Article

Determination of carnosine in Black-Bone Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson) and common chicken by HPLC

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Abstract

Black-Bone Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson) is both consumed as a healthy food and used particularly as a kind of traditional Chinese medicine. Carnosine in the muscles of Black-Bone Silky Fowl was identified by HPLC–MS/PAD. The carnosine content in the meat of Black-Bone Silky Fowl was determined by HPLC and compared with that contained in the meat of White Plymouth Rock, which were bred under the same condition. The results showed that the contents of carnosine in the mixed meat, breast meat and thigh meat of Black-Bone Silky Fowl were all remarkably higher than that in the White Plymouth Rock. These findings indicate that Black-Bone Silky Fowl would be a better chicken breed for carnosine supplement.

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... Besides the skin, muscles and bone, abundant melanin in the connective tissue of internal organs ( Fig.1 B, C, D). The Taihe BSF is generally accepted with nutritive value and drug action (Tian et al., 2007;Chen et al. 2008). They have a long history in Chinese culture and known as a marvel of traditional Chinese medicine for various ailments (Chen et al. 2008). ...
... They have a long history in Chinese culture and known as a marvel of traditional Chinese medicine for various ailments (Chen et al. 2008). To this day, they have been widely used in medicine, pharmacology, cosmetics, immune booster and a ward against emaciation and feebleness (Tian et al., 2007). Melanin can protect against mitochondrial superoxide generation and mtDNA damage (Swalwell et al., 2012). ...
... Melanin can protect against mitochondrial superoxide generation and mtDNA damage (Swalwell et al., 2012). A study indicated Taihe BSF contains high levels of carnosine, which is a powerful antioxidant and is taken as a dietary supplement to strengthen muscles and to alleviate the effects of aging, autism and diabetes (Tian et al., 2007;Huang et al., 2002). The amino acid requirements for growing Chinese Taihe BSF had been investigated (Li et al., 2003). ...
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In this work, the morphological features of liver in Chinese Taihe black-bone silky Fowl ( BSF) were analyzed by light microscope and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that two kinds of hepatocytes were present in Taihe BSF liver, i.e., the dark and the light hepatocyte. The dark hepatocyte was electron-dense and lager, with many organelles, mitochondria especially. The light hepatocytes were smaller than the dark. They had electron-lucent cytoplasm with a small number of organelles. Furthermore, there were lipolysosomes in the light hepatocyte. The numerous long and serried finger-like microvilli spread into bile canaliculus lumen. The glycogen granules intensely stained, spread in some hepatocytes. Numerous glycogen granules scattered in cytoplasm especially near bile canaliculi. However, lipid droplets were not observed in any hepatocytes. The natural apoptotic hepatocytes were observed in Taihe BSF liver. The hepatocytes which contain abundant uesicae-like endoplasmic reticulum closed the apoptotic hepatocytes and spread the process to approach the cell residual bodies. Besides, there was a macrophage with several phagosomes. In conclusion, the dark and the light hepatocyte were present in Chinese Taihe BSF liver. They were different from electron-dense and organelles. The hepatocytes of Taihe BSF could undergo natural apoptosis, regeneration and renew ability.
... Recently, several studies reported that the carnosine content in chicken breast meat ranged from 130.00 to 798.30 mg/100 g [1,11]. The variations in the amount of carnosine in chicken breast meat differ based on the breed, sex, and age [13][14][15]. Previous studies on broiler breast muscle found that the carnosine synthase 1 (CARNS1) gene, also known as ATP-grasp domain-containing protein 1 (ATPGD1) gene, is involved in the synthesis of carnosine using ATP [2]. ...
... Extraction and purification were performed using the method described in [14] and [16] with slight modifications. Minced breast meat samples (2.5 g) were homogenized in 10 mL deionized distilled water using a WiseTis HG-15 D homogenizer (Wisd, Witeg, Wertheim, Germany) at 25,000 rpm for 1 min in a 15 mL polyethylene tube and centrifuged at 9989× g for 5 min at 4 °C. ...
... In this study, we observed higher levels of carnosine content than those observed in previous studies in commercial Korean native chicken [18], 5 lines of Korean native chicken [1], black-bone Silky fowl [14], and broiler chicken [11]. However, the content was lower than that reported in Thai indigenous and hybrid native chickens [13] and Silky fowl [11]. ...
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This study aimed to investigate the carnosine content and ATP-grasp domain-containing protein 1 (CARNS1) gene expression and their relationship with breast meat of Black Chinese (BC), KU-Phuparn (KP), Pradu Hang Dam (PD), and Black Chinese × Pradu Hang Dam (Sri Mok: SM) to aid in the selection and mating programs for developing functional meat in Thai chicken populations. The results show that the carnosine content in each breed and breed group varied from 428.08 to 553.93 mg/100 g, whereas the relative expression of CARNS1 ranged from 0.84 to 1.56. The BC and KP chicken breeds had a higher carnosine content (p < 0.01) and higher CARNS1 expression level (p < 0.05) than the SM and PD chicken breeds. The carnosine content and relative gene expression for each age ranged from 423.02 to 577.83 mg/100 g and 0.68 to 1.83, respectively. At 4 weeks of age, the carnosine content (p < 0.01) and gene expression (p < 0.05) were the highest. However, they decreased as chicken age increased further. The carnosine content and gene expression linearly decreased as chicken age increased (p < 0.01). The correlation coefficient between the level of gene expression and carnosine content was moderately positive. The results from this study showed that different breeds and ages of chickens have different amounts of carnosine, and CARNS1 could act as a biomarker to study marker-assisted selection to improve functional meat in the chicken population in Thailand.
... In oriental countries, black-boned chicken is considered a highly nutritious food and for about a thousand years it has been believed to have medicinal properties, including the enhancement of the human immune system (Chen et al., 2008), prevention of emaciation (Tu et al., 2009), treatment for diabetes (Lin and Chen, 2005), and being a cure for female health conditions such as menoxenia and postpartum complications (Tian et al., 2007). There is a preference for black-boned chicken with very black skin, muscle, and bone, which is perceived to have better medicinal properties (Tian et al., 2007). ...
... In oriental countries, black-boned chicken is considered a highly nutritious food and for about a thousand years it has been believed to have medicinal properties, including the enhancement of the human immune system (Chen et al., 2008), prevention of emaciation (Tu et al., 2009), treatment for diabetes (Lin and Chen, 2005), and being a cure for female health conditions such as menoxenia and postpartum complications (Tian et al., 2007). There is a preference for black-boned chicken with very black skin, muscle, and bone, which is perceived to have better medicinal properties (Tian et al., 2007). The melanin content is considered to be the most important indicator of meat quality in black-boned chicken, and provides consumers with their first visual impression of the product, thus directly influencing their purchasing decisions (Lin and Chen, 2005). ...
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Melanin-based coloration in the meat of black-boned chicken is a major economic issue in China. Variation in the pigmentation (hypopigmentation) of chicken muscle causes direct economic losses every year. To determine the molecular mechanisms involved in the melanogenesis of muscle tissue, this study used high-throughput sequencing to compare differences in the transcriptome between black (BM) and white (WM) chicken breast muscles. We constructed 6 cDNA libraries from BM and WM groups in Muchuan black-boned chickens. A comparison between the BM and WM groups revealed 264 differentially expressed genes, of which 152 were upregulated, whereas 112 were downregulated in black muscle. Gene ontology and a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis identified several differentially enriched biological functions and processes of the 2 muscles. Seven promising candidate genes [PMEL, Ras-related protein RAB29, and 5 solute carrier superfamily genes: SLC6A9, SLC38A4, SLC22A5, SLC35F3, and SLC16A3] may play an important role in the melanogenesis of chicken muscle. Our data provide a valuable resource for identifying genes whose functions are critical for muscle melanogenesis, and will assist studies of the molecular mechanisms of melanogenesis regulation in chicken muscle.
... The black-bone chicken is an important resource in poultry production, and the fact that its body contains melanin significantly differentiates it from other chicken breeds (Tian et al., 2007;Tu et al., 2009b;Yu et al., 2018a). Many studies have shown that black-bone chickens have medical benefits, such as antioxidant activity (Xin et al., 2009) and the abilities to delay aging (Xu et al., 1999), treat anemia ) and cure female menstrual abnormalities (Tu et al., 2009a). ...
... Animal phenotypes are influenced by both genetics and the environment. The most obvious difference between blackbone chickens and ordinary chickens is that the skin, muscle, periosteum and other tissues of black-bone chickens contain high levels of melanin (Hirano, 1990;Tian et al., 2007). Therefore, we first investigated the effects of six levels of tyrosine supplementation on melanin deposition in the breast muscles of Xichuan black-bone chickens. ...
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The Xichuan black-bone chicken, which is a rare local chicken species in China, is an important genetic resource of black-bone chickens. Tyrosine can affect melanin production, but the molecular mechanism underlying tyrosine-induced melanin deposition in Xichuan black-bone chickens is poorly understood. Here, the blackness degree and melanin content of the breast muscle of Xichuan black-bone chickens fed a basic diet with five levels of added tyrosine (i.e., 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0%; these groups were denoted test groups I-V, respectively) were assessed, and the results showed that 0.8% tyrosine was the optimal level of added tyrosine. Moreover, the effects of tyrosine supplementation on the proliferation and tyrosinase content of melanocytes in Xichuan black-bone chickens were evaluated. The results revealed a dose-dependent relationship between tyrosine supplementation and melanocyte proliferation. In addition, 417 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 160 upregulated genes and 257 downregulated genes, were identified in a comparative analysis of the transcriptome profiles constructed using the pooled total RNA from breast muscle tissues of the control group and test group IV, respectively (fold change ≥2.0, P < 0.05). These DEGs were mainly involved in melanogenesis, the calcium signaling pathway, the Wnt signaling pathway, the mTOR signaling pathway, and vascular smooth muscle contraction. The pathway analysis of the DEGs identified some key genes associated with pigmentation, such as DCT and EDNRB2. In summary, the melanin content of breast muscle could be markedly enhanced by adding an appropriate amount of tyrosine to the diet of Xichuan black-bone chickens, and the EDNRB2-mediated molecular regulatory network could play a key role in the biological process of tyrosine-induced melanin deposition. These results have deepened the understanding of the molecular regulatory mechanism of melanin deposition in black-bone chickens and provide a basis for the regulation of nutrition and genetic breeding associated with melanin deposition in Xichuan black-bone chickens.
