Article

Effect of seaweed liquid extract on growth and yield of Triticum aestivum var. Pusa Gold

Article

Effect of seaweed liquid extract on growth and yield of Triticum aestivum var. Pusa Gold

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Abstract

The effect of seaweed liquid extract (SLE) of Sargassum wightii on germination, growth and yield of Triticum aestivum var. Pusa Gold was studied. Application of a lower concentration (20%) of SLE enhanced the percentage of seed germination, growth and yield, as measured by kernel number and seed dry weight. All growth and yield parameters were found to be highest at the 20% concentration SLE treatment. Total (100%) seed germination was observed for the 20% concentration SLE treatment, an 11% increase over the control. The present study demonstrated that seaweed liquid extract could serve as an alternative biofertilizer as is eco-friendly, cheaper, deliver substantial economic and environmental benefits to farmers. KeywordsBiofertilizer–Germination– Sargassum wightii –Phaeophyta

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... The importance of the seaweed or what is called marine algae as a crop stimulant has been well documented. It was reported that there are many advantages of the seaweed extract for crop growth such as IAA and IBA acids as well as amino and acids and vitamins [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. These benefits of the seaweed extract include human feeding, fodder fertiliser and many other benefits, and most importantly it is considered as a sustainable agricultural resource in the cropping systems [5]. ...
... It was reported that there are many advantages of the seaweed extract for crop growth such as IAA and IBA acids as well as amino and acids and vitamins [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. These benefits of the seaweed extract include human feeding, fodder fertiliser and many other benefits, and most importantly it is considered as a sustainable agricultural resource in the cropping systems [5]. Seaweed has many important regulators such as cytokinin that can enhance crop growth, and therefore, they are marketed as liquid biofertilizer [5]. ...
... These benefits of the seaweed extract include human feeding, fodder fertiliser and many other benefits, and most importantly it is considered as a sustainable agricultural resource in the cropping systems [5]. Seaweed has many important regulators such as cytokinin that can enhance crop growth, and therefore, they are marketed as liquid biofertilizer [5]. It can also enhance seed germination and improve yield quality and quantity due to its content of influential nutrition (Zewail, 2014). ...
Conference Paper
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Many literatures have reviewed and confirmed the importance of the seaweed extract in terms of improving crop yield. A field experiment was carried out during winter season at Izzah Heuristic Farm in Wasit Province, Iraq to examine the effect of combination of seaweed extract and micronutrient fertiliser on some wheat cultivars. Three cultivars were used in this experiment as well as four stimulator treatments: control (no added extract), seaweed extract, micronutrient, and a combination of both of them. A randomized completely blocked design (RCBD) with a factorial arrangement and three replicates was used in this experiment. The results showed that BHTH cultivar had significantly largest number of spikes, spike length, number of grains per spike, kernel weight and grain yield. The mixture treatment enhanced grain yield of all cultivars was better treatment compared with the others. In terms of the interactions, BHTH cultivars in the mixture treatment had the greatest grain yield and other components. It is clear that a combination of marine algae with micronutrient fertiliser can improve the crop grain yield and its component and can be recommended for farmers to enhance grain production. However, further study might be better step for further exploration about the impact of seaweed extract and micronutrient fertiliser with further rates and other crops or crop cultivars.
... [19] Seaweeds extracts are marketed as liquid fertilizers and biostimulants since they contain many growth regulators such as cytokinins, auxins, gibberellins, betaines, macronutrients such as Ca, K, P, and micronutrients like Fe, Cu, Zn, B, Mn, Co, and Mo, necessary for the development and growth of plant. [20] Seaweed fertilizer was found to be superior to chemical fertilizer because of high level of organic matter which aids in retaining moisture and minerals in the upper soil level available to the root. [21] Products with functional properties containing organic compounds derived from natural sources, rather than being a product of heavy organic synthesis are increasingly demanded by consumers. ...
... [47] C. cajan seaweed extract of the present study seaweed extracts treated on the vegetable crops of Abelmoschus esculentus and Lycopersicon lycopericum. Different concentrations (10,15,20,25 and 30%) of SLF were used and better results were obtained in lower doses (10,15,20). [48] Protein content of fenugreek seeds was increased by decrease the concentration of seaweed extracts. ...
... [47] C. cajan seaweed extract of the present study seaweed extracts treated on the vegetable crops of Abelmoschus esculentus and Lycopersicon lycopericum. Different concentrations (10,15,20,25 and 30%) of SLF were used and better results were obtained in lower doses (10,15,20). [48] Protein content of fenugreek seeds was increased by decrease the concentration of seaweed extracts. ...
... These results indicated that the microalgae extract exhibits growth-stimulating activities on beans, which is partially consistent with other studies. Kumar and Sahoo (2011) found that 20% of macroalgal seaweed extracts obtained by water boil extraction significantly increased the yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum var. Pusa Gold) by 22.86%, measured as dry weight of seeds. . ...
... The applied microalgae biomass was composed of 48% protein and 32% carbohydrates and 21% lipids (Chapter 6), thus enhancing the nitrogen and carbon content upon its application to the soil, leading to an increase in the soil microbial activity and potentially promoting plant growth. The presence of plant biostimulants (e.g., amino acids, polysaccharides and phytohormones) (Kumar & Sahoo, 2011) contained in the microalgae biomass could also have contributed to the positive effects on the beans growth. ...
... Hernández-Herrera et al. (2014) evidenced that tomato seeds (Solanum lycopersicum L.) presoaked in 0.2% of Ulva lactuca and Padina gymnospora (Kützing) Sonder extracts showed an enhanced germination rate and greater plumule and radicle length. The study of Kumar and Sahoo(Kumar & Sahoo, 2011) also showed that the application of 20% of Sargassum wightii Grev. extracts significantly enhanced the germination of wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum var. ...
... These results indicated that the microalgae extract exhibits growth-stimulating activities on beans, which is partially consistent with other studies. Kumar and Sahoo (2011) found that 20% of macroalgal seaweed extracts obtained by water boil extraction significantly increased the yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum var. Pusa Gold) by 22.86%, measured as dry weight of seeds. . ...
... The applied microalgae biomass was composed of 48% protein and 32% carbohydrates and 21% lipids (Chapter 6), thus enhancing the nitrogen and carbon content upon its application to the soil, leading to an increase in the soil microbial activity and potentially promoting plant growth. The presence of plant biostimulants (e.g., amino acids, polysaccharides and phytohormones) (Kumar & Sahoo, 2011) contained in the microalgae biomass could also have contributed to the positive effects on the beans growth. ...
... Hernández-Herrera et al. (2014) evidenced that tomato seeds (Solanum lycopersicum L.) presoaked in 0.2% of Ulva lactuca and Padina gymnospora (Kützing) Sonder extracts showed an enhanced germination rate and greater plumule and radicle length. The study of Kumar and Sahoo(Kumar & Sahoo, 2011) also showed that the application of 20% of Sargassum wightii Grev. extracts significantly enhanced the germination of wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum var. ...
... Also, same species of U. rigida from Portuguese cost showed similar result of lipid content (2%). Lipid content of other species of Ulva was also comparable to U. fasciata (1.83%), U. reticulata (2.03%), and U. lactuca (3.6%) [19,23]. Wong and Cheung [6] reported 14.6% lipid content of Ulva lactuca that was lower from the U. rigida, whereas Balbar et al. [16] reported 0.8-3.1% lipid content in U. rigida collected from Indian coastal line. ...
... Analysis revealed higher potassium (1.36 ± 0.08) and calcium (14.03 ± 3.46) content in S. wightii as compared to U. rigida. Potassium plays an important role in electrical conductivity and functioning of brain [21], whereas seaweed-sourced calcium (calcium carbonate) has been reported to be utilized more effectively as compared to cow milk's calcium [23]. U. rigida showed higher magnesium in comparison to S. wightii contain. ...
... Apart from iron, S. wightii and U. rigida had trace elements like chromium, manganese, and copper. Elemental bioaccumulation by seaweeds is affected by season, thallus age, pH, habitat, and exposure to residential and industrial effluents [23]. In the present study, S. wightii showed lower amounts of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and copper as compared to that reported by Murugaiyan and Sivakumar [22] and Syad et al. [21] for S. wightii collected from Gulf of Mannar, India. is variation could be due to season, time of collection, climatic factors, etc. Ulva rigida showed slightly lower amounts of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, and copper as compared to the same species of Ulva obtained from northwest Iberian, Spain and Portuguese coast [24]. ...
Article
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Usage of seaweeds as a functional food/food ingredient is very limited due to paucity of scientific information about variations in the nutritional composition of seaweeds under diverse climatic conditions. Sargassum wightii and Ulva rigida seaweeds are found abundantly on the Southern Indian coastline and were thoroughly evaluated in this work. Crude fiber and lipid of S. wightii were higher (24.93 ± 0.23% and 3.09 ± 0.41%, respectively) as compared to U. rigida; however, U. rigida had higher crude protein content (27.11 ± 0.62%). Evaluation of mineral and CHNS content indicated that the concentration of potassium, magnesium, and calcium was 1.36 ± 0.08 mg/g, 8.39 ± 0.80 mg/g, and 14.03 ± 3.46 mg/g, respectively, that was higher in the S. wightii, whereas U. rigida contained higher value of iron, carbon, and sulphur (0.70 ± 0.13 mg/g, 37.72 ± 4.63%, and 2.61 ± 0.16%, respectively). Swelling capacity (19.42 ± 0.00 mL/g DW to 22.66 ± 00 mL/g DW), water-holding capacity (6.15 ± 0.08 g/g DW to 6.38 ± 0.14 g/g DW), and oil-holding capacity (2.96 ± 0.13 g/g DW) of U. rigida were significantly (p < 0.05) higher as compared to S. wightii. It was observed from DSC thermograms that S. wightii can be safely processed for food formulations even at a temperature of 134°C. e thermograms also revealed changes in the sulphated polysaccharide (fucoidan) profile due to the presence of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups with denaturation of proteins. TGA of S. wightii and U. rigida showed degradation temperature within the range of 200-300°C due to divergent polysaccharide compositions. FTIR spectroscopy suggested the presence of phenolic groups in both seaweeds (at 1219 cm −1). Results of the study suggested that the manufacturing of functional food products from seaweeds could be beneficial and may aid in social upliftment of cultivators/fishermen.
... In addition, analyses of the chemical composition of beach wrack, collected in two coastal areas in northwest Spain, also showed high levels of K, Ca and Na (Villares et al. 2016). Similar trends in the mineral composition of brown seaweeds have also been reported by Kumar and Sahoo (2011) and Rodrigues et al. (2015). Given the marine origin of wrack, information regarding Na content is particularly important to assess the suitability and quality of using this residue as a plant biostimulant for agricultural purposes, without causing problems of salinisation. ...
... Moreover, the results of this study suggest that supplementing the medium with an aqueous extract of wrack, especially in concentrations of 5.0 and 7.5 g L −1 , was beneficial for the biomass production of the seedlings. Indeed, similar findings have been reported by other researchers, who have observed stimulation of shoot growth in cabbage (Lola-Luz et al. 2013) and wheat (Kumar and Sahoo, 2011) grown under conditions to promote homeostasis after SWE application. As mentioned, the sugar content of the wrack was lower than that observed in other studies. ...
Article
Full-text available
Plant biostimulants such as seaweed extracts, present a sustainable alternative to agrochemicals. Moreover, the accumulation of beach-cast seaweed (wrack), due to climate change and anthropic pressures, is expected to increase in the coming decades. Thus, from a perspective of circular economy, based on the valorisation of an organic residue, this study aimed at achieving an elemental and biochemical characterisation of beach wrack and understanding the effects of an aqueous extract prepared from this residue on the mitigation of metal-induced stress, using barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as a model. The quantification of wrack’s macro- and micronutrients showed that K, Ca and Na were the most abundant elements, being this composition similar to that of other organic fertilisers. Furthermore, despite the studied wrack having lower values of photosynthetic pigments, amino acids and sugars, higher amounts of phenols and flavonoids (8.35 ± 0.24 and 3.95 ± 1.22 mg g−1 dry matter respectively) were detected when compared to freshly collected seaweeds. This work highlighted that wrack showed potential as a fertiliser—through increasing root biomass (63%) and leaf biometry (up to 45%) in plants treated with 5.0 and 7.5 g L−1 wrack extract alone—also being a possible cost-effective, eco-friendly and sustainable biostimulant to mitigate the phytotoxic effects of Cu, since plants treated with 7.5 g wrack L−1 showed an increase of 34% in leaf length, when compared to seedlings exposed only to Cu.
