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Estimating the Local Value of Non-Timber Forest Products to Pendjari Biosphere Reserve Dwellers in Benin


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Estimating the Local Value of Non-Timber Forest Products to Pendjari Biosphere Reserve Dwellers in Benin. This paper uses an indices method based on participant ranking of species to quantify use–values of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) and the socio-economic factors that influence these values for people living around the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. There were 76 species identified that had a high index value to people. The 10 most valued species were Parkia biglobosa, Adansonia digitata, Vitellaria paradoxa, Tamarindus indica, Lannea microcarpa, Vitex doniana, Hibiscus asper, Melochia corchorifolia, Khaya senegalensis, and Diospyros mespiliformis. Species values were influenced by the vegetative form of the species as well as by the gender of a participant and his/her affiliation to the ethnic group. The study also illustrates that women had a preference for NTFP species with high commercial and nutritional values, while men preferred plants that provide construction material and medicine. Moreover, the ethnic group that historically had more contact and interaction with the vegetation valued NTFPs more than any other group. The difference in value attributed to species by people was also driven by the vertical transmission of ethnobotanical knowledge in the study area. For long-term biodiversity conservation, it will be useful to involve the needs of all of the local communities in the design of a management plan and focus attention on the most important species.
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Estimating the Local Value of Non-Timber Forest Products
to Pendjari Biosphere Reserve Dwellers in Benin
Laboratoire dEcologie Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, Université dAbomey-Calavi,
01 BP 526 Cotonou, Benin
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Cotonou, Benin
Department of Geography, California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, CA, USA
*Corresponding author; e-mail:
Estimating the Local Value of Non-Timber Forest Products to Pendjari Biosphere Reserve Dwellers
in Benin. This paper uses an indices method based on participant ranking of species to quantify
usevalues of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) and the socio-economic factors that inuence
these values for people living around the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. There were 76
species identied that had a high index value to people. The 10 most valued species were Parkia
biglobosa,Adansonia digitata,Vitellaria paradoxa,Tamarindus indica,Lannea microcarpa,
Vitex doniana,Hibiscus asper,Melochia corchorifolia,Khaya senegalensis, and Diospyros
mespiliformis. Species values were inuenced by the vegetative form of the species as well as
by the gender of a participant and his/her afliation to the ethnic group. The study also
illustrates that women had a preference for NTFP species with high commercial and nutritional
values, while men preferred plants that provide construction material and medicine. Moreover,
the ethnic group that historically had more contact and interaction with the vegetation valued
NTFPs more than any other group. The difference in value attributed to species bypeople was also
driven by the vertical transmission of ethnobotanical knowledge in the study area. For long-term
biodiversity conservation, it will be useful to involve the needs of all of the local communities in the
design of a management plan and focus attention on the most important species.
Key Words: Local values, non-timber forest products, Pendjari biosphere reserve, Benin.
In Africa, Non-Timber Forest Products
(NTFPs) represent direct inputs to satisfy differ-
ent household needs for food, medicine, and
materials for construction. Often they are the
only means for forest dwellers to enter the cash
economy (Avocèvou-Ayisso et al. 2009; Camou-
Guerrero et al. 2008; Delvaux et al. 2009;
Hermans et al. 2004). However, we still have a
poor understanding of the factors that determine
or inuence the value of these resources and the
extent to which rural people depend on them
(Lawrence et al. 2005; Shanley and Rosa 2004).
Indeed, people in any given community do not
use and value all plant species equally and,
consequently, some researchers have argued that
identifying the more relevant groups of species for
local people may help in dening and implement-
ing priorities for conservation and sustainable
management strategies (Camou-Guerrero et al.
2008; Dalle and Potvin 2004; Kvist et al. 2001).
According to previous studies, socio-cultural
factors such as age, gender, the location of
dwellings, and their distance from markets affect
how people are linked with plant species. Age and
gender determine intra-cultural variations in
traditional knowledge and perception of plant
species (Camou-Guerrero et al. 2008; Hanazaki
et al. 2000; Müller-Schwarze 2006). Learning
about useful plants begins at an early age and
continues through adulthood; thus, older people
in general possess more detailed knowledge of
Received 15 June 2009; accepted 7 October
2009; published online 1 December 2009.
Economic Botany, 63(4), 2009, pp. 397412.
© 2009, by The New York Botanical Garden Press, Bronx, NY 10458-5126 U.S.A.
plants than younger generations (Camou-Guerrero
et al. 2008; Müller-Schwarze, 2006). From a
gender perspective, various authors have reported
that preferences for useful plant species, as well as
general interest in forest resources, can differ among
men and women (Camou-Guerrero et al. 2008;
Case et al. 2005; Gemedo-Dalle et al. 2005).
These differences have been partly explained as a
consequence of the sexual division of labor in
traditional societies and because learning is cultur-
ally conditioned (Müller-Schwarze 2006).
Another gender aspect related to the differ-
entiation in preferences for useful plant species
relates to plant life form. Comparing male and
female indigenous knowledge in Ethiopia, women
were found to be especially knowledgeable about
grasses and forb species used for forage (Gemedo-
Dalle et al. 2005). Women in the Madre de Dios
region of Peru tend to value fruit species more
highly than timber, while the reverse is true for the
men (Lawrence et al. 2005). Plant life form is thus
an important factor affecting values ascribed to
species. This is particularly relevant in a savanna
habitat where tree speciesproducts are available
throughout the year, but forbs are not. Research
conducted in Cinzana, near Ségou (Mali), found
the contribution of herbaceous species to the
NTFPs used and harvested during the dry season
to be negligible (Gustad et al. 2004). Of the species
reported, all but one was woody, pointing to the
importance of tree species to the local communities
in a region with a long seasonal dry period.
The location of dwellings and their distance
from markets have also been identied as key
factors that inuence the value assigned to species
by a population (Lawrence et al. 2005). Indeed,
previous ndings assumed that sustainable devel-
opment linked to forest conservation depends on
the existence of markets, particularly for NTFPs
(Richards 1993; Vadez et al. 2004). The logic is
that markets increase locally perceived values and,
consequently, harvestersmotivation to manage
their more valued species sustainably.
When developing management plans for natural
resources, it is vital to understand these relationships
while integrating the needs of local populations.
This is especially important in the case of biosphere
reserves, which encourage sustainable development
that is adapted to the local context (IUCN 2002).
The present study was conducted in Benin, West
Africa, where there is still limited understanding of
the factors that determine the value of species in
traditional communities and the socio-economic
factors inuencing the extent to which people
depend on forest resources. This study may be the
rst to report plant diversity in relation to the socio-
economic and cultural factors that inuence the
values ascribed to them by people in the Pendjari
Biosphere Reserve in northern Benin.
Following insights from previous research
showing that in traditional societies gender is a
signicant factor that inuences the use of wild
plants, we hypothesized that in the Pendjari
Biosphere Reserve, men and women would value
NTFPs differently (Camou-Guerrero et al. 2008;
Gemedo-Dalle et al. 2005; Lawrence et al. 2005).
Based on preliminary results and knowledge of
cultural differences among ethnic groups in the
area, we also hypothesized that value accorded to
species varies among different ethnic groups (Case
et al. 2005; Lawrence et al. 2005). We hypothe-
sized further that people differentially value forbs
and woody species (Gustad et al. 2004). We also
tested whether the species values are a function of
distance from village to market (Lawrence et al.
2005). The objectives of this study are: (1) to
identify by means of quantitative methods the
most important species used by people around
the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve to satisfy their
subsistence needs, (2) to determine whether men
and women or separate ethnic groups value
NTFPs differently, (3) to assess the effect of
plant life form on its perceived value, and (4) to
analyze the impact of markets on the value
ascribed to species by local people.
Study Area
The study was conducted in the Pendjari Bio-
sphere Reserve located in the northwestern area of
the Republic of Benin (10°30to 11°30N; 0°50
to 2°00E) (Fig. 1). With the exception of the
Atakora chain (400513 meters [m] above sea
level), the region mostly lies between 150200 m
above sea level (Heinrich and Moldenhauer 2002).
