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Survival of Coronaviruses in Water and Wastewater


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The advent of severe acute respiratory syndrome and its potential environmental transmission indicates the need for more information on the survival of coronavirus in water and wastewater. The survival of representative coronaviruses, feline infectious peritonitis virus, and human coronavirus 229E was determined in filtered and unfiltered tap water (4 and 23°C) and wastewater (23°C). This was compared to poliovirus 1 under the same test conditions. Inactivation of coronaviruses in the test water was highly dependent on temperature, level of organic matter, and presence of antagonistic bacteria. The time required for the virus titer to decrease 99.9% (T99.9) shows that in tap water, coronaviruses are inactivated faster in water at 23°C (10days) than in water at 4°C (>100days). Coronaviruses die off rapidly in wastewater, with T99.9 values of between 2 and 4days. Poliovirus survived longer than coronaviruses in all test waters, except the 4°C tap water.
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Survival of Coronaviruses in Water and Wastewater
Patricia M. Gundy ÆCharles P. Gerba Æ
Ian L. Pepper
Received: 1 October 2008 / Accepted: 13 November 2008 / Published online: 3 December 2008
ÓSpringer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008
Abstract The advent of severe acute respiratory syn-
drome and its potential environmental transmission
indicates the need for more information on the survival of
coronavirus in water and wastewater. The survival of rep-
resentative coronaviruses, feline infectious peritonitis
virus, and human coronavirus 229E was determined in
filtered and unfiltered tap water (4 and 23°C) and waste-
water (23°C). This was compared to poliovirus 1 under the
same test conditions. Inactivation of coronaviruses in the
test water was highly dependent on temperature, level of
organic matter, and presence of antagonistic bacteria. The
time required for the virus titer to decrease 99.9% (T
shows that in tap water, coronaviruses are inactivated faster
in water at 23°C (10 days) than in water at 4°C
([100 days). Coronaviruses die off rapidly in wastewater,
with T
values of between 2 and 4 days. Poliovirus
survived longer than coronaviruses in all test waters, except
the 4°C tap water.
Keywords Survival Water Wastewater Coronavirus
The 2003 epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome
(SARS) resulted in over 8,000 cases worldwide with a
mortality rate of approximately 10% (Manocha et al. 2003;
Centers for Disease Control 2004). The last known
outbreak occurred in a research lab in Beijing in 2004. The
cause of this disease was identified as a novel human
coronavirus with probable origins in civets and a possible
reservoir in bats (Guan et al. 2003; Lau et al. 2005; Wang
et al. 2006). Coronaviruses are enveloped, single-stranded
RNA viruses that range from 60 to 220 nm in size. They
can infect birds and mammals, including humans, and are
transmitted through aerosols or the fecal-oral route. The
rapid spread of coronaviruses during outbreaks suggests the
primary mode of transmission of human coronaviruses is
respiratory droplets; however, there is no direct evidence to
support this (Belshe 1984). Since coronavirus infection in
humans up to this point has been characterized as a mild,
self-limiting condition, there is limited information on its
transmission potential through the environment.
The SARS epidemic had potential links to water and
wastewater given that the March 2003 outbreak at the high-
rise housing estate in Hong Kong involving over 300
people was linked to a faulty sewage system (Peiris et al.
2003). The fact that SARS-CoV can replicate in the enteric
tract (Leung et al. 2003) makes it a possible enteric path-
ogen, and the incidence of diarrhea ranging from 8 to 73%
in SARS cases (SARS Epidemiology Working Group
2003) causes concern about its potential environmental
transmission. Leung et al. (2003) also reported that viral
cultures from SARS patients recovered higher yields from
the small intestine than the lung tissues, which are the
target organs of this virus. Infectious virus has been cul-
tured from stools of SARS patients up to 3 weeks post
infection (Chan et al. 2004; Liu et al. 2004). The advent of
SARS and the question of its transmission indicate the need
for more information, specifically the survival of corona-
virus in water and wastewater. This study compared the
survival of representative coronaviruses and poliovirus 1 in
tap water and wastewater.