... Як наслідок -збільшення проникності клітинної мембрани коренів, покращення проникнення до рослин мінеральних елементів живлення ґрунтового розчину. Крім того, завдяки використанню стимуляторів росту прискорюється поглинання кисню рослинами, що своєю чергою посилює фотосинтез та фотосинтетичну активність агроценозів зернових культур, що в результаті призводить до підвищення їхньої врожайності [1,19]. ...
... Статистична обробка отриманих результатів свідчить, що на продуктивність фотосинтезу посівів ячменя найбільший вплив здійснюють такі чинники, як умови років дослідження, варіант обробки, а також взаємодія сорту та року, сорту та варіанту обробки [19]. ...
Article
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Своєчасне та надійне прогнозування врожайності зернових культур є головною умовою ефектив-ного управління врожаєм. У цьому дослідженні оцінено вплив природних стимуляторів росту Епін-екстра, Циркон та Бішофіт на тривалість основних фаз вегетації ячменю ярого сортів Геліос, Вакула та Парнас української селекції. Зважаючи на поставлену мету, протягом трьох років (2017–2019 рр.) були проведені польові дослідження, орієнтовані на з’ясування найбільш ефективного стимулятору росту для вирощування різних сортів ячменю ярого в умовах нестійкого зволоження. Встановлено, що передпосівна обробка насіння та обприскування посівів у фазі кущення цими сти-муляторами призводить до скорочення фаз вегетації та посилення фотосинтетичної активності посівів культури. Дослідження проводили у виробничих умовах ФГ «Горобець С. Г.» Решетилівського району Полтавської області. Оцінювалися фактори впливу стимуляторів росту та природнього мінералу бішофіт на чисту продуктивність фотосинтезу, фотосинтетичний потенціал посівів ячменю ярого та площу листкової поверхні рослин ячменю. Обробку стимуляторами росту проводили перед посівом безпосередньо на насіння та обприскування посівів у фазі кущення. Стиму-лятори Епін-екстра та Циркон використовували в нормі 50 г/га, а Бішофіт – 2 л/га. При обробці стимуляторами росту посівів ячменю ярого на чорноземах типових найкращі показники чистої про-дуктивності фотосинтезу були в сортів ячменю ярого після обробки їх 1 % розчином бішофіту. Порівняно з контролем у варіантах з використанням стимуляторів скорочувалися тривалість веге-таційного періоду та настання відповідних фаз розвитку. Максимальний ефект спостерігали при використанні 1 % водного розчину Бішофіту. Обробка посівів цим препаратом сприяла збільшенню площі асиміляційної площі листкової поверхні рослин на 11,1 %, величини фотосинтетичного потен-ціалу – на 5,7 % та продуктивності фотосинтезу посівів – на 10 %. При обприскуванні посівів ячменю ярого на дерново-підзолистому ґрунті у фазі кущіння регуляторами росту Епін-екстра, Циркон і Бішофіт скорочувалась тривалість фаз розвитку рослин і вегетаційний період на 2–4 дні, що дає змогу раніше звичайного терміну почати збирання ячменю ярого на зерно.
... Concerning the effect of sonicated extracts on germination of watercress seeds, results obtained in this work in general supported that the elongation of the radicle is lower when the concentration of the sonicated extracts of cyanobacteria and microalgae increases. This agrees with results published by other authors that confirmed the positive effect of the application of cyanobacteria at low extract concentrations (Dmytryk et al. 2014;Aghofack-Nguemezi et al. 2015;Godlewska et al. 2019), as well as the phytotoxic effect of excessively high concentrations of seaweed extracts on seed germination (Kumar and Sahoo 2011;Hernández-Herrera et al. 2013). Some authors have shown that the immersion of seeds in extracts of cyanobacteria and microalgae can improve their quality, by stimulating the germination and root elongation (Kumar and Sahoo 2011;Hernández-Herrera et al. 2013;Ibrahim 2016;Barone et al. 2018). ...
... This agrees with results published by other authors that confirmed the positive effect of the application of cyanobacteria at low extract concentrations (Dmytryk et al. 2014;Aghofack-Nguemezi et al. 2015;Godlewska et al. 2019), as well as the phytotoxic effect of excessively high concentrations of seaweed extracts on seed germination (Kumar and Sahoo 2011;Hernández-Herrera et al. 2013). Some authors have shown that the immersion of seeds in extracts of cyanobacteria and microalgae can improve their quality, by stimulating the germination and root elongation (Kumar and Sahoo 2011;Hernández-Herrera et al. 2013;Ibrahim 2016;Barone et al. 2018). In this sense, the results described here are promising in relation to the potential use of microalgae and cyanobacterial extracts in seed biopriming techniques. ...
Article
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Microalgae and cyanobacteria could play an important role in crop protection, since they produce bioactive substances that promote plant growth and/or trigger the plant resistance mechanisms. The present study focuses on the control of bacterial canker caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis on tomato plants by using sonicated extracts from cyanobacteria and microalgae of the genera Leptolyngbya, Nostoc, Chlorella, and Scenedesmus. For the development of this study, 8 strains were firstly tested for their capacity to inhibit the growth of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in vitro, as well as to produce cytokinins and salicylic acid. In order to discard those more phytotoxic strains, the germination index was also estimated in watercress seeds. Scenedesmus-677 and Leptolyngbya-1267 strains were selected in this first phase based on their pesticide and phytostimulant capacity in vitro. Subsequent bioassays on tomato seedlings showed that root application of Scenedesmus-677 could be more aimed at controlling the disease caused by C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, while foliar and root application of Leptolyngbya-1267 seems to be more related to the strengthening of the plant through the salicylic acid route. These preliminary results could serve as the basis for a deeper characterization of the biopesticidal and biostimulant effect of both strains, as well as to reveal the benefits derived from the combination of both capacities.
... Then, the stock liquid was diluted with distilled water to concentrations of 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%. Both liquid Extracts "A" and "B" were stored at 4˚C until further use [27]. ...
... In essence, plants use this sufficient supply of nutrients to form organs and tissues, resulting in increased yields. Based on the yield data from this study, similar results were also observed in other crop species, where seaweed treatment resulted in increased yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum) upon application of 20% extracts of Sargassum wightii [27] and where maximum soybean (G. max) yields occurred in response to the application of 15% extracts of the seaweed K. alvarezii [16]; moreover, positive results concerning the growth and yield of rice in response to the application of aqueous extracts of Hydroclathrus spp. ...
Article
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Mass proliferation and accumulation of the green macroalga Ulva reticulata are problems in coastal areas and affect other ecosystems, such as those involving seagrasses. In the absence of any intervention, the decomposition of these macroalgae over time can disrupt the balance of recipient ecosystems. Attention has been given to the potential use of U . reticulata as a supplier of nutrients for crop species such as tomatoes as a possible solution to the buildup of this unusable seaweed species, which is usually left to decompose in affected seagrass ecosystems; this is the case in the Merambong seagrass meadow in the Sungai Pulai estuary in Gelang Patah, southwestern Johor, Malaysia. We analyzed the macro- and micronutrient contents in U . reticulata to determine nutrient availability. We also performed greenhouse studies to test the effects of crude extracts from dried U . reticulata -Extract “A” and fresh U . reticulata -Extract “B” on plant growth, total yield, and quality vine-ripened fruits. Compared to other seaweed extracts used as plant growth promoters, U . reticulata extracts have higher nitrogen (N), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) contents. The application of 30% Extracts “A” and “B” and 50% Extracts “A” and “B” significantly affected tomato plant height. However, extract concentrations that promoted plant height and hastened flowering and fruiting did not increase total fruit yields. Both treatments that positively affected tomato plant height and hastened flowering and fruiting resulted in increased contents of total soluble solids (TSS), beta-carotene, lycopene, ascorbic acid and total titratable acidity (TTA) in the vine-ripened fruits. Agronomically, the application of 5% Extracts “A” and “B”, 10%-20% Extracts “A” and “B”, and 50% Extract “A” doubled the total yield compared to those of the control, and 40% Extract “A” resulted in the highest total fruit yield. In general, tomato plants responded well to Extract “A” than Extract “B” and presented good total fruit yield and quality.
... Hernández-Herrera et al. (2014) evidenced that tomato seeds (Solanum lycopersicum L.) presoaked in 0.2% of Ulva lactuca L. and Padina gymnospora (Kützing) Sonder extracts showed an enhanced germination rate and greater plumule and radicle length. The study of Kumar and Sahoo (2011) also showed that the application of 20% of Sargassum wightii Grev. extract significantly enhanced the germination of wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum var. ...
... The results of this study indicated that the microalgae extract exhibits growth-stimulating activities on beans, as shown by the significant increase of fresh and dry weight of plants at 1% of Se-enriched microalgae extract application by foliar spray (Fig. 5), which is partially consistent with other studies. Kumar and Sahoo (2011) found that 20% of macroalgae seaweed extract obtained by water boil extraction significantly increased the yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum var. Fig. 9 Evolution of the selenium concentration in the pore water of soil amended with selenium-enriched microalgae over the growth period of beans. ...
Article
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This study assessed selenium (Se)-enriched microalgae biomass produced in a pilot-scale raceway pond treating domestic wastewater and an extract thereof as biostimulant and biofertilizer. After producing the Se-enriched microalgae in a raceway pond treating domestic wastewater, the effect of Se-enriched microalgae biomass and an extract thereof on seed germination, growth, and yield of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was studied by conducting a germination test and foliar and soil applications in pot experiments. Furthermore, the potential of the Se-enriched microalgae dry biomass and extract to elevate the Se concentration of beans, leading to a biofortified crop, was also assessed in a pot experiment. Presoaking seeds in the Se-enriched microalgae extract at low concentration (1%) enhanced their germination, as measured by the significant increase of seedling length and vigor index. Application of the Se-enriched microalgae extract as foliar spray was more effective in stimulating the growth of beans and increasing the Se concentration in the seeds compared to its application as soil drench. Foliar spray resulted in a 3.5 times increase of the dry biomass of the seeds (at 1%) and 1.8 times Se increment in the seeds (at 5%). Additionally, amendment of the soil with Se-enriched microalgae biomass (at 5%) enhanced the growth of beans (3.2 times for seeds) and Se concentration in the bean plants (1.8 times for seeds), simultaneously. These results indicate that microalgae cultivated in Se-rich wastewater could be used as a microalgae-based biofertilizer or biostimulant to improve the bean seed yield and the Se content in the beans, leading to beans with a higher market value. This may also offer an environmental-friendly and sustainable approach to biofortify food crops in Se-deficient regions.
... Organic water-soluble nutrient was extracted from the waste seaweed Sargassum wightii, which has been reported to increase vegetation yield as it contains growth regulators such as auxins, gibberellins, cytokinin and micronutrients [13]. Nutrient solution at 20% concentration was selected for application based on reported increase in root architecture [43]. Based on the chilled mirror technique, the measured osmotic suction corresponding to the organic nutrient solution was less than 0.1 MPa. ...
... Organic water-soluble nutrient was extracted from the waste seaweed Sargassum wightii, which has been reported to increase vegetation yield as it contains growth regulators such as auxins, gibberellins, cytokinin, and micronutrients [13]. Nutrient solution at 20% concentration was selected for application based on reported increase in root architecture [43]. Based on the chilled mirror technique, the measured osmotic suction corresponding to the organic nutrient solution was less than 0.2 MPa. ...