Pendjari Biosphere Reserve was declared a
Game Reserve in 1954, upgraded to a National
Park in 1961, and became a Biosphere Reserve in
1986 (IUCN 2002). The current regime attempts
to give local populations more control over the
management of the peripheral areas. The reserve
is divided into three areas, two of which (the core
and hunting areas) prohibit timber logging and the
conversion of protected lands for agriculture. How-
ever, bordering communities are allowed to gather
forest products such as NTFPs in the controlled
access and hunting zones (CENAGREF 2005).
Fig. 1. Map of Pendjari Biosphere Reserve. Map of Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in the northern part of Benin
(West Africa), illustrating the location of surrounding villages and different zones as suggested by the biosphere
reserve concept.
Around the periphery of the reserve, elds and
fallows dominate the landscape. The main soil type
occurring in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve is
tropical ferruginous soil. The soil of the Atakora
chain, which occupies the southern part of the
reserve, is stony and unt for agriculture. Except for
the land around rivers and temporary and perma-
nent streams, the soil is generally not very fertile.
The climate is Sudanian with a seven-month dry
period; peak rainfall occurs between late May and
early October and the mean annual rainfall is 1,000
millimeters (mm) (Sinsin et al. 2002). The mean
annual temperature is 27° centigrade (C). The
vegetation is composed mostly of open shrub and
tree savannas, and in some places, dry or gallery
The population in the study area, which is
estimated to be 30,000 inhabitants, is composed
of three main ethnic groups: Berba, Gourmantche,
and Waama. Moved from the inside of the park
where they lived initially to the park periphery
between 1958 and 1961, the population is spread
across 20 villages (Djossa et al. 2008)thatare
installed in the controlled access zone along two
axis roads between the hunting zone and the park
border. According to local common belief, this was
done to create the Pendjari National Park;
however, according to authorities, the aim of these
transfers was to concentrate sufcient populations
on specically identied sites in order to connect
them with socio-economic infrastructure such as
roads, health centers, and schools (Kiansi 2008).
The Berba group dominates the area along
Tanguieta-Porga Road, while the Waama and
Gourmantche groups are situated along Tanguieta-
Batia Road between the Atakora chain and the
Pendjari National Park. A limited number of people
from Peulh or Fulani, Dendi, and Bariba ethnic
groups populate the study area as well. The three
main ethnic groups settled in the area during the
early 19th century (Kiansi 2008). Historically, they
were hunters and sherman, but due to the establish-
ment of the park and its restrictions, they were
converted into farmers. People of the Gourmantche
ethnic group are specialists in geomancy, which is a
form of divination based on the interpretation of
objects such as pebbles thrown to the ground. People
of this ethnic group are believed to have the ability to
predict the future, a talent that, combined with their
considerable knowledge of the virtues of plants, is
associated with their practice of prescribing natural
plant recipes to treat various health problems (Kiansi
The most important livelihood activity is
subsistence agriculture. Cultivated crops include
yams, maize, sorghum, cowpea, groundnuts, and
rice (CENAGREF 2005). The savanna in the
buffer zone is also used for cattle grazing and
intensive collection of rewood (Sinsin et al.
2002). The people surrounding the reserve still
retain much of their traditional lifestyle and have
extensive knowledge of the wildlife resources of
the area (Djossa et al. 2008). They harvest useful
species for their nourishment, primary healthcare,
and to supplement agricultural incomes.
There are ve main weekly markets where local
people trade their products. The most important
of these is the Tanguiéta market where collectors
periodically come to exchange their goods.
The research sample was constituted using
2005). We interviewed 185 participants (105
men and 80 women) at home and in their local
languages. Each ethnic group was represented in
proportion to their occurrence in the overall
Pendjari Biosphere Reserve population: 80 people
from the Berba group, 51 from the Gourmantche,
49 from the Waama, and 5 from minority ethnic
groups (Peulh, Bariba, Dendi). Participants were
selected within a given age group and based on the
individualswillingness to be involved as unpaid
volunteers. We established contact by introducing
ourselves to each interviewee while presenting the
objectives of the study. The ages of the participants
ranged from 16 to 90 years. We chose 16 years of
age as the youngest limit because people inthe study
area tend to have obtained considerable knowledge
about vegetable use by this age (IUCN 2002).
Data collection was carried out using a
quantitative and qualitative ethnographic method
as described by Lawrence et al. (2005). At the
beginning of data collection (January 2007), we
organized six focus group discussions (two for
each ethnic group) during which we invited
participants to list all plant species that they
personally used as NTFPs. Twenty men and
women ranging from 15 to 50 years of age
participated in each focus group discussion. In the
majority of cases, men were more numerous than
women and the discussion lasted approximately
two hours. Participants listed the names of all
useful plants with which they were acquainted as
well as the specic use of each. From the list, we
identied six categories of use: food, medicine,
construction, ceremony, rewood, and other.
We collected detailed information using ques-
tionnaire surveys during a period of six months
(April, June, September, December 2007, and
January, February 2008). We chose this fre-
quency of data collection to reduce the contextual
impact on value attributed to species. We felt that
recent events such as disease, food shortage, or the
availability of certain NTFPs during data collec-
tion periods could inuence the value attributed
to species by participants. Therefore, we concen-
trated the data collection period on products
extracted during one rainy season, assuming that
disease and food shortage events would most
likely be constant during this period. The
questionnaire survey took about two hours per
participant and consisted of two parts. In the rst
section, we asked participants to list and rank by
importance the 10 most signicant species that
he/she had harvested from the reserve over the
last ve years. For each species listed, participants
gave information on the uses that made that
species important to him/her. We limited the
harvest period to ve years based on the recall
ability of participants. Part two focused on
collecting information on participantsage,
gender, and ethnic group afliation. Question-
naires were written in French, but we conducted
the interviews entirely in the participants local
language. One month before beginning data
collection, we performed a trial run of the ques-
tionnaire and trained the interviewers (secondary
school students) on how to administer the questions.
The use of enumerators from the study villages
facilitates data collection and increase participants
trust in the information that they are given.
During the interviews, participants listed species
by their local names, which were later identied
taxonomically. During the interviews, we used a
eld herbarium, an illustrated reference book of
Arbonnier, and the Benin Analytic Flora to identify
plants species (Akoègninou et al. 2006; Arbonnier
2000). We collected samples of the species that we
could not identify directly in the eld and
conducted their taxonomic identication at the
National Herbarium of Benin, which is at the
University of Abomey-Calavi. This is where all
plant species known to be native to Benin are
conserved as voucher specimens.
The ranking done by participants was rst
converted into a score. We attributed the score of
10 to the rst species cited by a participant; the
second species received a score of 9, and so on. If,
instead of 10 species, a participant listed 5, the
species that were not mentioned scored zero.
We used a general linear mixed model on the
log-transformed score as the dependent variable,
and tested the effect of participantsgender, life
form of species cited, ethnic groups and the
interaction among them (species life form*gender,
species life form*ethnic groups) as (xed) inde-
pendent variables, and the participant as a
random variable (using the procedure described
by Verbeke and Molenberghs [1998]). Data on
species life form were not collected directly from
participants; rather, they were obtained during
species identication. The signicance of the xed
statistics. We used the Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences model 16.0 for data analysis.
When the general linear mixed model revealed
a signicant effect of an independent variable on
the value accorded to a species, we computed the
values of species as described by participants
under this variable. The average value of each
species was calculated as described by Lawrence et
al. (2005). For example, for one species (S), we
dened its index value (V
) attributed by men
(m) in a given ethnic group (g) as: (1) Vsmg ¼
nmg (with S
score attributed to species S by
each man and n
the number of men in the
research sample). If we interviewed ve men and
four ranked species (S) as rst, third, sixth, and
tenth, the scores (S
) would be respectively 10, 8,
5, and 1. The species would receive a score of 0
for the man who did not mention it. The species
value for men in this community (V
) would
be 10 þ8þ5þ1þ0ðÞ
process was used for women.
We dened species index value (V
uted by men (m) and women (w) combined
in a given ethnic group (g) as: (2) VSg ¼
nmg þPswg
above, speciesindex value (V
10 þ8þ5þ1ðÞ
We obtained the species index value attributed
by all Pendjari Biosphere Reserve communities
) as: (3) VSr ¼Pg¼4
4(g varies from 1 to 4
due to the existence in the study area of 4 ethnic
To test the possibility that the value of species
are more strongly determined by commercializa-
tion when the participantsvillage is closer to a
market, we compared the values of species in two
villages populated by the Gourmantche: one
located closer to a market (Tanongou market,
located in the village) and one farther away (Batia,
13 kilometers [km] from Tanongou market).