... Meanwhile, searching for inexpensive samples with high contents of carnosine or anserine and developing an efficient separation method may be another way to acquire applicable carnosine and anserine. Previous studies have shown that carnosine and anserine were naturally dipeptide in various substances, such as pork, dry-cured hams, chicken meat, rabbit meat, horse meat, beef, and turkey meat [17][18][19][20]. Recently, 1630 mg/kg FW (FW is abbreviation of fresh weight) of anserine was found in salmon (S. salar) heads by nuclear magnetic resonance when researchers were investigating metabolites changes during storage [21]. ...
... On the other hand, skipjack tuna heads contained 4563 mg/kg FW anserine and 1761 mg/kg FW carnosine, which were significantly higher than those of rainbow trout heads (p < 0.05). Previous studies have shown that pig meat had 3071-3632 mg/kg FW carnosine and 1869-2359 mg/kg anserine, while chicken meat had 200-1600 mg/kg FW carnosine [17,19]. Recently, 1630 mg/kg FW anserine was reported in salmon (S. salar) heads [21]. ...
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In order to evaluate the application potential of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) heads and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) heads; proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids, carnosine, and anserine contents were analyzed in this study. Rainbow trout heads showed significantly higher protein (29.31 g/100 g FW, FW is abbreviation of fresh weight) and lipid (6.03 g/100 g FW) contents than skipjack tuna heads (18.47 g/100 g FW protein and 4.83 g/100 g FW lipid) (p < 0.05). Rainbow trout heads and skipjack tuna heads exhibited similar amino acid composition. Essential amino acids constituted more than 40% of total amino acids in both rainbow trout head and skipjack tuna head. The fatty acid profile was different between rainbow trout heads and skipjack tuna heads. Rainbow trout heads mainly contained 38.64% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and 38.57% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), whereas skipjack tuna heads mainly contained 54.46% saturated fatty acids (SFAs). Skipjack tuna heads contained 4563 mg/kg FW anserine and 1761 mg/kg FW carnosine, which were both significantly higher than those of rainbow trout heads (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that both rainbow trout heads and skipjack tuna heads may be used as materials for recycling high-quality protein. Meanwhile, rainbow trout heads can be used to extract oil with high contents of unsaturated fatty acids, while skipjack tuna heads may be a source for obtaining carnosine and anserine.
... As a kind of healthy food and traditional Chinese medicine, it has been well known in the Orient and used to reinforce the immunity of human bodies, anemia, diabetes, metrorrhagia and sickness after giving birth for over a thousand years (Tu et al., 2009;Dorshorst et al., 2010). Research results from laboratory tests also show that Black-bone chicken contains many kinds of amino acids to reduce autistic disorder and mentions to its melanin and antioxidant property for anti-aging (Tian et al., 2007;Chen et al., 2008;Tu et al., 2009). Kasetsart University Chalermphrakiat Sakon Nakhon Province Campus (KU.CSC) foresees the important of this rare chicken and decided to develop its breeding to be more commercial in order to meet the demand of markets and serve as a new option for farmers. ...
... It has been well known in Asia and used to reinforce the immunity of human bodies, to prevent emaciation and feebleness, to treat diabetes and anemia, and to cure women's diseases like menoxenia and postpartum complications. Many people have accepted and enjoyed the black-bone chicken as a healthy food (Tian et al., 2007). KU Phuphan black-bone chicken was developed from nationwide black-bone chicken breeds in Thailand. ...
... Consequently, it has become very common in the northern region of Thailand [2]. The black-bone chicken is a chicken with special properties, many of which are attributable to its melanin pigmentation and canosine content [3]. Many people in the region are known to consume the black-bone chicken as a medicinal food because it is believed to be able to nourish the body. ...
... Thus, the black-bone chicken breed has come to be seen as economically valuable within the country. In particular, the melanin of this chicken is now being used in commercial applications in the fields of medicine, pharmacology, cosmetics, as well as in others [1,[3][4][5]. ...
Article
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The black-bone chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a breed of chicken that is commonly found in Thailand. This breed is known for having a number of black colored organs. Consumers have been notably attracted to the black-bone chicken breed for the characteristic darkness that is observed in many of its organs. However, the degree of darkness in all organs of the black-bone chicken is still in question. Importantly, there have not yet been any published reports on the distribution of melanin pigment in the organs of the black-bone chicken. This research study aims to examine the distribution of the melanin pigment in 33 organs of the Thai black-bone chicken. Ten black-bone chickens (five male, five female) were included in this study. Thirty-two organs including the brain, spinal cord, sciatic nerve, larynx, trachea, syrinx, lungs, heart, pericardium, aorta, brachial vein, kidney, cloaca, oviduct, testis, gastrocnemius muscle, femur, tongue, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, omentum, abdominal fat, spleen, and skin were examined in this study. Histological sections taken from tissue samples of each of these organs were studied. The findings revealed that the presence of the melanin pigment was not significantly different (p > 0.005) between male and female specimens. Notably, the liver was the only organ in which the melanin pigment had not accumulated. Consequently, there was not a uniform pattern of melanin pigment accumulation throughout the organs of the chickens. The melanin pigment was present in all of the tissue layers of most organs, while the melanin pigment was found in only specific layers of some of the organs. In conclusion, the distribution of melanin pigmentation in the organs of each of the animals in this study was found to be different. However, in some tissue samples, such as those obtained from the liver, no accumulation of the melanin pigment was observed.
... On the other hand, many of the other black-bone chicken breeds also originated from China, such as the Dehua black-bone chicken, the Jiangshan black-bone chicken, the Jinhu black-bone chicken, the Lueyang black-bone chicken, the Muchuan black-bone chicken, the Sichuan black-bone chicken, the Wumeng black-bone chicken, the Xingwen black-bone chicken, the Yanjin black-bone chicken and the Yugan black-bone chicken (Zhu et al., 2014). Presently, black-bone chickens have become economically valuable, particularly in Southeast Asian countries as a consequence of popular traditional Chinese medical practices and for their antioxidant contents and amino acid/peptide profiles, for example, carnosine (Dorshorst et al., 2011;Lukanov & Genchev, 2013;Tian et al., 2007;Tu et al., 2009). Moreover, the meat obtained from black-bone chickens is reported to contain lower amounts of fat and cholesterol than the meat of white chickens (Jaturasitha et al., 2008;Tian et al., 2011). ...
... In addition, melanin content is considered to be the most important indicator of meat quality in black-boned chickens. As such,and it provides consumers with their first visual impression of the product; thus, directly influencing their purchasing decisions (Lin & Chen, 2005;Tian et al., 2007). Therefore, in this study, our findings have indicated that smaller muscles such as the flexor carpi ulnaris, revealed the greatest average area of melanin pigment distribution that appears as a darker color, while larger muscle, such as the pectoralis, displayed the least average area of melanin pigment distribution. ...
Article
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Black-bone chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) have become economically valuable, particularly in Southeast Asia as a consequence of popular traditional Chinese medical practices. Chickens with whole body organ darkness are considered to have higher value and are, therefore, more often requested. This research study aimed to investigate the darkness in 34 skeletal muscles of 10 Thai black-bone chickens (five males and five females). The evaluation of muscle darkness was done on two levels: (i) a color chart was employed at the macroanatomical level and (ii) by using melanin pigment to evaluate the structure at the microanatomy level. The results revealed that the accumulation of melanin pigment in the muscle tissue was observed in the endomysium, perimysium and epimysium. With respect to the results of the color chart test, iliotibialis lateralis pars preacetabularis, gastrocnemius, fibularis longus and puboischiofemoralis pars medialis showed the highest degree of darkness, while serratus profundus, pectoralis, iliotibialis cranialis, flexor cruris lateralis, and flexor cruris medialis appeared to be the least dark. In addition, we found that the highest and lowest amounts of melanin pigment was noted in the flexor carpi ulnaris and pectoralis (p < 0.05), respectively; however, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) observed between the sexes. These results reveal that the 34 specified muscles of black-bone chickens showed uneven distribution of darkness due to the differing accumulations of melanin pigments of each muscle.This information may provide background knowledge for a better understanding of melanin accumulation and lead to breeding improvements in Thai black-bone chickens.
... Native chickens are indigenous animals distributed throughout the world, especially in rural communities [13][14][15]. Many academic data support Thai native and black-bone chicken meat quality as healthy foods [16][17][18][19][20][21]. Black-bone chickens typically have black skin, meat, and bones. ...
... Black-bone chickens typically have black skin, meat, and bones. They have desirable bioactive compounds including melanin and carnosine, which are antioxidant properties, and both also decrease the cholesterol levels in the blood [18][19][20][21]. Variations in phenotypes through qualitative and quantitative traits can be found in Thailand [22]. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to determine the combining abilities and heterosis for the growth performance and carcass characteristics in crosses between Hmong black-bone (HB), Chinese black-bone (CB), and Thai native (TN) chickens using a mating system diallel crossing. Nine crossbred chickens including HB × HB, CB × CB, TN × TN, HB × TN, TN × HB, CB × HB, HB × CB, TN × CB, and CB × TN, were tested. The total data were 699 recorded at the beginning of the experiment to 595 recorded in weeks 14 of age. Body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and survival rate (SUR) were recorded. Heterosis and combining ability regarding general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), and reciprocal combining ability (RCA) were estimated. The study found that CB had the greatest BW and ADG at all weeks (p < 0.05) except for hatch, while those of HB were the lowest. The highest GCA was found in CB; meanwhile, GCA was significantly negative in HB of all ages. Crossing between TN × CB had the greatest BW from 8 weeks of age, which was related to positive SCA and RCA values. However, the RCA value of TN × CB was lower than the SCA value of CB × TN. The yield percentages of the carcass in CB (87.00%) were higher than those in TN (85.05%) and HB (82.91%) (p < 0.05). The highest breast and thigh meat lightness (L*) values were obtained in TN (p < 0.05), while those of CB and HB were not different (p > 0.05). In the crossbreed, the yield percentage of the carcass was highest in TN × CB (89.65%) and CB × TN (88.55%) (p > 0.05) and was lowest in TN × HB (71.91%) (p < 0.05). The meat and skin color of the breast and thigh parts in the crossbreed had the lowest lightness in HB × CB (27.91 to 38.23) (p < 0.05), while those of TN × CB and CB × TN were insignificant (p > 0.05). In conclusion, crossing between the TN sires and CB dams has the preferable potential to develop crossbred Thai native chickens for commercial use based on their high growth performance.
... Carnosine levels and sources of imidazole dipeptides also vary within animals of the same species, depending on the breed, sex (Abe and Okuma, 1995), localization of muscle tissue (Tian et al., 2007), and type of muscle fibers (Rao and Gault, 1989). ...
... As for the difference between animal breeds, Tian et al. (2007) showed that the carnosine content in the muscles of the Black-Bone Silky Fowl chicken breed was significantly higher than that of White Plymouth Rocks, indicating that Black-Bone Silky Fowl would be a better breed of chicken for carnosine supplements. ...