P. M. Gundy (&)C. P. Gerba I. L. Pepper
Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science,
University of Arizona, 1177 E. 4th St. Room 429,
P.O. Box 210038, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
Food Environ Virol (2009) 1:10–14
DOI 10.1007/s12560-008-9001-6
Materials and Methods
Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) (ATCC-990), an
enteric feline coronavirus, was propagated and assayed in
the Crandell Reese feline kidney cell line (CRFK) (ATCC-
94). Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV) (ATCC-740), a
respiratory virus, was propagated and assayed in the fetal
human lung fibroblast, MRC-5 cell line (ATCC-171).
Poliovirus 1 LSc-2ab (PV-1), a human enteric virus known
to be very stable in the environment, was propagated and
assayed in the Buffalo green monkey kidney (BGM) cell
line. Infected cells were frozen and thawed three times at
-20°C to release virus after cytopathogenic effects (CPE)
were observed in the monolayer. This was followed by
centrifugation at 1000gfor 10 min to remove cell debris,
addition to the virus suspension of 9% polyethylene glycol
(MW 8000) and 0.5 M sodium chloride, and stirring
overnight at 4°C. After centrifugation at 10,000gfor
30 min, the pellet was resuspended in 0.01 M phosphate
buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.4) (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) to
5% of the original virus suspension volume. The coro-
naviruses were then titered and stored at -80°C. The
poliovirus was further purified by extraction with equal
volumes of Vertrel XF (Dupont, Wilmington, DE), emul-
sified and centrifuged at 7,500gfor 15 min, and
subsequently the top aqueous layer was collected, titered,
and stored at -80°C.
Tap water samples were collected from a cold tap faucet
in the laboratory. The source is groundwater with water
quality parameters: pH 7.8, 297 mg/l dissolved solids, and
0.1 mg/l total organic carbon. The water was allowed to
run for 3 min before collection of the sample. Virus sur-
vival was determined in both nonfiltered tap water and tap
water passed through a 0.2-lm pore size filter to remove
bacteria. Tap water (30 ml) was added to sterile 50 ml
polypropylene centrifuge tubes, to reduce loss of virus by
adhesion to the container. Sterile sodium thiosulfate was
added to a final concentration of 33 lg/ml to dechlorinate
the water. After vortexing, virus was added to each tube to
a final concentration of 10
/ml. Again the tubes
were vortexed and a sample was immediately taken (zero
time point). The tubes of tap water were then stored at
either 4°C or room temperature (23°C). The tubes stored at
room temperature were covered in aluminum foil to pre-
vent exposure to light. Tubes were sampled after 1, 3, 6,
10, 15, and 21 days and the samples frozen at -80°C until
they were assayed on cells.
Samples of primary and activated sludge (secondary)
effluent were collected in sterile polypropylene bottles
from the Roger Road Wastewater Treatment Plant in
Tucson, AZ, USA. Primary effluent was collected after
settling and secondary effluent was collected prior to
chlorination. Typical wastewater quality parameters for
this facilities primary effluent are biological oxygen
demand (BOD) and suspended solids of 110–220 mg/l.
Secondary effluent at Roger Road typically reflects a 90–
95% reduction in both BOD and suspended solids from the
primary effluent. The effluent (30 ml) was added to sterile
50 ml polypropylene centrifuge tubes. Primary effluent
was filtered through a 0.2-lm pore size filter before addi-
tion of the virus and was also tested unfiltered. Secondary
effluent was only tested unfiltered. Virus was then added to
each tube to a final concentration of 10
/ml. The
tubes were vortexed and a sample was immediately taken
(time zero). The tubes were then covered and held at room
temperature (23°C). Samples were collected after 1, 2, 3, 6,
10, 15, and 21 days and the samples frozen at -80°C until
Viruses were enumerated on cell cultures using either
the plaque assay or TCID
technique. PV-1 was titered in
6-well plastic cell culture plates by the plaque assay
method (Payment and Trudel 1993). This is a direct
quantitative method with a minimum detection limit of
10 pfu/ml. Each dilution was plated in duplicate wells.
