Effect of Through-Plane Motion on Left Ventricular Rotation: A Study Using Slice-Following Harmonic Phase Imaging
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.57). 05/2013; 69(5). DOI: 10.1002/mrm.24373
Noninvasive quantification of regional left ventricular rotation may improve understanding of cardiac function. Current methods used to quantify rotation typically acquire data on a set of prescribed short-axis slices, neglecting effects due to through-plane myocardial motion. We combine principles of slice-following tagged imaging with harmonic phase analysis methods to account for through-plane motion in regional rotation measurements. We compare rotation and torsion measurements obtained using our method to those obtained from imaging datasets acquired without slice-following. Our results in normal volunteers demonstrate differences in the general trends of average and regional rotation-time plots in midbasal slices and the rotation versus circumferential strain loops. We observe substantial errors in measured peak average rotation of the order of 58% for basal slices (due to change in the pattern of the curve), -6.6% for midventricular slices, and -8.5% for apical slices; and an average error in base-to-apex torsion of 19% when through-plane motion is not considered. This study concludes that due to an inherent base-to-apex gradient in rotation that exists in the left ventricular, accounting for through-plane motion is critical to the accuracy of left ventricular rotation quantification. Magn Reson Med, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is characterized by complete mirroring of gross cardiac anatomy and position combined with an incompletely mirrored myofiber arrangement, being normal at the apex but inverted at the base of the left ventricle (LV). This study relates myocardial structure to mechanical function by analyzing and comparing myocardial deformation patterns of normal and SIT subjects, focusing especially on circumferential-radial shear. In 9 control and 9 SIT normotensive human subjects, myocardial deformation was assessed from magnetic resonance tagging (MRT) image sequences of 5 LV short-axis slices. During ejection, no significant difference in either circumferential shortening (εcc) or its axial gradient (Δεcc ) is found between corresponding LV levels in control and SIT hearts. Circumferential-radial shear (cr ) has a clear linear trend from apex-to-base in controls, while in SIT it hovers close to zero at all levels. Torsion as well as axial change in cr (Δcr ) are as in controls in apical sections of SIT hearts, but deviate significantly towards the base, changing sign close to the LV equator. Inter-individual variability in torsion and Δcr values is higher in SIT than in controls. Apex-to-base trends of torsion and Δεcr in SIT, changing sign near the LV equator, further substantiate a structural transition in myofiber arrangement close to the LV equator itself. Invariance of εcc and Δεcc patterns between controls and SIT subjects shows that normal LV pump function is achieved in SIT despite partial mirroring of myocardial structure leading to torsional and shear patterns that are far from normality. Copyright © 2014, American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology.
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ABSTRACT: Pre-clinical animal models are important to study the fundamental biological and functional mechanisms involved in the longitudinal evolution of heart failure (HF). Particularly, large animal models, like nonhuman primates (NHPs), that possess greater physiological, biochemical, and phylogenetic similarity to humans are gaining interest. To assess the translatability of these models into human diseases, imaging biomarkers play a significant role in non-invasive phenotyping, prediction of downstream remodeling, and evaluation of novel experimental therapeutics. This paper sheds insight into NHP cardiac function through the quantification of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging biomarkers that comprehensively characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics of left ventricular (LV) systolic pumping and LV diastolic relaxation. MR tagging and phase contrast (PC) imaging were used to quantify NHP cardiac strain and flow. Temporal inter-relationships between rotational mechanics, myocardial strain and LV chamber flow are presented, and functional biomarkers are evaluated through test-retest repeatability and inter subject variability analyses. The temporal trends observed in strain and flow was similar to published data in humans. Our results indicate a dominant dimension based pumping during early systole, followed by a torsion dominant pumping action during late systole. Early diastole is characterized by close to 65% of untwist, the remainder of which likely contributes to efficient filling during atrial kick. Our data reveal that moderate to good intra-subject repeatability was observed for peak strain, strain-rates, E/circumferential strain-rate (CSR) ratio, E/longitudinal strain-rate (LSR) ratio, and deceleration time. The inter-subject variability was high for strain dyssynchrony, diastolic strain-rates, peak torsion and peak untwist rate. We have successfully characterized cardiac function in NHPs using MR imaging. Peak strain, average systolic strain-rate, diastolic E/CSR and E/LSR ratios, and deceleration time were identified as robust biomarkers that could potentially be applied to future pre-clinical drug studies.
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