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Chemical and medicobiological properties of Chaga (review)

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Abstract

Data on the chemical composition and pharmacological activity of chaga (Inonotus obliquus) are reviewed. The possible mechanisms of action and factors responsible for the discrepancy of data available in the literature are discussed. The physical and chemical characteristics of melanin (polyphenolic chromogenic humin-like complex present in chaga) and its role in the regulation of physiological processes are considered.

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... Chaga (Inonotus obliquus) is a parasitic fungus that grows predominantly on birch trees (Betula spp.) and is gaining popularity as a promising natural source of all kinds of physiologically active metabolites. The fungus produces dark sclerotium, which has been used in traditional medicine in Russia and other northern European countries, in form of decoctions ("tea"), for treatment of stomach diseases, intestinal worms, liver and heart ailments, as well as different kinds of cancer [5][6][7]. Recent studies revealed that Chaga has a huge medical potential, showing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antitumor, hypolipemic, hypoglycaemic and antimicrobial activity [5]. The identified active principles of Chaga extracts include polysaccharides, terpenoids and various phenolic structures, including watersoluble polymeric pigments [5,[7][8][9][10]. ...
... Recent studies revealed that Chaga has a huge medical potential, showing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antitumor, hypolipemic, hypoglycaemic and antimicrobial activity [5]. The identified active principles of Chaga extracts include polysaccharides, terpenoids and various phenolic structures, including watersoluble polymeric pigments [5,[7][8][9][10]. Although the use of bioactive extracts of natural origin is a growing area of interest in both developing and developed countries, potential issues with such products may be long-term instability, low bioavailability and short-term effects [11]. ...
... The yield of hot water extraction in the present study was 19.8 wt% (Table 1), although some sources state that water extractable compounds make up to 40 wt% of Chaga sclerotium [7]. Carbohydrates made up the greatest part of the extract, 57 wt%, while proteins accounted for 7 wt% of the extract. ...
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Chaga (Inonotus obliquus) is a parasitic fungus, which has been used in traditional medicine in Russia and other northern European countries in the treatment of cancer, gastrointestinal andliver diseases. It has been a subject of intensive researchrecently, confirming many of its health-beneficial effects. In order to obtain a product that would allow modified and prolonged release of the Chaga’s active metabolites, hot water Chaga extract was immobilized using calcium - alginate. The extract, which was predominantly composed of carbohydrates (57 %), also contained a relatively high amount of antioxidants/phenolic compounds (130 mg gallic acid equivalents per g of dry extract) and exhibited pronounced radical scavenging activity. It showed significant antibacterial activity as well, inhibiting growth of tested bacterial strains at concentrations of 1.25-20 mg/mL. Entrapment efficiency was about 80 %, and the extract-alginate system showed pH-dependant extract release; there was negligible release at pH 1.75 (gastric pH), and the release gradually increased with the increase in pH, reaching ~43 % of immobilized extract at pH 8.5 after 90 min. Such a product could be used as a dietary supplement, adjuvant in therapy of gastrointestinal diseases or as a food additive. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III46010]
... The parasitized site on the trunk would finally develop to be a white heart rot in the appearance of shapeless black mass, and these decays typically last for more than ten years and result in the death of the host . In Northern and Eastern Europe/Asia such as Russia, Poland, Finland, Belarus, and Japan, this wood-destroying fungus has been used as a functional beverage (tea) or folk medicine (decoction, ointment) for the treatment of stomach diseases, intestinal worms, liver/heart ailments, dermatomycoses, joint pains, and different kinds of cancers for centuries Koyama, 2017;Lemieszek et al., 2011;Saar, 1991;Shashkina et al., 2006;Shikov et al., 2014). In North America, the historical use for medicinal purposes (including skin irritation and arthritis) by Alaskan, First Nations and other Indigenous tribes such as Bioactive compounds and bioactive properties of chaga Peng et al. ...
... Interestingly, even though chaga has been clearly defined and classified in nomenclature and taxonomy, the misuse of the original data from the studies of others closely related species rather than the real Inonotus obliquus has frequently happened in some previous reviews (Duru et al., 2019;Zheng et al., 2010). To date, numerous studies have claimed various bioactivities, together with related molecular mechanism of chaga, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-cancer, hypoglycemic, antilipidemic, anti-inflammation, abirritative, immunoregulatory, and cardioprotective effects (Koyama et al., 2008;Patel, 2015;Shashkina et al., 2006;Zhong et al., 2009). Apparently, such a broad spectrum of biological/pharmacological functions implies the complexity of bioactive substances in chaga. ...
... phenolics, 11.63-15% ash, 0.51-8% terpenoids, 0.2-2% melanin, 2.76% lipid, 25-37.56% lignin, 2% cellulose, and 12.5% hemicellulose (Glamočlija et al., 2015;Ju et al., 2010;Kim et al., 2008b;Koyama et al., 2008;Rhee et al., 2008;Shashkina et al., 2006;Si, 2018). Regardless of the actual proportion of various compounds in chaga, the main bioactive components in various chaga extracts are polysaccharides, terpenoids, phenolics/lignin, melanin, peptides/protein, and their covalent complexes; some compounds such as alkaloids have also been reported. ...
Article
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Chaga (Inonotus obliquus) is an edible herbal mushroom extensively distributed in the temperate to frigid regions of the Northern hemisphere, especially the Baltic and Siberian areas. Chaga parasites itself on the trunk of various angiosperms, especially birch tree, for decades and grows to be a shapeless black mass. The medicinal/nutraceutical use of chaga mushroom has been recorded in different ancient cultures of Ainu, Khanty, First Nations, and other Indigenous populations. To date, due to its prevalent use as folk medicine/functional food, a plethora of studies on bioactive compounds and corresponding compositional analysis has been conducted in the past 20 years. In this contribution, various nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, immunomodulatory, antimutagenic activity, anti-virus, analgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-hyperglycemic, and anti-hyperuricemia activities/effects, as well as main bioactive compounds including phenolics, terpenoids, polysaccharides, fatty acids, and alkaloids of chaga mushroom have been thoroughly reviewed, and tabulated using a total 171 original articles. However, only key bioactivities and bioactives are selectively discussed. Besides, the up-to-date toxicity concerns and risk assessment about the misuse of chaga, which limit its acceptance and use as medicinal/nutraceutical products, have also been clarified.
... Extracts from this species are administered in gastro-intestinal tract diseases and complex anti-cancer treatments [2]. The therapeutic activity of the extracts is, to a great degree, provided by the main component-fungal melanin, the content of which is about 50-60% of extractive substances [3]. Fungus melanins consist of pigment parts in which terpenoids, steroids, neutral lipids, phenolic compounds and others, as well as proteins and polysaccharides are localized [4]. ...
... M2 melanin concentration reduction to 10 −13 g/cm 3 (Figure 2) by 24 h of cultivation allowed an increase in the viable cells number by 15.3% in comparison with the control. M3 melanin in concentration of 10 −10 g/cm 3 and M2 melanin concentration of 10 −5 g/cm 3 (Table 6) demonstrated close results, however, for further investigations, M2 melanin was chosen due to simpler production technology, with one stage, which allows energy to be saved [14]. Table 7 shows that the initial potential of the melanin-supplemented medium is more than what the control has, and by 24 h of incubation of B. bifidum 1 it becomes smaller compared to the control. ...
... M2 in concentrations of 10 −13 g/cm 3 and 10 −5 g/cm 3 promotes vital activity of the B. bifidum 1, increasing the viable cell amount by 24 h of cultivation compared to the control by 15.3% and 10.4%, in case of B. animalis subsp. lactis activation by 9.7% and 11.0% in concentrations of 10 −10 g/cm 3 and 10 −5 g/cm 3 . ...
Article
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Extracts and melanins from Inonotus obliquus are widely used in medicine due to their high antioxidant properties. This study is dedicated to define the influence of the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Inonotus obliquus melanins and their bifidogenic effects on Bifidobacterium bifidum 1 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. For this purpose, melanins precipitated from Inonotus obliquus aqueous extracts, obtained by a few methods, and separated melanin fractions by organic solvents were used. For the melanin physicochemical properties analysis spectrophotometry, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering methods were applied. Melanins and their fractions difference in particle size and charge, antioxidant properties, and redox potential were revealed. It was shown that the redox potential, the size of melanin particles and the z-potential had maximum influence on bifidobacteria growth. The greatest activating effect on bifidobacteria was established by using melanin isolated from aqueous microwave extracts in concentrations of 10−13, 10−10, 10−5 g/cm3. The use of this melanin with antioxidant activity 0.67 ± 0.06 mg/g (expressed as ascorbic acid equivalent), and with redox potential −5.51 ± 2.22 mV as a prebiotic allowed the growth of Bifidobacterium bifidum 1 s to increase by 1.4 times in comparison with ascorbic acid by 24 h of cultivation.
... Medicinal mushrooms have an established history of use in traditional oriental therapy and nutritionally functional foods. Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) belonging to the family Hymenochaetaceae of Basidiomycetes, preferably grows on the trunks of mature live birch trees [9]. The extracts of I. obliquus have been used in China, Korea, Japan, Russia, and the Baltics for their favorable effects on lipid metabolism and cardiac function, as well as for anti-bacterial, antiinflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-tumor activities [9]. ...
... Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) belonging to the family Hymenochaetaceae of Basidiomycetes, preferably grows on the trunks of mature live birch trees [9]. The extracts of I. obliquus have been used in China, Korea, Japan, Russia, and the Baltics for their favorable effects on lipid metabolism and cardiac function, as well as for anti-bacterial, antiinflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-tumor activities [9]. I. obliquus extracts were found to inhibit hepatitis C virus [10] and human immunodeficiency virus [11,12] and demonstrated strong anti-oxidant and immunostimulatory activities in vitro [13,14]. ...
... Furthermore, the compounds isolated from I. obliquus extracts were shown to inhibit skin carcinogenesis [20] and tumor growth in Sarcoma-180 cell-bearing mice [21]. However, despite increasing evidence of anticancer activity exhibited by the I. obliquus extract and its individual components [9,22], the underlying mechanisms are still unclear and the effects of I. obliquus on cancer prevention are not understood. ...
Article
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Aims: Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; therefore, effective measures for cancer prevention and treatment are in constant demand. The extracts of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) demonstrate potent anti-tumor activities and have been used to treat cancer in several countries; however, the actual effect and underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of continuous intake of aqueous extract from I. obliquus on tumor suppression. Main methods: Anticancer activity of the I. obliquus extract was examined in mouse models of Lewis lung carcinoma growth and spontaneous metastasis after 3 weeks of continuous extract intake at the dose of 6 mg/kg/day, which corresponded to that ingested daily with Chaga infusion in Japan. Key findings: The extract of I. obliquus caused significant tumor suppressive effects in both models. Thus, in tumor-bearing mice, 60% tumor reduction was observed, while in metastatic mice, the number of nodules decreased by 25% compared to the control group. Moreover, I. obliquus extract-treated mice demonstrated the increase in tumor agglomeration and inhibition of vascularization. Interestingly, I. obliquus intake decreased body weight in middle-aged mice and increased body temperature in response to light-dark switching in mature adult mice. Furthermore, I. obliquus prevented temperature drop in mice after tumor implantation. Significance: Our findings suggest that the I. obliquus extract could be used as a natural remedy for cancer suppression by promoting energy metabolism.
... Las tinturas de chaga elaboradas con vodka fueron preparaciones muy populares en los países del este de Europa desde los siglos XVI y XVII, usadas como remedios contra las úlceras gástricas y duodenales y varios tipos de gastri-tis, así como para curar el cáncer de estómago, de pulmón y de otros órganos (KAHLOS, 1994;SHASHKINA & al., 2006). Según cuenta una antigua leyenda el duque ruso Vladimir Monomakh (siglo XI) se curó un cáncer labial tomando chaga (SHASHKINA & al., 2006). ...
... Las tinturas de chaga elaboradas con vodka fueron preparaciones muy populares en los países del este de Europa desde los siglos XVI y XVII, usadas como remedios contra las úlceras gástricas y duodenales y varios tipos de gastri-tis, así como para curar el cáncer de estómago, de pulmón y de otros órganos (KAHLOS, 1994;SHASHKINA & al., 2006). Según cuenta una antigua leyenda el duque ruso Vladimir Monomakh (siglo XI) se curó un cáncer labial tomando chaga (SHASHKINA & al., 2006). ...
... Hoy en día su uso cómo hongo medicinal sigue siendo frecuente en Rusia, Polonia y Bielorrusia (SHASHKINA & al., 2006). En las regiones donde su consumo en forma de infusión está extendido, las estadísticas disponibles muestran una baja incidencia de cáncer comparado con otras zonas (SHASHKINA & al., 2006). ...
... It is a parasitic white rot fungus. Its sclerotium, the asexual stage, is known as Chaga, and appears as a galllike structure with a very irregular shape (0.5-1.5 m long and 10-15 cm thick) and a cracked and deeply fissured surface on the damaged bark of living trees (Shashkina et al., 2006). It is inedible, and its growth is restricted to cold habitats of 45-50°N, including Finland, Germany and Poland (Song, 2013). ...
... It is inedible, and its growth is restricted to cold habitats of 45-50°N, including Finland, Germany and Poland (Song, 2013). Since the 16th century, Chaga has traditionally been used in Russia, Poland, and most of the Baltic states for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders (e.g., gastritis, ulcers, stomach cancer), cardiovascular diseases, tuberculosis, diabetes, and skin problems (Shashkina et al., 2006). It is drunk as a tea, smoked, or applied topically as "soap water", in which the fungus is put directly into a fire, then stirred into hot water; the resulting black water is then used instead of soap and is believed to have a strong disinfectant property (Saar, 1991). ...
... Notably, in regions where Chaga tea is widely consumed, cancer incidence is lower than in adjacent regions. The drink is especially popular among hunters and foresters, who commonly perceive that it assuages hunger, reduces tiredness, and increases work capacity (Shashkina et al., 2006). Chaga remains very popular in Russia and is described in a monograph of the Russian Pharmacopeia. ...
Article
Background: The application of mushrooms for health purposes has a long tradition and is very common in Asian countries. This trend is also becoming increasingly popular in the western hemisphere. However, mushrooms from European tradition are being treated in a restrained manner despite having significant potential as drugs or as sources of pure bioactive substances. Aim: The present review provides an overview of the most important mushrooms used in European ethnomedical traditions and explores their pharmacological potential and the challenges for the development of new drugs from these sources of natural products. Method: Mushroom species were selected based on information in old herbal books and dispensaries, uninterrupted use and scientific literature in the PubMed database up to June 2019. Results: Traditional experiences and modern studies have demonstrated that medical mushrooms used in European traditions have promising distinct pharmacological potential mediated through defined mechanisms (anti-tumour, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-bacterial). However, the number of modern chemical, biological and pharmacological studies remains relatively small, and some mushroom species have not been studied at all. Unfortunately, no valid clinical studies can be found. Unlike the case with herbal and fungal drugs from traditional Chinese medicine, we are far from comprehensively exploring this potential. Conclusions: Mushrooms from traditional European medicine have the potential to be used in modern medicine. Considerable research, interdisciplinary collaboration, involvement of the pharmaceutical industry, time and money are necessary to explore this potential not only in the form of dietary supplements but also in the form of approved drugs.
... The medicinal fungus Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat (Hymenochaetaceae), commonly known as Chaga, has been used as a folk remedy in Russia and Eastern Europe since the 16th century for a wide variety of human diseases without any intolerable toxic side effects (Shashkina et al., 2006;Wasser and Weis, 1999). Chaga tinctures were among the most popular preparations in the North and Middle Russia, which were used as remedies for the prophylaxis and treatment of gastric disorders and even cancer. ...
... Chaga (in combinations with other herbs) was used for the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers and various gastritis (Kaukin, 2002;Artemova, 2001). Different pharmacological compositions containing Chaga are claimed to produce general immune-potentiating and strengthening, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties and are intended for the prophylaxis and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases (Shashkina et al., 2006). Extracts of I. obliquus inhibited the proliferation of human colon cancer cells (Lee et al., 2009), scavenged free radicals and counteracted oxidative DNA damage in lymphocytes of patients with IBDs (Najafzadeh et al., 2007), and inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators in murine macrophage cell line (Kim et al., 2007;Choi et al., 2010). ...
... Several studies have shown effectiveness of natural products, herbs, and dietary components against inflammatory colitis such as Patrinia (Cho et al., 2010), Mangifera (Má rquez et al., 2010), sterol guggulsterone (Cheon et al., 2006), apple procyanidins (Yoshioka et al., 2008), embelin (Kumar et al., 2011), punicic acid (Bassaganya-Riera et al., 2011, and a combination of dietary fish oil and curcumin (Jia et al., 2011). Chaga mushroom has also been effectively used in several medicinal preparations to treat a variety of inflammatory and digestive system diseases, without any toxicity and side effects Nakajima et al., 2007;Shashkina et al., 2006;Wasser and Weis, 1999). Recently, extracts of Chaga have shown antioxidant activity and anti-proliferative effect on DLD-1 cells (Hu et al., 2009), and on various human cancer cell lines and Sarcoma-180-cell-bearing mice (Chung et al., 2010). ...
... In this study, we found that the Inonotus Obliquus extracts as a potent melanogenesis inhibitors by decreasing the activity of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in the synthetic pathway of melanin. Inonotus Obliquus are commonly known as Chaga mushroom, which used to natural medicine in many other countries such as Japan, China, Russia and Baltics [1]. Inonotus Obliquus extracts have been evaluated as a traditional and natural source of bioactive compounds over many centuries and have recently been used for potential components in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. ...
... There are numerous products from natural source such as foods, fruits, plants that are being exploited in pharmaceutical or cosmetics, and many potential products are yet to be used [8][9][12][13]. Inonotus Obliquus is one of the medicinal mushrooms and also use in traditional oriental therapy and several nutrient functional foods [1,13]. Inonotus Obliquus extracts have been reported to have physiological functions such effects on anticancer, homeostasis, anti-virus and antioxidant actions [2][3]7,[10][11]. ...