Chapter
Carnosine and its homologs (anserine, homocarnosine, balenine or ophidine), commonly present in skeletal muscle cells and other tissues, have been extensively studied because of their physiological effects, including antioxidant properties or buffering activity and their potential therapeutic applications, such as a possible role in antiaging and in detoxification of the body from free-radical species. This chapter will summarize, through the scientific literature, the researches about the occurrence of these imidazole dipeptides in food and their dietary intake for the prevention of human health and to safeguard the quality of the meat; the main sources of carnosine and its homologs will also be considered.
... Carnosine (Figure 1(a)), N-beta-alanyl-L-histidine, an endogenous material, has been found in skeletal muscle [1,2], brain, olfactory bulbs [3], and crystalline lens [4,5]. It possesses antioxidant properties and has been shown to scavenge oxygen free radicals [6], protect mitochondrial membranes from free radical damage [7], decrease lipid peroxidation of cell membranes [8][9][10][11], and have inotropic properties [12,13]. ...
... In view of the growing interest in and the biological importance of carnosine, there is a definite need for a sensitive, specific, and simple analytical method to detect it in biological matrices. The current methods for measuring carnosine in biologic matrices include micellar liquid chromatography [2], high-performance anion-exchange chromatography [16,17], HPLC-MS [18], and HPLC-UV with precolumn derivatization [19,20] and without derivatization using NH 2 column [1]. All these methods suffer from several drawbacks: tedious micellar mobile phases preparation and care of the column procedure, instability of derivatives, and the high cost of MS detector preventing their utilization by many laboratories. ...
Article
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A novel method for quantitation of cardiac muscle carnosine levels using HPLC-UV is described. In this simple and reliable method, carnosine from the rat cardiac muscle and the internal standard, thymopentin, were extracted by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The method was linear up to 60.96 μ g·mL −1 for L-carnosine. The calibration curve was linear in concentration ranges from 0.5 to 60.96 μ g·mL −1 . The relative standard deviations obtained for intra- and interday precision were lower than 12% and the recoveries were higher than 90% for both carnosine and internal standard. We successfully applied this method to the analysis of endogenous carnosine in cardiac muscle of the diabetes rats and healthy control rats. The concentration of carnosine was significantly lower in the diabetes rats group, compared to that in the healthy control rats. These results support the usefulness of this method as a means of quantitating carnosine and illustrate the important role of L-carnosine in cardiac muscle.
... Chicken meat with high melanin content from black-boned chickens or Silky chickens have been considered a high nutritious meat with valuable meat quality and medicinal effects, including the enhancement of the human immune system [4], prevention of emaciation [5], treatment for diabetes [6], and female health conditions such as menoxenia and postpartum complications [7]. The molecular mechanism underlying these characteristics remains poorly understood. ...
... 13-HODE induced vascular activation and could play a role in regulating endothelial barrier integrity during in ammation [22,23]. WLS black-boned chicken showed high level of 13-HODE in breast muscle that might play a role contributing to these medicinal properties, including enhancement of the human immune system [4], female health conditions including menoxenia and postpartum complications [7]. ...
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Background: Melanin is an important antioxidant in food, and has been used in medicine and cosmetology. Chicken meat with high melanin content from black-boned chickens have been considered a high nutritious food with potential medicinal properties. The molecular mechanism of melanogenesis of skeletal muscle in black-boned chickens remain poorly understood. This study investigated the biological gene-metabolite associations regulating the muscle melanogenesis pathways in Wuliangshan black-boned chickens with two normal boned chicken breeds as control. Results: We identified 25 differentially expressed genes and 11 transcription factors in the melanogenesis pathways. High levels of the meat flavor compounds inosine monophosphate, hypoxanthine, lysophospholipid, hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, and nicotinamide mononucleotide were found in Wuliangshan black-boned chickens. Conclusion: Integrative analysis of transcriptomics and metabolomics revealed the dual physiological functions of the PDZK1 gene, involved in pigmentation and/or melanogenesis and regulating the phospholipid signaling processes in muscle of black boned chickens.
... Carnosine and anserine contents of breast meat were approximately 2-3-fold greater (average of 144 and 495 mg/100 g, respectively) than those of leg meat (average of 66.6 and 208 mg/100 g, respectively), irrespective of the breed of chicken and both in raw and cooked meat (p < 0.05). Previous studies have shown similar differences between breast and leg meat of poultry (Davies et al., 1978;Jung et al., 2013;Maikhunthod and Intarapichet, 2005;Plowman and Close, 1988;Tian et al., 2007) and this effect has been attributed to the different muscle fibre compositions of the two muscles. According to Verdiglione and Cassandro (2013), breast meat mainly contains fast-twitch glycolytic white fibres (type IIB muscle fibres), which rely on anaerobic metabolism for ATP generation . ...
... Similarly, in a comparison between a native chicken breed (Black-Bone silky fowl) and a commercial breed (White Plymouth Rock), Table 1 Effect of meat portion and cooking on carnosine content (mg/100 g) of chicken meat from two different breeds (n = 5). the native breed had significantly higher (p < 0.05) carnosine content in its meat than the commercial breed (Tian et al., 2007). When comparing the contents of the two histidyl dipeptides analysed in the present study, we found that anserine content was higher than carnosine content in chicken meat, irrespective of the breed, meat portion, and cooking status. ...
Article
A study was conducted to compare carnosine, anserine, betaine and carnitine contents of breast and leg (combined thigh and drumstick) meat from Korean native chickens (KNCs) and commercial broilers (CBs) at their market ages (100 and 32 d, respectively) and to determine the changes in these compounds during moist heat cooking. In general, KNCs showed significantly higher histidyl dipeptide and carnitine contents and a lower betaine content than CBs (p < 0.05). Significantly higher histidyl dipeptide contents were observed in breast meat, while leg meat had more betaine and carnitine contents (p < 0.05). Significant decreases in the content of all compounds analysed in this study occurred during cooking (p < 0.05). Meat from KNCs is a good source of camosine, anserine, and carnitine compared to that from CBs, which has a higher content of betaine. In addition, the contents of these endogenous compounds are significantly affected by the meat portion and the cooking process (p < 0.05).
... Melanin is also considered an important antioxidant in food and has been used in medicine and cosmetology [3]. Chicken meat with high melanin content from black-boned chickens or Silky chickens have been considered a high nutritious meat with valuable meat quality and medicinal effects, including the enhancement of the human immune system [4], prevention of emaciation [5], treatment for diabetes [6], and female health conditions such as menoxenia and postpartum complications [7]. The molecular mechanism underlying these characteristics remains poorly understood. ...
... 13-HODE induced vascular activation and could play a role in regulating endothelial barrier integrity during inflammation [22,23]. WLS black-boned chicken showed high level of 13-HODE in breast muscle that might play a role contributing to these medicinal properties, including enhancement of the human immune system [4], female health conditions including menoxenia and postpartum complications [7]. ...
Article
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Background Melanin is an important antioxidant in food and has been used in medicine and cosmetology. Chicken meat with high melanin content from black-boned chickens have been considered a high nutritious food with potential medicinal properties. The molecular mechanism of melanogenesis of skeletal muscle in black-boned chickens remain poorly understood. This study investigated the biological gene-metabolite associations regulating the muscle melanogenesis pathways in Wuliangshan black-boned chickens with two normal boned chicken breeds as control. Results We identified 25 differentially expressed genes and 11 transcription factors in the melanogenesis pathways. High levels of the meat flavor compounds inosine monophosphate, hypoxanthine, lysophospholipid, hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, and nicotinamide mononucleotide were found in Wuliangshan black-boned chickens. Conclusion Integrative analysis of transcriptomics and metabolomics revealed the dual physiological functions of the PDZK1 gene, involved in pigmentation and/or melanogenesis and regulating the phospholipid signaling processes in muscle of black boned chickens.
... The carnosine contents of raw meat from KNC varied from 160 to 201 mg/100 g of breast meat and 55 to 88 mg/100 g of leg meat (Table 1). Similar carnosine contents in raw meat from 5 lines of male KNC and black-bone silky fowl (Tian et al., 2007) have been reported. Higher carnosine contents compared with the present study were also found both in raw breast (621 to 818 mg/100 g) and thigh (271 to 363 mg/100 g) meat from male Thai indigenous and hybrid native chickens , which might be attributed to the breed effect (Abe and Okuma, 1995). ...
... The breast meat had approximately 2 to 3 times higher carnosine contents than did the leg meat (Table 1). This result was in agreement with previous findings by several researchers, who explained that white muscles contained higher carnosine contents than dark muscles (Davey, 1960;Intarapichet and Maikhunthod, 2005;Maikhunthod and Intarapichet, 2005;Tian et al., 2007;Jung et al., 2013). This can be explained by the different composition of muscle fibers in breast and leg meat. ...
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This study aimed to examine the effect of bird age on the contents of endogenous bioactive compounds, including carnosine, anserine, creatine, betaine, and carnitine, in meat from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken strain (KNC; Woorimatdag). Additionally, the effects of the meat type (breast or leg meat) and the state of the meat (raw or cooked) were examined. Cocks of KNC were raised under similar standard commercial conditions at a commercial chicken farm. At various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk), breast and leg meats from a total of 10 birds from each age group were obtained. Raw and cooked meat samples were then prepared separately and analyzed for bioactive compounds. The age of the KNC had a significant effect only on the betaine content. The breast meat of KNC had higher amounts of carnosine and anserine but had lower amounts of betaine and carnitine than the leg meat (P < 0.05). The KNC meat lost significant amounts of all bioactive compounds during cooking (P < 0.05). Leg meat had high retention percentages of carnosine and anserine after cooking, whereas breast meat showed almost complete retention of betaine and carnitine. The results of this study provide useful and rare information regarding the presence, amounts, and determinants of endogenous bioactive compounds in KNC meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and also for popularizing indigenous chicken meat.
... Black-bone silky fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson) (BSF), black in skin, meat, bones, and white in feathers, is a unique breed of chicken in China. Because of its well-known health functions, such as enhancing the human immunity, preventing emaciation and feebleness, treating diabetes and anemia, and curing women's diseases like menoxenia and postpartum complications [16], BSF have been received increasing attention as a functional food in China. Carnosine, a natural antioxidative dipeptide, has been found in a remarkably high content within BSF muscle [16]. ...
... Because of its well-known health functions, such as enhancing the human immunity, preventing emaciation and feebleness, treating diabetes and anemia, and curing women's diseases like menoxenia and postpartum complications [16], BSF have been received increasing attention as a functional food in China. Carnosine, a natural antioxidative dipeptide, has been found in a remarkably high content within BSF muscle [16]. However, our previous study demonstrated that the BSF papain hydrolysate showed more powerful antioxidant activities than carnosine [17]. ...
