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Hispanic Student Success: Factors Influencing the Persistence and Transfer Decisions of Latino Community College Students Enrolled in Developmental Education

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Abstract

This study examined the impact of a set of theoretically-derived predictor variables on the persistence and transfer of Hispanic community college students. Early models of student persistence have been validated primarily among 4-year college students. While the constructs have been well-established, the relationships of those relevant factors remain unexamined among community college transfer students, and specifically, among Hispanic students enrolled in developmental coursework and planning to transfer from a community college to a 4-year institution. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the hypothesized conceptual framework on an existing set of quantitative persistence data drawn from a national sample of Hispanic students.
2009AIR Forum Presentation
HISPANIC STUDENT SUCCESS:
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PERSISTENCE
AND TRANSFER DECISIONS OF LATINO
COMMUNITY COLLEGE STUDENTS
ENROLLED IN DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION
2009AIR Forum Presentation
Gloria Crisp, The University of Texas at San Antonio
Amaury Nora, University of Houston
June 2, 2009
Introduction
It is estimated that nearly 30 percent of the US
population will be Hispanic by 2050
The majority of these students will begin their
college education at a community college
Hispanic students are less likely than White
Hispanic students are less likely than White
community college students to complete an
associate’s degree, transfer, or earn a bachelor’s
degree
Research is needed to track Hispanic students who
enroll in developmental coursework and then
persist and/or transfer to a four-year institution
Purpose and Research Questions
Examine the demographic, pre-college, socio-
cultural, environmental, and academic experiences
that impact the success of Hispanic students in the
second and third years of college
second and third years of college
What factors are significantly related to persistence
and/or transfer to the second and third years of college
among Hispanic community college students?
How do the variables that are related to student success
vary among developmental and non-developmental
students?
Theoretical Framework
Drew from several theories including Tinto’s (1993)
Model of Student Integration, Nora’s (2003)
Student/Institution Engagement Model, as well as
conceptual models specific to Latino students
Framework: The persistence and transfer decisions
of Hispanic students attending community colleges
were thought to be related to demographic and
pre-college variables, socio/cultural capital,
environmental pull-factors, and academic
experiences
Theoretical Framework (cont.)
Demographic Variables (gender, type of Hispanic
origin, English as primary language, one or both
parents born in US)
Pre
-
College Variables
Pre
-
College Variables
taken, high school grade point average, delayed
enrollment in college)
Socio-Cultural Variables (parental education,
importance of being a community leader,
importance of influencing political structure,
community service participation)
Theoretical Framework (cont.)
Environmental Pull Factors (amount of financial aid
received, number of hours worked per week,
enrollment intensity)
Academic Experiences
(attended a HSI, time with
Academic Experiences
(attended a HSI, time with
a faculty member, time with academic advisor,
GPA, developmental course enrollment)
Outcome Variables
Student success in second year of college
Student success in third year of college
Method
Database and Sample
Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study
(BPS 04:06)
Hispanic students who first enrolled at a public
Hispanic students who first enrolled at a public
community college in 2003-04 and who planned to
transfer to a four-year institution (n = 567)
Data Analysis
Block sequential modeling – logistic regressions
Student success in years 2 and 3
Run for developmental and non-developmental students in
years 2 and 3
Results: Student Sample
Student Profile:
567 Hispanic students
Initially enrolled in a community college in 2003-
2004
2004
Stated intent to transfer to four-year institution
57% female; 43% male
48% Mexican or Chicano descent; 12% Puerto
Rican; 3% Cuban
Results: Sample Characteristics
Background Characteristics:
48% enrolled in Algebra 2 as highest math course;