In addition to the frequency analysis above and
in order to identify the most culturally important
speciesranking by participant considering their
ethnic group afliation and gender, we computed
the average order in which each species is
mentioned by adding together the order in which
each participant mentioned the species and
dividing by the total number of participants
(Martin 1995). This was done in order to clearly
understand the ethnic group afliation and
gender effect on species index values.
The main difculty of our methodology lies
in the impossibility of attributing a distance
measure to differences between numerical values
given to ranks. For example, while two partic-
ipants give higher rank for species athan b,the
reality may be that the rst participant thought a
wasonlyslightlybetterthanbwhile the second
thought awas considerably better than b.
Moreover, our methodology did not integrate
the frequency with which people effectively use
the species that were ranked. Therefore, the
hierarchy of plants found here did not exactly
equal the frequency of use of each species by
Participants in the focus group discussion
listed 97 plant species and associated them with
171 total uses were reported by participants
during the individual questionnaire interviews.
A total of 118 species were identied as useful
in the area.
The majority of plants listed by participants
(80%) were multiuse species. However, people
around the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve highly
valued medicinal and/or food plant species. In
total, participants listed 60 medicinal plants and
48 food species as important (Table 1).
The index values (Vsr) of the 76 species listed
in the top 10 by participants ranged from 0.005
to 7.54. We classied them into three groups of
index value and have presented them in the
Appendix. About 51% of the species listed fell
into a category of low value (from 0.005 to
0.097), 29% had an intermediate value (from 0.1
to 0.449), and 20% had a high value (from 0.5 to
7.54). The three most important species used by
inhabitants in the study area were Parkia biglobosa
(Vsr=7.54), Adansonia digitata (Vsr=7.18), and
Vitellaria paradoxa (Vsr=6.79) (Fig. 2). The seeds
and pulp of Parkia biglobosa are used in the daily
diet of the local people. They also use the bark for
medicine, the leaves in religious ceremonies, and
the pod of the fruit as cement to construct house
walls (Fig. 3). Young fresh leaves of Adansonia
digitata are most frequently harvested to make
sauce, the pulp of the fruit and the seeds are
used to make juice, and the bark is used in
medicine and house construction. The seeds
harvested from Vitellaria paradoxa are processed
to make shea butter and locally used as oil in
food preparation and cosmetics (Fig. 3). Another
useful product is the bark, which is used in
traditional medicine.
The values given by participants to each species
were signicantly affected by the plant life form,
as well as participantsgender and ethnic group
(Z=23.066; p<0.0001). Species marketability
was also important in assigning index value. The
correlation between ln (species index values) and
Category of Uses Total Value of All Species Number of Species Used
Medicine 44.07 67
Food 43.66 52
Construction 29.44 30
Firewood 37.41 29
Ceremony 28.17 8
Other uses 24.68 7
Values presented here represent the sum of individual
values (Vsr) assigned to species in each category of use by
ln (frequency of mention of commercial inuence)
for the 15 most important species is signicant
(Pearsons correlation coefcient: 0.784, P< 0.001).
Variation of Species Index Value Between Genders
Men and women valued useful species differently
(F=1.95; p< 0.001). Species such as Diospyros
mespiliformis,Khaya senegalensis,andLannea
microcarpa were preferred for use in house
construction and medicine, activities performed
mainly by men. Accordingly, these species were
valued signicantly higher by men than by
women. Those species given higher index value
by women, including trees like Bombax costatum,
and forbs such as Hibiscus asper,Melochia
corchorifolia,andSesamum radiatum,nd their
chief uses as food and in cooking.Women
commonly use the leaves and owers of the
aforementioned species to make sauces.
Fig. 3. Common Non-Timber Forest Products in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve. A. Fruits of Tamarindus
indica; B. Shea butter processed from Vitellaria paradoxa;C.Parkia biglobosa pod processing to cement walls;D.
Fruits of Adansonia digitata.
Species index values (V sr)
Fig. 2. Index values of the 15 most important species in study area. The 15 most important species are species
whose value (Vsr)is0.5.
Parkia biglobosa was the most valued species
and was a source of food and income. However,
there was no signicant difference in its index
value between men and women. The species is
culturally important for both genders (Fig. 4a, b).
Variation Between Ethnic Groups
Species index values varied between ethnic
groups (F=4.33; p<0.001). Adansonia digitata,
Ficus sycomorus, and Hibiscus asper were given
signicantly higher values by Berba people, while
Bombax costatum,Khaya senegalensis,Parkia biglo-
bosa,Tamarindus indica, and Vitellaria paradoxa
were highly ranked by the Gourmantche. Waama
people ranked Diospyros mespiliformis most highly.
Gourmantche people, who are most limited in
land access (Fig. 1), gave higher index values to a
greater number of species than did the other ethnic
groups and listed species market value as one of the
main criteria to rank their top 10 species.
Concerning cultural importance, Parkia biglo-
bosa is valued as the most important species by
the Gourmantche and Waama, Adansonia digitata
is the most signicant for the Berba ethnic group,
and Vitellaria paradoxa has the highest cultural
importance among the minority ethnic groups
(Fig. 5a, b, c, d).
P. biglobosa
A. digitata
V. paradoxa
F. sycomorus
L. microcarpa
V. doniana
H. asper
M. corchorifolia
K. senegalensis
T. indica
S. orientale
B. aethiopum
D. mespiliformis
A. indica
B. costatum
y =-0,0003x2 + 0,0448x - 0,1335
R2 = 0,8824
0 20 40 60 80 100
Average order of species
Number of respondents who mentioned the species
P. biglobosa
A. digitata
V. paradoxa
T. indica
L. microcarpa
V. doniana
H. asper
M. corchorifolia
K. senegalensis F. sycomorus
S. orientale
B. aethiopum
D. mespiliformis
A. indica
B. costatum
y =-0,0006x2 + 0,0544x - 0,1817
R2 = 0,7772
Average order of species
Number of respondents who mentioned the species
Fig. 4. Graphs A and B present respectively the most culturally important species to men and women in the
bottom right of the graphs. Parkia biglobosa was found to be the most culturally important species for both men
and women.
P. biglobosa
A. digitata
V. paradoxa
T. indica
L. microcarpa
V. doniana
H. asper
S. orientale K. senegalensis
D. mespiliformis
S. orientale
B. aethiopum
F. sycomorus
A. indica
M. corcorifolia
y = -0,0009x 2+ 0,0561x + 0,0577
R² = 0,8779
Average order of species
Number of respondents who mentioned the species
Gourmantche ethnic group
P. biglobosa
A. digitata
V. paradoxa
T. indica
L. microcarpa
V. doniana
H. asper
M. corchorifolia
D. mespiliformis
K. senegalensis
S. orientale
B. aethiopum
F. sycomorus
A. indica
B. costatum
y = -0,0007x2+ 0,0402x - 0,0387
R² = 0,7609
Average order of species
Number of respondents who mentioned the species
Waama ethnic group
P. biglobosa
A. digitata
V. paradoxa
T. indica
L. microcarpa
V. doniana
H. asper
M. corchorifolia
K. senegalensis
D. mespiliformis
S. orientale
B. aethiopum F. sycomorus
A. indica
B. costatum
y = -0,0005x2+ 0,0422x - 0,0772
R² = 0,8753
Average order of species
Number of respondents who mentioned the species
Berba ethnic group
P. biglobosa
K. senegalensis V. paradoxa
B. costatum
A. indica F. sycomorus
S. orientale
M. corchorifolia
A. digitata
B. aethiopum
H. asper
D. mespiliformis
V. doniana
L. microcarpa
T. indica
y = -0,0087x2+ 0,0426x +0,001
R² = 0,94
Average order of species
Number of respondents who mentioned the species
Other ethnic groups
Fig. 5. Graphs A, B, C and D present respectively in the bottom right the most culturally important species to
Gourmantche, Waama, Berba, and Other ethnic groups. Parkia biglobosa was found to be the most culturally
important species to Gourmantche and Waama while Adansonia digitata, and Vitellaria paradoxa are culturally
important to Berba and Other ethnic groups respectively.