Coronaviruses, which do not form plaques in cell culture,
were titered in 24-well plastic cell culture plates by the
tissue culture infectious dose 50% technique (TCID
(Payment and Trudel 1993). This technique determines the
dilution at which 50% of the wells show CPE. Taking the
inverse log of this dilution gives a titer of the virus per ml
. The minimum detection for this method was 3.7
viruses per ml. Each dilution was plated in a minimum of 8
wells. Any samples that were not from test waters filtered
prior to adding virus had to be filtered before assaying on
cell culture to eliminate bacterial contamination. The
0.2 lm low protein binding Millex filters (Millipore,
Billerica, MA) with polyethersulfone (PES) membrane
were prepared by passing 3% beef extract (Becton Dick-
inson, Sparks, MD) at pH 7 through to block sites that
might adsorb virus. All experiments were performed in
Results and Discussion
Table 1shows the survival in days of the three viruses in
the test waters. The log reduction of each virus was cal-
culated by the formula ‘‘log
’ where Nis the titer of
the virus at the specified day and N
is the virus titer at time
0. The slope of the linear regression was used to determine
the survival; the time required for the virus titer to decrease
99% and 99.9% (expressed as T
and T
Factors that can influence virus survival in water include
temperature, organic matter, and aerobic microorganisms
(John and Rose 2005; Melnick and Gerba 1980; Sobsey
and Meschke 2003). The most critical influence on virus
Food Environ Virol (2009) 1:10–14 11
survival is temperature. It has been shown that virus sur-
vival decreases with increasing temperature, mainly caused
by denaturation of proteins and increased activity of
extracellular enzymes (Hurst et al. 1980; John and Rose
2005). The results of the tap water study verify that this is
the case with coronavirus. By testing filtered tap water, we
reduced or eliminated the influence of particulate organic
matter and bacteria. At room temperature it required only
10 days to result in a 99.9% reduction of coronavirus in
filtered tap water, while at 4°C this level of virus inacti-
vation would require over 100 days. The survival of PV-1
in tap water at 4°C was similar to the coronavirus, but at
room temperature (23°C) this virus survived six times
longer in both the filtered and unfiltered water. The sur-
vival of the three study viruses in tap water at room
temperature (23°C) and 4°C are shown in Figs. 1and 2,
respectively. The increase in virus titer over time from the
initial titer in the 4°C water can be attributed to the
tendency of viruses to form aggregates that then disag-
gregate, not from viral replication in the sample.
The presence of organic matter and suspended solids in
water can provide protection for viruses that adsorb to these
particles but at the same time can be a mechanism for
removal of viruses if the solids settle out. The level of
organic matter and suspended solids in the test waters
increased from tap water to secondary effluent to primary
effluent. Coronavirus inactivation was greater in filtered tap
water than unfiltered tap water. Furthermore, HCoV sur-
vived longer in unfiltered primary effluent over the filtered.
This suggests that higher solids do provide protection for
coronaviruses in water. For PV-1, however, filtration made
very little difference in its survival in tap water. In the
primary effluent, PV-1 survived three times longer in the
filtered primary effluent than the unfiltered. It is important
to note that there was a substantial decrease in titer of the
coronaviruses between the time of addition to the waste-
water and the immediate retrieval for testing (zero time
Table 1 Survival in days
of study viruses
in tap water and wastewater
Virus Tap water
filtered 23°C
Tap water
unfiltered 23°C
Tap water
filtered 4°C
Primary effluent
filtered 23°C
Primary effluent
unfiltered 23°C
HCoV 6.76 10.1 8.09 12.1 392
1.57 2.35 2.36 3.54 1.85 2.77
FIPV 6.76 10.1 8.32 12.5 87.0
1.60 2.40 1.71 2.56 1.62 2.42
PV-1 43.3
7.27 10.9 3.83 5.74
The slope of the linear regression was used to determine the survival; the time, in days, for the virus titer to decrease 99% and 99.9%, expressed
as T
and T
, respectively
Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV), feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), poliovirus 1 (PV-1)
HCoV was unfiltered
Projected values
0 5 10 15 20 25
Log10 N/N0
Fig. 1 Average log
reduction (average log
where Nis titer
of virus at specified day and N
is titer of virus at time 0) of study
viruses [human coronavirus 229E (HCoV), feline infectious perito-
nitis virus (FIPV), poliovirus 1 (PV-1)] in dechlorinated, filtered tap
water at room temperature (23°C)
0 5 10 15 20 25
Log10 N/N0
Fig. 2 Average log
reduction (average log
where Nis titer
of virus at specified day and N
is titer of virus at time 0) of study
viruses [human coronavirus 229E (HCoV), feline infectious perito-
nitis virus (FIPV), poliovirus 1 (PV-1)] in dechlorinated, filtered tap
water at 4°C. *Unfiltered
12 Food Environ Virol (2009) 1:10–14
point). The titer of the coronaviruses immediately decreased
99.9% upon addition to the wastewater, while the PV-1 titer
only dropped 10%. This decrease may be due to the pres-
ence of solvents and detergents in wastewater that would
compromise the viral envelope and ultimately inactivate the
virus. This may also indicate that coronaviruses adsorb
more readily than PV-1 to solids in the wastewater. The
hydrophobicity of the viral envelope makes coronaviruses
less soluble in water and could therefore increase the ten-
dency of these viruses to adhere to the solids. Wastewater
samples had to be filtered to prevent bacterial contamina-
tion of the cell monolayer, which would remove solids and
any solids-associated viruses as well.