15% in trigonometry; 12% in calculus
54% graduated with <3.0 gpa
42% delayed entering college after graduation
< 50% enrolled full-time in college
52% enrolled in one or more developmental courses
during first year in college
41% attended an HSI community college
35% did not persist or transfer at the end of second
year and 41% in the third year
Results: Logistic Regression Analysis
Predicting Success in the Second and Third Years of
College:
Persist/Transfer = demographic + pre-collegiate +
socio-cultural capital + environmental pull factors +
academic experiences
academic experiences
Overall fit of second-year model:
χ² (19, n = 570) = 98.55 (p<.001); PCP = 72.5%
Overall fit of third-year model:
χ² = (19, n = 570) = 72.88 (p<.001); PCP = 66.1%
Results: Parameter Estimates and Model Evaluation –
Analysis Split by Developmental Status
Developmental
Students
Non-Developmental
Students
Second Year
χ² = 34.59
PCP = 71.9%
χ² = 51.61
PCP = 70.5%
Third Year
χ² = 16.62
PCP = 65.1%
χ² = 53.33
PCP = 67.6%
Student Success: Year 2 versus Year 3
Factor Impacting Student
Success
Same for Year 2 and Year 3 Differences for Year 2 and
Year 3
High school math courses
taken
+
Delayed enrollment in college
-
Parental education
+
Number of hours worked per
week
-
Enrollment intensity
(attending full-time)
+
Amount of financial aid
received
+ for year 2
Developmental course
enrollment
+ for year 2
Attended a Hispanic Serving
Institution (HSI)
+ for year 3
Structural academic
involvement (GPA)
+ for year 3
Student Success: Developmental versus Non-
developmental (Year 2)
Factor Impacting Student
Success
Same for Both Groups Different between Groups
Number of hours worked
per week
-
Amount of financial aid
received
+
received
Enrollment intensity
(attending full-time)
+
High school math courses
taken
+ for non-developmental
students
Parental education + for developmental
students
Student Success: Developmental versus Non-
developmental (Year 3)
Factor Impacting Student
Success
Same for Both Groups Different between Groups
Number of hours worked
per week
- for non-developmental
students
Enrollment intensity
(attending full-time)
+ for non-developmental
students
High school math courses
taken
+ for non-developmental
students
Parental education + for non-developmental
students
Developmental (Year 2) versus Developmental (Year 3)
Factor Impacting Student
Success
Year 2 Year 3
Number of hours worked
per week
-
ns
Amount of financial aid
+
ns
Amount of financial aid
received
+
ns
Enrollment intensity
+
ns
Parental education
+
ns
Non-Developmental (Year 2) versus Non-Developmental
(Year 3)
Factor Impacting Student
Success
Year 2 Year 3
High school math courses
taken + +
Parental education
ns
+
ns
+
Number of hours worked
per week - -
Enrollment intensity
+ +
Financial aid received
+ ns
Three Major Conclusions
First Conclusion
There are a common set of factors that previously have
been found to impact measures of success for students
enrolled at four-year institutions that are substantiated
for Hispanic developmental and non
-
developmental
for Hispanic developmental and non
-
developmental
community college students.
Validation of a theoretical/conceptual model of student
success for Hispanic students.
Three Major Conclusions
Second Conclusion
Findings support the influence of environmental pull-
factors as important for both developmental and non-
developmental students.
The influences of the educational attainment of
The influences of the educational attainment of
parents
A strong financial support so that students can
attend college full-time without having to work
Advantages of a strong high school academic
curriculum
Three Major Conclusions
Third Conclusion
A common set of factors were more influential early on for
developmental students while they were felt by non-
developmental students throughout their enrollment in
college
college
Practices and interventions focused early on for remedial
students will payoff even if those factors are lacking in later
years
Benefits provided in earlier semesters will still motivate and
encourage developmental students to remain enrolled in
college until their educational aspirations are reached
QUESTIONS?
Contact Information
Gloria Crisp, Assistant Professor
The University of Texas at San Antonio
210-458-7191
gloria.crisp@utsa.edu
gloria.crisp@utsa.edu
Amaury Nora, Professor and Director
University of Houston
713-743-8636
anora@uh.edu
A copy of the paper can be downloaded at:
http://elps.utsa.edu/Faculty/GCrisp_000.htm
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