Variation in Species Index Values According
to Their Plant Life Form
Participants valued trees more than forbs
species (Student ttest, d.f.=67, p= 0.001). Only
three forbs species were listed among the top 15
important species (Fig. 2). The most valued forbs
species, Hibiscus asper (Vsr=2.23), was ranked
seventh. Hibiscus asper, which is greatly abundant
at the beginning of rainy season, is widely
consumed by local people as a vegetable in sauce.
These species were collected from parklands
including fallows and croplands.
The species index values were also related to
the plant family to which they belong. Among
the 34 plant families listed by participants,
Leguminoseae, Bombacaceae, and Sapotaceae
ranked highest. With 145 species, the Legumi-
noseae family had the highest number of species
listed. These families also had the most highly
ranked species by participants: Parkia biglobosa,
Adansonia digitata, and Vitellaria paradoxa.
Market Proximity and Value of Species
There was a strong relationship between index
values attributed to species and the frequency
with which participants mentioned marketability
as a reason for their ranking (Pearsons correlation
coefcient: 0.784, p<0.001). This is reinforced
by the fact that the most valued species show
positive deviation from the regression of local
index value on the frequency of nomination for
sale as reason of species importance (Fig. 6). But
while marketability of species is one of the factors
affecting index values ascribed to species, no
relation was found between the market proximity
and this value. People closer to markets and those
more distant from them ranked species in the
same way.
Discussion and Conclusion
The inventories of existing NTFP resources
and their present uses as reported in this study
give a broad view of NTFPs used by people
around Pendjari Biosphere Reserve. We found
that 76 useful species are identied as important
for people living around the reserve. The results
helped to identify some useful plant species that
should be qualied as priorities for management
and conservation purposes. The most signicant
families in term of species index values are
Leguminoseae, Bombacaceae, and Sapotaceae;
although, in the study area, the most representa-
tive families are Poaceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae,
Combretaceae, and Euphorbiaceae. Therefore,
people do not use species simply because they
are abundant. As revealed in previous studies,
shared characteristics acquired deep in the evolu-
tionary history of plants have predisposed them to
be particularly useful (or not) for humans
(Assogbadjo et al. 2008; Lawrence et al. 2005).
Tree species are the most frequently used in the
area (80%). Based on the list of species used,
people attributed more value to the woody species
than to the forbs species. This difference, in
accordance with previous studies, can be partly
A. digitata
A. indica
B. costatum
B. aethiopum
D. mespiliformis
F. sycomorus
H. asper
K. senegalensis L. microcarpa
M. corchorifolia
P. biglobos
S. orientale
T. indica
V. doniana
V. paradoxa
y = -0,3328x2+ 1,8898x + 0,417
R² = 0,6422
-1 -0,5 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5
Ln (species values)
Ln (frequency of commercial mentions)
Fig. 6. Relation between the 15 most important speciesvalues and frequency with which participants cited
marketability for species as the reason for its importance.
explained by the seasonality observed in forbs
species use (Asfaw and Tadesse 2001; Gustad et
al. 2004). Forbs species used by participants grow
during the rainy season (JuneOctober) and the
population has the opportunity to use them only
during this period. In contrast, woody species are
often multiuse species and their products are
available throughout the entire year. Therefore,
the more regularly the local people around
Pendjari National Park can exploit products from
a species, the more important this species
becomes to them. This result is consistent with
results from other authors who found that people
accord high value to multiuse species (Camou-
Guerrero et al. 2008; Gemedo-Dalle et al. 2005;
Nygren et al. 2006; Pieroni 2001; Ros-Tonen
2000). However, these authors warn that the
excessive utilization of these multiuse species may
put them at risk. In the present study area, people
intensively incorporate these multiuse species into
their traditional agroforestry systems. This is an
important endogenous conservation strategy that
could be improved by conservationists to
strengthen sustainable use of these species. There-
fore, Pendjari Biosphere Reserve people not only
depend on NTFPs for food, medicine, construc-
tion materials, and income, but have also
developed methods of resource management,
which may contribute to their conservation.
People listed species used as medicine and food
earlier and more frequently than other use catego-
ries. This supports results from previous studies and
could be hypothetically associated with a higher
importance of the households subsistence activities
(Gemedo-Dalle et al. 2005;Kalaetal.2004;
Lawrence et al. 2005). For instance, in poor rural
areas, procurement of food and health constitute
crucial activities of daily life and are basic activities
for the households subsistence. This is reinforced
by the high degree of poverty in the area. The
Atakora province, where we carried out the study,
is one of the most disadvantaged areas in Benin
and houses the largest number of poor people, or
people vulnerable to poverty, in Benin (Adégbidi
et al. 1999;FIDA2006; Martin 2000). Due to
difculties in nding funds for treatment in the
modern health center as well as challenges of
stocking up foodstuffs to bridge the gap during the
dry season, these people rely heavily on NTFPs.
This appears to conrm the role of NTFPs in
supporting the livelihoods of poor people, a concept
largely shown through previous research (Adhikari
et al. 2004; Arnold and Ruiz Perez 2001;Fisher
and Christopher 2007; Gopalakrishnan et al.
2005; Mahapatra et al. 2005). There is a need
for help from conservationists in aiding local
people to harvest NTFPs sustainably. Indeed, as
the benets people seek from the NTFPs will
change over time, it will become even more
necessary to analyze how to make this exploitation
sustainable. Again, this study shows the complex
role that harvesting NTFPs can play on rural
livelihoods and biodiversity conservation.
The differences between index values assigned
to useful species by men and women are driven
by factors such as the type of products obtained
from a species and its market value. In general,
women valued species used for food more than
men, whose interests relate to species used as
construction material and medicine. This is
consistent with results from other studies that
support that differences between men and women
concerning value assigned to useful species. These
differences may be partly explained by the sexual
division of labor in traditional societies (Camou-
Guerrero et al. 2008; Müller-Schwarze 2006). In
our study, the most likely reason for the differ-
ences in values assigned to useful species by men
and women may be found in the social organ-
ization of household spending. Women are in
charge of household nutrition (but receive staple
crops from men), while men are responsible for
household building. Therefore, women have the
responsibility of nding seasonings for cooking
food. As stated by women in our research
sample, with increasing poverty in the study
area, the income given them by men for food is
rarely sufcient. Therefore, women have dif-
culty buying all of the necessary seasonings at
the market. NTFPs play an important role in
helping them to solve these food issues. This
also explains the high frequency with which
women ranked marketable species in comparison
to men. These results suggest that women have
at least as much diversity of knowledge as men.
They also show that women are important
NTFP stakeholders and merit equal consider-
ation in terms of biodiversity conservation in the
Our results revealed differences in species index
value across the various ethnic groups. The ethnic
groups that are hemmed in by the protected area
and the mountain chain suffer a lack of land
access and, as a result, value NTFPs more highly
than other groups. That is the case for the
Gourmantche villages (Fig. 1). The conversion
of land in the protected area for agriculture is not
allowed, while land in the Atakora chain is stony
and unt for agriculture. In this situation, the
Gourmantche farmers do not have sufcient land
to extend their elds. Therefore, they harvest
NTFPs to secure their well-being. This could
explain why they cited higher marketability of
species as the principal reason motivating them to
value a species. This is consistent with previous
reports revealing that unavailability of land is one of
the most important factors that determine the
degree of dependence on forest resources (Adhikari
et al. 2004;Murniatietal.2001). The high level of
dependence of the Gourmantche ethnic group on
NTFPs may also be explained by their tradition as
healers and geomancy science specialists, a practice
that equips them with a considerable amount of
unique knowledge regarding speciesproperties.
Various authors have suggested that differential
species values among similar groups are related to
specialized cultural transmission (Case et al. 2005;
Gaoué and Ticktin 2009; Gemedo-Dalle et al.
2005;Lozadaetal.2006; Müller-Schwarze 2006).
This may lead to greater information heterogeneity
and help explain why the various ethnic groups
value NTFP species differently within the Pendjari
Biosphere Reserve (Adhikari et al. 2004;Murniati
et al. 2001). At the same time, the similarity
exhibited between the Gourmantche and Waama
groups concerning the most culturally valued
species may be explained by their geographical
proximity; they live relatively close to one another
along one of the two access roads that border the
Pendjari National Park (Fig. 1). Given these
differences in species index values, sustainable
resource use and responsible management policy
will require the inclusion of the perceptions of all
the relevant ethnic groups.