The presence of predatory microorganisms, such as
protozoa, can increase the inactivation rate of virus in water,
as well as the action of proteases and nucleases (Gerba et al.
1978; John and Rose 2005). The level of bacteria and solids
is both higher in primary effluent compared to secondary
effluent. All three test viruses were able to survive longer in
the unfiltered primary effluent than the unfiltered secondary
effluent, though for FIPV this was negligible. Again, this
suggests that solids-associated viruses in wastewater are
protected from predation and inactivation. However, the
coronaviruses were below the minimum detection limit
after 3 days, whereas PV-1 was detectable after 21 days.
Results for the average log reduction for the study viruses in
wastewater are listed in Table 2.
The results of this study indicate that coronaviruses are
much more sensitive to temperature than PV-1 and that
there is a considerable difference in survivability between
PV-1 and the coronaviruses in wastewater. This may be
due in part to the fact that enveloped viruses are less stable
in the environment than nonenveloped viruses. Coronavi-
ruses die off very rapidly in wastewater, with a 99.9%
reduction in 2–3 days, which is comparable to the data on
SARS-CoV survival (Wang et al. 2005a,b). Survival of the
coronaviruses in primary wastewater was only slightly
longer than secondary wastewater, probably due to the
higher level of suspended solids that offer protection from
inactivation. PV-1 survived substantially longer than cor-
onaviruses, requiring 10 days for a comparable reduction
in primary wastewater and 5 days in secondary wastewater.
This study demonstrates that the transmission of coronav-
iruses would be less than enteroviruses in the aqueous
environment due to the fact that coronaviruses are more
rapidly inactivated in water and wastewater at ambient
Acknowledgment This work was supported by a grant from the
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of study viruses
in primary effluent and secondary effluent at room temperature (23°C)
Day Primary effluent (filtered) Primary effluent (unfiltered) Secondary effluent (unfiltered)
1[2.0 ±0.88 1.7 ±1.1 0.04 ±0.09 [1.8 ±0.54 [1.8 ±1.0 0.2 ±0.19 1.1 ±0.80 1.1 ±1.0 0.96 ±0.26
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3[3.4 ±0.66 [3.6 ±0.17 0.25 ±0.24 [2.0 ±1.5 [3.1 ±0.62 0.69 ±0.51 [2.9 ±0.80 [3.7 ±0.62 2.1 ±1.1
6 ND ND 0.58 ±0.26 ND ND 1.6 ±0.32 ND ND 3.8 ±1.1
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ND not determined
Average log
where Nis titer of virus at specified day and N
is titer of virus at time 0. [indicates that at least one of the triplicates was
below detection level of 3.7/ml TCID
. Values below the detection limit were replaced with the detection limit for the analysis. ±indicates
standard deviation
Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV), feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), poliovirus 1 (PV-1)
Food Environ Virol (2009) 1:10–14 13
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14 Food Environ Virol (2009) 1:10–14
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... O processo de sedimentação secundária, que ocorre nessa unidade de tratamento, também foi visto por propiciar um efeito de sorção das partículas virais em compostos orgânicos, beneficiando a remoção dessas partículas através da aglomeração em flocos de biomassa maiores (CLARKE et al., 1961;CHAUDHRY et al., 2015;BOGLER et al., 2020). Outro aspecto refere-se aos fatores abióticos propiciados pelas condições ambientais nos biorreatores de tratamento, como o pH, exposição a luz UV e temperatura (GUNDY et al., 2009;PATEL et al., 2021). Entre esses fatores, a temperatura foi vista por se apresentar como um fator central na inativação de patógenos virais nesse ambiente, incluindo de vírus envelopados como o SARS-CoV-2 (GUNDY et al., 2009;MOHAN et al., 2021). ...