Article
Cross-linked, oxidized and cross-linked oxidized maize starches were prepared with hydrogen peroxide and sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP), respectively. The physicochemical properties, determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), confirmed that the native maize starch was successfully modified. The functional properties (solubility, light transmittance, retrogradation rate and freeze–thaw stability) of native and modified starches demonstrated that cross-linked starch displayed the best freeze–thaw stability. The light transmittance and retrogradation properties of cross-linked oxidized starch were highly improved compared to the native starch. This work suggested that both cross-linking and oxidation firstly happened in amorphous regions of the starch, and a possible structure of cross-linked oxidized maize starch and reaction mechanisms were hypothesized.
... Black-bone silky fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson) (BSF), black in skin, meat, bones, and white in feathers, is a unique breed of chicken in China. Because of its well-known health functions, such as enhancing the human immunity, preventing emaciation and feebleness, treating diabetes and anemia, and curing women's diseases like menoxenia and postpartum complications [16], BSF have been received increasing attention as a functional food in China. Carnosine, a natural antioxidative dipeptide, has been found in a remarkably high content within BSF muscle [16]. ...
... Because of its well-known health functions, such as enhancing the human immunity, preventing emaciation and feebleness, treating diabetes and anemia, and curing women's diseases like menoxenia and postpartum complications [16], BSF have been received increasing attention as a functional food in China. Carnosine, a natural antioxidative dipeptide, has been found in a remarkably high content within BSF muscle [16]. However, our previous study demonstrated that the BSF papain hydrolysate showed more powerful antioxidant activities than carnosine [17]. ...
Article
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Papain-treated Black-bone silky fowl (BSF) muscle hydrolysate was subjected to 6 kDa cutoff membrane ultrafiltration, and the resulting BSF peptides (<6 kDa) were purified by two-step reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weight (MW) distribution and amino acid composition were investigated for characterization of the BSF peptides. The results showed that the major amino acids of BSF peptides were Glu, Tyr, Lys, Asp, Leu, Ala, Thr and Pro, and the MW was from 281 to 7,982 Da. BSF peptides exhibited a strong antioxidant capacity. At 10 mg/mL, they displayed more powerful $ {\text{O}}_{2}^{ \cdot - } $ , DPPH· and ABTS·+ scavenging activity and reducing power than carnosine. The peptide fraction 8 with more hydrophilicity revealed stronger $ {\text{O}}_{2}^{ \cdot - } $ and ABTS·+ scavenging activity and reducing power than BSF peptides and carnosine. Besides, a peptide, separated from fraction 8 and showed the strongest antioxidant capacity, was purified and identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS to be Glu-Pro-Asp-Arg-Tyr (678 Da).
... Chicken has been perceived as body-warming food in traditional medicine, with carnosine and anserine being the key components for its bioactivity (Li et al., 2012). Carnosine (β-Ala-His) and anserine (Ala-His(3-Me)) are imidazole-containing dipeptides of β-alanine and Lhistidine , found in the skeletal muscle, heart, and central nervous system (Mora et al., 2008; Tian et al., 2007) of vertebrates (chicken, pork, cattle, etc). Carnosine and anserine play important roles in physiological functions such as potent intracellular pH buffering, anti-oxidation, and anti-glycation (Decker et al., 2000; Dukic-Stefanovic et al., 2001; Intarapichet and Maikhunthod, 2005; Lee et al., 1998). ...
Article
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Optimization of carnosine and anserine extraction from chicken breast was performed using response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain the maximized physiological activities for anti-glycation and anti-oxidation. The optimum extraction conditions were water extraction for 1.6 h in the case of the 20-wk laying hen muscle and water extraction for 2.12 h in the case of 90-wk laying hen muscle. Higher carnosine and anserine contents were measured in the 20-wk laying hen muscle, along with higher physiological activities, which increased in direct proportion with the dipeptide contents. The extracts prepared from the 20-wk laying hen under optimum conditions showed 57% inhibition of advanced glycated end-product formation, 64% inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and 61% of DPPH radical scavenging effects. On the other hand, 52% inhibition of AGE formation, 62% inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and 53% of DPPH radical scavenging effect were demonstrated within the 90-wk laying hen. In addition, the ratio of carnosine was a key indicator for the physiological activities of the extracts.
... Carnosine is a natural dipeptide containing of β-alanine and L-histidine. The imidazole dipeptide carnosine and its methylated analogues anserine are major histidine containing dipeptides in vertebrate animal (chicken, pork, cattle and so on) tissue, especially in skeletal muscle, the heart, and the central nervous system (Mora et al., 2008;Tian et al., 2007). It has been known to play a role in quite a number of physiological functions in vertebrates. ...
Article
The imidazole dipeptide carnosine and its methylated anserine analogues are the major histidine containing dipeptides in vertebrate tissue, especially in skeletal muscle, the heart, and the central nervous system. In this study, the carnosine and anserine content in chicken from different parts and of differing ages was determined and their physiological activities were compared. Anserine was more dominant than carnosine in these tissues and both of them significantly decreased with aging in all parts of chicken muscles. Chicken breast muscle showed the highest content of carnosine and anserine than drumstick and wing. Advanced glycated end-product (AGE) formation was inhibited up to 60% by the extract from 20 wk chicken breast and decreased with aging (90 wk). Anti-oxidation activity was also significantly reduced from 61.2% to 52.9% with aging. As results, anti-glycation and anti-oxidation activity of carnosine and anserine extract from chicken muscle increased proportionally to the amount of those peptides in the muscle, while these decreased with the aging process.
... Carnosine and anserine are histidyl dipeptides that are widely distributed in the skeletal muscle and are known as bioactive compounds that function as antioxidants and neurotransmitters (Peiretti et al., 2011;Tian et al., 2007). However, they also act as precursors for bitter taste (Macleod, 1994). ...
Article
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of dry aging on the quality of pork loin. Longissimus lumborum muscles were dissected from the right half of five pork carcasses and were used as the control samples. The left halves of the carcasses were aged at 2±1℃ and a relative humidity of 80% for 40 d. The total aerobic bacteria count was similar between the control and dry-aged pork loin (p>0.05). Lactic-acid bacteria was absent in both the control and dry-aged pork loins. Dry-aged pork loin contained low moisture and high protein and ash compared to the controls (p<0.05). The pH was higher and cooking loss was lower in dry-aged pork loin compared to that in the control (p<0.05). Flavor related compounds, such as total free amino acid, hypoxanthine, and inosine of pork loin were higher in dry-aged pork loin; whereas, inosine 5'-monophosphate and guanosine 5'-monophosphate were low in dry-aged pork loin than control (p<0.05). There was no difference in carnosine and anserine content between dry-aged pork loin and the control (p>0.05). Dry-aged pork loin had lower hardness and shear force and received higher core in sensory evaluation than the control (p<0.05). According to the results, dry aging improved textural and sensorial quality of pork loin.
... In China, Taihe Silky Fowl is well known chicken with diet and herbal cuisine, whose bone, meat and offal can be made into a variety of medicines and prescriptions in extremely great medicinal value. In recent years, study on Taihe Silky Fowl has mainly involved in its food and drug development, nutrition and active ingredients, meat quality and other aspects ( Lin et al., 2001;Tian et al., 2006;Tian et al., 2007a;2007b). Up to date, the reason causing black skin and melanin deposition remains to be in further study. ...
Article
The aim was to investigate distribution characteristics of melanocytes in Taihe Silky Fowl’s skin by Lillie’s and DOPA staining methods and transmission electron microscopy. According to the present results, mature melanocytes were mainly located in basal layer of epidermis and hair follicle bulbs, whereas the amelanotic melanocytes were in the outer root sheath of hair follicles. In various partial skins, maturity levels of melanocytes generally were as: claw skin>rear skin>dorsal skin>abdominal skin>wattle skin>cockscomb skin. In mature melanocytes, melanosomes were divided into stage I, II, III and IV, and mostly belonged to stage IV. To conclude, melanocytes in hairy skin more easily reached mature status than in meaty skin and the melanocytes in dorsal skin matured faster than in abdominal skin as well. Furthermore, the melanin migration was subjected to the strict control of melanocytes, but had nothing to do with keratinocytes.
... Over the past decade, there have been several papers published concerning the investigation of potential bioactive ingredients in black-boned silky fowls. For examples, carnosine, melanin and peptides were studied by Tian et al. (2007), Tu et al., (2009) and Liu et al. (2013), respectively. The results indicated that these compounds have certain beneficial effects, such as anti-oxidation. ...
Article
Taihe black-boned silky fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson) has a history of over 2200 years of being consumed as a curative food in China. In this work, an LC/MS-based lipidomics approach was employed to investigate the characteristic lipid composition of Taihe black-boned silky fowls from different ages and genders as well as from different carcass parts. Data were processed using an orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis and one-way analysis of variance. A total of 1127 lipids were detected in Taihe black-boned silky fowl muscles. Among them, 88, 11 and 1 lipid species were found to have both a variable influence on a projection value >1 and a p-value smaller than 0.05 between different age, gender and part groups. These results illustrate that the influence of the 3 investigated factors on the lipid profiles of Taihe black-boned silky fowl decreased in the order of age > gender > part. Lipid profile differences will facilitate a better understanding of the curative properties of Taihe black-boned silky fowl. Taihe and crossbred black-boned silky fowls were compared in terms of their lipid compositions based on the same strategy. The results showed that the two groups were able to discriminate from each other effectively. 47 lipid compounds were determined to be potential markers for the authentication of Taihe black-boned silky fowl. This work demonstrates the successful application of lipidomics for lipid profiling in food raw materials.
... This relationship was later confirmed in a comparison of antioxidant enzyme activity in pork psoas major and longissimus dorsi (Lauridsen et al., 1999). The difference in muscle fiber-type composition being a driving force to cause the disparity in the oxidative stress/shelf life relationship between species is further evidenced by the fact that pork has greater concentrations of CAT (Rhee et al., 1996;Pradhan et al., 2000) and SOD (Avanao et al., 2001;Hernández et al., 2004), as well as carnosine (Tian et al., 2007;Mora et al., 2008), than do chickens, regardless of which muscles are evaluated. Although muscle fiber-type differences seem a likely contributor to the differential susceptibility of peroxidized lipid intake to cause reduced oxidative stability of muscle and meat products, further research must be conducted to establish whether a causal link exists. ...