Our results also show that the marketability of
species affects their index value; species that are
more commercialized are the most valued (for
example, Parkia biglobosa). This nding explains
the strong relationship between frequency of
marketing and species index values, and appears
to conrm those who report that markets have a
positive effect on values accorded to species by
people (Gustad et al. 2004; Howell et al. 2008;
Lawrence et al. 2005). However, contrary to
ndings by Lawrences group in Madre de Dios
(Peru), although marketability of species is a
determinant in the perceived species value, in the
Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, market proximity did
not affect the index value of species. The likely
explanation is the ease of access to villages. In
contrast to the case study in Madre de Dios, all of
the villages and local markets in the Pendjari
Biosphere Reserve are easily accessible by road. As
poverty is one of the main factors determining
peoples dependence on NTFPs in the study area,
growth in the commercialization of marketable
species would be helpful for the local poor. This
can be done through the development of agro-
forestry systems that incorporate marketable species.
In conclusion, this study identied the most
important useful plant species that should be
considered as priorities for management and
conservation. Our results show that although
people living around the Pendjari Biosphere
Reserve have access to a wide range of species,
not all are highly valued. NTFPs are used in a
wide range of categories, indicating the close links
between livelihoods and natural resources in the
area. The study also clearly shows that both
women and men have extensive knowledge about
useful species and merit consideration in reserve
biodiversity conservation.
Further studies are necessary to more fully
understand the impact of ethnicity on cultural
transmission of species knowledge. As seen in our
research, some interviewees know certain plants,
live near them, and are familiar with their uses,
but do not consider them important because their
ethnic group did not perceive them to be priority
This research was supported by the International
Foundation of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden, through
a grant to Vodouhe G. Fifanou (N. D/4158-1).
We also thank the Maison des Sciences de
lHomme Ange-Guépinand Man and Biosphere
United Nations Educational, Scienticand
Cultural Organization for their nancial and
technical assistance. We thank Gaoué Orou
Gandé, Glèlè Kakaï Romain, Assogbadjo Achille,
and Robert Voeks, for their helpful advice. The
authors are grateful to all participants interviewed
during this work for their time and willingness to
share their knowledge.
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Appendix: Species Listed by Participant with Their Family, Major Uses, and Index
Species Family Preference Group Use Index Values
Anacardium occidentale Anacardiaceae I 1,2,5 0.05
Ozoroa insignis 1,2 0.04
Uvaria chamae Annonaceae 1,2,5 0.01
Hyphaene thebaica Arecaceae 1,4,6 0.08
Gymnema sylvestre Asclepiadaceae 2 0.03
Leptadenia spp. 1,2 0.04
Crescentia cujete Bignoniaceae 2 0.01
Ceiba pentandra Bombacaceae 1,2,4,5 0.09
Cadaba farinosa Capparaceae 1 0.04
Garcinia livingstonei Clusiaceae 1,2,5 0.097
Cochlospermum planchoni Cochlospermaceae 1,2 0.03
Combretum glutinosum Combretaceae 1 0.02
Euphorbia poissonii Euphorbiaceae 2 0.02
Jatropha curcas 2 0.02
Acacia gourmaensis 2,5 0.02
Acacia hockii 2 0.02
Acacia seyal 2,5 0.03
Afzelia africana
2,4,5 0.06
Berlinia grandiora 2,4 0.02
Cassia sieberiana 2 0.06
Cassia sp. 1,2 0.02
Daniellia oliveri 2,4,5 0.03
Strychnos spinosa Loganiaceae 1,2 0.04
Ficus lutea Moraceae 1,2,4,5 0.08
Ficus sur 1,2 0.02
Milicia excelsa 2,5 0.02
Imperata cylindrica Poaceae 2,4 0.04
Oxytenanthera abyssinica 1,4 0.04
Securidaca longepedunculata Polygalaceae 2 0.03
Crossopteryx febrifuga Rubiaceae 2,5 0.005
Gardenia ternifolia 1,2 0.03
Mitragyna inermis 2,4 0.01
Blighia sapida Sapindaceae 1,2 0.02
Paullinia pinnata 2,4 0.04
Cola laurifolia Sterculiaceae 2,5 0.03
Dombeya quinqueseta 2 0.01
Sterculia setigera 2,3 0.005
Corchorus olitorus Tiliaceae 1 0.07
Grewia venusta 1 0.04
Mangifera indica Anacardiaceae II 1,2 0.36
Sclerocarya birrea 1,2 0.13
Annona senegalensis Annonaceae 1,2,4,5 0.40
Calotropis procera Asclepiadaceae 1,2 0.17
Vernonia spp. Asteraceae 1,2 0.15
Balanites aegyptiaca Balanitaceae 1,2 0.11
Anogeissus leiocarpa Combretaceae 2,3,4,5 0.18
Combretum collinum 1,2,5 0.14
Burkea Africana 1,2,3,4 0.16
Detarium microcarpum
1,2,3,4,5 0.37
Piliostigma thonningii 1,2,4,5 0.30
Pterocarpus erinaceus 1,2 0.13
Moringa oleifera Moringaceae 1,2 0.18
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Myrtaceae 2,4,5 0.19
Ximenia americana Olacaceae 1,2 0.27
Pennisetum spp. Poaceae 4 0.45
Gardenia erubescens Rubiaceae 1,2 0.13
Sarcocephalus latifolius 1,2 0.11
Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Rutaceae 1,2 0.30
Grewia avescens Tiliaceae 1 0.15
Cissus populnea Vitaceae 1,2,4 0.15
Kaempheria spp. Zingiberaceae 2 0.10
Lannea microcarpa Anacardiaceae III 1,2,4,5 2.42
Borassus aethiopum Arecaceae 1,2,4,5 1.10
Adansonia digitata Bombacaceae 1,2,3,4,5,6 7.18
Bombax costatum 1,2,4 0.55
Diospyros mespiliformis Ebenaceae 1,2,3,4,5,6 1.51
Parkia biglobosa Leguminosae 1,2,3,4,5 7.54
Tamarindus indica 1,2,3,4,5 2.77
Hibiscus asper Malvaceae 1,2 2.23
Azadirachta indica Meliaceae 1,2,4,5,6 0.65
Khaya senegalensis 2,4,5 1.61
Ficus sycomorus Moraceae 1,2,4,5 0.93
Sesamum radiatum Pedaliaceae 1,2 1.39
Vitellaria paradoxa Sapotaceae 1,2,4,5,6 6.78
Melochia corchorifolia Sterculiaceae 1,3,6 2.05
Vitex doniana Verbenaceae 1,2,4,5,6 2.26
Food (1); Medicinal (2); Ceremony (3); Construction (4); Fire wood (5); Other (6). I= Low preference (index values
from 0.005 to 0.097); II = Intermediate preference (index values from 0.1 to 0.449) and III = High preference (index
values from 0.5 to 7.54).
... These differences could be attributed to differences in socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds as well as land use practices and environmental factors in the study areas. Even within the same cultural setting, age, gender, the location of dwellings and distance from markets could influence the relationship between people and tree resources (Vodouhê et al., 2009). In the entire study area, free-range livestock rearing is traditionally permitted, and livestock browse or graze on the vegetation indiscriminately, especially during the dry season. ...
... The main services that tree species provided for the farmer per this study include food, medicine, shade and fuelwood. Vodouhê et al. (2009) andFaye et al. (2010) also identified medicine and food as the most frequent uses of farmland trees in Benin and Mali respectively. Etongo et al. (2017) identified the uses of parkland tree species in semi-arid Burkina Faso as food, fodder, fuelwood, income, construction, craft and others. ...
In order to understand the dynamics of regeneration, growth, population and possible upscale for the benefit of agroforestry parkland trees in the semi-arid areas of Ghana, a study was conducted to determine the population density, diversity, relative dominance, importance value indices (IVI) and use categories of parkland tree species in the Sudan and Guinea Savannah vegetation zones of Ghana, with special reference to F. albida. Tree inventories were conducted on 80 sampled farms covering a total area of 74.2 hectares across 8 communities distributed in 4 districts in the Sudan and Guinea savannah zones. Mean farm size was 0.93 hectares. Fifty-four tree species belonging to 24 families were encountered during the study. A Simpson's diversity index of 2.72 was determined as the overall diversity index of tree species on farmlands. Tree population densities in the sampled communities ranged between 4 (Katiu) and 11 (Kugri) trees per hectare. The predominant uses of parkland trees include food, medicine, shade, fuelwood and wood for construction. Others include fencing, soil improvement, direct income from sale of tree products, erosion control, fodder, tools, deity, packaging and craft. Ranking parkland tree species according to their Importance Value Indices (IVIs) in the various study ecological zones, it was evident that Faidherbia albida is highly ranked in both ecological zones due to its multipurpose functions such as fodder (pods and leaves) provision, shade provision in the dry season, and its contribution to improved growth and yield of crops grown under its canopy. Faidherbia albida populations should be increased on farmlands through programs like the Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR) and possible domestication.