Preprint
Melanogenesis is a biosynthetic pathway for producing of the pigment melanin in human skin. Tyrosinase, a key enzyme, catalyzing is the first step in melanogenesis and the downregulation of the tyrosinase enzyme activity is the most reported method for anti-melanogenesis. According to the hyperpigmentation as an important issue in cosmetic industry, there is a big demand for melanogenesis inhibitors. In the present study, we identified the anti-melanogenic effect of Inonotus Obliquus in α-MSH-induced B16F10 mouse melanoma cells as a new inhibitor. Comparing with control and Inonotus Obliquus extracts treated B16F10, we identified melanin contents, tyrosinase activity, tyrosinase mRNA and protein expression, MITF activity using a constructed plasmid. As shown in these results, we demonstrated that Inonotus Obliquus extracts down-regulated melanin synthesis using down-regulating activity and expression of tyrosinase which is key enzyme to produce melanin. In addition, we revealed expression of tyrosinase is regulated by MITF through repressing MITF transcriptional activity. Inonotus Obliquus extracts has potential to repress melanogenesis and decreased of hyperpigmentation and to use as cosmetic ingredient.
... In this study, we identified Inonotus obliquus extract as a potent melanogenesis inhibitor, because it decreases the activity of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in the synthetic pathway of melanin. Inonotus obliquus is commonly known as chaga mushroom, which is used as a natural medicine in many countries, such as Japan, China, Russia, and the Baltic countries [10]. Inonotus obliquus extract has been evaluated as a traditional and natural source of bioactive compounds for many centuries and has recently been used as a potential ingredient in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. ...
... There are numerous products from natural sources, such as foods, fruits, and plants, which are being exploited in pharmaceuticals or cosmetics, and many potential products have yet to be investigated or used [8,9,19]. Inonotus obliquus is a medicinal mushroom and is use in traditional oriental therapy and several nutritious foods [10]. Inonotus obliquus extract has been reported to have physiological functions, such as anticancer, homeostatic, antiviral, and antioxidant effects [11][12][13][14][15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Melanogenesis is a biosynthetic pathway that produces the pigment melanin in human skin. The catalyzation of the key enzyme tyrosinase is the first step in melanogenesis, and the downregulation of tyrosinase enzyme activity is the most reported method for inhibiting melanogenesis. Hyperpigmentation is an important issue in the cosmetic industry, and there is great demand for melanogenesis inhibitors. In the present study, we demonstrated the anti-melanogenic effect of Inonotus obliquus in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and identified it as a new melanogenesis inhibitor. Comparing the B16F10 cells treated with the control and the Inonotus obliquus extract, we identified the melanin contents, mRNA and protein expression of tyrosinase, tyrosinase activity, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) activity using a constructed plasmid. Through these experiments, we confirmed that Inonotus obliquus extract inhibits melanin synthesis by downregulating the activity and expression of tyrosinase. Furthermore, we revealed that tyrosinase expression is regulated by Inonotus obliquus extract via the repression of Mitf transcriptional activity. Thus, in this study, we found that Inonotus obliquus extract has anti-melanogenic effects via the suppression of melanin synthesis. Taken together, we demonstrated that Inonotus obliquus extract is a good potential candidate for use as a natural source for the therapeutic treatment of hyperpigmentation and for applications in whitening cosmetic products.
... The English name "Chaga" is derived from the Siberian word "Czaga." which originated from the Komi Permyak language, spoken by the indigenous people of the Kama River Basin, in the West Uralian region of the country (Shashkina et al., 2006). The fungus was first identified and described by Persoon (1801), who named it Boletus obliquus, then it was later renamed ...
... Previous studies have indicated that Chaga contains various bioactive components with different chemical characteristics and polarities (Duru et al., 2019;Shashkina et al., 2006). Accordingly, extraction of bioactive compounds from Chaga using various solvents leads to separate extracts with different profiles. ...
Article
Inonotus obliquus, commonly known as Chaga, is a fungal pathogen of birch trees, known to synthesize a range of phenolic compounds with remarkable health benefits. These presumed medicinal properties have generated increased interest in Chaga consumption. Prior research has demonstrated the diverse chemical composition of Chaga sourced from a variety of geographical locations. However, to our knowledge, there is currently no available literature regarding the extraction of bioactive compounds from Chaga grown in the United States. Additionally, the effect of the extraction method on the antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties specifically, has yet to be validated. Therefore, the present study was developed to examine the effects of extraction conditions on phenolic compounds in Maine sourced Chaga and correlate these findings to anti-inflammatory benefits. A high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection (HPLC–DAD) method was developed to determine the phenolic acids content in Chaga. The method demonstrated good linearity (0.994-0.999) and precision within (RSD ≤ 3) and between (RSD ≤ 4.2) -day precisions. The procedure also produced good recovery within (≥ 90.1) and between (≥88.5) -day precisions, as well. The majority of phenolic acids were extracted from the base hydrolysis fraction (2794.91 μg/g). The response surface methodology (RSM) was also applied to establish optimum extraction conditions to obtain phenolic-rich extracts. Results indicate that an extraction temperature of 170°C and ethanol concentration of 66% were optimal for recovering phenolic compounds, with a total phenolic content (TPC) value of 39.32 mg GAL/g DW and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of 76.59%. The extractions that produced the highest yields of TPC and DPPH were then assessed for the ability to remediate inflammation using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results showed various Chaga extracts have significant antiinflammatory activity on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The inhibitory effect was evident through a decrease in the production of nitric oxide (NO) and down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-β (IL-1β) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Therefore, findings confirm that Maine harvested Chaga demonstrates anti-inflammatory properties. However, the phenolic yields (total phenolic acids and TPC) and antioxidant activity are highly dependent upon the extraction methodology.
... Chaga must be collected only from living or freshly cut old birch trees. On dry standing and fallen trees, Chaga is destroyed, and the content of active compounds decreases dramatically (Shashkina et al., 2006). ...
... Clinical data indicate that when chaga is administered for extended periods, it has beneficial effects in the treatment of patients with stage III -IV of cancer, irrespective of the tumor location. In most of these patients without pronounced cachexia, a 3-to 4-week administration of chaga led to a decrease and a termination of the pain syndrome, which allowed the administration of narcotic drugs to be stopped (Bulatov et al., 1959;Pyaskovskii, Rikhter, 1961;Shashkina et al., 2006). ...
... Chaga must be collected only from living or freshly cut old birch trees. On dry standing and fallen trees, Chaga is destroyed, and the content of active compounds decreases dramatically (Shashkina et al., 2006). ...
... Clinical data indicate that when chaga is administered for extended periods, it has beneficial effects in the treatment of patients with stage III -IV of cancer, irrespective of the tumor location. In most of these patients without pronounced cachexia, a 3-to 4-week administration of chaga led to a decrease and a termination of the pain syndrome, which allowed the administration of narcotic drugs to be stopped (Bulatov et al., 1959;Pyaskovskii, Rikhter, 1961;Shashkina et al., 2006). ...
Article
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: Due to the location of Russia between West and East, Russian phytotherapy has accumulated and adopted approaches that originated in European and Asian traditional medicine. Phytotherapy is an official and separate branch of medicine in Russia; thus, herbal medicinal preparations are considered official medicaments. The aim of the present review is to summarize and critically appraise data concerning plants used in Russian medicine. This review describes the history of herbal medicine in Russia, the current situation and the pharmacological effects of specific plants in the Russian Pharmacopoeia that are not included in the European Pharmacopoeia. Materials and methods: Based on the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR (11(th) edition), we selected plant species that have not yet been adopted in Western and Central Europe (e.g., selected for inclusion in the European Pharmacopoeia) and systematically searched the scientific literature for data using library catalogs, the online service E-library.ru, and databases such as Medline/Pubmed, Scopus, and the Web of Science regarding species, effectiveness, pharmacological effects, and safety. Results: The Russian Federation follows the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR (11(th) edition), which contains 83 individual plant monographs. Fifty-one of these plants are also found in the European Pharmacopoeia and have been well studied, but 32 plants are found only in the Pharmacopoeia of the USSR. Many articles about these medicinal plants were never translated in English, and much of the information collected by Russian scientists has never been made available to the international community. Such knowledge can be applied in future studies aimed at a safe, evidence-based use of traditional Russian medicinal plants in European and global phytopharmacotherapy as well as for the discovery of novel leads for drug development. Conclusion: The review highlights the therapeutic potential of these Russian phytopharmaceuticals but also highlights cases where concern has been raised about product safety and tolerability, which would aid in supporting their safe use.
... COVID-19 is considered as a life-threatening disease, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [133]. To date, it has been accounted as a global public health emergency and declared as a pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) as there is no specific antiviral treatment available in the modern medicine system [5,19]. ...
... Inonotus obliquus commonly known as Chaga is a parasitic fungus mainly of Birch (Betulaceae) trees with numerous biological properties [132,133]. Commonly used as a folk remedy in Russia and other northern European countries for various disorders affecting the digestive system, it is now widely studied for its numerous potential applications in the medical field. The most used formulations are powder, aqueous extract and hydroalcoholic extract. ...
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... The nitrogen content of different types of chaga is about 0.5%; the obtained data are in supplement (Supplementary material, Appendix 3, Figure C2.). Similar results have also been found by other authors [59]. However, the 21OA sample has a high amount of nitrogen which means that a lot of nitrogen compounds from oats were assimilated during the growth process. ...
... Natural chaga contains about 0.5% nitrogen, 0.03% sulphur and 0.02% phosphorus. This also confirmed by data from the literature [59]. Another source has studied the cultivation of I. obliquus mycelium on rice grains and their quality characteristics. ...