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding soybean oil (SO) with varying levels of peroxidation on carcass traits and shelf life of loins. Fifty-six barrows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets containing 10% fresh SO (22.5°C) or thermally processed SO (45°C for 288 h, 90°C for 72 h, or 180°C for 6 h), each infused with air at a rate of 15L/min. Individually housed pigs were provided ad libitum access to feed for 81 d. At 82 d pigs were slaughtered and hot carcass weight (HCW) and liver weights were recorded. Carcass characteristics and fresh loin quality were evaluated 1 d post-mortem. Loin chops from each carcass were overwrap-packaged and subjected to a 10 d simulated retail display. Daily measurements of L*, a*, b*, reflectance and visual discoloration were conducted, evaluation of cooking loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force were conducted on chops stored 0, 5, and 10 d, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated on chops stored 0 and 10 d. Shelf life related data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with repeated measures in time, with storage location (shelf) as a random effect. Carcasses of 90°C pigs weighed 6.0, 8.6, and 6.9 kg less than (P < 0.03) than 22.5°C, 45°C, and 180°C carcasses, respectively. Livers of 90°C and 180°C pigs were 14.3 and 11.7%, respectively, heavier (P ≤ 0.02) than those from pigs fed 22.5°C SO, with livers of 45°C being intermediate. Livers of 90°C pigs represented 0.12 percentage units less (P = 0.02) of ending live weight than livers 180°C, and 180°C liver were 0.12 percentage units less (P < 0.01) of ending live weight than those from pigs fed 22.5°C SO, with 45°C being intermediate. There was no difference (P ≥ 0.19) BF depth, LMA, or estimated carcass lean percentage among SO treatments, nor was there an effect (P ≥ 0.13) of SO on any early post mortem loin quality traits or loin composition. There was no effect (P > 0.14) of SO on cooking loss, WBSF, L*, a*, b*, hue angle, reflectance, discoloration, or TBARS; however, there was a tendency (P = 0.09) for chops of 45°C pigs to have greater (P < 0.04) chroma than either 22.5°C or 180°C, with 90°C being intermediate. Overall, feeding SO cooked at 90°C for 72 h resulted in reduced carcass weight and dressing percentage; however, there was no evidence that feeding peroxidized SO was detrimental to shelf life of loin chops.
... According to previous reports, TBsf has certain medicinal value to cure headache, hepatitis, asthma and other heart diseases [5,6]. At the molecular level, TBsf contains the higher levels of carnosine in the mixed meat and breast meat than other chickens [7,8]. Besides, natural melanin is considered as one of the most important components in TBsf, which has a wide range of biochemical activities such as anti-oxidation, free radical-scavenging and immunomodulatory effects [9,10]. ...
Article
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The Chinese Taihe Black-bone silky fowl (TBsf) is the homology of medicine and food and has high nutritional and medical value all over the world. However, the nutritional compositions and potential metabolite biomarkers of Taihe silky fowl in muscles are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the differences in nutritional components between TBsf and another similar breed (Black Feathered chicken and laid green-shelled eggs, BF-gsc). Meanwhile, we also explored the divergences in muscle characteristics of Taihe silky fowl fed with two different diets; that is, normal chicken feed (TBsf-ncf) and Broussonetia papyrifera-fermented feed (TBsf-bpf). Firstly, the growth performance and biochemical index of Taihe silky fowl was significantly different compared with black-feathered chicken. Secondly, we identified the metabolic alterations in Taihe silky fowl by performing an un-targeted UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis. Our results suggested that all the metabonomic characteristics had obvious separation between TBsf-ncf, TBsf-bpf and BF-gsc groups, both in the positive and negative ion mode by PCA analysis. Next, OPLS-DA multivariate analysis revealed that 57 metabolites (in positive mode) and 49 metabolites (in negative mode) were identified as differential metabolites between the TBsf-ncf and BF-gsc groups. These differential metabolites were mainly enriched to ABC transporters, biosynthesis of amino acids and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis. Besides, 47 metabolites (in positive) and 13 metabolites (in negative) were differentially regulated between the TBsf-ncf and TBsf-bpf groups, which were majorly involved in histidine metabolism and linoleic metabolism. Furthermore, the integrated network analysis suggested that DL-arginine, DL-isoleucine, linoleoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine (positive) and ricionleic acid, D-proline, and uric acid (negative) were the significant metabolic biomarkers in Taihe silky fowl. Moreover, the metabolites of primaquine, ticlpoidine, riboflavin, acetylcarnitine (positive) and salicylic acid, acetaminophen sulfate, and glutamic acid (negative) were markedly changed in the Taihe silky fowl fed with BP-fermented feed. In summary, a global survey of the nutritional components and metabolite differences was performed in muscle tissues of Taihe silky fowl between various breeds and feeds. Meanwhile, our study provided valuable information for nutritional components and metabolic biomarkers in Chinese Taihe silky fowl, which greatly promoted the economic value of the black-boned chicken industry and laid a solid theoretical foundation for the development of chicken products with greater added value in future.
... As reported, Taihe blackboned silky fowl has been consumed as a curative food in China for > 2200 years [1]. The nutritional and health benefits include improving immunity, preventing emaciation or feebleness, treating diabetes and anaemia as well as curing menstrual disturbance and postpartum complications [2][3][4]. ...
Article
In this study, fifty-four minerals were simultaneously quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This study represents the most comprehensive profile of elements ever studied in chicken samples. The effects of age, gender and meat cut on the elements in Taihe black-boned silky fowl muscles were investigated. Principal component analysis of the data indicated that the leg and breast meat samples were able to be clearly separated from each other and that the contents of fourteen elements (²³Na, ²⁴Mg, ³⁹K, ³¹P, ⁴³Ca, ⁴⁴Ca, ⁵⁶Fe, ⁵⁵Mn, ⁵²Cr, ⁶⁶Zn, ⁶³Cu, ⁷⁸Se, ⁸⁸Sr and ¹⁹³Ir) were significantly different (p < 0.05) between the leg and breast meat groups. Multivariate statistics, including principal component analysis and partial least square discriminant analysis, were utilized to classify Taihe and crossbred chicken samples. The results revealed that Taihe and crossbred black-boned silky fowl muscles possessed distinct elemental profiles. Sixteen variables, including ⁷⁵As, ¹⁹⁵Pt, ¹⁷⁵Lu, ¹⁴⁶Nd, ¹⁴⁰Ce, ¹⁹³Ir, ¹⁴¹Pr, ¹³⁹La, ¹⁵⁷Gd, ¹⁹⁷Au, ⁵²Cr, ⁵⁹Co, ²³Na, ⁶⁰Ni, ²⁰⁵Tl and ¹³⁷Ba, were found to have a high discriminatory power for Taihe and crossbred samples. This study shows that multi-element profiling combined with multivariate statistics is a promising approach for the differentiation of Taihe and crossbred black-boned silky fowls.
... For a long time, their fibromelanosis was the unique factor that strongly distinguished them from the white and yellow skinned chickens (Lukanov and Genchev 2013). In 2006, research demonstrated that the meat of the 'black bone silky fowl' specimens contained much more carnosine than those of the 'Plymouth Rock' ones (Tian et al. 2007). Just when this peptide was becoming fashionable among the food supplement consumers, this new defining feature appeared by chance to open western markets to this product! ...
Book
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Birds as Food: Anthropological and Cross Disciplinary Perspectives is a collection of essays by anthropologists and contributors from other disciplines. Traditions of using birds as food exist in almost all human societies past and present. Over a hundred different species around the world are mentioned in this volume. The contributions are supported with full colour illustrations of birds whether alive or in culinary preparations. Birds as Food: Anthropological and Cross-disciplinary Perspectives Ed. Frédéric Duhart and Helen Macbeth ICAF (UK) Enfield, United Kingdom 2018 ix + 328 p. Serie: ICAF Alimenta Populorum series, Volume I ISBN 978-0-9500513-0-7
... The most apparent difference between silky fowls and common chickens is that the skin, muscle, periosteum and other tissues of black-bone chickens contain high levels of melanin (Tian et al. 2007). Thus we first evaluated whether the black degree of different tissues of Chishui silky fowl was significantly different from Taihe silky fowl. ...
Article
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Melanin is the key functional ingredient of silky fowl that has nutritional and medicinal benefits. Chishui silky fowl has unique black feather, black skin, green shell egg and black claws, while the melanin deposition of main tissues in the Chishui silky fowl remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the pigmentation in four tissues of Chishui silky fowls compared with Taihe silky fowl from the lightness value of different tissues black degree, melanin content and the mRNA expression levels of pigmentation related genes such as ASIP, MC1R, MITF, TYR and TYRP1 by using colorimeter, enzymatic hydrolysis and RT–PCR, respectively. The results revealed that the lightness values of the chest muscle and liver, and the melanin content of leg muscle in the Taihe silky fowl were significantly higher than Chishui silky fowl hens (P < 0.05). Compared with Chishui silky fowl, the mRNA expression levels of MITF, TYR and TYRP1 were significantly upregulated in the skin of Taihe silky fowl (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the comparative analysis from lightness value, melanin content and mRNA expression levels of pigmentation-related genes indicated that Chishui silky fowl has equivalent pigmentation in the skin, muscles (chest and leg) and liver compared with Taihe silky fowl.
... For the analysis of imidazole dipeptides in tissues of different animal species several HPLC methods have been described (Kantha et al. 2000;Mora et al. 2007;Tian et al 2007;Mori et al. 2015) while capillary electrophoretic techniques are also used (Huang et al. 2005;Zunic & Splasic 2008;Staňová et al. 2011;Zinellu et al. 2011;Jozanović et al. 2017). ...
Article
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A simple capillary zone electrophoretic technique (CZE) was developed for the determination of carnosine and anserine, and the main analytical performance characteristics were determined. The method was used for an analysis of raw meat samples, heat treated as well as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treated meat samples, and various meat products. The effect of heat treatment (10 min at 75 °C and 45 min at 90 °C) and HHP (100–600 MPa, 5 min) was investigated on pork longissimus thoracis muscle samples. With the exception of the milder heat treatment a slight decrease was detected in dipeptide contents of treated samples, but significant differences (P < 0.05) were not observed under any treatment. Thirty-two meat-based food products were also analysed. Imidazole dipeptides were detectable in all of them. The poultry products showed a characteristically low carnosine/anserine ratio. The data obtained were consistent with the food label information.
... The Xichuan black-bone chicken (XBC), named for the Chinese prefecture of Xichuan, typically has five black parts (beak, skin, bones, legs, and meat) that distinguish it from other chicken breeds. Black-bone chickens are commonly believed to have medicinal properties and have been used as remedies to enhance the human immune system [19], prevent emaciation [20], treat diabetes [21], and cure conditions such as menstrual abnormalities and postpartum complications [22]. Xichuan black-bone chickens were primarily developed in a mountainous and inaccessible region in Xichuan County, China. ...