... In Africa, there are several agroforestry practices such as maintaining trees on cultivated land, living fences, home gardens and grazing (Mbow et al., 2013;Abreha and Gebrekidan, 2014). Several studies carried out across the world have demonstrated the importance of preserving tree species on cultivated lands for socio economic, ecological and biodiversity conservation purposes (McNeely, 2004;Acharya, 2006;Nouaïm et al., 2007;Eloy, 2008;Vodouhê et al., 2009;Tesfaye et al., 2010;Assogbadjo et al., 2012). Indeed, local communities resort to tree species for their daily needs, including herbal medicine, food, fodder, construction of housing, and manufacture of household tools (Omafuvbe et al., 2004;De Smedt et al., 2011). ...
... Indeed, local communities resort to tree species for their daily needs, including herbal medicine, food, fodder, construction of housing, and manufacture of household tools (Omafuvbe et al., 2004;De Smedt et al., 2011). For instance, in times of food deficit, their products serve as an alternative to staple foods and are also a source of income for many rural communities (Vodouhê et al., 2009;Fandohan et al., 2010). Woody species, therefore, constitute an important component of agroforestry systems owing to their decisive role in the well-being of local communities. ...
Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don, Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir, Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C. C. Berg, Prosopis africana (Guill., Perrot. and Rich.) Taub., Afzelia africana Sm. and Khaya senegalensis (Desv.) A. Juss. are the most highly valued indigenous tree species in the agroforestry systems of the Ouémé catchment area. However, information on the population structure of these species is lacking, thus limiting the development of their sustainable conservation, utilization and restoration strategies. This study addressed this gap. It assessed the population structures and regeneration status of the six species from Don, Tan-Houègbo, Atchabita, Bétékoukou, Glazoué, Tchaorou, Zagnanado, Tévèdji, Sinaou and Bétérou along the catchment. Data were collected from 78 permanent rectangular plots (50 × 30 m) randomly installed within 10 provenances. Dendrometric data including diameter at breast height (dbh) of adult trees (dbh ≥ 10 cm), collar diameter, total height of seedlings and saplings, number of individuals per species according to adult, sapling and seedling were recorded. The population structure was described using ecological and dendrometric parameters (relative frequency, importance value index (IVI), mean densities, basal area, mean height), and diameter size-class distributions. Seedling:sapling and sapling:adult ratios were also computed and analyzed for determining regeneration patterns. Based on IVI, Parkia biglobosa (95.85%) and Khaya senegalensis (65.92%) were the most represented species in the catchment area. The analysis of variances showed that dendrometric parameters of the six species varied significantly between provenances. Seedling:sapling and sapling:adult ratios were
... The seed contains about 35% oil, which has been pointed out as factor that could weak seeds germinating capacity. Lannea microcarpa is used for various purposes such as food (fruits consumption), medicine, firewood, construction, ceremony, textile dyeing (Vodouhê et al., 2009;Bationo et al., 2012;Mabika et al., 2013;Garba et al., 2015;Goudégnon et al., 2017). The species populations found are ageing with low natural regeneration (Agbogan et al., 2015;Haarmeyer et al., 2013). ...
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Understanding the effect of seed size and maturity level on their germination capacity is essential to propagate a species effectively. This study assessed variations in seed germination of the indigenous fruit tree species Lannea microcarpa in relation to seed maturity levels and morphotype traits. Three fruit maturity levels (green, green-red, and red-purple fruit) and four morphotypes determined according to fruit and seed morphological characteristics (fruit diameter, fruit mass, seed thickness, seed width and seed weight) were considered. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replicates. Germination rate and time to the first germination were computed and analyzed using linear mixed-effect and quasi-Poisson generalized linear models, respectively. The results gave the highest germination rate (82.78 ± 5.2%, 45 days after sowing) for morphotype 2 (medium sized seed) and the lowest (33.90 ± 1.49%, 45 days after sowing) for morphotype 3 (larger seeds). The shortest time to the first germination was recorded for morphotype 2 (6.89 ± 1.08 days after sowing) and the longest (9.96 ± 3.2 days after sowing) for morphotype 1 (smaller seeds). Seeds from green fruits had a better germination rate than seeds from green-red and red-purple fruits. Considerable variation was also observed between individual trees, which suggests a potential genotype driving-force in seed germination capacity. Our findings suggest that seeds of intermediate size collected from green fruits perform best as regards germination.
... Wild edible trees and shrubs species are essential source for people's livelihood in developing countries. Fruit from these species are a source of subsistence and income for households (Vodouhê et al., 2009;Ag undez et al., 2020;Borah et al., 2020). During food shortage period, wild fruit allow many people to meet their basic food needs for survival (D.N.E. ...
Fruit of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. are widely harvested by rural communities for food and income across West Africa sahelian areas. The species is listed among the high value food providing plants in Burkina Faso. However, the lack of reliable assessment of its fruit production is one of the main constraints limiting its valorization and sustainable management. This study aims to analyze factors affecting fruit production of Z. mauritiana and to develop allometric models for estimating this production. Total harvest method was used to quantify fruit from 130 individuals distributed into five diameter size classes across two phytogeographic zones of Burkina Faso, the sub-Sahel and the north-Sudanian. Models were fitted with 80% of sampled individuals randomly selected and 20% were used for model validation. The results showed that fruit production varied significantly according to phytogeographic zone and diameter size class. Mean dry mass of fruit per individual was significantly higher (p = 0.0135) in the north-Sudanian zone (1.82 kg per individual; CV = 164.4%) compared to the sub-Sahel zone (1.65 kg per individual; CV = 184.7%). Diameter at breast height and total height of individuals were the best predictors of fruit production in the sub-Sahel zone. For the north-Sudanian zone, Diameter at breast height, total height and crown diameter of individuals were the best predictors. These results provide evidence that allometric models could be used to successfully estimate the amount of fruit production in Z. mauritiana. This is interesting for perspectives of exploitation planning and sustainable management of the species resources.
... This means that to sustainably valorize a species, it must be conserved. Most of the species prioritization methods available were used for conservation (Rahman et al., 2019;Rubio Teso et al., 2018;Paloniemi et al., 2018;Assogbadjo et al., 2017;Kell et al., 2017;Kell et al., 2015;van Andel et al., 2015;Yaoitcha et al., 2015;Heubach et al., 2013;Heinen & Shrestha-Acharya, 2011;Magos Brehm et al., 2010;Adomou et al., 2010;Vodouhê et al., 2009;de Melo et al., 2008;de Oliveira et al., 2007;Maxted et al., 2006). In our study, the criteria for selecting WOPs for valorization were defined by combining the criteria preferred by the local populations and literature surveys (Kell et al., 2017). ...
Wild oil plants (WOP) are species used for food, cosmetics, nutraceutical, and medicine. In Benin, their importance is still poorly documented. This study investigated the diversity of WOPs and identified priority species for valorization in Benin. Literature synthesis was used to gather data on a list of WOP species. This was completed by ethnobotanical surveys involving users (traditional healers, farmers, fishers, traders, and resource persons), actors in the three biogeographical zones of Benin (Guineo-Congolian, Sudano-Guinean, and Sudanian zones). In addition, field visits to the species habitats were conducted with the help of local populations to assess the true presence of species mentioned during the survey and their availability. Data were collected on the identity of informants, WOPs used or known, ethnobotanical, nutritional and economic values, valorization level, their national distribution and threat status. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Findings showed that oils extracted from these WOP seeds serve for medicinal (49.25%), food (29.85%), cosmetic (17.91%), and fuel (2.99%) purposes, and neither gender nor the main occupation defined knowledge of WOP diversity. A total of 36 WOPs belonging to 25 botanical families were identified. The top five priority species to be valorized across the country were: Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile, Ricinodendron heudelotii (Bail.) Pierre, Lophira lanceolata Tiegh. ex Keay, Sesamum indicum L., and Cleome gynandra L. These species were identified as important resources for alleviating poverty and food insecurity in the communities and as potential candidates for the development of the oilseed sector in Benin. Further studies are needed to document the indigenous knowledge associated with those species, existing processing techniques, and exploitable capital to ensure their sustainable management.
