Expression and Knockdown Analysis of Glucose Phosphate Isomerase in Chicken Primordial Germ Cells

WCU Biomodulation Major, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
Biology of Reproduction (Impact Factor: 3.32). 06/2012; 87(3):57. DOI: 10.1095/biolreprod.112.101345
Source: PubMed


Glucose is an important monosaccharide required to generate energy in all cells. After entry into cells, glucose is phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate and then transformed into glycogen or metabolized to produce energy. Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) catalyzes the reversible isomerization of glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate. Without GPI activity or fructose-6-phosphate, many steps of glucose metabolism would not occur. The requirement for GPI activity for normal functioning of primordial germ cells (PGCs) needs to be identified. In this study, we first examined the expression of chicken GPI during early embryonic development and germ cell development. GPI expression was strongly and ubiquitously detected in chicken early embryos and embryonic tissues at Embryonic Day 6.5 (E6.5). Continuous GPI expression was detected in PGCs and germ cells of both sexes during gonadal development. Specifically, GPI expression was stronger in male germ cells than in female germ cells during embryonic development and the majority of post-hatching development. Then, we used siRNA-1499 to knock down GPI expression in PGCs. siRNA-1499 caused an 85% knockdown in GPI, and PGC proliferation was also affected 48 h after transfection. We further examined the knockdown effects on 28 genes related to the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and the endogenous glucose level in chicken PGCs. Among genes related to glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, 20 genes showed approximately 3-fold lower expression, 4 showed approximately 10-fold lower, and 2 showed approximately 100-fold lower expression in knockdown PGCs. The endogenous glucose level was significantly reduced in knockdown PGCs. We conclude that the GPI gene is crucial for maintaining glycolysis and supplying energy to developing PGCs.

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Available from: Jae Yong Han, Mar 05, 2014
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    • "Based on Anova analysis of the 11708 common genes between these data and those from a previous analysis of CEF and PGC (Rengaraj et al., 2012), PCA analysis reveals the good agreement found between the CEF and PGC cells from the two analyses and a heat map of the first 1000 most discriminating genes reveals a clear relationship between cES and cBC (Fig. 5b). By incorporating mouse NCBI GEO data sets (see Materials and Methods), Anova analysis of 8759 common genes between the mouse and the chicken data demonstrates that the cES cluster with mES cells rather than with EpiSC (Fig. 5c). "
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    ABSTRACT: Pluripotent Embryonic Stem cell (ESC) lines can be derived from a variety of sources. Mouse lines derived from the early blastocyst and from primordial germ cells (PGCs) can contribute to all somatic lineages and to the germ line, whereas cells from slightly later embryos (EpiSC) no longer contribute to the germ line. In chick, pluripotent ESCs can be obtained from PGCs and from early blastoderms. Established PGC lines and freshly isolated blastodermal cells (cBC) can contribute to both germinal and somatic lineages but established lines from the former (cESC) can only produce somatic cell types. For this reason, cESCs are often considered to be equivalent to mouse EpiSC. To define these cell types more rigorously, we have performed comparative microarray analysis to describe a transcriptomic profile specific for each cell type. This is validated by real time RT-PCR and in situ hybridisation. We find that both cES and cBC cells express classic pluripotency-related genes (including cPOUV/OCT4, NANOG, SOX2/3, KLF2 and SALL4), whereas expression of DAZL, DND1, DDX4 and PIWIL1 defines a molecular signature for germ cells. Surprisingly, contrary to the prevailing view, our results also suggest that cES cells resemble mouse ES cells more closely than mouse EpiSC.
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    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Biology of Reproduction
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    ABSTRACT: Background Genes, RNAs, and proteins play important roles during germline development. However, the functions of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) on germline development remain unclear in avian species. Recent high-throughput techniques have identified several classes of ncRNAs, including micro RNAs (miRNAs), small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). These ncRNAs are functionally important in the genome, however, the identification and annotation of ncRNAs in a genome is challenging. The aim of this study was to identify different types of small ncRNAs particularly piRNAs, and the role of piRNA pathway genes in the protection of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs). Results At first, we performed next-generation sequencing to identify ncRNAs in chicken PGCs, and we performed ab initio predictive analysis to identify putative piRNAs in PGCs. Then, we examined the expression of three repetitive sequence-linked piRNAs and 14 genic-transcript-linked piRNAs along with their linked genes using real-time PCR. All piRNAs and their linked genes were highly expressed in PGCs. Subsequently, we knocked down two known piRNA pathway genes of chicken, PIWI-like protein 1 (CIWI) and 2 (CILI), in PGCs using siRNAs. After knockdown of CIWI and CILI, we examined their effects on the expression of six putative piRNA-linked genes and DNA double-strand breakage in PGCs. The knockdown of CIWI and CILI upregulated chicken repetitive 1 (CR1) element and RAP2B, a member of RAS oncogene family, and increased DNA double-strand breakage in PGCs. Conclusions Our results increase the understanding of PGC-expressed piRNAs and the role of piRNA pathway genes in the protection of germ cells.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · BMC Genomics
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