Essential oil from the leaves of Cryptomeria japonica acts as a silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) repellent and insecticide

Department of Forestry, National Chung Hsing University, 臺中市, Taiwan, Taiwan
Journal of Wood Science (Impact Factor: 0.94). 11/2006; 52(6):522-526. DOI: 10.1007/s10086-006-0806-3


This is the first article to report the evaluation of a natural product used as an antisilverfish agent. Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina), primitive wingless insects, feed on a variety of materials, including paper, cotton, starch, and cereals. They can be a
problem in libraries and other places where books, documents, and papers are stored. In this pilot study, the essential oil
from leaves of Cryptomeria japonica was investigated to test its properties as a silverfish repellent and insecticide. The results from a repellency bioassay
show that the essential oil significantly repelled silverfish. The repellent activity was 80% at a dosage of 0.01 mg/cm3. When silverfish were exposed to a concentration of 0.16 mg/cm3 of essential oil, they were killed within 10h. The chemical composition of essential oil, the emissions from a test chamber,
and the residue left on filter papers previously soaked with the essential oil in a chamber were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass
spectrometry. The components of the essential oil were found to be: elemol (18.22%), 16-kaurene (11.63%), 3-carene (9.66%),
sabinene (9.37%), 4-terpineol (9.06%), β-eudesmol (5.70%), α-pinene (5.62%), and limonene (5.26%). Only some constituents of the essential oil compounds collected by solid-phase microextraction
were found to be emitted in the test chamber. The main constituents were: 3-carene (21.03%), p-cymene (10.95%), limonene (9.49%), β-myrcene (9.39%), γ-terpinene (9.10%), α-terpinene (8.57%), and 4-terpineol (7.97%).

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    • "Chang, S.T. Chang, Tsai, & Chen, 2003; Cheng, Lin, & Chang, 2005; Cheng, H.T. Chang, Wu, & S.T. Chang, 2007; Kofujita, Ota, Takahashi, & Kawai, 2002; Matsushita, Hwang, Sugamoto, & Matsu, 2006; Tsutsumi, Shimada, Miyano, Nishida, & Mitsunaga, 1998; Wang et al., 2006; Yoshikawa, Tanaka, Umeyama, & Arihara, 2006 "
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of the present study were to determine the antibacterial activity of bark extract of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don and to isolate potential antibacterial constituents. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of C. japonica bark possessed a good antibacterial activity. Nine compounds including seven diterpenoids (ferruginol (I), isopimaric acid (II), iguestol (III), isopimarol (IV), phyllocladan-16alpha-ol (V), sandaracopimarinol (VI) and sugiol (VII)) and two steroids (beta-sitosterol (VIII) and beta-sitostenone (IX)) were isolated from active subfractions; beta-sitostenone was isolated for the first time from this plant. Among these compounds, ferruginol possessed the strongest antibacterial activity and had MIC values ranging from 6.3 to 12.5 microg mL(-1) against all bacteria tested. Isopimaric acid was also an antibacterial natural product. Cryptomeria japonica bark extract and its diterpenoids, ferruginol and isopimaric acid, have the ability to inhibit the bacterial growth and can be used as the source for natural bactericides.
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    • "Araujo et al. (2003) examined the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii, which could induce 100% mortality against A. aegypti larvae after 24 h at a dosage of 500 mg ml -1 . Wang et al. (2006a) were the first to report that essential oils from the leaves of Cryptomeria japonica possess good silverfish repellency and caused high mortality. According to the results obtained in the present study, essential oil from C. formosensis is even more effective against silverfish than C. japonica essential oil. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chamaecyparis formosensis is an endemic precious tree species grown in Taiwan. Based on the results obtained in our current study, the essential oil of C. formosensis wood possesses significant insecticidal activities. In an assay to assess mosquito larvicidal properties, the essential oil completely killed the larvae of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus at a dosage of 100 μg ml-1 in water. Concentrations of the essential oil at a dosage of 0.16 mg cm-3 in air resulted in 100% mortality of silverfish after 2 h. It was found that the extractives of C. formosensis possess multiple bioactivities against insects. There is great potential for the development of insecticides for domestic application to kill mosquito larvae and silverfish based on this raw material.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · Holzforschung
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    • "ane sesquiterpene acid and methyl ester derivatives were isolated from Callitris glaucophylla Thompson et Johnson and identified as termite repellents ( Watanabe et al . 2005 ) . The Cryptomeria japonica ( L . f . ) D . Don essential oil contains elemol as its major component ( 18 . 2% ) , and was recently identified as a repellent to silverfish ( Wang et al . 2006 ) . Another interesting study investigated the essential oil composition of C . japonica cultivars that varied in susceptibility to the Cryptomeria bark borer ( Semanstus japonicus Lacordaire ) . Attractant and repellent responses of the and quantitative comparisons were made across the different cultivars . There were notable differenc"
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    ABSTRACT: Botanicals have a long history of use for protection against biting arthropods and reducing the risk of exposure to arthropod-transmitted disease agents. The aim of these studies was to characterize the activity of the plant derived sequiterpenes and further develop these compounds as long-lasting botanical repellents and insecticides. Studies addressed the utility of sesquiterpene-rich essential oils from Amyris, Amyris balsamifera, and Siam wood, Fokienia hodginsii, and showed a broad spectrum of activity against arthropods including ticks, cockroaches, house flies and mosquitoes. Identification of the most active components of the Amyris and Siam wood essential oils guided the development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for predicting repellency to the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The final QSAR models showed good similarity in the trends of selected descriptors, providing support for the importance of physicochemical and electronic parameters in influencing the activity of sesquiterpenes. The effects terpenes and other chemical repellents have on Ae. ageypti mosquito host-seeking behavior were studied in a wind-tunnel system incorporating three different host attractant cues: CO2, lactic acid, and 1-octen-3-ol. Results and methods for expansion of this approach are discussed. Preliminary research on the olfactory neural mechanisms mediating repellency effects in Ae. aegypti, specifically the olfactory receptor gene sequences OR43b and OR83b (VectorBase), is reported.
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