... Ces aires protégées qui représentent un immense réservoir de ressources biologiques font face à de nombreuses pressions : une agriculture consommatrice d'espace, un élevage extensif, le braconnage, l'exploitation abusive du bois, etc. [5] car la végétation naturelle est pour l'Homme un élément vital qui subvient aux multiples besoins d'une population à fort taux de croissance [6,7]. En effet dans les pays en développement les populations sont totalement dépendantes des ressources naturelles pour l'alimentation, la santé, le fourrage, les besoins en bois énergie et en bois de service [8]. En Afrique, les produits forestiers depuis des siècles, ont joué un rôle alimentaire et commercial important et contribuent encore aujourd'hui à la réduction de la pauvreté et à la sécurité alimentaire des populations [9]. ...
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Résume Description du sujet : Les aires protégées sont créées dans le but de conserver la biodiversité. L'augmentation de la population, donc des besoins entraine une pression de plus en plus accrue sur les ressources naturelles de ces sites particuliers d'où l'intérêt d'évaluer la vulnérabilité des ligneux dans un contexte d'utilisation quotidienne. Objectifs : Cette étude menée dans le complexe des aires protégées Doungh-Fosse aux Lions dans la région des savanes au nord du Togo a pour but de répertorier les différentes utilisations en contribuant à une meilleure connaissance du niveau de vulnérabilité de la flore ligneuse. Méthodes : Des enquêtes ethnobotaniques semi-structurées par questionnaire couplées à des inventaires dendrométriques ont été réalisés respectivement auprès des populations des villages riverains et dans le complexe. Résultats : Les populations riveraines ont cité 35 espèces utilisées pour l'alimentation, 58 dans la médecine locale, 75 pour les besoins de bois-énergie, 37 dans le domaine de l'artisanat, 2 comme brosse végétale, 25 comme plantes fourragères et 29 dans la construction. Plus de 59 espèces possèdent un indice de vulnérabilité Iv ≥2,5 et sont de ce fait très vulnérables. Conclusion : Il s'avère important de prendre de mesures urgentes allant dans la gestion durable en vue de la conservation de ce patrimoine en voie de disparition. Abstract Description of the subject: Protected areas are created to conserve biodiversity. The increase in population, and therefore in needs, leads to an increasing pressure on the natural resources of these particular sites, hence the interest in assessing the vulnerability of woody species in a context of daily use. Objective: This study conducted in the complex of protected areas Doungh-Fosse aux Lions in the savannah region in northern Togo aims to inventory the various uses by contributing to a better knowledge of the level of vulnerability of woody flora. Methods: Semi-structured ethnobotanical surveys by questionnaire coupled with dendrometric inventories were carried out respectively among the populations of the riparian villages and in the complex. Results: Riparian populations cited 35 species used for food, 58 in local medicine, 75 for wood fuel needs, 37 in handicrafts, 2 as plant brush, 25 as fodder plants, and 29 in construction. More than 59 species have a vulnerability index Iv ≥2.5 and are therefore highly vulnerable. Conclusion: It is important to take urgent measures in the sustainable management for the conservation of this endangered heritage.
... Local people do not value local flora species equally; some particular species groups, genera and families are preferred than others (Bennett & Husby, 2008). Identifying herbal groups and their usages is fundamental in identifying and implementing priorities of conservation and sustainable management strategies (Vodouhê, Coulibaly, Greene, & Sinsin, 2009). ...
The research on building a flood mapping in Lai Giang Basin of Binh Dinh Province in 2016 on the use of Sentinel-1 radar image and GIS initially determines the construction of flooded square in the studied area based on the results of the process of scattering water value threshold, extracting flooded areas on the radar image. This flood mapping is combined with the depth measured from the flood in 2016 traces to apply GIS techniques to create of flood depth map. The results of the study provide a new way of quickly creating flood maps from radar satellite images.
... According to them, the tribal women are shown as a valuable human resource for contribution in domestic, social, cultural, and esthetic life (Majumdar, 1973;Rivers, 1973;Mann, 1987;Ghosh, 1987;Chauhan, 1990). Further, women particularly of femaleheaded households are directly dependent on utilization and marketing of forest produces than men (Khare et al., 2000;Dovie, 2003;Vodouhe et al., 2009). Moreover, women join JFM activities by various ways. ...
Joint forest management (JFM) is not something new, but it is a joint venture of the forest department and local community that facilitates/aid to recover the degraded forests for meeting out peoples basic need of diversified forest-based products in addition to conservation of natural resources (NR). Indeed, JFM works strengthening the forest-dwelling community and helps toward management and conservation of forest treasure and maintenance of biodiversity too. Certainly, it depends upon the extent of people participation that is crucial for the successful outcome of the process. However, a gender inequality is major constraint behind success of JFM program. Women have equally participated and work by shoulder to shoulder with men. According to Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, Rome) women is known for most disadvantaged sector and part of human society and overall 70% of world’s poor are women who tagged as “silent majority” due to facing socioeconomic, cultural, political, and educational problems worldwide. Hence women empowerment in any forest areas is not only for their welfare but also helps in the development of the country. In forest, rural women contributes major participation for collection of various forest produce in the fringe of forest. Therefore, women play a major contribution in term of physical involvement and generation of their household incomes that help in maintaining livelihood security through socioeconomic upliftment. However, women are poorly participated in the JFM and forest development program due to less awareness about importance of forest, poorly knowledge about JFM principles based on forest development, feeling insecure and less trust on government and forest department. These issues will hinder the women actively participation in JFM for forest development program. A good governance and policy are needed for providing adequate incentives to women while working for forest development through JFM and raising awareness among the women for actively participation in this program that require an effective communication between forest department and forest fringe peoples (women), and surely it would be helpful in women socioeconomic and forest security along with ecosystem maintenance and ecological stability. However, forest development agencies (FDA) have to empowered women through participation in forest management and conservation. This would not only increase the self-dependency of women through active participation but also strengthening the incomes and sustaining their life. In this context, this chapter review origin and potential of JFM, gender issue in JFM, role, and empowerment of women in forest management and conservation, constraint of women participation in JFM and upliftment of living standard through socioeconomics development of poor’s.
Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are crucial for rural people’s livelihoods in Hoang Lien-Van Ban Nature Reserve. Communities living in and around the nature reserve rely on a variety of non-timber forest products for their livelihood. This chapter aims to give an overview of the diversity of NTFPs in Hoang Lien-Van Ban Nature Reserve, focusing on medicinal plants and food. We collect data on NTFPs through sociological interviews. Interviews were conducted with households living in the Hoang Lien-Van Ban Nature Reserve. It is hypothesized that there is no significant difference between the amount of bamboo shoots harvested and their contribution to household income among studied villages. To identify the vulnerability and risks of threatened species, a rapid vulnerability assessment (RVA) was conducted. A total of 256 species of medicinal plants have been discovered in Hoang Lien-Van Ban Nature Reserve. Among them, 193 species have identified scientific names to species, 59 species have been identified to genera and 4 species have been identified to their families to be used as NTFPs of local people. The results show that there is a critical difference in NTFPs harvesting and sale affecting household income among villages. However, the contribution from NTFPs harvesting to per capita income is small, since they are mainly used for household demands. Vulnerability assessment shows that most medicinal species are moderately vulnerable, and most edible species have less vulnerable position. Management and conservation of NTFP species should be implemented to prevent overexploitation of these species.