Article
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Background: Domesticated chickens have a wide variety of phenotypes, in contrast with their wild progenitors. Unlike other chicken breeds, Xichuan black-bone chickens have blue-shelled eggs, and black meat, beaks, skin, bones, and legs. The breeding history and the economically important traits of this breed have not yet been explored at the genomic level. We therefore used whole genome resequencing to analyze the breeding history of the Xichuan black-bone chickens and to identify genes responsible for its unique phenotype. Results: Principal component and population structure analysis showed that Xichuan black-bone chicken is in a distinct clade apart from eight other breeds. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed that the selection intensity of Xichuan black-bone chickens is higher than for other chicken breeds. The estimated time of divergence between the Xichuan black-bone chickens and other breeds is 2.89 ka years ago. Fst analysis identified a selective sweep that contains genes related to melanogenesis. This region is probably associated with the black skin of the Xichuan black-bone chickens and may be the product of long-term artificial selection. A combined analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data suggests that the candidate gene related to the black-bone trait, EDN3, might interact with the upstream ncRNA LOC101747896 to generate black skin color during melanogenesis. Conclusions: These findings help explain the unique genetic and phenotypic characteristics of Xichuan black-bone chickens, and provide basic research data for studying melanin deposition in animals. Keywords: Xichuan black-bone chicken, Structural variants, Selective sweep, Black skin, Integration of whole genome and transcriptome
... Black-bone silky fowl (BSF, Gallus gallusdomesticus Brisson) with black skin, muscle, and bones is a unique breed of chicken originated from the south of China and is distinguished from common broiler and layer chicken according to the genome analysis [10]. BSF has some health functions and can protect against a range of illnesses such as treating diabetes and anemia, curing women's diseases like menoxenia and postpartum complications [11], thus, consumption of such animals has increased over the recent years. With the expansion of BSF breeding, the residues of SAR in BSFs are emergent and there is a paucity of data regarding the depletion of SAR in BSFs. ...
... In China, it is used to strengthen the body's immune function, improve weakness and wasting (Si Mi et al., 2019). Compared with other breeds, TSC contains many bioactive substances such as lipids, melanin, and myostatin, which are inseparable and have antifatigue, antihypoxic (Tian et al., 2011), and antioxidant (Tian et al., 2007;Tu et al., 2009) properties. It is worth noting that the differences in lipids are particularly significant, with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially arachidonic acid (C20:4) and dococsahexaenoic acid (C22:6, DHA), being significantly higher in black-bone chickens than in Chinese (Tian et al., 2011) and Korean (Choo et al., 2014) local breeds, but comparative studies with fast-growing commercial broilers have not been reported. ...
Article
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Taihe silky chicken (TSC) has been consumed as a specialty food in China for over 2200 years. In this study, LC/MS-based lipidomics and GC/MS-based volatilomics were used to compare lipids and volatile compounds of Cobb chicken (CC) and TSC to investigate the differences in meat quality between them. TSC showed higher intramuscular fat content, linoleic acid (C18:2), arachidonic acid (C20:4), and dococsahexaenoic acid (C22:6, DHA) (p < 0.05). Lipidomic analysis revealed significant differences between CC and TSC lipids at class and molecular levels. We found that 106 and 69 lipid molecules could be used as potential biomarkers to distinguish TSC in positive and negative modes, respectively. The volatile compounds in CC and TSC were clearly different. We screened 24 volatiles that can be used as potential biomarkers. Our study revealed exhaustive TSC profiles of lipidomic and volatilomic and can help to distinguish and evaluate Chinese black-bone chicken.
... In Asia, the nutritional value of black-bone chickens has long been known. Many studies have reported on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of immuno-active substances in black-bone chickens, such as carnosine and cytokine [15][16][17][18][19]. The Yeonsan Ogye is functional medicinal food. ...
Article
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The recessive white (locus c) phenotype observed in chickens is associated with three alleles (recessive white c, albino ca, and red-eyed white cre) and causative mutations in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene. The recessive white mutation (c) inhibits the transcription of TYR exon 5 due to a retroviral sequence insertion in intron 4. In this study, we genotyped and sequenced the insertion in TYR intron 4 to identify the mutation causing the unusual white plumage of Yeonsan Ogye chickens, which normally have black plumage. The white chickens had a homozygous recessive white genotype that matched the sequence of the recessive white type, and the inserted sequence exhibited 98% identity with the avian leukosis virus ev-1 sequence. In comparison, brindle and normal chickens had the homozygous color genotype, and their sequences were the same as the wild-type sequence, indicating that this phenotype is derived from other mutation(s). In conclusion, white chickens have a recessive white mutation allele. Since the size of the sample used in this study was limited, further research through securing additional samples to perform validation studies is necessary. Therefore, after validation studies, a selection system for conserving the phenotypic characteristics and genetic diversity of the population could be established if additional studies to elucidate specific phenotype-related genes in Yeonsan Ogye are performed.
... The black-bone chicken originated from China with a variety of breeds such as the Silky chicken, the Jinhu black-bone chicken, the Jiangshan black-bone chicken, the Lueyang black-bone chicken, the Sichuan blackbone chicken, and the Muchuan black-bone chicken (Zhu et al., 2014), which is different from broiler and layer chickens, as they have black skin and have meat and bones with unique characteristics. The poultry industry in Asia and health-minded food consumers focus on the black bone bird because of its desirable attributes including relatively high levels of bioactive compounds including melanin and carnosine, which are a powerful antioxidant (Tian et al., 2007;Tu et al., 2009). Moreover, the black-bone bird meat is reported to contain lower amounts of fat and cholesterol when compared to typical broiler chicken lines (Tian et al., 2011). ...
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... Silky fowls (black-bone chickens) are native to some Asian countries and have been consumed as ethno-remedies, owning to the medicinal properties in enhancing immune system, preventing emaciation and remitting conditions such as menstrual abnormalities and postpartum complications [9,10]. They have been domesticated with a long history, and have formed multiple sub-types, such as Taihe, Yanjin, Wumeng, Muchuan and Lueyang black-bone chickens in China, as well as Thai black-bone chickens [11][12][13]. ...
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... Concurrent to present findings, SF thigh meat had 1.6-to 2.3 fold higher carnosine levels. Previously, Tian et al. 17 , reported remarkably higher carnosine in the SF mixed meat, breast meat, and thigh meat in comparison to the White Plymouth Rock, bred under the same condition. Anserine is the main HCD in the meat of poultry and salmonid fishes, whereas carnosine is the principal HCD in pork and beef 13,28 . ...
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Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is the most common oncogenetic retrovirus that is spontaneous emergence as a result of recombination between exogenous viruses, exogenous viruses and endogenous viruses, exogenous viruses and nonhomologous cellular genes. In the present study, two natural recombinant avian leukosis viruses (rALVs) (LC110515-5 and LC110803-5) carrying a subgroup C gp85 gene, a subgroup E gp37 gene, and a subgroup J 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) and long terminal repeats (3'LTR) were isolated from two different lines of layer flocks, Black-bone silky fowl (BSF) and commercial layer chicken, that suffered from myeloid leukosis. However, tumors were not observed in rALV-infected individual chickens, but other non-neoplastic inflammatory lesions. The two rALVs were cultured on DF-1 cells and identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and gene sequencing. The subgroup determined gene of gp85 sequence in the two isolates displayed a high identity (>95%) with gp85 gene in ALV-C, and the identity was less than 90% with ALV-A/B/D/E and only 51% with ALV-J. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences confirmed that the two isolates were recombinant between ALV-C, ALV-E and ALV-J. Subgroup C ALV is rarely found in field cases. This report is the first to provide evidence that ALV-C has recombined with ALV-E and ALV-J in two different chicken lines. The source and characteristics of the two rALVs and ALV-C need to be further investigated.
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The genetic diversity of Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is determined not only by the env gene but also by its 3'UTR and 3'LTR. They all play important roles in extending the host range and tumor development. In the present study, one ALV-J strain (ZB110406-6) from Black-bone silk fowl (BSF) and three ALV-J strains (ZB110406-3/4/5) from Grey partridge (GP) which bore multiple tumors and breed in one house of Farm A were demonstrated extending their host to Grey partridge (GP), while two other ALV-J strains (LC110515-3/4) from BSF of Farm B can not infect embryo fibroblast of GP. The BSF is a unique species of chicken in China, while the GP is a close relative of the pheasant that previously demonstrated resistance to ALV-J. Histopathology showed that various tumors were induced by ALV-J in the two species. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the isolates from Farm A and B rather than species belong to two different clusters of ALV-J. Genetic mutations analysis revealed that the isolates obtained from Farm A showed a higher frequency of mutation in the hr2 domain than in other variable regions of the gp85 gene. From the nucleotide alignment of the 3' UTR and 3' LTR gene, and the spectrum of tumors observed in this study, we speculate that the deletions or mutations in the rTM, E element and U3 (CAAT boxes, CArG box and Y box) might associate with tumor formation and development. The extension of the host range of ALV-J to the GP suggested that housing different species together provides more opportunities for ALV-J to rapidly evolve.
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To investigate microstructure of proventriculus and ultrastructure of the gastric gland cells from Chinese Taihe black-bone silky fowl (BSF), the proventriculus of 4-week-old BSF was sampled. Conventional histological and transmission electron microscope (TEM) methods were used in this study. The wall of the Taihe BSF proventriculus was consisted of four layers, the mucous, submucosa, muscularis externa and the serosa as others birds. The muscularis externa of the birds' proventriculus contained three layers. Much of the melanin was present in loose connective tissue of lamina propria, submucosa, and muscularis externa unlike others. In addition, the ultrastructure of the gastric gland cells was observed by TEM. There was only one kind of gland cell, for example oxynticopeptic cell in proventriculus of Taihe BSF. The oxynticopeptic cells contained numerous mitochondria, cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (CRER), intracellular canaliculi (IC) that secrete hydrochloric acid and small amounts of pepsinogen granules. The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was irregular cisternae with ribosomes and surrounded tightly the mitochondria along their configuration. The electron-dense pepsinogen granules were round with various sizes. The neighbouring oxynticopeptic cells were closed up with tight junction and gap junction. The inter-space between the neighbouring oxynticopeptic cells was stenosis or was filled with electron-dense extracellular substance. In conclusion, the gastric gland cells of Chinese Taihe BSF proventriculus were only oxynticopeptic cells that secrete hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen, but no parietal cells and chief cells of mammal. The gastric gland cells of proventriculus were underdeveloped compared with those of mammals.
