Intake of Vitamins D and A and Calcium and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: San Francisco Bay Area Population-Based Case-Control Study
Several nutrients identified as potentially cancer protective have been inconsistently associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. Dietary history data, including use of vitamin supplements, were collected using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire administered during in-person interviews with 4,133 participants (2,052 cases, 2,081 controls) in a San Francisco Bay Area population-based case-control study. Data were used to determine the association of intake levels of vitamins D and A and calcium with risk of NHL and NHL subtypes. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed as estimates of relative risk using adjusted unconditional logistic regression. Increasing vitamin D intake from food and supplements was positively associated with NHL risk in men (5th quintile: OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.4, P(trend) = 0.07) and with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in women and men (5th quintile: OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.5, P(trend) = 0.02); that was largely due to the effect in men (P(trend) = 0.03). These results do not support a strong role for vitamin D intake with NHL risk, with the exception of a potential association for DLBCL risk in men. Our results should be interpreted conservatively until further investigation in larger pooled studies can be conducted to better assess the role of vitamin D intake in lymphomagenesis.