Article
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Chaga (Inonotus obliquus) (Fr.) Pilát is a black perennial fungus that grows on adult birch trunks and has been traditionally used as a health promoting remedy in different countries. The lipophilic compounds of chaga were isolated applying conventional (Soxhlet), intensive (ultrasound assisted, accelerated solvent extraction) and environmentally friendly (supercritical fluid) extraction methods utilizing both polar and non-polar solvents. Soxhlet extraction showed the highest inotodiol yield (231 mg/100 g chaga) using cyclohexane. For authentication of chaga samples, isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and multi-elemental analysis was performed. The extraction yield and profile of lipids, sterols and triterpenoids depend on the chaga origin. The amount of lipids in chaga samples varied in the range from 0.5 to 1.0%. The antimicrobial activity of chaga extracts against pathogenic and opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms was demonstrated. The results showed that extraction using supercritical CO2 delivered yields comparable to those obtained by conventional and intensive extraction techniques. Amount of target compounds (sterols and triterpenoids) obtained using supercritical CO2 extraction could represent the future for sustainable industrial-scale production of biologically active ingredients with antimicrobial activity. Authentication using IRMS allowed to differentiate between natural (fruiting bodies) and cultivated (mycelium) chaga.
... Several studies have reported that I. obliquus does not induce any adverse side effects when used in drugs and food for the prevention and treatment of diabetes. In a previous study, a culture broth of I. obliquus had significant effects on alloxan-induced diabetic mice (16,17). However, it has been previously noted that while its effects on diabetes have been studied extensively in vivo, the number of in vitro studies is insufficient. ...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the cytoprotective effects of polysaccharides isolated from Inonotus obliquus. The polysaccharides were extracted from the fruiting body of I. obliquus (PFIO) and the liquid culture broth of I. obliquus (PLIO). The effects of PFIO and PLIO on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced oxidative damage of RINm5F pancreatic cells were comparatively investigated using an MTT assay, immunofluorescent staining, flow cytometry, and western blot analyses in vitro. The results of the present study demonstrated that treatment with PFIO and PLIO decreased DNA fragmentation and the rate of apoptosis. In addition, pretreatment of cells with PFIO and PLIO prior to H2O2 exposure resulted in increased insulin secretion and scavenging activity for intracellular reactive oxygen species, as compared with treatment with H2O2 alone. The results of the present study suggested that PFIO and PLIO may exert protective effects against H2O2 induced oxidative stress via the regulation of mitogen activated protein kinases, nuclear factorB and apoptotic proteins. Therefore, PFIO and PLIO may have potential merit as a medicinal food for the prevention of diabetes.
... Mushrooms, such as reishi (also known as ling zhi; Ganoderma lucidum, Ganodermataceae), have been used medicinally in Asia for centuries. 3,4 Complementing this rich history of use, numerous scientific studies have been performed on mushroom extracts for their potential health benefits. Many of these studies have been performed using cell culture assays and animal models, 5,6 but there is a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials as well. ...
Article
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Mushrooms, such as reishi (also known as ling zhi; Ganoderma lucidum, Ganodermataceae), have been used medicinally in Asia for centuries.3,4 Complementing this rich history of use, numerous scientific studies have been performed on mushroom extracts for their potential health benefits. Many of these studies have been performed using cell culture assays and animal models,5,6 but there is a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials as well. For example, results from human clinical trials suggest that mushroom preparations may be beneficial as a supportive part of cancer care. Researchers from Japan have found that certain mushroom extracts may help improve the quality of life and five-year survival rates of patients with gastrointestinal cancers undergoing chemotherapy.7,8 The first US National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded phase 1 studies of the anticancer and immune-supportive effects of fungal preparations in patients with breast cancer also have shown positive results.9 Another trial found that women taking a turkey tail (Trametes versicolor, Polyporaceae) preparation after standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy had improved immune status compared with those receiving standard care alone.10 More clinical trials are needed to answer some of the basic questions that arise regarding medicinal mushroom preparations, such as which species are the most effective for a certain condition, the optimal extraction methods to retain as much biological activity as possible, and the appropriate dose and dosage for a wide variety of patients. Still, results from human clinical trials of mushrooms have been promising, and this growing research base has helped ignite interest in fungi-based products in the dietary and food supplement industry in the United States and other countries.
... However, all four crude extracts appeared dark brown in color, indicating presence of substances other than polysaccharides. I. obliquus is known to contain massive amounts of melanin pigments, reported to be the main content in I. obliquus water extracts (Shashkina, Shashkin, & Sergeev, 2006). One study reported a 57 kDa allomelanin pigment isolated from I. obliquus, which could explain why the color remained in the extracts even after dialysis and ethanol precipitation (Kukulyanskaya, Kurchenko, Kurchenko, & Babitskaya, 2002). ...
Article
The aim of this paper was to perform a comprehensive characterization of polysaccharides isolated from the interior (IOI) and exterior (IOE) parts of the fungus Inonotus obliquus. Pre-extraction with DCM and MeOH, followed by water and alkali extraction and ethanol precipitation gave two water extracts and two alkali extracts. Neutral and acidic polysaccharide fractions were obtained after anion-exchange chromatography of the water extracts. The neutral polysaccharides (60–73 kDa) were heterogeneous and branched and consisted of a (1 → 3)-linked β-Glc backbone with (1 → 6)-linked kinks in the chain at approximately every fifth residue, with branches of (1 → 6)-linked β-Glc in addition to substantial amounts of (1 → 6)-linked α-Gal with 3-O-methylation at about every third Gal residue. The acidic polysaccharide fractions (10–31 kDa) showed similar structural motifs as the neutral fractions differing mainly by the presence of (1 → 4)-linked α-GalA and α-GlcA. β-Xyl, α-Man and α-Rha were also present in varying amounts in all fractions. No major structural differences between the IOI and IOE fractions were observed. An alkaline polysaccharide fraction (>450 kDa) was obtained from the IOI alkali extract, and consisted mainly of (1 → 3)- and (1 → 6)-linked β-Glc and (1 → 4)-linked β-Xyl. Several of the fractions showed in vitro immunomodulatory effect by increasing NO production in the murine macrophage and dendritic cell lines J774.A1 and D2SC/1. Most fractions managed to increase NO production only at the highest concentration tested (100 μg/ml), while the neutral fraction IOE-WN activated potent NO production at 10 μg/ml and was considered the most promising immunomodulating fraction in this study.
... First of all to use the Chaga as a food it must verify it safety in the body. Shashkina et al. (2006) had reported that different Chaga preparation such as tea, decoction, tincture, powder and extract had no toxicity in the body, and they had no counter indication for medicinal usage. However there is no report on the food safety of whole Chaga processed to superfine powder when taken orally in a large amount. ...
Article
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Extracts and fractions of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga in Russia) have been known to have various biological activities, including antimutagenic, anticancer, antioxidative, and immunostimulating effects. This study was performed to confirm anticancer effect of 10% superfine Chaga mushroom processed by nano-mill technology on C57BL/6 mice. Chaga particles belonged in the size of 1 was about 40% after nanomill processing according to the volume distribution. As the result of subcutaneous injection of B16BL6 melanoma cells to the mice, the tumor volume (p
... The extracts of I obliquus have been used in China, Korea, Japan, Russia, and the Baltics for their favorable effects on lipid metabolism and cardiac function, as well as for antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor activities. 13 Inonotus obliquus extracts were found to inhibit hepatitis C virus 14 and human immunodeficiency virus 15 and demonstrated strong antioxidant and immunostimulatory activities in vitro. 16,17 At the same time, animal studies revealed that aqueous extracts of I. obliquus exhibited antiinflammatory effects in experimental colitis [18][19][20][21] and promoted lipid metabolism. ...
Article
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Background: Inonotus obliquus, also known as Chaga, is a parasitic fungus growing on birches and used in traditional medicine (especially by Khanty people) to treat various health problems. In this study, we aimed to quantify the 3 metabolites frequently cited in literature, that is, betulin, betulinic acid, and inotodiol in the Chaga recently discovered in forests located in Normandy (France), and to compare their concentrations with Ukrainian and Canadian Chaga. This study also explores the cytotoxicity of the French Chaga against cancer-derived cells and transformed cells. Methods: A quantification method by HPLC-MS-MS (high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) of betulin, betulinic acid, and inotodiol was developed to study the French Chaga and compare the concentration of these metabolites with extracts provided from Chaga growing in Canada and Ukraine. This method was also used to identify and quantify those 3 compounds in other traditional preparations of Chaga (aqueous extract, infusion, and decoction). Among these preparations, the aqueous extract that contains betulin, betulinic acid, and inotodiol was chosen to evaluate and compare its cytotoxic activity toward human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 line) and human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B line). Results: French Chaga contains betulin and betulinic acid at higher levels than in other Chaga, whereas the concentration of inotodiol is greater in the Canadian Chaga. Moreover, the results highlighted a cytotoxic activity of the Chaga's aqueous extract after 48 and 72 hours of exposure with a higher effect on cancer-derived cells A549 than on normal transformed cells BEAS-2B ( P = 0.025 after 48 hours of exposure and P = 0.004 after 72 hours of exposure).
... Taken together, these results showed that H. erinaceus effectively modulates the GM of colitic animals, restoring a microbial composition similar to that of healthy rodents (Ren et al., 2018). Inonotus obliquus commonly known as Chaga is a parasitic fungus mainly of Birch trees (Betulaceae family) with numerous biological properties, and has been commonly used as a folk remedy in Northern European countries for various disorders affecting the digestive system (Shashkina et al., 2006;Balandaykin and Zmitrovich, 2015). The most used formulations are powder, aqueous extract and hydroalcoholic extract, which can be titrated in polysaccharides, beta-glucans, alpha-glucans and polyphenols. ...