... Outro aspecto refere-se aos fatores abióticos propiciados pelas condições ambientais nos biorreatores de tratamento, como o pH, exposição a luz UV e temperatura (GUNDY et al., 2009;PATEL et al., 2021). Entre esses fatores, a temperatura foi vista por se apresentar como um fator central na inativação de patógenos virais nesse ambiente, incluindo de vírus envelopados como o SARS-CoV-2 (GUNDY et al., 2009;MOHAN et al., 2021). ...
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... Copies per Case wastewater entering WWTPs [16], [43], [77], [78]. While laboratory-based studies have been performed to determine viral decay under certain temperatures over time [43], [71], our study has the benefit of access to a wastewater system that is Wastewater surveillance programs generally use measured concentrations multiplied times flow to calculate the load. Since approximately the same number of people in the service area contribute biological material to the sewer system in high-or low-flow conditions, we expect that SARS-CoV-2 or fecal markers such as PMMoV would be proportionally diluted with the flow. ...
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Wastewater surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 is used worldwide to track COVID-19 infection trends. However, there is no standard method for SARS-CoV-2 measurement from wastewater, and uncertainties of pre-analytical influences from the wastewater collection system persist. This study builds upon the growing body of knowledge surrounding wastewater surveillance and aims to understand how wastewater measurements relate to other public health metrics, explain the influence of wastewater conveyance systems, and improve SARS-CoV-2 detection and quantification from wastewater. Our laboratory has been part of the ongoing Wisconsin SARS-CoV-2 wastewater surveillance program since August 2020, analyzing almost 4,000 samples to date. Through various experiments, our findings demonstrated that monitoring variants in wastewater using RT- ddPCR can outperform clinical sequencing. Temperature was the only parameter that significantly influenced SARS-CoV-2 decay in the wastewater matrix. Travel time, flow rate, BOD, and TSS, did not significantly influence SARS-CoV-2 decay or detection. Additionally, extracting RNA from primary settled solids improved detection sensitivity.
... The difference in adsorption kinetics between wastewater and DI water is consistent with previous work; it was found by Hayes et al. (2022) that SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations adsorbed from electronegative filters in DI water were an order of magnitude lower compared to concentrations adsorbed in wastewater . The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 adsorption and the solid fraction of wastewater is well established, and considerable portions of enveloped viruses such as coronaviruses may readily adsorb to solids and organic matter within water samples (Peccia et al., 2020;Gundy et al., 2008;Graham et al., 2021;Ye et al., 2016). Wastewater contains many different organic compounds, suspended solids, and colloids that may compete for adsorption sites, interfering with the uptake kinetics of the virus. ...
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Based on recent studies, passive sampling is a promising method for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater surveillance (WWS) applications. Passive sampling has many advantages over conventional sampling approaches. However, the potential benefits of passive sampling are also coupled with apparent limitations. We established a passive sampling technique for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in wastewater using electronegative filters. Though, it was evident that the adsorption capacity of the filters constrained their use. This work intends to demonstrate an optimized passive sampling technique for SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater using granular activated carbon (GAC). Through bench-scale batch-adsorption studies and sewershed deployments, we established the adsorption characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and two human feacal viruses (PMMoV and CrAssphage) onto GAC. A pseudo-second-order model best-described adsorption kinetics for SARS-CoV-2 in either deionized (DI) water and SARS-CoV-2, CrAssphage, and PMMoV in wastewater. In both laboratory batch-adsorption experiments and in-situ sewershed deployments, the maximum amount of SARS-CoV-2 adsorbed by GAC occurred at ~60 h in wastewater. In wastewater, the maximum adsorption of PMMoV and CrAssphage by GAC occurred at ~60 h. In contrast, the adsorption capacity was reached in DI water seeded with SARS-CoV-2 after ~35 h. The equilibrium assay modeled the maximum adsorption quantity (qmax) in wastewater with spiked SARS-CoV-2 concentrations using a Hybrid Langmuir-Freundlich equation, a qmax of 2.5 × 10⁹ GU/g was calculated. In paired sewershed deployments, it was found that GAC adsorbs SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater more effectively than electronegative filters. Based on the anticipated viral loading in wastewater, bi-weekly sampling intervals with deployments up to ~96 h are highly feasible without reaching adsorption capacity with GAC. GAC offers improved sensitivity and reproducibility to capture SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater, promoting a scalable and convenient alternative for capturing viral pathogens in wastewater.
