative assessment practices, a content-specific lens may be useful for informing and analyzing those practices. In addition, the findings may provide insight into teachers’ mathematical knowledge for teaching and the measures used to determine quality of teaching responses.
... In addition to scripting tasks, approximations of practice used in teacher education include comics (e.g., Herbst et al., 2011), animations (e.g., Estapa et al., 2018), simulations (e.g., , coached rehearsals (Kazemi et al., 2016), and structured field experiences . Compared to rehearsals or field experiences, scripting tasks engage TCs in the work of teaching with a reduced degree of authenticity, though with other affordances in terms of usability and opportunities to focus on particular aspects of teaching. ...
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Practice-based pedagogies, such as representations of practice and approximations of practice, are increasingly common in mathematics teacher education. More needs to be known about how teacher candidates' (TCs') productions through such activities make visible the resources they bring to the work of teaching. In this paper, we highlight our use of “scripting tasks,” through which secondary mathematics TCs produced dialogues of classroom interactions and rationales for those scripts in response to a provided classroom scenario. We share how analyses of TCs' scripts and rationales can make visible a range of resources that TCs bring to the work of teaching—tools and practices, vision and dispositions of teaching, and understandings of students and content (Hammerness et al., 2005)—that inform how they respond to student contributions in whole-class discussions as a focal teaching practice. We illustrate a rich example and framework for analyzing TCs' responses to scripting tasks and offer implications for how such analyses can support teacher educators and researchers to make claims about TCs' learning and inform decisions about supports for TCs' development.
Article
Engaging students in scientific argumentation is a hallmark of high‐quality science instruction. Despite the importance of this practice, it is not a ubiquitous one within K‐12 classrooms since scientific argumentation is complex and difficult to learn how to do well. In this study, we examined similarities and differences in how preservice teachers (PSTs) and in‐service teachers (ISTs) facilitate an argumentation‐focused discussion with five upper elementary student avatars in an online, simulated classroom. Developing a better understanding of how science teachers at different stages of their career foster scientific argumentation will support teacher educators and researchers in designing more directed interventions to scaffold teacher learning of this complex practice. Findings showed that most teachers provided opportunities for students to engage in both argument construction and critique during these discussions. In addition, both PSTs and ISTs frequently prompted students to reference data or observations to engage in argument construction and were most likely to prompt students to agree or disagree and explain the reason for their agreement or disagreement to engage in argument critique. Finally, findings showed that ISTs used a wider variety of talk moves and used them more frequently in an integrated fashion throughout the discussions to engage the students in scientific argumentation. Implications for studying and promoting teacher learning of this complex teaching practice and for integrating simulated classrooms as practice‐based tools in science teacher education and professional development settings are discussed.
Thesis
In recent years, many efforts have been put into enhancing mathematics teaching towards improving student conceptual understanding and engagement. One of the complexities of this type of teaching lies in the elusive conceptualization used to describe teaching and learning processes. Terms such as “teaching for conceptual understanding” do not operationalize what needs to happen in the classroom for such "conceptual understanding" to be evident. This PhD dissertation draws upon the commognitive theory, which offers an alternative language for talking about teaching mathematics in the form of Teaching for Explorative Participation (TfEP). The main goal of this dissertation is to develop, implement and test a novel tool – The Realization Tree Assessment (RTA) as a visual mediator for communicating about TfEP. The RTA visually depicts the mathematical objects at the core of a task and the different realizations of these mathematical objects, while mapping whether narratives are authored by students, or teacher. This dissertation encompasses three studies. The first study aimed at developing the RTA as an assessment tool and examining its affordances. The second study applied the tool to a larger set of data and quantified the RTA image. The third study examined the affordances of the RTA as a pedagogical tool for adopting explorative practices. The three research questions are thus: 1. What can the RTA qualitatively exhibit regarding TfEP? 2. How can the RTA be quantified? And what can be displayed via this quantification regarding TfEP? 3. How can the RTA be used as a learning tool for pre-service teachers who get acquainted with TfEP? This research took place in the context of the TEAMS (Teaching Exploratively for All Mathematics Students) professional development project during which teachers videotaped themselves implementing in their classrooms a task describing the perimeter of a train of n hexagons. I collected 34 hexagon lessons and I coded them with the RTA. For the 1st RQ I qualitatively examined the differences between the RTA images and for the 2nd RQ I quantitatively analyzed them by statistical methods. For the 3rd RQ discourse analysis was performed on the narratives produced around RTAs by teachers. The first study qualitatively describes different RTA images that reveal different types of classroom discussions, which differ both in the level of student authority (students-centered vs. teacher-centered) and in the mathematical object students received opportunities to produce narratives about. The second study, which dealt with the quantification of the RTA images for examining large scale data, revealed through cluster analysis three types of opportunities for saming in the algebraic discourse: ritual, explorative and opportunities for saming in the informal algebraic discourse. The third study, which examined the RTA as a pedagogical tool, revealed that the RTA images enable teachers to refer both to the social aspects of teaching and to the mathematical objects at the core of the lesson. Overall, findings showed the usefulness of the RTA as a research and pedagogical tool in discussing, explicating and operationalizing the opportunities given to students for explorative participation in whole-classroom discussions.