Article
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Pharmaceutical interest in the human intestinal microbiota has increased considerably, because of the increasing number of studies linking the human intestinal microbial ecology to an increasing number of non-communicable diseases. Many efforts at modulating the gut microbiota have been made using probiotics, prebiotics and recently postbiotics. However, there are other, still little-explored opportunities from a pharmaceutical point of view, which appear promising to obtain modifications of the microbiota structure and functions. This review summarizes all in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies demonstrating the possibility to positively modulate the intestinal microbiota by using probiotics, prebiotics, postbiotics, essential oils, fungus and officinal plants. For the future, clinical studies investigating the ability to impact the intestinal microbiota especially by using fungus, officinal and aromatic plants or their extracts are required. This knowledge could lead to effective microbiome modulations that might support the pharmacological therapy of most non-communicable diseases in a near future.
... Nowadays, there is a growing interest in natural hepatoprotective agents, including Inonotus obliquus, commonly known as the clinker polypore, or Chaga [6]. Chaga extracts have a wide spectrum of therapeutic applications, as Chaga can be used as an antitoxin, antioxidant, adaptogenic, restorative, immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, and hepatoprotective agent [1,[7][8][9]. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to identify hepatoprotective properties of melanins from aqueous extracts of Inonotus obliquus distinguished by microwave modes used in extraction in both in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro tests were used in studies of the effect of Chaga mushroom melanins on the vitality of cells of a normal human hepatocyte line Chang Liver, as well as their hepatoprotective effect and influence on the cell cycle. The hepatoprotective effect was studied in the context of the influence of the toxicant d-galactosamine, at a concentration of 150 mM. The results show that the melanin of the aqueous extract of Chaga, obtained in the process of microwave-assisted extraction at 180 W, at concentrations of 10⁻⁵ and 10⁻³ g/l, displays a hepatoprotective effect, as it increases the vitality of cells under the toxic influence of d-galactosamine by 2–2.5 times. In vivo tests were used in studies of the hepatoprotective properties of the melanin of the aqueous extract of Chaga obtained in the process of microwave-assisted extraction at 180 W on white male Sprague Dawley rats. The melanin was administered to rats for 14 days at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Toxic damage was inflicted on the liver using carbon tetrachloride on days 5 to 12 of administering the melanin; the liver was studied and the blood biochemical parameters were determined on day 15. It was shown that melanin produces a hepatoprotective effect which is expressed in the minimization of liver injury signs such as steatosis, necrosis, fat accumulation, and normalization of the total and unconjugated bilirubin, total protein, serum cholinesterase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels.
... Innotus obliquus extracts have been used in China, Korea, Japan, Russia, and the Baltic States for their beneficial effects on lipid metabolism and cardiac function, as well as for antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor activity [49]. Common birch species are used in traditional medicine with a very wide geographical distribution. ...
... For all the fungi employed in this study specimen were deposited in the EMPA St. Gallen culture collection library. The selection of basidiomycetes investigated (cf. Figure 5 and Table 2) in this study was based on their reported pharmaceutical properties (Grienke et al. 2014;Wasser 2010;Rowan et al. 2003;Wasser & Weis 1999;Molitoris 2005;Tel-Çayan et al. 2015;Shashkina et al. 2006;Sanodiya et al. 2009;Motwani et al. 2008). Due to the large number of basidiomycetes with reported pharmaceutical activity, the investigations were geographically restricted to forms native to Europe. ...
Thesis
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This thesis demonstrates the pharmaceutical potential of aqueous extracts of European polypores as well as their effects on the inflammatory response and their anti-thrombogenic properties. Furthermore the feasibility of producing an enzyme functionalised antibacterial nanofibrous wound dressing containing active constituents of polypores that participate in the healing process is demonstrated.
... This mushroom also contains flavonoids (e.g., flavonols, flavones, catechols, and anthocyanin), hemicellulose (~12.5%), and cellulose (~2%; Shashkina, Shashkin, & Sergeev, 2006). The chemical evaluation of some of the bioactive constituents of I. obliquus is shown in figure is expected to surge to 629 million by 2045 (IDF, 2017). ...
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The use of mushrooms as functional foods and in the treatment of diseases has a long history. Inonotus obliquus is a mushroom belonging to the Hymenochaetaceae family and has possible anticancer, antiviral, and hypoglycemic properties. Chemical analysis of this mushroom has allowed the identification of various constituents such as melanins, phenolic compounds, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. A plethora of findings have highlighted the potential molecular mechanisms of actions of this mushroom such as its ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species, inhibit the growth of tumors, decrease inflammation and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes, and stimulate the immune system. This review summarizes the relevant findings with reference to the therapeutic potential of this mushroom in countering the progression of cancers, diabetes mellitus, and antiviral activities, while highlighting its possible molecular mechanisms of action. The possible role of this mushroom as a therapeutic agent in addressing the pathogenesis of diabetes and cancer has also been suggested.
... Regarding vitamins, Chaga contains B vitamins such as vitamin B1 (Thiamine), vitamin B2 (Riboflavin), vitamin B3 (Niacin), vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), vitamins A, and vitamin K [15]. Besides the abundance of these vitamins, Chaga also contains significant levels of dietary phenolics which also act as antioxidants [16]. Considering the rich myconutrient composition of Chaga, there is great interest in the food and nutraceutical industries to find suitable food-grade, green extraction techniques that will permit the recovery of high contents of these mycochemicals from Chaga for applications in functional foods, nutraceuticals, and pharmacological formulations or innovations. ...
Article
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Currently, there is increased interest in finding appropriate food-grade green extraction systems capable of extracting these bioactive compounds from dietary mushrooms for applications in various food, pharmacological, or nutraceutical formulations. Herein, we evaluated a modified Swiss water process (SWP) method using alkaline and acidic pH at low and high temperature under pressurized conditions as a suitable green food grade solvent to obtained extracts enriched with myco-nutrients (dietary phenolics, total antioxidants (TAA), vitamins, and minerals) from Chaga. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution accurate mass tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRAMS-MS/MS) was used to assess the phenolic compounds and vitamin levels in the extracts, while inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the mineral contents. Over 20 phenolic compounds were quantitatively evaluated in the extracts and the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) was observed at pH 11.5 at 100 °C. The most abundant phenolic compounds present in Chaga extracts included phenolic acids such as protocatechuic acid 4-glucoside (0.7–1.08 µg/mL), syringic acid (0.62–1.18 µg/mL), and myricetin (0.68–1.3 µg/mL). Vitamins are being reported for the first time in Chaga. Not only, a strong correlation was found for TPC with TAA (r-0.8
... Chaga has been used since the 12th century in Siberia, as an edible medicinal mushroom for the prevention and treatment of cancer, as an antitubercular, to cure digestive disorders, or to prevent cardiac or hepatic illnesses [10]. Its bioactive components exhibit antitumor, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and immunomodulatory effects, as well as antioxidative properties [11]. Regarding the chemical analyses of Chaga, the polyphenols, triterpens, and polysaccharides could be liable for its therapeutic properties [12]. ...
Article
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The health benefits of natural products have long been recognized. Consumption of dietary compounds such as supplements provides an alternative source of natural products to those obtained from the diet. There is a growing concern regarding the possible side effects of using different food supplements simultaneously, since their possible interactions are less known. For the first time, we have tested genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of Biochaga, in combination with dihydroquercetin. No genotoxic effect on whole blood cells was observed within individual treatment of Biochaga (250 μ g/mL, 500 μ g/mL and 1000 μ g/mL) and dihydroquercetin (100 μ g/mL, 250 μ g/mL and 500 μ g/mL), nor in combination. Afterwards, antigenotoxic potency of both supplements against hydrogen peroxide- (H 2 O 2 -) induced DNA damage to whole blood cells (WBC) was assessed, using the comet assay. Biochaga and dihydroquercetin displayed a strong potential to attenuate H 2 O 2 -induced damage on DNA in cells at all tested concentrations, with a statistical significance ( p<0.05 ), whereas Biochaga at the dose of 500 μ g/mL in combination with dihydroquercetin 500 μ g/mL was most prominent. Biochaga in combination with dihydroquercetin is able to protect genomic material from oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in vitro .
... The term is mainly used to describe plant-based natural products such as ginseng that reduce a broad range of stresses [78]. However, it also encompasses extracts from several fungi that have shown benefits in traditional medicine, such as reishi and chaga [79,80]. ...
Article
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Truffles are the fruiting bodies of ascomycete fungi that form underground. Truffles are globally valued, culturally celebrated as aphrodisiacs, and highly sought-after delicacies in the culinary world. For centuries, naturalists have speculated about their mode of formation, and in cultures surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, many species have been prized as a delectable food source. Truffle fruiting bodies form underground and emit a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Truffle volatiles are believed to have evolved to attract animals that disperse their spores. The main VOCs identified from truffles include sulfur compounds, such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS); in addition, 1-octen-3-ol and 2-methyl-1-propanol have been found in most truffle species. Humans use pigs and dogs trained to detect truffle VOCs in order to find these prized subterranean macrofungi. Truffles have pharmacological potential, but until more reliable cultivation methods become available their high price means they are unlikely to see widespread use as medicinals.
... Innotus obliquus extracts have been used in China, Korea, Japan, Russia, and the Baltic States for their beneficial effects on lipid metabolism and cardiac function, as well as for antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor activity [49]. Common birch species are used in traditional medicine with a very wide geographical distribution. ...