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Context: Recently, Chee Fah and Fah Luang chickens have been registered as a black-bone native chicken in Thailand. Only a few studies revealed genetic information about them. No publication has reported any data related to their cross-mating, particularly, genetic parameters. Aims: This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters for production traits of F1 generation of reciprocal crossbred Chee Fah and Fah Luang chickens. Methods: A dataset of production traits of two crossbred groups was used in the present study. Effects of breed, month-day of incubation and sex were tested at P < 0.05. Genetic parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method with multi-trait animal model. Key results: The crossbred Chee Fah × Fah Luang was significantly heavier and consumed more feed than Fah Luang × Chee Fah (P < 0.05). Male chickens had significantly better 20-week-old bodyweight, feed conversion ratio and average daily gain compared with females for both crossbred groups (P < 0.05). The effect of month-day of incubation had a significant influence on production traits (P < 0.05), except for day-old bodyweight. Heritabilities for production traits of crossbred chickens were low to high. The highest estimate was observed for day-old bodyweight (0.97), followed by feed intake (0.40), 20-week-old bodyweight (0.06), average daily gain (0.05) and feed conversion ratio (0.03), respectively. Both positive and negative genetic correlations were found among their production traits. Favourable relationships were found between average daily gain versus bodyweight and versus feed conversion ratio (rgg = 0.99 and -0.90, respectively). Similarly, production traits showed phenotypic correlations in both directions, which ranged from -0.95 to 0.99. Conclusions: Heritability estimations for production traits were found in low to high magnitude. The desirable genetic relationships were found between feed conversion ratio and day-old bodyweight, 20-week-old bodyweight and average daily gain, and between 20-week-old bodyweight and average daily gain. Implications: These findings could be considered as a source of genetic data for enhancing production traits of crossbred black-bone native chickens. © 2021 The Author(s) (or their employer(s)). Published by CSIRO Publishing.
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Background In this study, we determined the effects of sex, meat cut, and thermal processing on the carnosine, anserine, creatine, betaine, and carnitine contents of the Korean native chicken (KNC) meat. A total of 40 one-day-old chicks (20 chicks of each sex), from a commercial KNC strain (WoorimatdagTM) were reared under similar standard commercial conditions with similar diets, and a total of 10 birds of each sex were randomly selected and slaughtered at 14 weeks of age. Raw and cooked meat samples were prepared from both breast and leg meats and analyzed for the aforementioned functional compounds.ResultsFemale KNCs had significantly higher betaine and creatine contents. The breast meat showed significantly higher carnosine and anserine contents, whereas the leg meat had a greater betaine and carnitine content. The content of all functional compounds was significantly depleted by thermal processing.Conclusion This study confirms that KNC meat is a good source of above-mentioned functional compounds, which can be considered attractive nutritional quality factors. However, their concentrations were significantly affected by thermal processing conditions, meat cut, and sex. Further experiments are needed to select the best thermal processing method to preserve these functional compounds.
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The agouti signaling protein gene (ASIP) is a widely studied pigmentation gene that plays an important role in melanin synthesis. To determine the variety of ASIP expression in the Muchuan Black‐Bone chicken, we examined genetic variation in the ASIP promoter region. A single nucleotide polymorphism (c.–1826A>T) was found to be associated with the skin color (dorsal and subalar) of black‐bone chicken. Individuals with TT and AT genotypes had higher ASIP mRNA levels in the skin than did those with the AA genotype (P < 0.01). In addition, individuals with the TT genotype had higher ASIP mRNA levels than did those with the AT genotype (P < 0.05). Expression of melanogenesis‐related genes (melanocortin 1 receptor and tyrosinase genes) was higher in the skin of chickens with the TT and AT genotypes than in those with the AA genotype (P < 0.01). A luciferase assay showed that promoter activity was higher in chickens with the TT genotype than in those with the AA genotype. Putative transcription factor prediction suggested that the c.–1826A>T mutation might shift the promoter binding affinity with differential transcription factors. In summary, we identified a novel mutation in the ASIP gene promoter that may affect chicken skin color by altering ASIP transcriptional activity.
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This study investigated functional dipeptide (anserine and carnosine) concentrations and antioxidant activities of Silky Fowl. Fresh meat from Silky Fowl contained 1.6- to 2.3-fold higher carnosine content compared with other chickens ( p < 0.05). The carnosine content of fresh meat from Silky Fowl was higher than the anserine content, in contrast to that of common chicken. Our study showed that the meat extract of Silky Fowl is a good scavenger of the hydroxyl radical. Significant correlations between the total dipeptide content of meat extracts and hydroxyl radical scavenging (IC50 values) activity were additionally revealed by multiple regression analysis (breast: R = 0.684, p < 0.001; thigh: R = 0.729, p < 0.001). Since Silky Fowl is especially rich in carnosine, these findings make this breed potentially useful as a rich dietary source of antioxidant dipeptides.
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The determination of the carnosine level in fish muscle tissues is helpful for the purposes of general biology and comparative muscle physiology of various fish species; it may be also useful for estimation of the nutritional value of fish products. The mass-spectrometric method of the determination of carnosine in muscle tissues has been improved and tested in this work. The carnosine levels in the muscles of the Russian sturgeon, Siberian sturgeon, sterlet, hybrid of sterlet and kaluga, hybrid of Siberian sturgeon and kaluga have been determined for the first time with this method. The starlet-and-kaluga hybrid, regardless of sex, contains 3.33 times more carnosine than the sterlet (p < 0.01). The female hybrid of Siberian sturgeon and kaluga contains 1.50 times less carnosine than the female Siberian sturgeon (p < 0.1). Since carnosine consumption is important for carnosine biosynthesis in human muscles, the hybridization of sterlet with kaluga is more efficient in terms of nutrition value than pure sterlet breeding, and the hybridization of Siberian sturgeon with kaluga is less effective than sturgeon breeding.
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In this study, gelatins from black-bone chicken feet and skin (BCFG and BCSG) were extracted using different NaOH concentrations, and their physicochemical properties were characterized and compared to commercial bovine gelatin (BG). It was found that the yield of BCFG was higher than BCSG, however, it contained higher amount of ash. All studied gelatins were composed of two distinct α-chains, while β-chain and γ-chain were not present. The BCFG and BCSG were found to have lower pH, lower hydroxyproline content and lower thermal stability, but higher gel strength as compared with the BG. The colors of BCSG and BCSG were slightly darker than BG. The NaOH concentration did not show strong influence on physicochemical properties of the extracted gelatins, however, thermal stability and gel strength of BCSG tended to decrease with increasing of NaOH concentration. These findings suggested that black-bone chicken feet and skin could be a great source for the production of gelatin.
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Homeobox B9 (HOXB9) gene has been demonstrated to be associated with melanogenesis in chicken plumage by high-throughput RNA sequencing. In this study, we cloned and characterised HOXB9 in black-boned chickens. Two alternative splice variants (HOXB9-1 and HOXB9-2) were identified in chicken feather bulbs. Expression analysis of HOXB9 in 11 different chicken tissues by RT-PCR indicated that the two transcripts were only expressed in the kidney, abdominal fat, feather bulbs, skin, and small intestine. No HOXB9-1 or HOXB9-2 transcripts were detected in the breast muscle or the ovary. The two HOXB9 variants were expressed at significantly different levels in black feather bulbs and white feather bulbs (p<0.01), and in black skin compared with white skin (p<0.01). The results indicate that HOXB9-1 and HOXB9-2 may be involved in melanin formation in the plumage and skin. The expression of HOXB9-2 was higher in white than in black muscles (p<0.05), HOXB9-2 may play a role in muscle melanogenesis. Our results suggest that HOXB9, which is partially regulated by alternative splicing, may be involved in the process of melanogenesis in the black-boned chicken.
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A pilot-scale production was developed to produce oligopeptide powder from black-bone silky fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson) muscle (BSFP) by two-step enzymatic hydrolysis and multistage separation. The resultant BSFP was assessed for antioxidant activities against four free radicals (hydroxyl, 1,1-dipheny-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide and peroxyl) and against the peroxidation of linoleic acid in a lipid peroxidation model system. After separation by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), five major fractions of BSFP were tested for DPPH radical scavenging activity and subjected to mass spectrometry to identify the active peptides. BSFP showed potential antioxidant activity in four assay systems. Three RP-HPLC fractions produced higher antioxidant effect than BSFP, with Fraction 4 showing the strongest activity. A total of 18 peptides were identified, and two peptides – Leu-Trp-Arg and Asn-Met – had strong scavenging activity, with IC50 values of 2.28 ± 0.05 and 4.65 ± 0.09 mg mL−1, respectively. Asn-Met is a novel antioxidative peptide that has not been previously reported. The results showed that the pilot-scale production of BSFP was a practical way to produce peptides with high value and potential antioxidant activity. BSFP and its antioxidative peptides can be a source of natural antioxidant and used as a food additive.
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Meat species discrimination was examined on heat processed meat products by the analysis of histidine dipeptides, carnosine, anserine, and balenine, using high-performance liquid chromatography. The distribution of these dipeptides and their ratios, carnosine/anserine and balenine/anserine, were specific to each meat species of beef, pork, horse, deer, chicken, and turkey. Products made from single meat species of beef, pork, or chicken were almost always correctly identified from the dipeptide ratios. This discrimination technique was unaffected by the contents of moisture, fat, and/or other ingredients. The meat proportion in most of the mixed meat products made from any two meat species of beef, pork, and chicken was able to be semi-quantitatively determined using the standard curves of dipeptide ratio versus meat proportion.
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Examination of carnosine in patients with diabetes mellitus type I, showed that the plasma levels of carnitine were non significantly increased compared to the levels in healthy population, while the levels in red cells were decreased Lowered levels of carnosine in red cells could point out similar deficit in other cells. Due to low levels in cells carnosine is less available for metabolic processes, like antioxidant reactions and its participation in antioxidants defense reactions is limited non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins. Therefore it should be supplemented. (Tab. 1, Fig. 1, Ref. 15.)
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There are numerous publications describing the positive effects of carnosine (beta-alanyl-histidine) and anserine (beta-alanyl-1-N-methyl-histidine) on cell and organ function. Of special interest to us is the fact that these dipeptides act to retard and (in one instance) reverse non-enzymatic glycation. To date, the primary explanation for these anti-glycating effects has been the fact that carnosine and anserine can serve as alternative and competitive glycation targets, thereby protecting proteins from this deleterious process. In this paper, we document another mechanism by which these two peptides can retard or reverse glycation. The process involves decomposition of the very first intermediates of the non-enzymatic glycation cascade (aldosamines a.k.a. Schiff bases) by nucleophilic attack of carnosine and/or anserine on the preformed aldosamine such as glucosyl-lysine. If future research shows this reaction is to be physiologically important, this mechanism could explain some of the beneficial effects of carnosine and anserine as anti-glycating agents.