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Critical suction ranges for plants upon drought stress are essential for devising precision irrigation schemes in de-desertification measures in arid urban regions. The objective of the current study is to develop a novel framework for drought stress evaluation, considering measured changes in photosynthetic leaf parameters with root zone soil suction. A native grass species Axonopus compressus was grown in three different growth media—bare sand, sand with periodic organic nutrient treatment and sand amended with 5% biochar for 56 days, followed by continued drought. The corresponding grass leaf response of stomatal conductance (SC), quantum photosynthetic efficiency (QPE), effective photochemical quantum yield, i.e. Y(II), and maximum photochemical quantum yield, i.e. (Fv/Fm), were measured. The threshold suction at around 10 kPa for all treatment types indicates the state at which an initial drop in transpiration occurred, marked by significant change in SC, QPE and Y(II). A new terminology termed as “tipping suction” was coined to describe the condition wherein the grass reaches a “life or death state”, a stage at which the grass could progress to permanent wilting or return to sustenance. This stage is marked by a rapid decrease of Y(II), and the tipping suction ranging between 55 and 200 kPa is dependent on soil water retention capacity and the plant root biomass. The tipping suction differs from the permanent wilting point wherein complete suppression of Fv/Fm occurred. This study suggests that it is ideal to calculate plant-available water content by considering threshold suction and tipping point for maintaining optimum growth and resist plant mortality, respectively.
... Seaweeds can be used for many agricultural applications including biofertilizers, soil conditioners, and enhancers because of their high quantities of micro-and macronutrients, vitamins, amino acids, and growth regulators (Arioli, Mattner, & Winberg, 2015;Kumar & Sahoo, 2011;N'Yeurt & Iese, 2015a). Seaweed extracts represent a major opportunity to significantly enhance crop production and resistance to stress and disease (Arioli et al., 2015). ...
... This activity was may be due to the presence of compounds that are closely related to plant growth promoters such as cytokinins, auxins, micro and macro nutrients in the polysaccharide extract (Khan et al. 2009). Similarly, Kumar and Sahoo (2011) reported that seaweed polysaccharide extracts influenced the overall growth of Triticum aestivum and increased plant growth at 11%. Our findings are in contrast with the results of Thirumaran et al. (2009), who reported that the maximum shoot length of 38.7 ± 0.655 cm was observed at 20% of seaweed liquid fertilizer. ...
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The growth-promoting activity of the sulfated polysaccharides isolated from the red alga Halymenia dilatata was evaluated on the yield of mung bean Vigna radiata (L.). The heterogeneous structure of H. dilatata polysaccharide containing α-D-mannuronic acid, (1–6)-d-linked galactons, and sulfate complex was detected by FTIR and 13C NMR. Mung bean seeds were primed with different concentrations (0–2% w/v) of sulfated polysaccharide extract and seeds treated with 1.5% polysaccharide showed maximum 90% germination. The seedlings treated with 1.5% of polysaccharide recorded the maximum shoot length (28.52 cm), root length (16.54 cm), leaf area (28.25 mm2), fresh weight (0.93 g), and dry weight (0.49 g) Significantly (P < 0.05) higher amounts of total chlorophylls, carbohydrate, and protein were detected in the 1.5% polysaccharide-treated plants compared to the control. Furthermore, the number of flowers (15), pod length (7.9 cm), pod weight (0.41 g), and number of seeds (14) per pod were also significantly increased in the 1.5% polysaccharide-treated plants. Hence, our investigation showed that the application of H. dilatata polysaccharide extract could be a potent and eco-friendly biostimulant for improving mung bean growth and yield.
... This is accordance with the previous study done by Ferreira et al. (2019) , where T. obliquus grown in brewery wastewater also showed a promising effect on barley seeds. In wheat shoots, the microalgae had a negative effect which could also be explained by the reasons presented before regarding the high concentration of microalgae in the present study, just like showed by Kumar and Sahoo (2011) for Triticum aestivum var. Pusa Gold (wheat) seeds treated with seaweed extract at concentrations above the optimum. ...
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Pig farming generates highly polluting wastewaters which entail serious environmental issues when not adequately managed. Microalgae systems can be promising for cost, energy and environment-efficient treatment of piggery wastewater (PWW). Aside from clean water, the produced biomass can be used as biostimulants and biopesticides contributing to a more sustainable agriculture. Three microalgae (Tetradesmus obliquus, Chlorella protothecoides, Chlorella vulgaris) and one cyanobacterium (Synechocystis sp.) were selected after a preliminary screening in diluted wastewater (1:20) to treat PWW. The nutrient removals were 62-79% for COD (chemical oxygen demand), 84-92% for TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen), 79-92% for NH4⁺ and over 96% for PO4³⁻. T. obliquus and C. protothecoides were the most efficient ones. After treating PWW, the produced biomass, at 0.5 g L⁻¹, was assessed as a biostimulant for seed germination, root/shoot growth, and pigment content for tomato, watercress, cucumber, soybean, wheat, and barley seeds. We observed an overall increase on germination index (GI) of microalgae-treated seeds, owing to the development of longer roots, especially in T. obliquus and C. vulgaris treatments. The microalgae treatments were especially effective in cucumber seeds (75-138% GI increase). The biopesticide activity against Fusarium oxysporum was also evaluated at 1, 2.5 and 5 g L⁻¹ of microalgae culture. Except for Synechocystis sp., all the microalgae tested inhibited the fungus growth, with T. obliquus and C. vulgaris achieving inhibitions above 40% for all concentrations.
... Unprocessed A. nodosum and its alkaline extracts have been widely used as a biostimulant in terrestrial agricultural production for a wide variety of crop species (MacKinnon et al., 2010;Craigie, 2011;Spann and Little, 2011). Other authors have reported on the direct benefits from applications of various extracts of seaweeds on crop performance such as (a) enhanced root vigor (Crouch and Van Staden, 1992), (b) increased leaf chlorophyll content (Blunden et al., 1996), (c) increased number of leaves (Rayirath et al., 2008), (d) improved fruit yield (Arthur et al., 2003;Kumar and Sahoo, 2011;Kumari et al., 2011), (e) heightened flavonoid content (Fan et al., 2011), and (f) enhanced vegetative propagation (Leclerc et al., 2006). However, more substantial and significant improvements associated with the applications of extracts of seaweeds include improved tolerances toward abiotic stresses, including drought (Shukla et al., 2018;Zhang and Ervin, 2004;Spann and Little, 2011), salinity (Shukla et al., 2019), ion toxicity (Mancuso et al., 2006), freezing stress , and high temperature (Zhang and Ervin, 2008). ...
Chapter
Most of the world’s seaweed-derived extracts used for their biostimulatory/bioeffector properties for plants (i.e., abiotic and biotic stress reduction) are manufactured from brown algae, generally harvested from wild populations, or collected as storm-cast (e.g., Ascophyllum, Durvillaea, Ecklonia, Laminaria/Saccharina, Sargassum, etc.). Extracts of seaweeds have been applied for their phyconomic activities, including the micropropagation and cultivation of the red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii. These uses are increasingly important for the future success of sustainable, global, marine (blue) circular economies whereby applications of extracts have demonstrable biostimulatory/bioeffector properties for the benefits of mass cultivated, commercial seaweeds, thereby mirroring their use for land plants.
... Unprocessed A. nodosum and its alkaline extracts have been widely used as a biostimulant in terrestrial agricultural production for a wide variety of crop species (MacKinnon et al., 2010;Craigie, 2011;Spann and Little, 2011). Other authors have reported on the direct benefits from applications of various extracts of seaweeds on crop performance such as (a) enhanced root vigor (Crouch and Van Staden, 1992), (b) increased leaf chlorophyll content (Blunden et al., 1996), (c) increased number of leaves (Rayirath et al., 2008), (d) improved fruit yield (Arthur et al., 2003;Kumar and Sahoo, 2011;Kumari et al., 2011), (e) heightened flavonoid content (Fan et al., 2011), and (f) enhanced vegetative propagation (Leclerc et al., 2006). However, more substantial and significant improvements associated with the applications of extracts of seaweeds include improved tolerances toward abiotic stresses, including drought (Shukla et al., 2018;Zhang and Ervin, 2004;Spann and Little, 2011), salinity (Shukla et al., 2019), ion toxicity (Mancuso et al., 2006), freezing stress , and high temperature (Zhang and Ervin, 2008). ...
Chapter
Biostimulants, in general, and seaweed extracts, in particular, have been progressively accepted into agronomic programs over the past 25 years. Products that were once considered “snake oil” or ineffective elixirs have steadily secured increasingly larger portions of the agricultural products market. This progression only occurred through collective and concerted efforts to analyze and fully investigate the efficacies of these products by academic, government, and industrial groups alike. This has resulted in an abundance of irrefutable, peer-reviewed science leading to market legitimacy. Not only has research demonstrated multiple benefits to crop management but also has taken further steps to identify synergistic products which when applied together in formulations or tank mixtures, elicit reliable positive responses on crop growth, health, yield, and/or quality.
... It is reported that these extracts act as stimulants in order to promote plant growth under normal and stressed conditions. Extraction is done mostly by autoclaving it in distilled water (Kumar and Sahoo 2011), or in alkali solutions (Fan et al. 1993). These extracts, stimulates seed germination and root development, also enhance the frost resistance, nutrient uptake and having antifungal and antibacterial properties against certain phytopathogenic fungi (Farid et al. 2009), bacteria (Alves et al. 2016) insect and other pests (Asha et al. 2012). ...
Book
In this monograph, the core elements of multidisciplinary bioremediation practices are addressed and environmental pollutants which can be effectively remediated using weeds is focused upon. Weeds plants can easily grow in waste dumping sites with their rapidly colonizing ability. The contents include recent results in bioremediation and focuses on the current trend of introduction of potentials of weeds in bioremediation practice. This volume will be a useful guide for researchers, academics and scientists.
... It is reported that these extracts act as stimulants in order to promote plant growth under normal and stressed conditions. Extraction is done mostly by autoclaving it in distilled water (Kumar and Sahoo 2011), or in alkali solutions (Fan et al. 1993). These extracts, stimulates seed germination and root development, also enhance the frost resistance, nutrient uptake and having antifungal and antibacterial properties against certain phytopathogenic fungi (Farid et al. 2009), bacteria (Alves et al. 2016) insect and other pests (Asha et al. 2012). ...
Chapter
Weed is defined as ‘a herbaceous plant not valued for use or beauty, growing wild and rank, and regarded as cumbering the ground or hindering the growth of superior vegetation’ (Zimdahl in Fundamentals of weed science. Academic Press, San Diego, C.A., p. 556 1999). Weeds are those plants which are harmful, interfere with the agricultural operations, increase labor, add input to the cultivation, and reduce the crop yield (Sen in Environment and agriculture: at the crossroad of the new millennium. Ecological Society (ECOS), Kathmandu, Nepal, pp. 223–233 2000). Weeds grow in a variety of ecosystems including pastures, rangelands, and forests.
... The authors observed a significant increase in plant growth and biochemical constituents such as photosynthetic pigments, protein, total sugars, and lycopene. Kumar and Sahoo (2011) identified that liquid extracts from S. wightii at low concentrations (20%) improved the germination, growth, and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Williams and Feagin (2010) explored the use of S. fluitans and S. natans as fertilizer for dune plants; observing different growth responses depending on the plant, but concluding that Sargassum addition enhances the growth of dune plants. ...
Article
Since long ago, pelagic Sargassum mats have been known to be abundant in the Sargasso Sea, where they provide habitat to diverse organisms. However, over the last few years, massive amounts of pelagic Sargassum have reached the coast of several countries in the Caribbean and West Africa, causing economic and environmental problems. Aiming for lessening the impacts of the blooms, governments and private companies remove the seaweeds from the shore, but this process results expensive. The valorization of this abundant biomass can render Sargassum tides into an economic opportunity and concurrently solve their associated environmental problems. Despite the diverse fields where algae have found applications and the relevance of this recurrent situation, Sargassum biomass remains without large scale applications. Therefore, this review aims to present the potential uses of these algae, identifying the limitations that must be assessed to effectively valorize this bioresource. Due to the constraints identified for each of the presented applications, it is concluded that a biorefinery approach should be developed to effectively valorize this abundant biomass. However, there is an urgent need for investigations focusing on holopelagic Sargassum to be able to truly valorize this seaweed.