... In Russia, especially in western Siberia, this polypore is called chaga. Since the 16th century it has been used as a folk remedy to treat cancer, diseases of the digestive system, and tuberculosis (Shashkina et al., 2006;Zjawiony, 2004). Recent studies claim its anti-AIDS, anti-aging, blood lipid decreasing, blood pressure lowering, and immune-stimulating effects (Zhong et al., 2009). ...
... A recent study showed that a hot water extract of I. obliquus suppressed cellular proliferation of human stomach cancer cells in a timedependent manner (Hwang et al., 2003) and significantly inhibited the growth of mouse sarcoma S180 cells (Chen et al., 2007) and HepG2 cells (Youn et al., 2008). However, it is relatively little knowledge of cancers mechanism of action (Shashkina et al., 2006). Especially, little research has been conducted on the antitumor of the alkaline extraction from I. obliquus. ...
Article
The alkaline soluble polysacchride AIOPA isolated and purified from Inonotus obliquus using gel filtration was subjected to composition analysis and determined for the antitumor and immunomodulatory activitives. Based on the results of high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), gas chromatography (GC) and infra-red (IR) spectrum, AIOPA consisted of rhamnose, xylose, manose, galactose, glucose and galacturonic acid in a molar ratio of 3.09:1.61:2.06:4.45:19.7:1 with a molecular weight of 6.3 kDa. In the present study, it was found that AIOPA remarkably enhanced spleen and thymus index in mice bearing S180 sarcoma, and also stimulated LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation. Immunomodulatory activity assay in vitro indicated AIOPA could significantly enhance cellular lysosomal enzyme activity, nitric oxide (NO) formation and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-) secretion in macrophages. Furthermore, AIOPA dose-dependently stimulated macrophages to produce NO through the up-regulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) activity and the maximal effect occurred at a concentration of 300 ug/ml by AIOPA. These data suggest that the antitumor activity of AIOPA may be associated with its potent immunostimulating effect.
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The tropical region, it is clearly understood that decomposition of wood by polypore fungi is influenced by the distribution of host species; forest types; ecological, environmental and seasonal interactions; decomposition and nutrient cycling; mode of attack and anthropogenic activities. It has been found that the white rot polypore prefer angiosperm wood than gymnosperm wood because the angiosperm lignin is relatively easier to oxidize than gymnosperm lignin and therefore angiosperm trees might be preferred by more white rot polypores. Among the common species in tropics, like, Coriolopsis retropicta, Microporus xanthopus, Fomitopsis palustris, Hexagonia sulcata, Rigidoporus lineatus, etc. exhibited restricted distribution and very narrow host range. Among the Fomitopsis dochmius and F. rhodophaeus were the most widespread in occurrence as well as they exhibited a wide host range. Some species such as Cyclomyces tabacinus, Earliella scabrosa, Ganoderma australe, Microporus affinis, and Rigidoporus microporus were found mainly found on newly fallen trees while other species such as Antrodiella species, Nigroporus vinosus, Postia species, and Tyromyces species were found on well-decomposed trees. Species richness of wood-decaying basidiomycetes was higher in a primary forest plot than in a regenerating forest plot and suggested that a low frequency of tree fall in the regenerating forest reduced the species richness of wood-decaying basidiomycetes. Studies shown that Ganoderma australe has been collected from species in the Leguminosae, Dipterocarpaceae, and Euphorbiaceae, and Phellinus lamaensis has been collected from species in the Dipterocarpaceae and Meliaceae. Amongst all the families, genera of Fabaceae are found to be most susceptible, followed by Rosaceae, Myrtaceae, Cupressaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Ericaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Lauraceae. The families like Meliaceae, Pinaceae, Rubiaceae Arecaceae, Fagaceae and Olecaceae were also reported as the most frequently infected families. Quercus was the most frequent host of Phellinus species. To ensure the well-being of the forests, management of coarse wood debris need to be strengthened. The domestication of useful species and crafting market regimes for the products derived from polypores should be promoted.
Article
Birch chaga Inonotus obliquus is used as a component of many medicines. This is due to the versatile therapeutic effect associated with the content of a large number of biologically active substances of inorganic, organometallic and organic nature, a high content of macro- and microelements both in a free state and in the form of chelate complexes. To establish the qualitative and quantitative elemental composition of birch chaga, highly sensitive physicochemical methods of analysis were used, such as atomic emission spectroscopy (AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The scientific novelty of this study lies in the conduct of a complex physicochemical elemental layer-by-layer analysis of chaga, the analogs of which have not been found in the available literature. The analyzed samples of birch chaga layers contain the following elements: K, Na, Mg, Ca, Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, Mo, Co, Cr, P, Br, Se, V, Al, Ba, Li, Ag, Au, Rb, Cs, As, Sb, B, Sr, Pb, Ni, Ti, Be, Ta, U, Th, Sc; the concentration of elements is highest in the outer layer of the fungus. It is noted that the content of both biogenic elements (K, Co, Mn) and potentially toxic (Ag, Br, Rb) is significantly higher than the corresponding clarkes in bios. Differences in the content of elements correlate with modern biochemical concepts of the composition of chaga, and in most cases also correlate with the values of clarkes in bios. The value of the detected toxicant elements does not exceed the MPC.
Article
Steroids was considered as one of the bioactive components in Inonotus obliquus, while this kind of secondary metabolites are less accumulated in cultured mycelia. In this study, effect of extracts from bark and core of host-related species, birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.), on steroid production of I. obliquus in submerged culture were evaluated. The results showed that all dosages (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) of aqueous extracts and methanol extracts from birch bark and birch core possessed significantly stimulatory effect on steroid production of I. obliquus (P < 0.05). Among the eight extracts, the aqueous extract (0.01 g/L) from birch bark gave the highest steroid production (225.5 ± 8.7 mg/L), which is 97.3% higher than that of the control group. The aqueous extract (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) from birch bark could simultaneously stimulated mycelial growth and steroid content, while the methanol extract from birch bark only elevated the steroid content. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that productions of betulin, ergosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol in I. obliquus simultaneously increased in the presence of aqueous extract and methanol extract from birch bark. The results presented herein indicate that extracts from birch bark could act as an inducer for steroid biosynthesis of I. obliquus.
Article
This study was initiated to investigate the skin whitening activities of methanol extracts from fruiting bodies of I. obliquus. The total polyphenols and flavonoids contents of I. obliquus methanol extracts were 31.85 mg/g and 28.33 mg/g, respectively. The methanol extract of the mushroom treated on B16/F10 melanoma and NIH3T3 cell lines did not show cytotoxic activity. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and chelating activity on ferrous ions of I. obliquus methanol extract were lower than those of positive control, tocopherol and BHT. The tyrosinase and L-DOPA inhibitory activities of the extract were lower than those of positive control, kojic acid and ascorbic acid. The tyrosinase and melanin synthesis inhibitory activities of the melanoma cells treated with the extract were comparable with positive control, arbutin. The experimental results suggested that methanol extract of I. obliquus contained inhibitory activities of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis in the B16/F10 melanoma cells by dose dependent manner. High ultra-violet absorption spectra in the range of 280-350 nm showed that I. obliquus extract could protect skin from UV radiation damage. Therefore, fruiting bodies of I. obliquus can be used for developing skin whitening, anti-UV and skin care agents.
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Based on the literature and own studies, the biology and ecology of the fungus Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát as well as medicinal properties and practical application of its products were discussed.
