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Conservative Shift among Liberals and Conservatives Following 9/11/01

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Political orientation and political attitudes were measured in two independent adult samples. One sample was taken several months before the terrorist attacks on 9/11/01; the other, shortly after. Liberal and conservative participants alike reported more conservative attitudes following 9/11/01 than before. This conservative shift was strongest on two items with the greatest relevance to 9/11/01: George W. Bush and Increasing Military Spending. Marginally significant conservative shifts were observed on two other items (Conservatives, Socialized Medicine), and the direction of change on eight of eight items was in a conservative direction. These results provide support for the motivated social cognition model of conservatism (Jost et al., 2003) over predictions derived from terror management theory (e.g., Greenberg et al., 1992).
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... We based this hypothesis on the motivated social cognition model (Jost, Glaser, et al., 2003) and on previous research demonstrating that certain cues elicit a particular motivation, especially in individuals for whom the baseline level of that motivation is low. For example, Nail and McGregor (2009) demonstrated that threat drove liberals toward social attitudes typically more characteristic of conservatives. The rationale behind this effect was that conservatives feel chronically vulnerable and bothered by epistemic instability. ...
... The rationale behind this effect was that conservatives feel chronically vulnerable and bothered by epistemic instability. In contrast, liberals, who usually do not feel this way, might exhibit similar attitudes when situationally exposed to threats causing vulnerability (Nail & McGregor, 2009). If this is the case, liberals would react to market mindset priming more strongly than conservatives because their baseline thinking about the social environment is detached from transaction-like interpretations, and they would change their moral judgments only if they are induced to think in a market-type manner. ...
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... Özetle, ilk görüş tehdit altında kişilerin kendi politik görüşlerini daha çok savunacaklarını ifade ederken, ikinci görüş ise kişilerin sağ görüşlere doğru bir kayma yaşayacaklarını öne sürmektedir. Birbirleriyle çelişmelerine rağmen, literatürde iki görüşü de destekleyen çalışmalar (Castano ve diğ., 2011;Nail ve McGregor, 2009) bulunması sebebiyle bu konu hakkında bir karışıklık mevcuttur. Buna ek olarak, örneğin kişilere terör olaylarının hatırlatıldığı çalışmalarda kişilerin terör tehdidiyle bağlantı kurulabilecek fikirleri (ulusal güvenlik, göçmenler) sağa doğru bir kayma yaşarken (Nail ve McGregor, 2009; Van de Vyver ve diğ., 2016), diğer konulardaki (eşcinsellerin hakları) fikirleri bir kayma yaşamamaktadır (Lambert ve diğ., 2010) Tüm bu karışıklıkları açıklamak adına Eadeh ve Chang (2020) Soruna Vakıflık Modelini (Issue Ownership Model) önermişlerdir. ...
... Birbirleriyle çelişmelerine rağmen, literatürde iki görüşü de destekleyen çalışmalar (Castano ve diğ., 2011;Nail ve McGregor, 2009) bulunması sebebiyle bu konu hakkında bir karışıklık mevcuttur. Buna ek olarak, örneğin kişilere terör olaylarının hatırlatıldığı çalışmalarda kişilerin terör tehdidiyle bağlantı kurulabilecek fikirleri (ulusal güvenlik, göçmenler) sağa doğru bir kayma yaşarken (Nail ve McGregor, 2009; Van de Vyver ve diğ., 2016), diğer konulardaki (eşcinsellerin hakları) fikirleri bir kayma yaşamamaktadır (Lambert ve diğ., 2010) Tüm bu karışıklıkları açıklamak adına Eadeh ve Chang (2020) Soruna Vakıflık Modelini (Issue Ownership Model) önermişlerdir. Bu modele göre kişiler belirli bazı kişi veya gruplar, bazı tehdit ve problemleri çözmede diğerlerinden daha yetkin algılanabilmektedirler (Budge ve Farlie, 1983). ...
... Further, there may be individual differences in the effects of this increase. Studies have shown that motivational threats most typically cause a specific motivation among people who have relatively lower general levels of that particular motivation [33][34][35]. That is, threat or stress from the environment may make the motivation salient for everyone, although it will have a stronger effect for those with low chronic motivation, thus causing them to become close to those that have high levels of that motivation. ...
... This phenomenon suggests that for individuals who generally lack one kind of motivation (e.g., the need for structure), it is more likely for them to be provoked by a threat (e.g., the COVID-19 pandemic) and the particular motivation of them will increases even more significantly. Similar views have been proposed and supported by previous studies [33][34][35] and the present study supplements the conclusions of this kind of research. At the same time, the results also support the cognitive motivation model of stress. ...
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... Much of the previous research that has examined the relationship between threat and political behavior have focused on intergroup threat. The observed following attitude shift has also mainly been related to political attitudes relating to the threat, such as more restrictive immigration policies, increased military spending following the 9/11 terrorist attacks, but not on other issues related to ideology (Nail & McGregor, 2009). Research that uses other types of threats, such as existential threat, have found mixed effects on political attitudes and behavior (Burke, Martens & Faucher, 2010). ...
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... Echebarria-Echabe and Fernández-Guede (2006) observed that a terrorism event in Madrid in 2004 increased people's prejudice not only against the culprits (Arabs), but also against an unrelated group (Jewish). Likewise, Nail and McGregor (2009) observed a general political shift in the conservative direction following the terrorism events of Sept. 11, 2001 in USA. These observations support the theory that threat causes authoritarianism. ...
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