... El-Sheekh et al., (2000) noticed that all the crude extracts of seaweed increased protein content in root and shoot systems, total soluble sugars and chlorophyll content in Vicia faba leaves. Kumar and Sahoo (2011) observed the effect of seaweed liquid extraction growth and yield of Triticum estivum var. Application of a lower concentration (20%) of seaweed liquid extract enhanced the percentage of growth and yield, as measured by kernel number and seed dry weight. ...
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The present study was conducted during two summer seasons 2017 and 2018 at the farm of El-Nubaria Agricultural Research Station, Ministry of Agriculture and land Reclamation to evaluate the responses of Algae extract foliar application on yield and quality traits of soybean (Glycine max L.) grown on calcareous soil conditions under irrigation water regime. Experimental design was a spilt plot design in a complete randomized blocks arrangement with three replications used to conduct all trials, four treatments of algae extractions under two irrigation treatments 75% and 100% of the ETc water stress treatments. Algae extracts in form of foliar application treatments (control, Algae extracts 1 = 1ml/l, Algae extracts 2 = 2ml/l and Algae extracts 4 = 4ml/l). Foliar application of Algae extracts liquid fertilizers are useful for achieving higher agricultural production, because act as plant growth stimulants is improved due to plant growth, protein, carbohydrate production and chlorophyll production. These beneficial effects are most noticeable when the plant is under stress. Algae extracts increased growth, grain yield and oil % of soybean under water stress (75% ETc water of irrigation treatment). These results suggest that foliar application of Algae extracts at the rate of 4 ml/l under water stress is effective strategy to improve soybean productivity under stress. Drought tolerance efficiency % was the highest values at application of 4 ml/l algae foliar spray treatment. The Water Utilization efficiency WUE increased with increasing water stress, means that the algae foliar spray application lead to an increase in plant efficiency to produce higher yield with lower water.
... Above a 50% algal extract concentration, germination is inhibited. Kumar and Sahoo [29] reported that the 20% dilution of Sargassum wightii extract significantly stimulated germination of Triticum aestivum seeds. ...
Article
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Cystoseira mediterranea (Sauv.) extract was tested for its ability to restore barley (Hordeum vulgare) growth under salt stress (350 mM NaCl), shoot growth; membrane integrity; lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide determination were performed. In normal conditions, the obtained data revealed the ability of the extract to stimulate most of barley growth parameters. However, it showed significant effect on most of barley growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots) and chlorophyll content, under salt stress. The measurement of stress parameters (membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide) revealed significant effect of C. mediterranea extract on reducing the deleterious impact of salt stress on barley seedlings.
... In the present study, soil, or foliar treatment of A. nodosum seaweed extract formulation had a positive impact on the overall performance of tomato resulting in an enhancement in fruit yield, which is in fair agreement with the findings of However, it was found in the present study that increasing ASE formulation dose beyond 5 mL L À1 was not effective in tomato irrespective of application methods. These results are consistent with Kumar and Sahoo (2011) and Basavaraja et al. (2018) who reported that application of lower concentration of liquid seaweed extract improved growth and yield of wheat and maize, respectively. All the growth and yield parameters have been reported to be higher at lower concentration (10%) compared with higher concentration (15%) of seaweed extract in maize, whereas an application of higher spray concentration results in a decline in grain yield (Basavaraja et al., 2018). ...
Article
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The scarcity of irrigation water is a major threat restricting growth and productivity of almost all agronomic and horticultural crops. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is no exception. Seaweed extracts are widely used as biostimulants for the improvement of plant growth and development. Two independent pot experiments were conducted to find out the best soil drench or foliar spray dose of a commercial Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed extract (ASE) formulation (Amino Seaweed, SV Group, Bangkok, Thailand) on growth, physiological and biochemical parameters, fruit yield, quality, and water productivity of tomato under water-deficit stress. The commercial ASE formulation was applied in five doses (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mL L−1) as a soil drench (Experiment 1) or as a foliar spray (Experiment 2) under three soil moisture levels (50, 75, and 100% field capacity [FC]). Severe soil moisture deficit of 50% FC caused a 67 and 52% reduction in fruit yield, 11 and 11% reduction in fruit length, 25 and 29% decrease in leaf relative water content, while total soluble solids content was increased by 38 and 49% compared with 100% FC in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Soil drench or foliar spray of the commercial ASE formulation at 5 mL L−1 was effective at all soil moisture levels. Soil drench of the commercial ASE formulation at 5 mL L−1 resulted in 225% higher fruit yield in comparison to the untreated plants at 50% FC, whereas its application as a foliar spray resulted in 271% higher fruit yield in comparison to the untreated plants subjected to severe water-deficit stress (50% FC). Water productivity was found lower for the untreated plants regardless of soil moisture levels in both application methods; however, it was maximized at 5 mL L–1 for all soil moisture levels. The beneficial effects of 5 mL L–1 ASE formulation dose was also evident in physiological/biochemical traits and fruit quality of tomato regardless of application methods. Tomato yielded more when the commercial ASE formulation was applied at 5 mL L–1 as a soil drench (523.3 g plant–1 fruit yield) rather than as a foliar spray treatment (397.1 g plant–1 fruit yield). The results indicate that (i) 5 mL L−1 could be regarded as an optimum dose of the commercial ASE formulation for tomato applied either as a soil drench or foliar spray and (ii) exogenous application of the commercial ASE formulation at 5 mL L−1 as a soil drench treatment is more efficient, especially in fruit yield improvement, compared with its application as a foliar spray and, therefore, this technique holds promise for tomato cultivation under moderate water-deficit stress.
... Apparently, in this latter case, it was necessary to further dilute the extracts to reduce the concentration of the biostimulant molecules. This effect has been reported by other authors, such as Kumar and Sahoo [12], who also observed growth inhibition in Triticum aestivum var. Pusa Gold along with an increase in the seaweed liquid extract concentration. ...
Article
Microalgae are becoming an important source of high-value products such as biostimulants, biopesticides, and other low-value products such as biofertilizers or aquafeed (fatty acids and carotenoids), among others. However, extracting the biomolecules contained in the microalgae cells is difficult due to the structure and composition of the microalgal cell wall. To overcome this difficulty, mechanical cell disruption methods, such as high-pressure homogenization (HPH), can be applied to facilitate the extraction of the compounds of interest. This work focuses on optimizing the extraction of biostimulants from microalgae biomass and obtaining amino acid concentrates that can be used in several applications. The research aims to study the effect of HPH pretreatment on the production of these different bioproducts using Scenedesmus sp. biomass grown in pig sludge as the raw material. For each product, the HPH pretreatment of the wet biomass must be optimized to select the optimal conditions and the number of passes. Soft treatment of the wet biomass at 200 bar is sufficient to observe a 10% increase in the germination index (GI) of watercress seeds, while greater treatment intensities reduce the GI with respect to the untreated biomass, possibly because this increases the concentration of the molecules responsible for the bioactivity, thus causing a toxic effect on the seeds. In the case of the amino acid concentrates, better results were obtained at 600 bar, achieving a hydrolysis level of 72.9%. Lastly, the concentrations of the phenolic compounds and the salicylic acid, related with enhanced biostimulant activity, were determined using spectrophotometric methods and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography- diode array (HPLC), respectively.
... Gracilaria edulis extract promoted Abelmoschus esculentus development, fruiting and blooming [84]. Pandina pavonia and Dictyota dichotoma liquid extracts demonstrated that the plant Fagopyrum esculentum grew at a faster pace [85,86]. The current study concludes that SLB extracts of T. ornata, S. wightii and H. opuntia which enhanced soil nutrients are responsible for the plant V. radiata's growth. ...
Article
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Seaweeds are an important component of the marine ecosystem and that can operate as an organic biostimulant for terrestrial plants. The biochemical ingredients of seaweed liquid organic biostimulant (SLB) produced plant have been improved, and their demand has recently increased due to multiple by-products. The present study deals with the effect of seaweed liquid organic biostimulant derived from Turbinaria ornata, Sargassum wightii and Halimeda opuntia at different doses like 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100% on the growth and biochemical profile changes of common edible grain Vigna radiata. According to the findings, 20% of SLB from H. opuntia show the highest growth, proximate compositions, mineral contents, fatty and amino acid contents in V. radiata. The seed germination was obtained maximum in 20% SLB soaked seeds of V. radiata. The fatty acid contents were observed high in H. opuntia fertiliser fed V. radiata; palmitic acid (281.2 ± 0.04 mg/100 g) was found to be maximum in all treatment grown V. radiata. Saponins and terpenoids were highly present in T. ornata and S. wightii grown VR plant. The highest plant length (31.3 cm) was observed in T. ornata and lowest (17.1 cm) in S. wightii grown plants. Chlorophyll-a and b concentration was increased significantly (p < 0.01; p < 0.03) in T. ornata extract. The carotenoid content was increased significantly in S. wightii extract and decreased (p < 0.04) in chemical fertiliser grown plant V. radiata. The highest antioxidant activity (6.80 ± 0.01 mg/l) was observed in HO fed VR and the lowest (4.317 ± 0.03 mg/l) was recorded in TO fed VR. This technique can be used in organic farming for sustainable agriculture, which is a better alternative as an environmentally friendly approach. The current study revealed that SLB had certain environmental advantages over chemical fertilisers. Seaweed liquid organic biostimulant, if used on a wider scale, might have a substantial positive environmental influence on agricultural production. Seaweed extract with superior benefits at lower concentrations should be used at very high dilution rates in the agricultural field to increase seed germination rates while without impacting the native beneficial microorganisms present in the soil.
... The seaweed extract from A. nodosum has been reported to contain macro-and microelements and have a total amino acid content of 4.4% Corresponding to the results of the current study, the seaweed extract was found to have a positive effect on algal growth and branching and was correlated with an increase in the concentrations used. There are reports that the use of the brown seaweed extracts resulted to an enhanced number of branches in agricultural crop (Abdel-Mawgoud et al. 2010;Kumar and Sahoo 2011). In addition, the seaweed extract of Ulva rigida enhanced vegetative growth in sage plants under drought stress conditions; the shoot length, total leaf area, and number were significantly reduced under water stress treatment (Mansori et al. 2016). ...
Article
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Gracilaria fisheri is an important red seaweed on the sea coast of Thailand. Cultivation of this seaweed has brought economic benefits to the farmers in this country. However, its low growth and quality are problematic due to high contamination and epiphyte outbreaks. This study was performed to examine the growth and epiphytic responses of G. fisheri to Ascophyllum seaweed extract (SE). The algal samples were treated with SE at different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 g SE L–1). Three sets of experiments were conducted in the laboratory under controlled culture conditions of salinity of 30‰, temperature of 25–26°C, and light intensity of 200 μmol photons m–2 s–1. The algal samples were soaked for 30 min in SE alone (Experiment 1), in Provasoli Enriched Seawater (PES)+SE (Experiment 2), and in PES+SE with a 5% CO2 supplement (Experiment 3). The results showed a significant reduction in epiphytes (>90%) in the sample after one week of treatment with 1 g SE L-1. The use of SE significantly stimulated the branching of G. fisheri (p < 0.05). In comparison to the control plant (PES), the growth rate of the samples treated with PES+0.1 g SE L-1 was 3.40 ± 0.51% day-1 in the first week of culture, and this was increased to 3.84 ± 0.63% day-1 in the samples treated with PES+1 g SE L–1. The growth rate was significantly increased to 5.46 ± 1.05% day-1 in the samples treated with PES+1 g SE L-1 with a 5% CO2 supplement. This study suggested that the use of the Ascophyllum seaweed extract could inhibit epiphytic attachment and that supplementation with 5% CO2 resulted in enhanced growth of G. fisheri under controlled culture conditions.
... Both applications resulted in a higher total plant height, root length, and biomass content compared to control. Kumar and Sahoo (2011) tested a seaweed liquid extract of Sargassum wightii on the germination rate, growth, and yield of Triticum aestivum. They observed an enhanced growth, yield, and seed germination when a low concentration of the extract was applied. ...
... Plant growth was found to increase by application of SE (Van Staden et al. 1994). Besides, positive effect was also seen in flowering and yield (Eris et al. 1995), germination of seeds (Kumar and Sahoo 2011), and plant protection against pests and pathogens (Jayaraman et al. 2011) by application of SE. In soybean grown under rainfed condition, SE derived from red algae increased the Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, and Sulfur concentration in grains by 36%, 61%, 49% and 93%, respectively. ...