... Apart from fecal shedding, other sources containing active SARS-CoV-2 viruses including sputum, nasal mucus, blood, and saliva, may also enter the wastewater in sewers [25][26][27]. Some strains of coronavirus could preserve infectivity in bulk wastewater for a few days [28,29], and in sewers for hours [30], thus potentially making small sewage droplets as a transmission pathway of COVID-19. ...
COVID-19 outbreaks in high-rise buildings suggested the transmission route of fecal-aerosol-inhalation due to the involvement of viral aerosols in sewer stacks. The vertical transmission is likely due to the failure of water traps that allow viral aerosols to spread through sewer stacks. This process can be further facilitated by chimney effect in vent stack, extract ventilation in bathrooms, or wind-induced air pressure fluctuations. To eliminate the risk of such vertical disease spread, installation of protective devices is highly encouraged in high-rise buildings. Although the mechanism of vertical pathogen spread through drainage pipeline has been illustrated by tracer gas or microbial experiments and numerical modeling, more research is needed to support the update of regulatory and design standards for sewerage facilities.
... This is the first step in biosolid removal and viral adsorption to solids and subsequent removal from the liquid treatment train may account for this reduction (Balboa et al., 2021;Graham et al., 2021). The decrease in the viral RNA signal may also be attributed to the presence of antagonist microorganisms that can inactivate viruses via extracellular enzymatic activity or degradation of viral RNA (Casanova et al., 2009;Gundy et al., 2008;Ye et al., 2016). ...
Within urban and suburban sewersheds, SARS‐CoV‐2 released through feces is transported through sewage systems into municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Studies have shown that viral RNA is detectable in untreated wastewater but not in WWTP effluent. In this study, we investigated treatment steps between the influent and final treated effluent to identify the point at which viral RNA is below detection. Additionally, we examined air surrounding high turbulence treatment steps to test for the presence of SARS‐CoV‐2 RNA in WWTP‐generated bioaerosols. To examine potential worker exposure to SARS‐CoV‐2, WWTP workers were tested for the presence of viral RNA. The data show that despite high viral RNA concentration in the influent, SARS‐CoV‐2 RNA concentration decreased significantly (p<.02) in the main treatment steps and was below detection in the effluent. Additionally, SARS‐CoV‐2 RNA was below detection in air samples (n=42), and the worker rate of infection was not significantly different (p=.99) from the rate of infection in the surrounding community. These results suggest that WWTP workers may have minimal exposure to SARS‐CoV‐2 during routine outdoor work procedures and that the WWTP successfully reduces the amount of viral RNA entering effluent receiving waters, providing a vital public health service to communities.
With an increasing global population in developed and developing countries, one of the biggest challenges is to provide a continuous supply of chemically and biologically stable potable water supply in megacities of different nations. However, rapid anthropogenic activities affect the overall quality of potable water. Unplanned disposal practices regarding wastes including pharmaceuticals, foodstuff additives, lubricants, synthetic resins, disinfectants, heavy metals, microplastics, microbial pathogens, and organic contaminants have negatively impacted the drinking water quality and supply system in megacities of developed and developing countries. In water management plants, drinking water remains in an almost sterile environment before distribution through the water supply in megacities. However, maintenance for biological and chemical stability of the drinking water during supply chain is a very challenging concern predominantly for developing countries compared to developed countries. This is due to several reasons, including poor water purification management platforms, drinking water supply, physicochemical nature of drinking water, and abundance of contaminants in drinking water. Therefore, improper management of water resources and water supply systems is a major alarming issue which enhances morbidity and mortality rates, as indicated by deadly diseases around the world related to improper sanitation. Thus, the main aim of this study is to provide a comparative overview of water supply systems in developing and developed countries. Moreover, the current study illustrates the impact of contaminants on water quality, advances in water purification-recycling processes, and the effects of microbial community dynamics to ensure the quality of water and its corresponding proper supply to megacities in developed and developing countries as a sustainable way forward.
