Yang X, Zhou G, Ren T, et al. β-Arrestin prevents cell apoptosis through pro-apoptotic ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs and anti-apoptotic Akt pathways
Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 215006, China.Apoptosis (Impact Factor: 3.69). 06/2012; 17(9):1019-26. DOI: 10.1007/s10495-012-0741-2
Our previous studies have shown that β-arrestin 2 plays an anti-apoptotic effect. However, the mechanisms by which β-arrestin contribute to anti-apoptotic role remain unclear. In this study, we show that a deficiency of either β-arrestin 1 or β-arrestin 2 significantly increases serum deprivation (SD)-induced percentage of apoptotic cells. β-arrestin 2 deficient-induced apoptosis was inhibited by transfection with β-arrestin 2 full-length plasmid, revealing that SD-induced apoptosis is dependent on β-arrestin 2. Furthermore, in the absence of either β-arrestin 1 or β-arrestin 2 significantly enhances SD-induced the level of pro-apoptotic proteins, including cleaved caspase-3, extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38, members of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In addition, a deficiency of either β-arrestin 1 or β-arrestin 2 inhibits phosphorylation of Akt. The SD-induced changes in cleaved caspase-3, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs, Akt, and apoptotic cell numbers could be blocked by double knockout of β-arrestin 1/2. Our study thus demonstrates that β-arrestin inhibits cell apoptosis through pro-apoptotic ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs and anti-apoptotic Akt signaling pathways.
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ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the relationship between the synthesis of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and the pancreatic acinar cell apoptosis in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) rats, as well as analyse the potential apoptotic pathway involved in this process. Sixty rats had been equally divided into four groups: sham, SAP, SAP + sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) and SAP + DL-propargylglycine (PAG). 24 h after SAP induction, all surviving animals of each group were sacrificed to collect blood and tissue samples for the following measurements: the level of serum H(2)S as well as the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), H(2)S synthesizing activity, CSE mRNA and protein expression, maleic dialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, -8 and -9, the release of cytochrome c and the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38 in pancreas. Furthermore, in situ detection of cell apoptosis was examined and the severity of pancreatic damage was analyzed by pathological grading and scoring. Results Significant differences in every index except IL-10 had been found between the SAP, NaHS and PAG groups (P < 0.05). Treatment with PAG obviously induced the pancreatic acinar cell apoptosis as well as improved all the pathological changes and inflammatory parameters. In contrast, administration of NaHS significantly attenuated apoptosis in the pancreas and aggravated the severity of pancreatic damage. Moreover, the expressions of caspase-3, -8, -9 and the release of cytochrome c were all increased in the apoptotic cells, and the activity of NF-κB as well as the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38 decreased accompanying with the reduction of the serum H(2)S level. H(2)S plays a pivotal role in the regulation of pancreatic acinar cell apoptosis in SAP rats. The present results showed that inhibition of H(2)S synthesis provided protection for SAP rats via inducing acinar cell apoptosis. This process acted through both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, and may be regulated by reducing the activity of NF-κB.
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ABSTRACT: The Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway is necessary for a variety of normal cellular processes. However, the distinct mechanisms involved in TGFβ receptor turnover and the effect on signal transduction have yet to be fully elucidated. We have previously shown that TβRIII is able to interact with the TβRII/TβRI complex to increase clathrin-dependent endocytosis and receptor half-life. Others have shown that βarrestin2 binds TβRIII to mediate TβRII/TβRIII endocytosis. To further understand the mechanism regulating TGFβ receptor signaling, we evaluated the role of βarrestin2 in TGFβ receptor signal transduction, half-life and trafficking. We have found that TβRII binds βarrestin2 in the absence of TβRIII. Furthermore, using immunofluorescence microscopy we show that βarrestin2 traffics to the early endosome with TβRII. We investigated the effect of loss of βarrestin2 on TβRII dynamics and found that loss of βarrestin2 increases steady-state levels of TβRII at the cell surface. The interaction of TβRII with βarrestin2 is involved in modulating TGFβ signal transduction, as loss of βarrestin2 increases the phosphorylation of p38 and modestly affects pSmad levels. Using a luciferase assay to assess TGFβ-dependent transcription we show that loss of βarrestin2 decreases Smad-dependent TGFβ-stimulated transcription. Furthermore, loss of βarrestin2 increases p38 signal transduction, which correlated with increased cell death via apoptosis. Overall, our results suggest a role for βarrestin2 in the regulation of Smad-dependent and independent TGFβ pathways.
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ABSTRACT: The discovery that, in addition to mediating G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) desensitization and endocytosis, arrestins bind to diverse catalytically active nonreceptor proteins and act as ligand-regulated signaling scaffolds led to a paradigm shift in the study of GPCR signal transduction. Research over the past decade has solidified the concept that arrestins confer novel GPCR-signaling capacity by recruiting protein and lipid kinase, phosphatase, phosphodiesterase, and ubiquitin ligase activity into receptor-based multiprotein "signalsome" complexes. Signalsomes regulate downstream pathways controlled by Src family nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein kinase B (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase 3, protein phosphatase 2A, nuclear factor-κB, and several others, imposing spatial and temporal control on their function. While many arrestin-bound kinases and phosphatases are involved in the control of cytoskeletal rearrangement, vesicle endocytosis, exocytosis, and cell migration, other signals reach into the nucleus, affecting cell proliferation, apoptosis, and survival. Indeed, the kinase/phosphatase network regulated by arrestins may be fully as diverse as that regulated by heterotrimeric G proteins.
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