Chapter
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Natural or commercial substances or their consortium employed for enhancing the plant growth and quality are referred to as Biostimulants. They boost the physiology of the plant and its entire vital characteristic owing to their activity in enhancing the nutrient availability, membrane stability, root zone stability, osmoprotection, etc. Biostimulant’s mode of action has been comprehended by several modern molecular approaches which indicate what changes they bring about in the plant and its physiology at the cellular level. Various amalgamations and formulations of biostimulants are available, but it is their source and composition, based on which they are classified into three main groups, viz. humic substances, hormonal products, and amino acid products. The use of biostimulants, as opposed to fertilizers and chemical treatments, can promote plant growth, increase nutrient use efficiency, and enhance the nutritional content of the products when applied in small quantities in addition to being an ecofriendly and sustainable plant enhancement methodology.
... For centuries, the advantages of algae as a source of organic materials and fertilizers have led to their use as soil amendments. Freshly, most of the studies demonstrated the sound effects of algal extracts in agriculture and horticulture sector [29]. Algae products have the effect of promoting growth, and it is recognized that algae preparations were used as biostimulants in plant production [12]. ...
Article
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Instead of chemical fertilizer, there is a need for organic tea cultivation with best yield. Due to the lack of efficient plant growth promoters in tea cultivation, we aimed to develop mixed biostimulant from seaweeds (Turbinaria ornate, Halimeda macroloba, Sargassum, Ulva) and seagrass. Seaweeds (Turbinaria ornate, Halimeda macroloba, Sargassum, Ulva) and seagrass were collected and authenticated. Furthermore, the nutritive contents and phytohormones were analysed. The prepared SLE was treated with tea plant as a biostimulant by foliar spray method and analysed for growth. After treatment, the experimental plants were subjected to various parameters to analyse for the various chemical constituents such as total phenols, flavonoids, theaflavin, thearubigin, colour and brightness present in SLE treated and control. Auxin was present in higher quantity of about 26.3 μg/ml, whereas cytokinin of about 20.5 μg/ml, 13.7 μg/ml of gibberline, 8.4 μg/ml of abscisic acid and 5.2 μg/ml of ethylene in SLE. The SLE-treated tea plants have higher growth parameters such as leaf length, total number of leaves and total weight compared to control. Total phenolic content of about 105.91 mg/ml in SLE-treated plant, whereas control have 83.1 mg/ml. Flavonoid content of about 28.19 mg/ml and 16.82 mg/ml in SLE-treated plant and in control respectively. Theaflavin of 0.828% in SLE treated than 0.732% in control. Thearubigin was found to be high at 10.1% in SLE treated, whereas control has 8.36%. Combined biostimulant can be applied for tea cultivation with enhanced growth and quality yield. Graphical abstract
... Both applications resulted in a higher total plant height, root length, and biomass content compared to control. Kumar and Sahoo (2011) tested a seaweed liquid extract of Sargassum wightii on the germination rate, growth, and yield of Triticum aestivum. They observed an enhanced growth, yield, and seed germination when a low concentration of the extract was applied. ...
Article
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Due to intensive agricultural practices, agricultural lands are subject to continuous degradation. Agricultural productivity depends to a great degree on soil characteristics. Soil is the substrate which when managed properly can support plant growth, but when abused requires additional inputs. Research is increasingly focused on the development of new non-synthetic and non-fossil-based products having less impact on the environment and health. In this context, the use of algae biomass (macro and micro) has been widely researched as a fertilizer for agricultural production as a "green economy" alternative product. Currently, the production of marine algae far outstrips the production of microalgae and its main use is for food consumption and some industrial applications. The cost of production is also variable, as marine algae are usually cultivated in integrated multitrophic aquaculture systems. The production of microalgae involves many variables, among them the species, the culture medium, obtaining process, final application, etc. and, based on these, its production cost is estimated. Some researchers point out that the use of simplified technology and increased production capacity tend to reduce operating costs within the ideal photosynthetic yield. This review sought to highlight the importance of algae and their extracts as natural biofertilizers and biostimulants, as well as the mechanisms of action and the possible relationship of these organisms with cultivated plants
... Over the years, their benefits to different agriculture phases have been being well documented (Sangha et al. 2014). To better wake the seeds, some reports relevant to the Vigna mungo, Triticum aestivum and Capsicum annum showed the best germination percentage after soaked seeds respectively with certain concentration of liquid extracts of Sargassum myriocystum (10%), Sargassum wighti and Codium decorticatum (20%) (Kalaivanan and Venkatesalu, 2012;Kumar and Sahoo 2011;Vijayakumar et al. 2019). A similar experiment of Solanum lycopersicum assessed that the seeds treated with the extracts of Ulva lactuca and Padina gymnospora at 0.2% concentration verified the better response in germination rate associated with lower mean germination time, high germination index and energy, and consequently greater seedling vigor, plumule and radicle length (Hernández-Herrera et al. 2014a). ...
Article
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The growing demand for chemical fertilizer with low utilization and environmental pollution has been issuing challenges to sustainable production of agricultural field. Due to internal nutrient elements and active substances, macroalgae have drawn the interest of agricultural and algal researchers. However, their major functions seem to center on improvement of nutrient utilization efficiency, more than a simple nutrient replacement for amount of fertilizer. In view of excessive fertilizer along with a series of side-effects, this review reports the application roles of macroalgae in agriculture, provides the positive evidences of the extracts on the soil for amendment, and plants for nutrient uptake. Commercial macroalgae will be such an economic and efficient materials source for cooperation even part substitution of conventional fertilizers, to manage soil sustainability and crop production. Worldwide, the researches of macroalgal products call for further advance, and their applications to agricultural market remain certain limitation. Aim at this, we expound their mechanisms on soil–plant system for more nutrient utilization efficiency, then analyze the current situation and advance priorities afterwards, to guide macroalgal application and respond to the strategy for controlling the chemical fertilizer.
... Microalgal genera such as Scenedesmus, Chlorella, and Asterarcys (Chlorophyta) present numerous compounds of interest (Barone et al. 2018;Varshney et al. 2018). In controlled cultivation conditions, Asterarcys may have a high content of proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, pigments and free amino acids (Kumar and Sahoo 2011;Singh et al. 2019;Cordeiro et al. 2022). ...
Article
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Addressing the growing challenges for food production imposed by abiotic stresses, the aim of this work was evaluate the effect and determine the ideal dose of the green microalga Asterarcys quadricellulare (CCAP 294/1) biomass added to Bradyrhizobium inoculant to mitigate the harmful effects of salinity in soybean. For that, two experiments were conducted: i) with soybean seeds testing salinity levels (40, 60 and 80 mmol L −1 of NaCl) and microalgal biomass doses (1.0; 1.5; 2.0 and 2.5 mg L −1) added to commercial soybean inoculant, evaluating germination and seedlings shoot and root length; ii) in greenhouse, testing the biomass doses of 1.5 and 2.5 mg L −1 and salinities of 60 and 80 mmol L −1 of NaCl in two soybean cultivars at early growth stages, evaluating biometric, biochemical and enzymatic variables. The germination and development of soybean seedlings were affected by salinity from 60 mmol L −1 of NaCl and the use of algal biomass at doses of 1.5 and 2.5 mg L −1 reduced the harmful effect of salinity. The microalga biomass added to inoculant was effective keeping plants growth, with the contents of total free amino acids, proline, proteins and antioxidant enzymes activity increased, as well roots nodules volume improved. Therefore, the use of A. quadricellulare (CCAP 294/1) biomass in soybean seeds was considered efficient to mitigate the salinity effects.
... Si application in maize has been reported to increase cob length, number of grains/cob, grain yield, and biological yield, resulting in better growth and yield [4]. Si application also increased the number of spikelet, panicles, and grain yield in rice [123]. Liquid extract of Sargassum showed positive influence on the number of kernels per plant, kernel length, number of seeds per kernel, and the dry weight of seeds [64,114]. Kelpak seaweed concentrate reportedly increased the number of grains per spike in wheat crop [10]. ...
Article
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Agricultural productivity is negatively impacted by drought stress. Brassica is an important oilseed crop, and its productivity is often limited by drought. Biostimulants are known for their role in plant growth promotion, increased yields, and tolerance to environmental stresses. Silicon in its soluble form of orthosilicic acid (OSA) has been established to alleviate deteriorative effects of drought. Seaweed extract (SWE) also positively influence plant survival and provide dehydration tolerance under stressed environments. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of OSA and SWE on mitigating adverse effects of drought stress on Brassica genotype RH-725. Foliar application of OSA (2 ml/L and 4 ml/L) and SWE of Ascophyllum nodosum (3 ml/L and 4 ml/L) in vegetative stages in Brassica variety RH 725 under irrigated and rainfed condition revealed an increase in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpirational rate, relative water content, water potential, osmotic potential, chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll stability index, total soluble sugars, total protein content, and antioxidant enzyme activity; and a decrease in canopy temperature depression, proline, glycine-betaine, H2O2, and MDA content. Application of 2 ml/L OSA and 3 ml/L SWE at vegetative stage presented superior morpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics and higher yields. The findings of the present study will contribute to developing a sustainable cropping system by harnessing the benefits of OSA and seaweed extract as stress mitigators.
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The experiment was conducted at the research station of the Department of Horticulture and Landscape - College of Agriculture - Tikrit University for the 2019-2020 season, to study the effect of spraying organic fertilizer (seaweed extract) and growth regulator (cytokinin) on the growth and yield of the cauliflower plant. The experiment included two factors: spraying seaweed extract in three levels, (S0) 0 ml l-1 as a control, (S1) 3.3 ml l-1, (S2) 6.6 ml l-1. The second factor was spraying cytokinin in three levels: (G0) 0 mg l-1 as a control, (G1) 10 mg l-1, (G2) 40 mg l-1. The experiment was carried out according to the Randomized Complete Block Design R.C.B.D with three replications and the averages were compared according to Duncan's multiple range tests at a probability level of 5%.The results showed that spraying seaweed extract (S2) increased the percentage of phosphorus, potassium and boron significantly compared with all other treatments. Meanwhile, the application of cytokinin did not affect significantly on all the studied characteristics. The interaction traetments caused significant effect in fresh weight of leaf, phosphorus%, and potassium% with S0G0, S2G2, and S2G0 respectively compared with S2G0, S0G0, and S0G2 treatments which had the lowest values for previous characteristics respectively.
Chapter
Seaweeds or macroalgae, a highly useful and simple type of plants, lack true roots, stems and leaves. Heavy loads on numerous usual resources impose the development of substitute sources to produce significant goods such as food, food additives, feed, fuel, maquillages, and antibiotics. The improvement of large-scale seaweed aquaculture has the prospective to play a significant role in meeting future resource needs. The seaweed is an important character of culture and society. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.
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Microalgae have been studied as a biostimulant or biofertilizer in developing agricultural crops, however, its application is still incipient. In this work, the objective was to evaluate the potential use of chitosan associated with the cyanobacteria Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli in the coating of corn seeds (Zea mays L.) and its effect on the physiological potential and health quality of the seeds. A chitosan solution (2% m/v) containing biomass of the cyanobacteria Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli (0.1% m/v) was used, and incorporated in two ways: fresh biomass (QBF) and biomass submitted to 4 freeze/thaw cycles (QBC). Seeds coated with chitosan without biomass (Q) and without coating (Control) were also analyzed. All treatments were evaluated for water content, 1,000-seed mass, germination, germination speed index, seedling length (root, shoot, and total), cold test, seedling emergence, seedling emergence speed index, seedling height, root and shoot dry matter mass, and health quality. The treatments QBF, QBC, and Q did not significantly affect the 1,000-seed mass, germination, shoot length, cold test, emergence, height, and root dry matter mass, but reduced the emergence speed index and shoot dry matter mass. QBC treatment tended to reduce the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and treatments Q, QBF, and QBC the occurrence of Penicillium spp. in the seeds. The results indicate an antimicrobial potential of the coatings with minimal impact on the physiological potential of the seeds.