The Chinese scenario, a rapid increase in the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 infections and sudden decline, is uncommon worldwide. Enormous differences in COVID-19 severity among individual countries are the striking findings of the pandemics. It has been demonstrated that a mild course of COVID-19 is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, less inflammatory response, and better prognosis. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 was observed longer in the gastrointestinal tract than in respiratory swabs, promoting feco-oral transmissions and mild virus attenuation. The spread of the pandemic and its severity might, consequently, depends on the dominant environmental route of infection and emerging immunity. We hypothesize that the feco-oral SARS-CoV-2 transmission may help to achieve the long-term immunity against COVID-19, since it enables the continuous contact with viral antigens in the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in lower mortality rate. To conclude, countries producing rice through traditional methods developed rapidly emerging long-lasting population immunity, possibly through increased SARS-CoV-2 antigen exposure in the gastrointestinal tract. Our hypothesis brings attention to this potential route of herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2 which warrants further investigation in the future.
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In this study, a dimethyl methylphosphonate based potentiometric sensor was developed in order to detect nerve agents using molecular printed polymer technique. The most important advantages of this technique can be listed as being able to analyze quickly, precisely and at very low concentrations. The developed sensor has been validated for the adsorption of dimethyl methylphosphonate. Molecular printed polymer (MIP) was synthesized by emulsion polymerization. Dimethyl methylphosphonate was used as the molecule to be suppressed in polymerization. While preparing dimethyl methylphosphonate printed polymer, N-Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) was used as crosslinker. Measurements were made to evaluate the performance of the potentiometric sensor prepared using dimethyl methylphosphonate imprinted polymers. The data obtained as a result of the measurements revealed that a potentiometric sensor sensitive to dimethyl methylphosphonate was developed. The developed sensor showed high selectivity, large linear range (10-8 -10-3 mol L-1 ) and low detection limit (3.2x10-8 mol L-1 ) to dimethyl methylphosphonate
An unprecedented community outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in the Amoy Gardens, a high-rise residential complex in Hong Kong. Droplet, air, contaminated fomites, and rodent pests have been proposed to be mechanisms for transmitting SARS in a short period. We studied nasopharyngeal viral load of SARS patients on admission and their geographic distribution. Higher nasopharyngeal viral load was found in patients living in adjacent units of the same block inhabited by the index patient, while a lower but detectable nasopharyngeal viral load was found in patients living further away from the index patient. This pattern of nasopharyngeal viral load suggested that airborne transmission played an important part in this outbreak in Hong Kong. Contaminated fomites and rodent pests may have also played a role.
While it may appear that the enteric viruses are relatively 'new' agents of foodborne disease, in reality these agents have long been associated with human disease and transmission by foodborne routes has been a frequent occurrence. Recent advances in epidemiology, molecular biology, and molecular epidemiology, however, have improved the ability to study this previously elusive group of foodborne pathogens. As such, a reasonable premise is that it is not the viruses but our ability to study them that is emerging. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to review the manner in which emerging scientific techniques have furthered our understanding of the significance of enteric viruses as foodborne pathogens.
Fruits are defined in general terms as “the portions of plants which bear seeds”. Such a definition includes true fruits such as citrus, false fruits such as apples and pears, and compound fruits such as berries. The definition includes tomatoes, olives, chilies, capsicum, eggplant, okra, peas, beans, squash, and cucurbits such as cucumbers and melons although, for culinary purposes, a number of these fruits are classified as vegetables. For the purpose of the current chapter, tomatoes, olives, cucumbers, and melons will be considered fruits whereas egg plant, okra, peas, beans, squash, chilies, and capsicum will be considered as either vegetables or spices.