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In nearly all parts of the world, an important part of people’s livelihood is derived from natural resources. Gender is considered one of the most important determinants of access and control over forests. It is thought that women and men within households and communities have different opportunities and different roles and responsibilities in relation to forest use. It is probable that when women have equal access to forests, better food security outcomes can be achieved for individuals and households that are dependent on forests for their livelihoods. A systematic evidence map of the evidence base linking gender with access to forests and use of forest resources for food security was undertaken. Ten bibliographic databases and 22 websites of international development and conservation organisations were searched using keywords suggested by stakeholders. Other articles were found by emailing authors and organisations to send potentially relevant publications. 19,500 articles were retrieved from bibliographic databases and 1281 from other sources. After iterative screening, 77 studies were included: 41 focussed on Africa, 22 on Asia, 12 on Latin America, 2 were global. Most indicators of food security measure access to food, measured by total consumption, expenditure, or income. Studies showed strong gender specialisation: commercial access and utilisation of forests and forest products dominated by men, whereas access for subsistence and household consumption is almost exclusively the task of women. Despite the large number of studies reviewed, limitations of the evidence base, including methodological heterogeneity, a dominance of case studies as the study design, and unequal geographical representation in study locations, make it difficult to generalise about the overall importance of gender and its effect on access to and use of forests for food security in developing countries. The critical gaps in the evidence base include geographical representation in primary research and a greater breadth of study designs to assess gender implications of access to forest resources globally.
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A wildlife survey was carried out in Pendjari National Park of Benin in April 2000. The park covers an area of 2,660 km(2). Larger mammals were censused along 97 parallel line transects. The transects lay 1 km apart and were 15 km long on the average. The total length of strips (effort) was 1,455 km. Count data were analysed with the "Distance" programme. Twenty species were recorded during the survey, including most of the larger mammals of West Africa, in particular bovids. The most abundant species were olive baboons (Papio anubis), western buffalo (Syncerus caffer brachyceros) and kob (Kobus kob), with respective densities of 3.06, 1.0 and 0.98 animals/km(2). The total biomass of larger mammals was 0.63 t/km(2) (elephants: Loxodonta africana excluded) and 1.12 t/km(2) (elephants included). The carrying capacity for herbivores was estimated at 2.8 t/km(2). Except for buffalo, roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus) and hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus major), both species richness and abundance were lower than in a previous survey ten years earlier, and species such as topi (Damaliscus lunatus korrigum) and leopard (Panthera pardus) were no longer detected. The results signify the need to revise and improve current wildlife conservation and management strategies to assure long-term protection of larger mammals in Pendjari National Park.
Responding to the decline of game, fruit and fiber post-logging, communities along the Capim River in Pará, Brazil, requested that research be initiated into the value of non-timber forest products. As a first step, an ethnobotanical inventory of one hectare of mature terra firme forest was conducted. The percentage use-values described reflect that Capimenses are knowledgeable about the use of many species (60% of inventoried species); however, active use has declined. Compared to other South American inventories, Capimenses demonstrate a higher degree of trade in timber, a lack of trade in non-timber products, the decreasing use of plants for technological purposes, and the description of the use of many species in the past tense. During the longitudinal study, the 15 most highly valued fruit, nut, game attracting, and medicinal tree species became included in the suite of species extracted by the timber industry.
Ethnobotany, the study of the classification, use and management of plants by people, draws on a range of disciplines, including natural and social sciences, to show how conservation of plants and of local knowledge about them can be achieved. Ethnobotany is critical to the growing importance of developing new crops and products such as drugs from traditional plants. This book is the basic introduction to the field, showing how botany, anthropology, ecology, economics and linguistics are all employed in the techniques and methods involved. It explains data collection and hypothesis testing and provides practical ideas on fieldwork ethics and the application of results to conservation and community development. Case studies illustrate the explanations, demonstrating the importance of collaboration in achieving results. Published with WWF, UNESCO and Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
This paperback edition is a reprint of the 2000 edition. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of linear mixed models for continuous longitudinal data. Next to model formulation, this edition puts major emphasis on exploratory data analysis for all aspects of the model, such as the marginal model, subject-specific profiles, and residual covariance structure. Further, model diagnostics and missing data receive extensive treatment. Sensitivity analysis for incomplete data is given a prominent place. Several variations to the conventional linear mixed model are discussed (a heterogeity model, conditional linear mixed models). This book will be of interest to applied statisticians and biomedical researchers in industry, public health organizations, contract research organizations, and academia. The book is explanatory rather than mathematically rigorous. Most analyses were done with the MIXED procedure of the SAS software package, and many of its features are clearly elucidated. However, some other commercially available packages are discussed as well. Great care has been taken in presenting the data analyses in a software-independent fashion. Geert Verbeke is Professor in Biostatistics at the Biostatistical Centre of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in Belgium. He is Past President of the Belgian Region of the International Biometric Society, a Board Member of the American Statistical Association, and past Joint Editor of the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A (2005--2008). He is the director of the Leuven Center for Biostatistics and statistical Bioinformatics (L-BioStat), and vice-director of the Interuniversity Institute for Biostatistics and statistical Bioinformatics (I-BioStat), a joint initiative of the Hasselt and Leuven universities in Belgium. Geert Molenberghs is Professor of Biostatistics at Universiteit Hasselt and Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in Belgium. He was Joint Editor of Applied Statistics (2001-2004) and Co-Editor of Biometrics (2007-2009). He was President of the International Biometric Society (2004-2005), and has received the Guy Medal in Bronze from the Royal Statistical Society and the Myrto Lefkopoulou award from the Harvard School of Public Health. He is founding director of the Center for Statistics and also the director of the Interuniversity Institute for Biostatistics and statistical Bioinformatics. Both authors have received the American Statistical Association's Excellence in Continuing Education Award in 2002, 2004, 2005, and 2008. Both are elected Fellows of the American Statistical Association and elected members of the International Statistical Institute.
Responding to the decline of game, fruit and fiber post-logging, communities along the Capim River in Pará, Brazil, requested that research be initiated into the value of non-timber forest products. As a first step, an ethnobotanical inventory of one hectare of mature terra firme forest was conducted. The percentage use-values described reflect that Capimenses are knowledgeable about the use of many species (60% of inventoried species); however, active use has declined. Compared to other South American inventories, Capimenses demonstrate a higher degree of trade in timber, a lack of trade in non-timber products, the decreasing use of plants for technological purposes, and the description of the use of many species in the past tense. During the longitudinal study, the 15 most highly valued fruit, nut, game attracting, and medicinal tree species became included in the suite of species extracted by the timber industry.
This paper examines the potential role that naturally extracted non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can play in the sustainability of the Amazon rain forest. Through a number of case studies which examine the history of the exploitation of some of the main NTFPs of the Amazon, it shows that due to a number of inter-related factors, the outlook for the sustainability of NTFP-based natural forest management, if left solely to market forces, is poor. These factors include the ephemeral nature of the markets for many of these products, often due to the substitution of natural products by synthetics; substitution by plantation products; tenure insecurity and government policies that encourage alternative land uses; destructive harvesting techniques; and exploitative commercialization systems in which the extractors receive insufficient incentive to manage the resource sustainably. The future of this form of forest management will depend increasingly on fundamental tenure and institutional reforms, adequate remuneration of producers and a more integrated agroforestry approach to natural forest management. -Author
Comparative geomorphological and pedological studies on Late Holocene landscape development in West African dry Savanna environments reveal several phases of morphodynamic activity and stability resulting in typical relief forms and related sediments. Although significant similarities in the geomorphological development of the various research areas are found, fieldwork and laboratory analysis show small-scale variations in sedimentary structure and soil formation. This is not only due to climatic fluctuations, because sediment datings and archaeological findings prove an early human impact on dry Savanna ecosystem. Nowadays, most of the study areas are affected by severe degradation processes, attributed to increasing population growth. Interpretations of rainfall data refer to specific climatic factors of Savanna environments, like precipitation structure, which promotes landscape degradation. Actual geomorphodynamics in West African dry Savanna can therefore have both anthropogenic and climatic causes.
Trade theory predicts that the expansion of markets induces households to specialize and intensify production. We use plot-level data (n = 64) from a panel study of 2 village and cross-sectional data from 511 households in 59 villages of Tsimane' Amerindians (Bolivia) to test the predictions. Results of bivariate analyses using both data sets suggest that as households inte- grate into the market economy they: (1) deforest more, (2) expand the area under rice cultivation, the principal cash crop, (3) sell more rice, and (4) in- tensify production by replanting more and by replanting newly cleared plots with maize, another cash crop. Results mesh with predictions about produc- tion specialization and intensification of trade theory. The analysis also pro- duced results running counter to predictions from trade theory. For example, households and villages more integrated into the market planted more cas- sava and rice varieties, intercropped more, and put more crops in new fields than more autarkic households. Although the expansion of markets induces