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PurposeThe purpose of the study was to see how seaweed liquid fertiliser (SLF) affected the in vitro regeneration of Capparis decidua explants. The ability of MS (Murrashige Skoog) media preparations containing various concentrations of seaweed without plant growth regulators (PGRs), namely SW1, SW2, SW3, and SW4, and with PGRs, namely SW5, SW6, SW7 and SW8, to promote rooting and shooting was compared.IntroductionThe media without seaweed served as the control group. Among the group of media without any PGRs, percent rooting of the explants was maximum when cultured on the SW4 medium (93.06%) followed by the SW3 (91.67%), SW2 (87.5%) and SW1 (83.3%) respectively.MethodologyAmong the group of media with PGRs, percent rooting of the explants was maximum when cultured in the SW6 (100%) medium followed by the SW5 (95.83%), SW7 (90.27%) and SW8 (84.72%) as compared with the control media. The SW6 media led to the formation of maximum number of shoots per callus (Zakaria Asghari et al., Plant Soil Environ. 55(6):252–25, 2009).Result and conclusionAmong the group of media without the PGRs, the SW4 medium supported maximum number of shoots (5.2), followed by the SW3 (4.9), SW2 (3.8) and SW1 (2.9). The present results indicate that seaweed liquid fertilizer (Ascophyllum nodosum) increased the growth parameters of C. decidua, in vitro.Lay SummaryThe effect of seaweed extracts on Capparis decidua in vitro propagation success was investigated in this report. One of the endangered plants is Capparis decidua. There has been no research into the impact of seaweed extracts on this plant’s in vitro success. Seaweed extracts were found to be useful for mass propagation of this plant.
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In order to evaluate the influence of seed priming with extracts of different seaweeds-Ascophyllum nodosum (An), Sargassum angustifolium (Sa), Chlorella vulgaris (Cv), and Arthrospira platensis (Ap)-on characteristics of leafy lettuce cultivar New Red Fire under different levels of salt stress (irrigation with saline water with electrical conductivity levels of 1.37 as control, 2.5, 4, 5.5, and 7 dS m-1), an experiment was conducted during the 2021-2022 season. The highest germination speed was recorded in seeds soaked in Cv. Vigor index decreased by 58.68% in non-primed seeds compared to Cv-primed seeds. Increasing the salinity level from 4 to 5.5 dS m-1 led to a significant decrease (3.30%) in seedling plumule length. Salinity induction led to increased leaf taste index. The lowest leaf free proline content was recorded under a salinity level of 1.37 dS m-1. Seed priming with seaweed extract led to a significant increase in leaf flavonoid content. The highest peroxidase enzyme activity was recorded in Cv-treated plants under salinity levels of 5.5 and 7 dS m-1. Seed priming with seaweed extract led to an increase in antioxidant activities, osmolyte accumulation, photosynthetic pigment content, and salt tolerance of mature plants. Cv and Ap could be introduced as the best priming solutions to neutralize the negative effects of salinity. A salinity level of 4 dS m-1 could be considered as a salt tolerance threshold for the New Red Fire cultivar. Cultivation of this cultivar under salinity levels of 5.5 and 7 dS m-1 can seriously damage qualitative and quantitative lettuce parameters.
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Seaweed extracts have been used as fertilizer for crops to enhance yield and quality of the crop products. Only very few studies have been carried out on the effects of seaweed extracts and beneficial soil microbes on growth of crop plants. Hence, the present study was conducted to investigate the synergistic effect of seaweed extract (SE) prepared from Sargassum wightii Greville, with and without the application of Rhizobium biofertilizer, on seed germination, seedling growth, biochemical constituents and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp Var. pusa 151 (family Fabaceae). Seaweed extract (1% concentration), with or without Rhizobium (biofertilizer) treatment, compared with the control, significantly (p≤ 0.05) enhanced vegetative growth (dry weight of shoot and root, number of lateral roots and total leaf area), biochemical parameters (total chlorophyll, carotenoids, proteins, lipids, total sugar and amino acids) and yield and yield components (pod number, length, weight, number of seeds per pod and 100 seeds weight). Seaweed extract application, along with Rhizobium biofertilizer, exhibited better results in terms of vegetative growth, biochemical and yield than the seaweed extract alone in enhancing the growth and yield of a cowpea.
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The products of seaweed liquid extracts (SLE) are receiving intense attention as bio-stimulant in integrated crop nutritional applications. In the present study, the effect of the SLE of brown seaweed Turbinaria conoides was evaluated at different concentrations (control, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%) on germination and growth parameters (root length, shoot length, total fresh weight and total dry weight) of Arachis hypogaea. Liquid extract of T. conoides was found effective in stimulating germination and growth of the plant in the low concentration. This investigation has revealed that the low-level concentration of SLE (5%) has been enhanced the germination and growth parameters of the test plant than control and maximum seed germination (100%) of A. hypogaea was achieved in 5% concentration. The highest shoot length (4.62cm), root length (2.42cm), fresh weight (1.82g) and dry weight (0.88g) were recorded in the plants which treated with concentration of SLE. Highest (25%) concentration of SLE has been stunt the g rowth germination of the test plant.
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Pertumbuhan bawang merah dipengaruhi oleh kecukupan nutrisinya. Pemberian biostimulan yang terbuat dari ekstrak rumput laut dan bakteri endofit terpilih diharapkan dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman dan produksi bawang merah. Selain itu, pengaruh pemberian biostimulan terhadap serangan organisme pengganggu tanaman utama bawang merah (Spodoptera exigua) juga perlu diketahui. Penelitian yang dilaksanakan di Desa Cikole, Lembang, Bandung Barat pada bulan April-Mei tahun 2021 dilakukan untuk mengetahui perkembangan S. exigua di pertanaman bawang merah yang mendapatkan aplikasi 2 jenis biostimulan tanaman bawang merah dengan dosis yang berbeda. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa tingkat serangan S. exigua pada tanaman bawang merah tidak dipengaruhi oleh biostimulan yang diaplikasikan dalam penelitian ini.
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This research was carried out to examine the effects of Sargassum stolonifolium on reducing cadmium in Brassica chinensis L. tissue, its influential roles on physiological parameters and antioxidant mechanism in B. chinensis exposed to cadmium stress. Different levels of Cd (50 mg and 100 mg) with and without S. stolonifolium (25g, 50g and 100g) under five replications were explored in this study. Biomass, photosynthetic pigment, relative water content (RWC), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total antioxidant activity (TAA), non-protein thiol (NPT), protein thiol (PT), protein bound thiol, glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) were determined. The results revealed that Cd stress significantly (P < 0.05) reduced plant biomass and physiological attributes, and accumulated higher Cd concentrations in plant tissues with the increasing rate of Cd concentration in the soil. However, incorporation of S. stolonifolium at 100 g rate in 50 mg Cd (T4) spiked soil increased the FW (40.6%) and DW (72.2%) relative to the respective treatment without S. stolonifolium. Similarly, Cd accumulation in roots, stem and leaves was decreased by 90.25%, 82.93% and 84.6% respectively compared to T1 (50 mg Cd) and thereby reducing leaf MDA and H2O2 contents by 40.1% and 68.8%, respectively, at 50 mg Cd kg−1 spiked soil relative to T1. An increase was noticed in the chlorophyll a, b, carotenoid, SPAD and RWC with a value of 114.6%, 20.7%, 73.7%, 44.8%, and 6.3%, respectively, over the control (T0). DPPH scavenging activity and TAA increased 119.8 and 81.5% percent respectively over the T0. Concentration increment of NPT, TT, GSH and PCs by 66.7%, 49.1%, 60.1%, 96.1% and 3.4% respectively, was noticed in T4 compared to T0. Antioxidant enzymes activities increased by APX (92.8%), CAT (73.1%), SOD (20.9%) and POD (88.9%) for T4 compared to the control. S. stolonifolium has the potential to improve growth and increase the defensive system of B. chinensis and ameliorate cadmium phytotoxicity as well as immobilization.
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Highlights Cadmium negatively affects B. chinensis L. physiological and biochemical parameters. MDA, H 2 O 2 , and PC levels decrease in soil amended with S. stolonifolium. Physio-biochemical activities were improved in S. stolonifolium amended group. S. stolonifolium has the ability to reduce cadmium toxicity in B. chinensis plants. Abstract This research was carried out to examine the effects of Sargassum stolonifolium on reducing cadmium in Brassica chinensis L. tissue, its influential roles on physiological parameters and antioxidant mechanism in B. chinensis exposed to cadmium stress. Different levels of Cd (50 mg and 100 mg) with and without S. stolonifolium (25g, 50g and 100g) under five replications were explored in this study. Biomass, photosynthetic pigment, relative water content (RWC), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total antioxidant activity (TAA), non-protein thiol (NPT), protein thiol
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Seed physiology deals with understanding germination and seedling emergence and relationships that are influenced by changes in various environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, oxygen and light, and other factors, such as germination inhibiting and stimulating substances including phytohormones. However, efforts to recognize the physiological mechanisms involved in germinating seeds at various levels have been chiefly limited to a few plants. There is a need for scientific advancements in seed physiology such as developing novel bioassays to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of seed science research. More investigations are required to unravel the functions of promotory and inhibitory substances and their underlying regulatory pathways in seed germination, development, and seedling establishment. Understanding the role of hormonal crosstalk in discrete seed parts and their effects during seed development is the key challenge. Furthermore, there is a need to identify the repair processes involved in stimulating fast and synchronous germination in a wide range of plants under stress conditions. The role of seed-associated microorganisms in germination also needs attention. It is crucial to understand the dynamics of seed germination and seedling growth and address the challenge of transferring the research from the laboratory to agricultural practice. The mechanism of seed germination should be studied in model plants and crop plants, together with more field trials. The employment of genomics-based knowledge can assist in enhancing our understanding of spatial and temporal expression and regulation of genes active during seed development, which will help produce more robust and productive plant cultivars. Connecting anatomical, cellular and molecular changes to physiological levels will give us precise information concerning elements that regulate seed germination of various plant species. Understanding seed physiology may provide a basis for developing sustainable alternatives to harmful chemical fertilizer, maximum crop production and lead to green agriculture, thus, making significant contributions toward a more comprehensive and holistic understanding.
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The scarcity of irrigation water is a major threat restricting growth and productivity of almost all agronomic and horticultural crops. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is no exception. Seaweed extracts are widely used as biostimulants for the improvement of plant growth and development. Two independent pot experiments were conducted to find out the best soil drench or foliar spray dose of a commercial Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed extract (ASE) formulation (Amino Seaweed, SV Group, Bangkok, Thailand) on growth, physiological and biochemical parameters, fruit yield, quality, and water productivity of tomato under water-deficit stress. The commercial ASE formulation was applied in five doses (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mL L−1) as a soil drench (Experiment 1) or as a foliar spray (Experiment 2) under three soil moisture levels (50, 75, and 100% field capacity [FC]). Severe soil moisture deficit of 50% FC caused a 67 and 52% reduction in fruit yield, 11 and 11% reduction in fruit length, 25 and 29% decrease in leaf relative water content, while total soluble solids content was increased by 38 and 49% compared with 100% FC in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Soil drench or foliar spray of the commercial ASE formulation at 5 mL L−1 was effective at all soil moisture levels. Soil drench of the commercial ASE formulation at 5 mL L−1 resulted in 225% higher fruit yield in comparison to the untreated plants at 50% FC, whereas its application as a foliar spray resulted in 271% higher fruit yield in comparison to the untreated plants subjected to severe water-deficit stress (50% FC). Water productivity was found lower for the untreated plants regardless of soil moisture levels in both application methods; however, it was maximized at 5 mL L–1 for all soil moisture levels. The beneficial effects of 5 mL L–1 ASE formulation dose was also evident in physiological/biochemical traits and fruit quality of tomato regardless of application methods. Tomato yielded more when the commercial ASE formulation was applied at 5 mL L–1 as a soil drench (523.3 g plant–1 fruit yield) rather than as a foliar spray treatment (397.1 g plant–1 fruit yield). The results indicate that (i) 5 mL L−1 could be regarded as an optimum dose of the commercial ASE formulation for tomato applied either as a soil drench or foliar spray and (ii) exogenous application of the commercial ASE formulation at 5 mL L−1 as a soil drench treatment is more efficient, especially in fruit yield improvement, compared with its application as a foliar spray and, therefore, this technique holds promise for tomato cultivation under moderate water-deficit stress.