: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a recently emerged infection from a novel coronavirus (CoV). Apart from fever and respiratory complications, gastrointestinal symptoms are frequently observed in patients with SARS but the significance remains undetermined. Herein, we describe the clinical, pathologic, and virologic features of the intestinal involvement of this new viral infection. : A retrospective analysis of the gastrointestinal symptoms and other clinical parameters of the first 138 patients with confirmed SARS admitted for a major outbreak in Hong Kong in March 2003 was performed. Intestinal specimens were obtained by colonoscopy or postmortem examination to detect the presence of coronavirus by electron microscopy, virus culture, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. : Among these 138 patients with SARS, 28 (20.3%) presented with watery diarrhea and up to 38.4% of patients had symptoms of diarrhea during the course of illness. Diarrhea was more frequently observed during the first week of illness. The mean number of days with diarrhea was 3.7 ± 2.7, and most diarrhea was self-limiting. Intestinal biopsy specimens obtained by colonoscopy or autopsy showed minimal architectural disruption but the presence of active viral replication within both the small and large intestine. Coronavirus was also isolated by culture from these specimens, and SARS-CoV RNA can be detected in the stool of patients for more than 10 weeks after symptom onset. : Diarrhea is a common presenting symptom of SARS. The intestinal tropism of the SARS-CoV has major implications on clinical presentation and viral transmission.
A vegetable is the edible component of a plant including leaves, stalks, roots, tubers, bulbs, flowers, fruits, and seeds. In mushrooms, the fruiting body is usually the organ of interest. Although considered by some to be a vegetable, tomatoes are fruits and are included in that chapter. With the exception of certain seeds, plant tissues are low in protein.Water, fiber, starch, certain vitamins, minerals, and some lipids are the principal components. In general, the pH of vegetable tissue is in the range 5–7. Since the overall composition and pH are very favorable, growth of numerous microbial species can be expected if adequate moisture is present.
The association of bacteriophages and animal viruses with solids has been demonstrated to have a protective effect, resulting in enhanced survival in natural waters and resistance to inactivation by chlorine. In this study, attempts were made to differentiate solid-associated viruses and freely suspended viruses in secondarily treated sewage by the retention of sewage solids on membrane filters treated with fetal calf serum to prevent adsorption of freely suspended virus. Solid-associated viruses collected on membrane filters were eluted with pH 11.5, 0.05 M glycine buffer. The percentage of the total coliphage and animal virus associated with solids in secondarily treated sewage discharges ranged from < 1.0 to 24% and 3 to 100%, respectively. The largest quantity of solid-associated coliphage was attached to particles greater than 8.0 μm and less than 0.65 μm in size. Tapwater, lake water and estuarine water were all capable of eluting solid-associated coliphages. Elution of coliphages in marine water appeared to be related to the salinity of the water. Coliphages eluted from sewage solids in seawater could readsorb to naturally occurring marine sediment.
More than 100 different enteric viruses are known to be excreted in human feces. More than 1 million viruses may be excreted per gram of feces, and concentrations as high as 500,000 infectious virus particles per liter have been detected in raw sewage. Certain enteric viruses can persist for long periods of time in the environment. Reported survival times range from 2 to 168 in tapwater, 2 to 130 days in seawater, 25 to 125 days in soil, and up to 90 days in oysters. There are many potential routes of transmission back to man. An evaluation of the problems associated with viruses in water was prepared recently by the World Health Organization Scientific Group on Human Viruses in Water, Wastewater, and Soil which met in Geneva in October, 1978. Among its conclusions, 4 are pertinent to this article: Viruses have been detected in the drinking water supply systems of a number of cities (including Paris and Moscow), despite the fact that those waters have received conventional water treatment considered adequate for protection against bacterial pathogens. Conventional bacterial pollution indicators used to evaluate the safety of potable water supply have been shown to be significantly less resistant than viruses to environmental factors and water and wastewater treatment processes. This leads to a situation where the more resistant enteric viruses can be present in water manifesting little or no signs of bacterial pollution. Regular virus monitoring should be carried out to assure the freedom from enteric viruses in 100- to 1000-l samples in large urban centers where the water supply is derived from virus-polluted surface water, a significant portion of which is untreated wastewater or effluent insufficiently treated to inactivate viruses. The constant exposure of large population groups to even relatively small numbers of enteric viruses in large volumes of water can lead to an endemic state of virus dissemination in the community which can and should be prevented.