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i właściwości lecznicze błyskoporka podkorowego Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát. Sylwan 157 (3): 223−233. Based on the literature and own studies, the biology and ecology of the fungus Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát as well as medicinal properties and practical application of its products were discussed. KEY WORDS Inonotus obliquus, clinker fungus, birch canker polypore, sclerotia Biology and medicinal properties of the chaga mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát ABSTRACT Biologia i właściwości lecznicze błyskoporka podkorowego Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát Addresses Andrzej Szczepkowski – e−mail: andrzej_szczepkowski@sggw.pl Jacek Piętka – e−mail: jacek_pietka@sggw.pl Andrzej Grzywacz – e−mail: andrzej_grzywacz@sggw.pl Zakład Mikologii i Fitopatologii Leśnej; SGGW w Warszawie; ul. Nowoursynowska 159; 02−776 Warszawa Wstęp Błyskoporek podkorowy (włóknouszek ukośny) Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát jest jednym z 12 na− drzewnych gatunków grzybów wymienionych w rodzaju Inonotus na krytycznej liście wielko− owocnikowych grzybów podstawkowych Polski [Wojewoda 2003]. Rodzaj ten zaliczany jest do rodziny Hymenochaetaceae (szczeciniakowate), rzędu Hymenochaetales (szczeciniakowe), typu (gro− mady) Basidiomycota (grzyby podstawkowe). W szerokim ujęciu taksonomicznym rodzaj błysko− porek (Inonotus s. l.) reprezentowany jest na świecie przez około 100 gatunków [Wagner, Fischer 2002; Kirk i in. 2008]. Na podstawie badań molekularnych Wagner i Fischer [2001] do rodzaju Inonotus s. s. zaliczyli w Europie tylko 4 gatunki, w tym I. obliquus. Grzyb ten jest jedynym nie− zlichenizowanym gatunkiem objętym w Polsce prawną ochroną częściową [Rozporządzenie… 2004]. Błyskoporek podkorowy znany jest w polskim piśmiennictwie pod różnymi nazwami: włóknouszek ukośny, błyskoporek ukośny, huba ukośna, huba brzozowa, czarna huba brzozowa, (czarny) guz brzozowy, czer, czyr brzozy, czaga, huba skośnorurkowa [Jundziłł 1830; Błoński 1888; Domański 1965; Mowszowicz 1968; Wojewoda 2003]. Podczas badań terenowych odno− towano kilka nazw niespotykanych dotychczas w literaturze mykologicznej, fitopatologicznej czy też leśnej, a stosowanych lokalnie na określenie tego grzyba: czerniak brzozy (Borki, Drygały), czernidło (Srokowo), czyreń (Płaska), czarcie oko (Parczew), a także czanga, prawdopodobnie na skutek przekręcenia znanej nazwy (pochodzenia rosyjskiego) czaga. Celem pracy jest przedstawienie obecnego stanu wiedzy na temat biologii i ekologii błyskoporka oraz prezentacja wyników najnowszych badań substancji biologicznie czynnych
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Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has been used as a folk remedy for several illnesses including gastrointestinal disorders. We recently reported the potent anti-inflammatory effect of chaga extract in experimental colitis. However, its effects on colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the effects of an aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus (IOAE) in vitro in HCT116 and DLD1 cell lines and in vivo for adenoma in APC(Min/+) mice and colitis-associated colon cancer in AOM/DSS-treated mice. Results show that IOAE suppressed the proliferation of both cell lines, and inhibited the growth of intestinal polyps in APC(Min/+) and colon tumors in AOM/DSS-treated mice. IOAE induced mitochondrial intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, autophagy, and S phase cell cycle arrest. IOAE suppressed the expression levels of iNOS and Cox-2 and mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) in the intestine of mice models. IOAE suppressed the nuclear levels of P-catenin and inhibited its downstream targets (cyclin D1 and c-Myc) along with CRC oncogene CDK8. IOAE inhibited the expression of NF-kappa B at cytoplasmic and nuclear levels. Our results demonstrate that IOAE possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties through downregulation of Wnt/beta-catenin and NF-kappa B pathways. Considering recent anticancer approaches involving natural products with minimal side effects, we advocate that Inonotus obliquus could be a beneficial supplement in prevention of colorectal cancer.
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Porous palladium nanoparticles were designed and synthesized to maximize the pharmacological activity of the chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract, which has anticancer and antibacterial activities. In the present study, we synthesized anisotropic porous Pd nanostructures with ultraviolet-visible-near infrared whole wavelength region absorption using chaga extract concentration-dependent reductant-mediated synthesis. The porous Pd nanoparticles exhibited a surface chaga extract-derived anticancer effect, controlled delivery of doxorubicin through electrostatic interaction, and a photothermal conversion effect under 808 nm laser irradiation. The combined application of the three cancer treatment approaches clearly demonstrated the feasibility of synergistic tri-modal therapy. The present platform using Pd, which is a key constituent element of nanocatalysts but is not commonly used in biological applications, suggests numerous applications utilizing Pd nanostructures, as well as the potential development of new cancer therapies.
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The antioxidant crude extracts of Inonotus Obliquus were separated into three subfractions (ethyl acetate fraction, n-butanol fraction and aqueous fraction) by organic solvents of different polarities based on liquids-liquids extracting method. And their antioxidant activities were evaluated by Fe3+ to Fe2+-reducing activity, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging assay, FRAP assay and β-carotene bleaching method. The results indicate that Inonotus Obliquus possesses powerful antioxidant ability. The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction have the strongest antioxidant activity, with high levels of total flavonoids content, total phenol contents, reductive activity, FRAP value and strong DPPH radical scavenging capacity, respectively(p<0.05). These results suggest that the extract of Inonotus Obliquus is a promising natural alternative to synthetic antioxidants as functional food ingredient.
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Based on the literature and own studies, the biology and ecology of the fungus Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pildt as well as medicinal properties and practical application of its products were discussed.
Chapter
Mushroom sclerotia, consisting of compact masses of hardened mycelia, are important for fungal survival during adverse conditions. In many parts of the world, mushroom sclerotia are regarded as an important source of food and medicine, especially to the indigenous communities. The medicinal properties of mushroom sclerotia, such as antitumor, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and other activities, have been studied, providing insights into the nature of the active components and underlying mechanisms of action. The difficulties associated with the time-consuming method of solid-substrate cultivation of sclerotium-forming mushrooms has prompted extensive investigation into the possibility of using mycelia derived from liquid fermentation as a potential substitute for the sclerotia. In many cases, the biological activities of mycelia have seemed to be comparable to those of the sclerotia, although their chemical composition might vary depending on culture conditions. In short, growing scientific evidence suggests that mycelia merit further consideration as a substitute for the sclerotia.
Chapter
Allergies are an increasing problem worldwide, and new strategies for prophylaxis and therapy are urgently needed. Medicinal mushrooms present such an opportunity. Antiallergic activities have been found for Agaricus subrufescens, Armillaria ostoyae, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum and G. tsugae, Inonotus obliquus, Phellinus linteus, Pleurotus ostreatus and P. pulmonarius, Tricholoma populinum, and some further mushroom species. Nevertheless, most effects have been detected only in vitro and/or in animal assays, and responsible bioactive compounds have not yet been identified. Besides, only a limited number of mushroom species has been investigated for antiallergic activities until now. The chapter gives an overview about mushrooms with antiallergic activities and describes the challenges for the exploration of the antiallergic potential of mushrooms.
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Breast cancer is amongst the most common cancers causing death of women worldwide. Breast cancer occurrence is more prominent in people with diabetes. A recent trend is management of diabetes and cancer has evolved to be natural remedy including single molecule therapy or combination. In this study, we investigated the effect of inotodiol on breast cancer growth in diabetic conditions. Inotodiol is a lanostane triterpenoid found in natural resources like edible mushroom Inonotus obliquus. We established a rat model of diabetic-breast cancer by treating female Sprague-Dawley rats with streptazotocin (STZ) at 35 mg/kg followed by induction of breast cancer by administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) at 10 mg/kg. Diabetes development in experimental rats was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose levels and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and other biochemical assays were performed. Histological evaluation of pancreas was performed. The proliferation of breast tumor was measured by immunohistochemical staining for PCNA, cleaved-caspase-3 and TUNEL staining for apoptosis, and β-catenin. Results of the study demonstrate that inotodiol lowered the blood glucose levels in SD rats as well as reduced plasma levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein. The tumor proliferation marker PCNA was reduced by inotodiol. It downregulated the expression of β-catenin and its downstream targets (c-Myc and Cyclin D1) followed by apoptosis induction. Conclusively, results suggest that inotodiol regulates blood glucose levels in diabetic rats and then controls proliferation of breast tumor progression by inducing apoptosis via downregulation of β-catenin signaling. It further suggests that inotodiol can be a preventive approach in managing dietary chronic conditions like diabetic-breast cancer.
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Chaga mushrooms, the sclerotium of Inonotus obliquus, have been used in Mongolia as a traditional hair shampoo to maintain healthy hair. Bioassay-guided fractionations of the extract of Chaga mushrooms using a proliferation assay on human follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs) gave five lanostane-type triterpenes (1–5), whose structures were identified by spectroscopic evidence. Among these, lanosterol (1), inotodiol (3), lanost-8,24-diene-3β,21-diol (4), and trametenolic acid (5) demonstrated proproliferative effects on HFDPCs more potent than minoxidil, an anti-alopecia agent, used as the positive control. The lanostane-type triterpenes (1, 3, 4, and 5) appeared to be potential candidates of new agents possibly used for hair-care with a stimulative effect on hair growth.
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Inotodiol is a lanostane triterpenoid found only in Chaga mushroom. In the previous study investigating anti-allergic effects of fractionated Chaga mushroom extracts, we have found evidence that purified inotodiol holds an activity to suppress the mast cell function in vivo. To address the therapeutic relevance of the finding, in this study, we investigated whether inotodiol could also alleviate allergy symptoms observed in a chicken ovalbumin (cOVA)-induced mouse model of food allergy. Like the crude 70% ethanol extract of Chaga mushroom (320 mg/kg), oral administration of inotodiol (20 mg/kg), regardless of whether that was for preventive or treatment purpose, resulted in a significant improvement in allergic symptoms and inflammatory lesions in the small intestine appearing after repeated oral challenge with cOVA. Despite the results that inotodiol (20 mg/kg) and the Chaga mushroom extract (320 mg/kg) took effect to a similar extent, immunological mechanisms underlying those effects were found to be distinct from each other. That is, the results obtained from several in vivo assays, including mast cell-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis, activation/proliferation of adoptively transferred antigen-specific T cells and immunoglobulin (IgG1, IgE, IgA) production by antigen-specific B cells, illustrated that inotodiol selectively inhibited the mast cell function without having any noticeable effect on other immune responses while the crude Chaga mushroom extract indiscriminately suppressed diverse immune responses. The strong anti-allergic activity of inotodiol, along with its remarkable selectivity to mast cell, makes it an excellent therapeutic candidate for food allergy with both high efficacy and outstanding safety.