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The application of biostimulants from natural origin represents one of the most innovative and promising strategies to promote plant growth and improve crop productivity. The biostimulants have the potential to release dormancy and enhance seed germination of many plant species by altering the physiological processes in seeds even under abiotic stress. The seed application of biostimulants has been considered as a simple, beneficial and sustainable technique to enhance crop productivity. An understanding of non-microbial biostimulants-induced seed germination, dormancy release and seedling establishment mechanisms may help to improve crop productivity. However, the impending mechanisms involved in the regulation of seed germination and seedling establishment by non-microbial biostimulants are still elusive. In this review, the possible mode of action of various non-microbial biostimulants in seed germination and the seedling establishment under optimal and sub-optimal conditions has been discussed. Furthermore, the gaps in utilizing the full potential of these biostimulants are also addressed.
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The effects of Ascophyllum nodosum marine-plant extracts on 'Thompson seedless' grape (Vitis vinifera L.) production and yield variables was studied from 2002-04. Performed in cooperation with a commercial orchard near Selma, California, the randomized complete block design used five replicates and examined several experimental products and several standard Ascophyllum treatments (ATAN 0029). Given the preliminary nature of the experimental products, only the Ascophyllum treatments are discussed. Dose rates for the Ascophyllum treatments varied from 1 to 2 L/ha whereas the number of applications ranged from 4 to 8 applications per treated plot. Over this 3-year period, Ascophyllum extracts consistently outperformed the controls (regular crop management program) and produced better quality fruit and higher yields. Results in 2002 indicate increases in berries per bunch, berry size, rachis length and the number of primary bunches per plant with 4 and 8 applications of 2 L/ha. Treated fruit also performed better in storage than control fruit. In 2003, there was an increase of at least 58.4% in both grade #1 and #2 fruit, an increase of 7.7% in average berry size and 26.5% in berry weight in response to 4 or 8 applications at 2 L/ha. In 2004, yields for treated plots were again greater than the controls (60.4%), due in part, to increases in berry weight (38.8%) and size (12.4%). Overall, increases in grower return-on-investment (ROI) were realized in each of the three years. The beneficial impact of these extracts is thought to be associated with compounds that may include, but are not limited to the betaines, oligosaccharides, polyamines, cytokinins and/or other hormones. Fractionation chemistry research is currently underway on Ascophyllum extracts in order to identify individual or specific active ingredients. These fractions will then be examined in a series of closely monitored bioassays before being further tested on 'Thompson' seedless grapes.
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The effect of different modes of application of Kelpak on the growth and yield of three varieties of greenhouse cultivated peppers was investigated. In most instances, application of Kelpak improved the marketable fruit yield. A combined treatment of dipping the seedlings in 0.4% Kelpak solution for 2h prior to transplanting followed by three applications of 0.4% Kelpak as a foliar spray during the growth of the plants significantly increased the number and size of the marketable fruit.
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Drought continues to be a major limiting factor for creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds. A.) quality and persistence on golf course fairways, greens, and tees. Little breeding specifically aimed at improving bentgrass drought resistance has been completed. However, a number of reports indicate that treatment with natural products such as seaweed extracts and humic acids improve cool-season grass drought resistance possibly by hormonal up-regulation of plant defense systems against oxidative stress. This study was conducted to determine the response of exogenous natural product treatment of three creeping bentgrass cultivars subjected to drought. 'Penn G-2', 'L-93', and 'Penncross' creeping bentgrass were treated with seaweed extract (SWE) at 0.5 kg ha -1, humic acid (HA; 80% a.i.) at 1.5 kg ha-1, alone or in combination, and maintained in a greenhouse at approximately field capacity (-0.01 MPa) or allowed to dry until near the permanent wilting point (-1.5 MPa). Unashed samples of SWE and HA contained 66 μg g-1 and 57 μg g-1 zeatin riboside (ZR), respectively, while ashed samples contained no detectable cytokinins as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There were no significant differences between cultivars in response to drought, except for ZR concentration, which was higher in Penn G-2 than in L-93 or Penncross foliage. Turf quality and photochemical efficiency began to decline 14 d into the dry-down for the control and at 21 d in the natural product-treated bentgrass. The combination of HA + SWE enhanced root mass (21-68%), and foliar α-tocopherol (110%) and ZR (38%) contents. This is the first known report indicating that these natural products contain cytokinins and that their application resulted in increased endogenous cytokinin levels, possibly leading to improved creeping bentgrass drought resistance.
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Heat stress is the primary factor limiting summer performance of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) in many temperate to subtropical regions. Seaweed extract (SWE)-based cytokinins have been used to improve stress tolerance, but their specific effects on creeping bentgrass under supraoptimal temperatures are lacking. This study was designed to determine whether SWE-based cytokinins affect creeping bentgrass heat tolerance, and to compare effects of SWE-based cytokinins to those of a trans-zeatin riboside (t-ZR)-standard. Concentrations of t-ZR in two SWE sources (referred to as Oce and Aca) were determined. Treatments were applied twice to creeping bentgrass at an equivalent t-ZR concentration of 10 μM. One week after the initial treatment, heat stress was imposed (35/25°C [day/night]) for 42 d. The Oce SWE, Aca SWE, and t-ZR treatments resulted in leaf t-ZR concentrations that were 39, 32, and 28% higher, respectively, relative to the control at 14 d of heat stress. The Oce SWE, Aca SWE, and t-ZR treatments also increased superoxide dismutase activity and alleviated the decline of turfgrass quality, photochemical efficiency, and root viability. Ashed SWE provided results similar to the water control. Beneficial effects of SWE on heat tolerance appear to be associated with their organic, especially cytokinin, components and not the mineral (ashed) fraction. Proper application of SWE-based cytokinins may be an effective approach to improve summer performance of creeping bentgrass.
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Two seaweed concentrates were made from the kelps Ecklonia maxima and Macrocystis pyrifera using a cell burst method. Cytokinin- and auxin-like activities were measured using the soybean callus and mungbean bioassays, respectively. Cytokinin-like activity was detected in both seaweed concentrates, being equivalent to approximately 50 μg L−1 kinetin. Auxin-like activity was also detected in both concentrates with the E. maxima derived concentrate having higher biological activity, equivalent to 10−5–10−4 M indole-butyric acid. Two replicates of each concentrate were stored at 54 °C for 14 days to accelerate the effects of storage. Both fresh and stored samples of the two seaweed concentrates were analysed for their endogenous cytokinin and auxin content. The samples were purified using a combined DEAE-Sephadex octadecylsilica column and immunoaffinity chromatography based on wide-range cytokinin and IAA specific monoclonal antibodies. These extracts were analysed by HPLC linked to a Micromass single quadrupole mass spectrophotometer. Eighteen and nineteen different cytokinins were detected, respectively, in the two concentrates, with trans-zeatin-O-glucoside being the main cytokinin present. Accelerated storage of the concentrates caused an increase in the total cytokinin concentration with a large increase in the aromatic meta-topolin. Indole-3-acetic acid was the main auxin in both seaweed concentrates. Indole conjugates, including amino acid conjugates, were also quantified. The total auxin concentration decreased with accelerated storage for both concentrates.
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Thirty-one seaweeds were collected from the warmer KwaZulu-Natal coast and the cooler Cape waters (South Africa). Plant material was extracted with 70% ethanol supplemented with deuterium labelled standards of all known isoprenoid cytokinins. The samples were then centrifuged and purified by combined DEAE-Sephadexoctadecylsilica column and immunoaffinity chromatography and finally analysed for cytokinins by HPLC-linked mass spectrometry and a photodiode array detector. The cytokinin profiles were similar in all the macroalgae regardless of their taxonomy and growing locality. The main type of isoprenoid cytokinins present were zeatins with cis forms being more common than trans forms and isopentenyladenine (iP) derivatives. Only a few dihydrozeatin-type cytokinins were detected at very low levels in only nine species. Aromatic cytokinins were also present but at lower levels and were represented by benzyladenine (BA) and ortho- and meta-topolin derivatives. The topolins were present in greater diversity and concentrations than BA. For all the cytokinin types, the free bases, O-glucosides and nucleotides were the most common with no N-glucosides being detected and ribosides present at very low levels. The results suggest that different pathways for regulating cytokinin concentrations operate in macroalgae than in higher plants.
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Ascophyllum nodosum extract products are used commercially in the form of liquid concentrate and soluble powder. These formulations are manufactured from seaweeds that are harvested from natural habitats with inherent environmental variability. The seaweeds by themselves are at different stages of their development life-cycle. Owing to these differences, there could be variability in chemical composition that could in turn affect product consistency and performance. Here, we have tested the applicability of using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model to study the activity of two different extracts from A. nodosum. Three different bioassays: Arabidopsis root-tip elongation bioassay, Arabidopsis liquid growth bioassay and greenhouse growth bioassay were evaluated as growth assays. Our results indicate that both extracts promoted root and shoot growth in comparison to controls. Further, using Arabidopsis plants with a DR5:GUS reporter gene construct, we provide evidence that components of the commercial A. nodosum extracts modulates the concentration and localisation of auxins which could account, at least in part, for the enhanced plant growth. The results suggest that A. thaliana could be used effectively as a rapid means to test the bioactivity of seaweed extracts and fractions.
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Marine algal seaweed species are often regarded as an underutilized bioresource, many have been used as a source of food, industrial raw materials, and in therapeutic and botanical applications for centuries. Moreover, seaweed and seaweed-derived products have been widely used as amendments in crop production systems due to the presence of a number of plant growth-stimulating compounds. However, the biostimulatory potential of many of these products has not been fully exploited due to the lack of scientific data on growth factors present in seaweeds and their mode of action in affecting plant growth. This article provides a comprehensive review of the effect of various seaweed species and seaweed products on plant growth and development with an emphasis on the use of this renewable bioresource in sustainable agricultural systems.
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The effect of marine bioactive substances (IPA extract) on K+ and Ca2+ fluxes and water stress tolerance was evaluated on potted Vitis vinifera plantlets. Different foliar treatments were compared during the experiment: a control treatment (distilled water), a pure fertilizer treatment (9-5-4 at 2%), and a marine bioactive substances (IPA extract, supplied by BiotechMarine, Roullier Group, Pontrieux, France) treatment added to a fertilizer (0.1% solution of IPA extract with distilled water and 9-5-4 at 2%). Ion fluxes, measured by selective non-invasive microelectrodes, were monitored in leaves. IPA extract significantly enhanced both potassium and calcium fluxes compared to the other treatments. Total dry weight and macro- and micro-nutrient content were subsequently measured: results showed an improved growth in IPA extract plants, together with a better capacity in accumulating macronutrients in plant organs, but not micronutrients, especially in leaves. Marine bioactive substances were finally tested for their effectiveness in promoting water stress tolerance: IPA extract was very effective in inducing water stress tolerance, maintaining a higher leaf water potential and stomatal conductance during the stress period, and inducing a quick recovery in rehydrated plants.
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Exploitation of seaweed as a manure has only met with variable success owing to rising cost of collection and transportation of the raw material, the introduction of mineral fertilizers, and the lack of published scientific evidence about the value of seaweed as a plant nutrient. Results of some controlled field experiments indicate that seaweed is of benefit to crops while other evidence is contradictory. It is probable that erratic results have been due to variation in any of the following: climatic and soil conditions of field experiments, botanical and geographical source of seaweed, method of seaweed processing, and form of seaweed products. The authors have set out to demonstrate on a small scale whether or not seaweed extracts promote the growth of higher plants and have begun an analysis of the factors which affect the response. A method of screening seaweed extract has been employed using vermiculite as culture medium, with mustard, Sinapis alba, as test plant and growth was determined by measuring height of seedlings, also fresh weight and dry weight. Extracts of fresh seaweeds were prepared and their effects on the growth of mustard compared with those of a commercial seaweed extract. Significant results were obtained twenty days after germination of the seed and the method is useful for giving a fairly rapid assessment of the growth response obtainable with numerous batches of seaweed extracts.