Thesis
Studies have demonstrated that norms have considerable influence on human behaviour, in particular, that of teachers and students in mathematics classrooms. Studies have also shown that breaches of norms are frequently sanctioned, sometimes positively, but typically negatively. The present study builds on that literature by investigating two other potential consequences of breaching norms of mathematics instruction: that breaches of one norm of a given instructional situation may lead teachers to abandon their expectations that other norms of that situation will be followed and/or alter their attitudes towards breaches of those norms. I focus on the relationship between two hypothesized norms of geometric calculations with algebra (GCA) in U.S. high school geometry. One of them, the GCA-Figure norm, stipulates that the GCA problems that U.S. high school geometry teachers assign are expected to have geometrically-meaningful solutions. The other, the GCA-Theorem norm, stipulates that, when solving GCA problems, students are expected to document their algebraic work, to occasionally verbally state the geometric properties that warrant the equations that they set up, but not to document those properties. To confirm the existence of those norms and investigate whether breaches of the GCA-Figure norm would have either of the aforementioned consequences, I conducted a virtual breaching experiment. This consisted of randomly assigning U.S. high school mathematics teachers to one of three sets of multimedia questionnaires. Each questionnaire confronted the participant with a storyboard representation of a classroom scenario in which each of the two norms is either breached or followed. Their reactions to each storyboard were captured through a set of open- and closed-response items. Scores, based on coded open-responses and closed-responses, were compared across experimental conditions, using statistical models. This was done to predict whether experienced geometry teachers would be more likely to recognize decisions to breach either norm than decisions to follow it (evidence that the hypothesized norm exists), to deem decisions to breach it more acceptable than decisions to follow it, and/or to remark or disapprove of decisions to breach the GCA-Theorem norm when the GCA-Figure norm is followed than when it is breached. Results suggest that experienced geometry teachers’ expectations of GCA problems are well-represented by the above statement of the GCA-Figure norm, but that their expectations of solutions to GCA problems are slightly different than hypothesized. Namely, they suggest that experienced geometry teachers expect students to document their algebraic work, but not to share their geometric reasoning (verbally or in writing). In terms of attitudes towards breaches, results suggest that experienced geometry teachers are generally opposed to problems that breach the GCA-Figure norm, but do not provide much information about their attitudes towards students sharing their geometric reasoning, suggesting the need to develop alternate ways of measuring such attitudes in future research. Lastly, results suggest that experienced geometry teachers’ attitudes towards breaches of the GCA-Theorem norm are not dependent on whether the GCA-Figure norm is followed, but that such teachers may abandon their expectation that the GCA-Theorem norm will be followed when the GCA-Figure norm is breached. While the dissertation’s main contribution is to our understanding of norms of mathematics instruction, it also has implications for instructional improvement. Namely, the latter result suggests that changing even a very specific behaviour may alter whole systems of expectations—something that reformers must consider when anticipating what their recommendations will require.
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The use of technology affords opportunities for prospective teachers to engage in actions that are proximal to the work of teaching. The authors designed a task in which prospective teachers (n = 95) at four institutions created an animation or depiction of a classroom scenario using one of two technology platforms: GoAnimate or LessonSketch. They used a convergent mixed-methods design in which qualitative findings were quantitised and then examined statistically to determine what technological aspects prospective teachers used to create their approximations of practice, as well as how they perceived platform use. Findings indicate that the perception of being fun, having a learning curve and being difficult to use statistically affected evaluation. Two technological aspects also had a significant effect on perception: mathematical representation and altered visual field. Findings imply that prospective teachers’ experiences with technology use, coupled with how they use the tools, impact their appraisal of the platform.
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To improve classroom teaching in a steady, lasting way, the profession needs a knowledge base that grows and improves over time. In spite of the continuing efforts of researchers, archived research knowledge has had little effect on the improvement of practice in the average classroom. In this paper, we explore the possibility of building a useful knowledge base for teaching by beginning with practitioners’ knowledge. We outline the features of this knowledge that make it an attractive starting point and then identify the requirements that must be met for this knowledge to be transformed into a professional knowledge base for teaching. By reviewing briefly a bit of educational history, we offer an incomplete explanation for why the U.S. has no countrywide system that meets these requirements. We conclude by wondering if U.S. researchers and teachers can make different choices in the future to enable a system for building and sustaining a professional knowledge base for teaching.
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To improve classroom teaching in a steady, lasting way, the teaching profession needs a knowledge base that grows and improves. In spite of the continuing efforts of researchers, archived research knowledge has had little effect on the improvement of practice in the average classroom. We explore the possibility of building a useful knowledge base for teaching by beginning with practitioners’ knowledge. We outline key features of this knowledge and identify the requirements for this knowledge to be transformed into a professional knowledge base for teaching. By reviewing educational history, we offer an incomplete explanation for why the United States has no countrywide system that meets these requirements. We conclude by wondering if U.S. researchers and teachers can make different choices in the future to enable a system for building and sustaining a professional knowledge base for teaching.
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Edited and translated by Nicolas Balacheff, Martin Cooper, Rosamund Sutherland and Virginia Warfield. Excerpts available on Google Books (link below). For more information, go to publisher's website :http://www.springer.com.gate6.inist.fr/education+&+language/mathematics+education/book/978-0-7923-4526-8