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First isolated and characterized in 1900 by Gulewitsch, carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-hystidine) is a dipeptide commonly present in mammalian tissue, and in particular in skeletal muscle cells; it is responsible for a variety of activities related to the detoxification of the body from free radical species and the by-products of membrane lipids peroxidation, but recent studies have shown that this small molecule also has membrane-protecting activity, proton buffering capacity, formation of complexes with transition metals, and regulation of macrophage function. It has been proposed that carnosine could act as a natural scavenger of dangerous reactive aldehydes from the degradative oxidative pathway of endogenous molecules such as sugars, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and proteins. In particular, it has been recently demonstrated that carnosine is a potent and selective scavenger of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, typical by-products of membrane lipids peroxidation and considered second messengers of the oxidative stress, and inhibits aldehyde-induced protein-protein and DNA-protein cross-linking in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, in cardiovascular ischemic damage, in inflammatory diseases. The research for new and more potent scavengers for HNE and other alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes has produced a consistent variety of carnosine analogs, and the present review will resume, through the scientific literature and the international patents, the most recent developments in this field.
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The natural dipeptide L-carnosine (β-Ala-His) exhibits antioxidative properties and can be used as an antioxidant in food products. Its antioxidant activity and its effect on the volatile compounds produced during lipid oxidation was studied in a meat-related model system (liposomes of muscle phospholipids). Oxygen uptake, conjugated dienes, trienes and ketodienes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and volatile compounds were measured after induction of oxidation by equimolar Fe(III)/ascorbate (45 μM).Inclusion of carnosine (2–10 mM) lead to a decrease in all indices of lipid oxidation, except for the initial rate of oxygen uptake, which increased, and the rates of oxygen uptake 5 or more min after catalyst injection, which remained constant. The decrease varied as a function of carnosine concentration, method of measurement and incubation time. When carnosine was added to previously oxidised liposomes, TBARS, t-2-undecenal, total 2-alkenals and hexanol amounts decreased significantly.Carnosine antioxidant activity is multifunctional: it has a buffering effect; it interferes in the initiation step of oxidation; it decreases the amount of preformed peroxides; it reacts with some secondary products.
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Three porcine muscles (m. longissimus dorsi, masseter and trapezius), chosen to represent the three main metabolic types, from 18 carcasses had their free amino acids and dipeptides quantified by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in aqueous extracts derivatized with phenyl isothiocyanate. Of the 25 measured compounds, four amino acids and the dipeptide carnosine were closely related to the metabolic type of the three muscles. Masseter, a red oxidative muscle, had the highest contents of aspartic acid, glutamine and taurine. Longissimus dorsi, a white glycolytic muscle was characterised by the highest contents of β-alanine and carnosine. Trapezius, an intermediate muscle, had intermediate contents. These results show that free amino acid and dipeptide contents could partly explain differences in taste of muscles from the same species.
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This study examined the effects of extraction and further ultrafiltration on the carnosine content, antioxidant activity and total iron content of chicken muscle extracts. Fresh breast meat had 7-fold higher carnosine than fresh thigh meat (2900 versus 419μg/g meat, respectively). Carnosine extracts of breast and thigh were prepared by heating at 60, 80 and 100°C, and ultrafiltration (UF) using a 5000MW cut-off. At increasing temperatures, protein concentrations decreased while carnosine, total iron and antioxidant activity increased. Antioxidant abilities of the 80 and 100°C-heated extracts were greater than that of the 60°C extract (p<0.05). The ultrafiltrate from the 80°C-heated extract had approximately 20% higher carnosine, but 40% lower protein and 10-30% lower iron than the 80°C-heated ultrafiltrate. However, compared in terms of carnosine concentration, the meat extracts had greater antioxidant activity than pure carnosine (p<0.05).
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The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of genotypes and gender of chickens on carnosine contents and their antioxidant activities. The carnosine content of fresh meat from Thai indigenous and hybrid native chickens differed between breeds (p<0.01) and genders (p<0.01). Regardless of these differences, breast meat contained 2-4-fold higher carnosine than thigh meat. After water and heat extraction at 80°C and ultrafiltration, the carnosine content of meat extracts had the same distribution as in fresh meat. No relationship between total iron and carnosine content on antioxidant activity of the extract was detected. However, when compared in the extracts on the basis of mM carnosine in oxidation system, the extracts of chicken meat showed greater antioxidant activity than pure carnosine (p<0.05). Furthermore, at equal concentrations, thigh meat extract had higher effective inhibiting ability than breast extract.
1. Among the muscles of six fish species, three mammals, and a bird, white muscle of skipjack tuna showed the highest buffering capacity (BC) in the pH range 6.5-7.5, followed by the muscle of little-piked whale, chicken pectoralis minor, and mackerel white muscle. 2. Contribution of low-molecular weight components to the muscle BC was as high as 48-96%, while the contribution of muscle proteins was below 50%. 3. Histidine-related dipeptides and inorganic phosphate were found to be major buffering constituents in muscle. 4. The dipeptides accounted for the BC differences found between the species and muscle types.
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1. Skeletal muscle samples were obtained by needle biopsy from one of two depths of the m. gluteus medius in a group of twenty race-trained thoroughbred horses. 2. The content of carnosine was determined in each muscle sample, part of which was used for histochemical analysis. Fibres were classified as type I, type IIA or type IIB on the basis of the pH dependent lability of the myosin ATPase reaction. 3. Muscle samples with a higher type II fibre section area (FSA) have a higher carnosine content than those with a higher type I FSA. 4. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the mean carnosine content of individual fibre types. The results estimated a mean carnosine content in type I fibres of 54 mmol (kg dry muscle (DM))-1, in type IIA fibres 85 mmol (kg DM)-1 and in type IIB fibres 180 mmol (kg DM)-1. 5. Based on the estimated values of single fibre carnosine content, there was close concordance between the estimated and the measured carnosine content of mixed fibre samples. 6. It would appear from this and other studies that carnosine has an important role as a physico-chemical buffer in equine middle gluteal muscle and that this is greatest in type IIB fibres, where it may account for up to 50% of physico-chemical buffering of H+ produced by muscle in the pH range 7.1-6.5.
Article
Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is present in mouse olfactory bulbs and nasal olfactory epithelium at concentrations exceeding that previously reported for any brain region of any species. After peripheral deafferentation, carnosine concentrations in the olfactory bulbs decrease to less than 10 percent that of normal, while other amino compounds are unaffected. Carnosine appears to be highly localized to the primary olfactory pathway.
Article
Skeletal muscle is susceptible to oxidative deterioration due to a combination of lipid oxidation catalysts and membrane lipid systems that are high in unsaturated fatty acids. To prevent or delay oxidation reactions, several endogenous antioxidant systems are found in muscle tissue. These include alpha-tocopherol, histidine-containing dipeptides, and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. The contribution of alpha-tocopherol to the oxidative stability of skeletal muscle is largely influenced by diet. Dietary supplementation of tocopherol has been shown to increase muscle alpha-tocopherol concentrations and inhibit both lipid oxidation and color deterioration. Dietary selenium supplementation has also been shown to increase the oxidative stability of muscle presumably by increasing the activity of glutathione peroxidase. The oxidative stability of skeletal muscle is also influenced by the histidine-containing dipeptides, carnosine and anserine. Whereas carnosine and anserine are affected by diet less than alpha-tocopherol and glutathione peroxidase, their concentrations vary widely with species and muscle type. In pigs, beef, and turkey muscle, carnosine concentrations are greater than anserine, while the opposite is true in rabbit, salmon, and chicken muscle. Anserine and carnosine are found in greater concentrations in muscle high in white fibers, with chicken white muscle containing over fivefold more anserine and carnosine than red muscle. Anserine and carnosine are thought to inhibit lipid oxidation by a combination of free radical scavenging and metal chelation.
Article
Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is a physiological dipeptide which can delay ageing and rejuvenate senescent cultured human fibroblasts. Carnosine's anti-oxidant, free radical- and metal ion-scavenging activities cannot adequately explain these effects. Previous studies showed that carnosine reacts with small carbonyl compounds (aldehydes and ketones) and protects macromolecules against their cross-linking actions. Ageing is associated with accumulation of carbonyl groups on proteins. We consider here whether carnosine reacts with protein carbonyl groups. Our evidence indicates that carnosine can react non-enzymically with protein carbonyl groups, a process termed 'carnosinylation'. We propose that similar reactions could occur in cultured fibroblasts and in vivo. A preliminary experiment suggesting that carnosine is effective in vivo is presented; it suppressed diabetes-associated increase in blood pressure in fructose-fed rats, an observation consistent with carnosine's anti-glycating actions. We speculate that: (i) carnosine's apparent anti-ageing actions result, partly, from its ability to react with carbonyl groups on glycated/oxidised proteins and other molecules; (ii) this reaction, termed 'carnosinylation,' inhibits cross-linking of glycoxidised proteins to normal macromolecules; and (iii) carnosinylation could affect the fate of glycoxidised polypeptides.
Article
Apart from genetically programmed cell aging, different external aggressors related to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO) can accelerate the skin aging phenomenon. Oxidative stress associated with the formation of lipid peroxides is suggested to contribute to pathological processes in aging and systemic diseases known as the risk factors for cataract. Despite the fact that L-carnosine-related peptidomimetics N-acetylcarnosine (N-acetyl-beta-alanyl-L-histidine) (NAC) and carcinine (beta-alanylhistamine) are metabolically related to L-carnosine and have been demonstrated to occur in tissues of many vertebrates, including humans, these compounds were shown resistant toward enzymatic hydrolysis. A series of related biocompatible imidazole-containing peptidomimetics were synthesized in order to confer resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis and ex vivo improvement of protective antioxidative properties related to L-carnosine. The included findings revealed a greater role of N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) and carcinine ex vivo in the prolongation and potentiation of physiological responses to the therapeutical and cosmetics treatments with L-carnosine as antioxidant. 3-D molecular conformation studies proposed the antioxidant activity of peptidomimetics (carcinine, L-prolylhistamine, N-acetylcarnosine, L-carnosine) for metal ion binding, quenching of a number free radicals, and binding of hydroperoxide or aldehyde (including dialdehyde LPO products) in an imidazole-peroxide adducts. NAC can act as a time release (carrier) stable version of L-carnosine during application in ophthalmic pharmaceutical and cosmetics formulations which include lubricants. Carcinine, L-prolylhistamine show efficient deactivation of lipid hydroperoxides monitored by HPLC and protection of membrane phospholipids and water soluble proteins from the lipid peroxides-induced damages. This activity is superior over the lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E. The biologically significant applications of carnosine mimetics were patented by Dr. Babizhayev and the alliance Groups (WO 2004/028536 A1; WO 94/19325; WO 95/12581; WO 2004/064866 A1).
Validation of Chromatographic Methods, Center of Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
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