Chapter
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Medicinal fungi have diverse biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anticancerous, antidiabetic, and antioxidative activities. Mushrooms are known to possess bioactive molecules, i.e., polysaccharides like β-glucans, triterpenoids, and antioxidants. These molecules are known to have therapeutic activities including immunomodulation. Among these medicinal mushrooms, species of Ganoderma like G. lucidum, commonly called as Reishi (traditional Chinese medicine), has shown a potential anticancer activity. Polysaccharides extracted from this mushroom show anticancer activity through immunomodulation. Chaga, Inonotus obliquus, is another mushroom been used as a folk medicine against cancer. Cordyceps is one of the most important health foods of humans, which grows on larvae of moths and converts each larva into a sclerotium, from which the stroma and fruit body grows. Another medicinal mushroom, Phellinus linteus containing Beta D-Glucan and lectin was shown to have immunomodulating effects. Xylaria is commonly known as dead man finger fungus, some of its species producing sesquiterpenes have been used as medicine for treating insomnia and depression. The purpose of this review is to summarize information regarding pharmacologically important compounds from medicinal fungi.
Preprint
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Mushrooms have long rich history in folk medicine, traditional and functional foods due to high content of dietary myco-nutrients. Currently, there is increased interest in finding appropriate food-grade green ex-traction systems capable of extracting these bioactive compounds from dietary mushrooms for applica-tions in various food, pharmacological or nutraceutical formulations. Herein, we evaluated a modified Swiss water process (SWP) method using alkaline and acidic pH at low and high temperature under pressurized conditions as a suitable green food grade solvent to obtained extracts enriched with my-co-nutrients (dietary phenolics, total antioxidants (TAA), vitamins, and minerals) from Chaga. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution accurate mass tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRAMS-MS/MS) was used to assess the phenolic compounds and vitamin levels in the extracts, while inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the mineral con-tents. Over twenty phenolic compounds were quantitatively evaluated in the extracts and the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was observed at pH11.5 at 100°C. The most abundant phenolic compounds present in Chaga extracts included phenolic acids such as protocatechuic acid 4-glucoside (0.7-1.08µg/mL), syringic acid (0.62-1.18µg/mL), and myricetin (0.68-1.3µg/mL). Vitamins are being reported for the first time in Chaga. pH 2.5 at 100°C treatment shows superior effects in extracting the B vitamins whereas pH 2.5 at 60 and 100°C treatments were outstanding for extraction of total fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin E content was the highest for the fat-soluble vitamins in the Chaga extract under acidic pH (2.5) and high temp. (100°C) and ranges between 50 to 175 µg/100g Chaga. Antioxidant minerals ranged from 85.94 µg/g (pH7 at 100°C) to 113.86 µg/g DW (pH2.5 at 100°C). High temperature 100°C and a pH of 2.5 or 9.5. The treatment of pH11.5 at 100°C was the most useful for recovering phenolics and antioxidants from Chaga including several phenolic compounds reported for the first time in Chaga. SWP is being proposed herein for the first time as a novel, green food-grade solvent system for the extraction of myco-nutrients from Chaga and have potential applications as a suitable approach to extract nutrients from other matrices. Chaga extracts enriched with bioactive myconutrients and antioxidants may be suitable for further use or applications in the food and nutraceutical industries.
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Inonotus obliquus is pathogenic fungus on living trees and has been widely used as a traditional medicine for cancer therapy. Although it has been reported that lignocellulose-degrading enzymes are involved in the early stage of host infection, the parasitic life cycle of this fungus has not been fully clarified. In the present study, we investigated the activities of lignin-degrading enzymes from I. obliquus and analyzed the degradation products. Our results revealed that I. obliquus is a pathogenic canker-rot fungus that does not produce lignin peroxidase (LiP), yet is capable of degrading the non-phenolic unit of lignin. The draft genome sequence of this fungus consisted of 21,203 predicted protein coding genes, of which 136 genes were estimated to be related to wood degradation. Furthermore, we found genes encoding putative versatile peroxidase (VP) and dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP), which are considered to be involved in the degradation of the non-phenolic unit of lignin. Thus, we cloned the cDNA encoding putative VP, referred as IO-Px, and characterized its molecular structure. From the above results, we suggested that: 1) IO-Px is a new member of MnP, and 2) the ability of I. obliquus to degrade non-phenolic lignin unit might arise from DyP properties.
Chapter
Clinical interest in the human gut microbiota has increased considerably, because of the increasing number of studies linking the human intestinal microbiota and microbiome to an ever increasing number of non-communicable diseases. Many attempts at modulating the gut microbiota have been made using probiotics and prebiotics. However, there are other avenues that are still little explored from a clinical point of view that appear promising to obtain modifications of the microbial ecology and biological activities connected to the microbiome. This chapter summarizes all in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies demonstrating the possibility to positively modulate the intestinal microbiota by using probiotics, foods (and prebiotics), essential oils, fungus and officinal plants. For the future, clinical studies investigating the ability to modify the intestinal microbiota especially by using foods, officinal and aromatic plants or their extracts are required. More knowledge in this field is likely to be of clinical benefit since modulation of the microbiome might support the therapy of most non-communicable diseases in the future.
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Positive effect of localization and bringing out of 90Sr from organism were gained in the series of experiments on the rats Wistar after using per orum alcohol extract, water suspension and water extract of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga). Everyday orum infusion of Inonotus water extract into the BALB-line mice under conditions of a prolonged (during two months) external total γ-irradiation with power dose 0.025 sGr/min has a positive effect on increase an average life duration, are slow down the development of leycopenia, hold lipid peroxide oxidation in the blood and in critic tissues and the R-proteins in blood serum on the level, close to the intact control; appearance, activity and behavior of the animals were the same.
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Article
Growth medium of Inonotus obliquus exerts antimitotic effect on HeLa cells mostly in M, G1 and G2 phases increasing at the same time catalase activity. This effect was not observed in prokaryotic Nocardia. Significant antimitotic effect of mycelium was not associated with stimulation of catalase activity in HeLa cells.
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The effect of aqueous extract from Inonotus obliquus on the mitotic index and some enzyme activities in human cervical uteri tumour cells HeLa S3 in vitro was evaluated. It was concluded that Inonotus extract inhibited the growth of tumour cells. The fungal extract caused a decrease of the cell protein amount and mitotic index value. Moreover, this extract disturbed metabolism in cells caused decreased activity of LDH, HBDH, MDH, GGT and increasing the activity of catalase.
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The fungus Inonotus obliquus (Pers.) Pil. synthesised high-molecular-weight phenolic pigments that were assigned to melanins according to their physicochemical properties. It was showed that copper ions (0.008%), pyrocatechol (1.0 mM), and tyrosine (20.0 mM) stimulated the melanogenesis. The production of melanin correlated with the synthesis of o- and p-diphenoloxidases. The fungal melanin had strong antioxidant and genoprotective effects.
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Physicochemical properties of pigments isolated from the naturally occurring sterile form of Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pil. known as Chagi and comprising the major constituent of the medicine befungin were compared with those of melanins synthesized by this fungus in the culture in order to develop a new medicine. Elemental and functional group analyses, as well as UV-visible, IR, and EPR spectra, and thermolysis studies revealed structural differences in these pigments and allowed for assignment of the naturally produced melanin to allomelanins, whereas that of cultivated fungus was assigned to eumelanins.
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Three samples of high-molecular-weight humin-like substances were obtained by solid-phase cultivation of Coriolus hirsutus and/or Cerrena maxima on oat straw. The yield of humin-like substances amounted to 1.38-2.26% of the weight of the plant substrate consumed. These substances, produced both by individual and mixed cultures of the basidiomycetes, were shown to be similar in their structure and physicochemical properties. According to the data of IR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, the substances contained aromatic fragments and were close to soil humic acids. Studies of the dynamics of laccase production suggested that the humin-like substances were produced bia direct degradation of lignin macromolecules with direct involvement of extracellular laccase.
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This review describes biologically active natural products isolated from Aphyllophorales, many of which are known as polypores. Polypores are a large group of terrestrial fungi of the phylum Basdiomycota (basidiomycetes), and they along with certain Ascomycota are a major source of pharmacologically active substances. There are about 25 000 species of basidiomycetes, of which about 500 are members of the Aphyllophorales, a polyphyletic group that contains the polypores. Many of these fungi have circumboreal distributions in North America, Europe, and Asia and broad distributions on all inhabited continents and Africa; only a small number of the most common species with the most obvious fruiting bodies (basidiocarps) have been evaluated for biological activity. An estimated 75% of polypore fungi that have been tested show strong antimicrobial activity, and these may constitute a good source for developing new antibiotics. Numerous compounds from these fungi also display antiviral, cytotoxic, and/or antineoplastic activities. Additional important components of this vast arsenal of compounds are polysaccharides derived from the fungal cell walls. These compounds have attracted significant attention in recent years because of their immunomodulatory activities, resulting in antitumor effects. These high molecular weight compounds, often called biological response modifiers (BRM), or immunopotentiators, prevent carcinogenesis, show direct anticancer effects, and prevent tumor metastasis. Some of the protein-bound polysaccharides from polypores and other basidiomycetes have found their way to the market in Japan as anticancer drugs. Finally, numerous compounds with cardiovascular, phytotoxic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, insecticidal, and nematocidal activities, isolated from polypores, are also presented. In fact many of the fungi mentioned in this paper have long been used in herbal medicine, including polypores such as Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Ling Zhi), Laetiporus sulphureus (Chicken-of-the-Woods), Trametes versicolor (Yun Zhi), Grifola umbellata (Zhu Lin), Inonotus obliquus (Chaga), and Wolfiporia cocos (Hoelen).
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