Article
We evaluated the growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) seedlings on peat and bark substrates, on their mixes and on their mixes with agroperlite. We examined the basic quantitative traits (seedling diameters and heights), the number of produced seedlings per unit area, main root lengths, number of axial shoots and dry weight of shoots and roots. Besides the study of substrate influence on the biometrical characteristics of seedlings applied standard fertilisation an experiment was established as the second variant where the effect of biostimulants was tested; they were supplied by the JAMINEX Company. The experiment was established with three replications by standard technologies used in forest operations. A conclusion can be drawn that in our experiments peat was found to be the most suitable substrate for production of Norway spruce seedlings. Positive effects of biostimulants were highly significant on almost all tested substrate mixes.
Article
Researchers from University of Florida investigated use of a 1:1 by volume mixture of partially composted seaweed and partially composted yard trimmings (SW) as a component of the growing substrate for angelonia Pink, shooting star, coreopsis, scutellaria Purple Foundations, achillea and coleus. There was no difference in shoot dry weight of angelonia, coreopsis, scutellaria, or coleus plants among the four different percentages of SW compost. Plants grown in control substrates were similar to plants grown in 30, 60 and 100 percent SW. However, the shoot dry weight of shooting star plants decreased as the percentage of SW increased from 0 to 100 percent. Shoot dry weights of achillea plants were greatest in substrates without compost, but there was no difference in shoot dry weight of achillea plants in 30, 60, or 100 percent compost. Analysis of the seaweed compost used showed that substrates containing 30, 60 or 100 percent SW compost had water-holding capacities similar to the control substrate but higher soluble salt concentrations than the control substrate. However, all of these values were within acceptable guidelines or standards for container substrates used for bedding plant production.
Article
Soil application to the roots of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Ailsa Craig) of a commercially available alkaline extract of the brown alga, Ascophyllum nodosum, resulted in a significant reduction in the number of second stage juveniles of both Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita invading the roots, compared to those of plants treated with water alone. Egg recovery from the seaweed extract treated plants was also significantly lower. The three major betaines found in the seaweed extract (γ-aminobutyric acid betaine, δ-aminovaleric acid betaine and glycinebetaine), when applied at concentrations equivalent to those in the extract, also led to significant reductions in both the nematode invasion profile and egg recovery. This led to the conclusion that the betaines present in the seaweed extract play a major role in bringing about the observed effects. Application as a soil drench of the inorganic constituents of the extract also resulted in significant reductions in egg recovery, but these reductions were not so pronounced as those produced by application of the betaines.
Article
Seven fungicides, 2 seaweed extracts (Maxicrop and Seasol), tea tree oil (Multicrop), and fungal agents including yeasts and an isolate of a Trichoderma sp., were compared for the control of fruit rots in strawberries in 5 field trials in Victoria, Australia. The fungicides tested were thiram, iprodione, dichlofluanid, chlorothalonil, fluazinam, phosphorous acid and fosetyl-aluminium. All treatments were applied as foliar sprays (at recommended rates) at weekly intervals, except for one of the Trichoderma treatments in which Trichoderma was cultured on rice and applied around plants at 1 and 5 weeks after the start of the trial. Rots were assessed after harvest by incubating fruit for 3 days at room temperature (15–25˚C). Between 55 and 71% of fruit developed rot in the unsprayed plots and consisted mainly of grey mould (Botrytis cinerea), leak (Rhizopus and Mucor spp.), anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum), leather rot (Phytophthora cactorum), and stem end rot (Gnomonia comari). All fungicides except fosetyl-aluminium and phosphorous acid significantly (P<0.05) reduced the total incidence of fruit rots by 27–72%. Thiram, dichlofluanid and chlorothalonil reduced grey mould by 61–94%, anthracnose by 63–100% and leather rot by 65–100%; iprodione reduced grey mould by 60–94% and leak by 74–96%. In one experiment each, fluazinam reduced grey mould by 85% and leather rot by 100%, and phosphorous acid reduced leather rot by 100%. Thiram, iprodione and phosphorous acid also reduced stem end rot by 55–100%. Of the biocontrols, seaweed extracts and oil, only tea tree oil in 1 trial of 3 reduced the total incidence of fruit rots significantly (by 31%), and in 2 trials significantly reduced anthracnose, and leather rot by 60–88% and 71–72% respectively. In 2 out of 3 trials, Trichoderma sp. reduced (P<0.05) grey mould by 29–63%. In one trial each, seaweed extract 1, and a yeast treatment amended with malt extract, both reduced grey mould by 40 or 54% respectively. The addition of sucrose to the yeast treatments significantly increased the incidence of anthracnose infection. Chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, thiram and iprodione sprays increased the yield (weight) of healthy fruit significantly (P<0.05) compared with that from untreated plants by 43–114%. By contrast, none of the biocontrol treatments, the seaweed extracts or tea tree oil increased fruit yields.
Article
Many scientific experiments have shown that seaweed products can improve and enhance various aspects of plant growth and development. Of interest is the specificity of different plants to the concentration and mode of seaweed application. This review examines the modem day application of commercial seaweed products in horticulture. Included in the text is a comprehensive table listing a wide range of plants known to benefit from seaweed treatment. Areas of seaweed application that are of particular importance to the horticulturist are discussed in detail. While seaweed products have meat potential for horticultural practices, it would appear that they are being underutilized. Although the reason for this is unclear, a better knowledge of seaweed application will hopefully increase their usage.
Article
We investigated the effect of exogenous cytokinins and marine bioactive substances containing seaweed extracts (marketed by the ROULLIER Group under the trade name N PRO TM.) on nitrate reductase activity in Arabidopsis. Cytokinins, applied either directly in the growth medium or as a foliar spray, did not significantly influence nitrate reductase activity in extracts from in vitro grown Arabidopsis plants. Conversely, Arabidopsis grown in the presence of or sprayed with N PRO had increased nitrate reductase activity. This stimulatory effect of N PRO was even higher when the plants were grown on low nitrate concen-tration, suggesting that these marine bioactive substances may be beneficial for plant growth in adverse nutritional conditions.
Article
Elicitors are molecules known to trigger plant defence responses against pathogens. In a search for new sources of eliciting compounds from marine algae, an extract was prepared from green algae, Ulva spp., and its elicitor activity was established on the model legume, Medicago truncatula. When infiltrated into plant tissues or sprayed onto the leaves, this extract induced the expression of the defence-related marker gene PR10 without provoking necrosis. Spraying a solution at 500 µg mL−1 was sufficient to obtain maximum induction of PR10 after 2 d. Using a cDNA array enriched in genes potentially involved in plant defence, the expression of 152 genes was monitored after one or two consecutive treatments. A broad range of defence-related transcripts was found to be up-regulated, notably genes involved in the biosynthesis of phytoalexins, pathogenesis-related proteins and cell wall proteins. In contrast, the expression of primary metabolism-related genes did not change significantly. Consistent with its effect on defence gene expression, it was found that prior treatment of M. truncatula with the Ulva extract protected the plants against subsequent infection by the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum trifolii.
Article
The effects of the seaweed concentrate “Kelpak’ on the growth and yield of wheat grown under conditions of varying K supply were investigated. Kelpak had no significant effect on the yield of wheat receiving an adequate K supply, but significantly increased the yield of K stressed plants. The increase in yield was caused by an increase in both grain number and individual grain weight. Although the beneficial effects of seaweed concentrates have often been attributed to their cytokinin content, several lines of evidence suggested that this group of plant growth regulators may not be solely responsible for the observed effects of Kelpak on wheat. Irrespective of the physiological mechanism of action, Kelpak would appear to have considerable potential for increasing yield in K stressed wheat and may therefore reduce the requirement of wheat for K fertilization.
Article
In 1983 and 1984 field plot experiments were established to assess the effects of a foliar applied (2 or 4L ha–1four applications per season) kelpMacrocystis integrifolia, concentrate on growth and nutrition of bean,Phaseolus vulgaris. A commerical kelp concentrate, prepared fromEcklonia maxima, was also used as a test comparison. In the first year a phytohormonal extract of theM. integrifolia concentrate, designed to extract the cytokinin, auxin and gibberellin phytohormones, was also applied to the crop to test the thesis that these phytohormones are active constitutents. In each of the two field seasons the kelp concentrates increased harvestable bean yields on average by 24%. The phytohormonal extract also increased yields, but was less effective than the kelp concentrate itself. Bioassay results demonstrated the presence of phytohormone-like substances in this crude extract.
Article
Seaweed concentrate prepared fromEcklonia maxima (Osbeck) Papenfuss, when applied as a soil drench, significantly improved the growth of tomato seedlings. Application as a foliar spray had no effect on young plants. In a second experiment SWC-treated plants exhibited early fruit ripening and a total fruit fresh weight increase of 17%. The number of harvested fruit were improved by about 10%. In this instance foliar applied SWC was more beneficial than SWC applied to the soil. The significance of these findings is discussed.
Article
Several Vietnamese seaweed species have economic importance as food for humans, as industrial materials, as ingredients in traditional medicine, and as biofertilizers. The nutritional values of nine representative Vietnamese seaweed species were analyzed. In this report, all of the species studied are rich in proteins, lipids (especially polyunsaturated fatty acids), vitamins, pigments, and macro- and micro-elements. The effect of the physiological activities of the green alga, Ulva reticulata, on hepatic fatty acid metabolism were examined in mice. The results indicate that Vietnamese seaweeds are abundant and have high quality materials for industrial and agricultural purposes.
Article
Seedlings of Pinus pinea L. growing in plastic containers were treated with seaweed concentrate (SWC). Different concentrations of SWC were applied, 0 to 3 times, to the roots or shoots of the seedlings. Shoot application increased plant weight mainly by increasing shoot growth. This was manifested as increased shoot length and weight and a decrease in the root/shoot ratio. Root drenches did not change the total plant weight but it accelerated root growth and increased lateral root dry weight. Root growth capacity (RGC) tests for both shoot and root applications indicated an increase in root length and some increases in root number when applied as a root drench. This study indicates that root application of SWC improved seedling quality and increased the ability of seedlings to survive transplanting into pots.
Article
Although seaweeds and various seaweed products have been utilized in agricultural practices for many years, the precise mechanism by which they elicit their beneficial growth responses is still not fully understood. The amount of mineral nutrients in commercial preparations cannot account for the magnitude of the responses. Some other factor, such as the presence of endogenous plant growth regulators is, therefore, thought to be involved. This paper reviews the literature supporting evidence for the occurrence of plant hormones in commercial seaweed preparations.
Article
The effect of seaweed liquid fertilizers (SLF) of Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa chemnitzia on growth and biochemical constituents of Vigna sinensis was studied. The seeds soaked with aqueous extract of seaweeds performed better when compared to the water soaked controls. Hundred per cent germination was recorded both in aqueous extract soaked and water soaked treatments. The low concentration (20%) of aqueous extracts of S. wightii and C. chemnitzia promoted the seedling growth including the parameters of shoot length (15.87, 14.13 cm/seedling), root length (6.42, 5.38 cm/seedling), fresh weight (4.017, 4.012 g/seedling) and dry weight (0.878, 0.865 g/seedling), chlorophyll (1.599, 1.491 mg g-1 fr. wt.), carotenoids (0.899, 0.875 mg g-1 fr. wt.), protein content of shoot (3.956, 3.474 mg g-1 fr. wt.) and root (2.926, 2.890 mg g-1 fr. wt.), amino acid content of shoot (1.447, 1.429 mg g-1 fr. wt.) and root (0.698, 0.680 mg g-1 fr. wt.), reducing sugar content of shoot (6.426, 6.233 mg g-1 fr. wt.) and root (5.118, 5.103 mg g-1 fr. wt.), total sugar content of shoot (11.846, 11.350 mg g-1 fr. wt.) and root (10.368, 10.102 mg g-1 fr. wt.), alpha-amylase (1.927, 1.819 microg min-1 mg-1 protein) and beta-amylase (1.730, 1.617 microg min-1 mg-1 protein) activities in V. sinensis. Among the two seaweeds tested, S. wightii exhibited better responses.
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