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Diversity of mitochondrial and larval morphology characters in the genus Diplectrona (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) in the eastern United States

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Abstract

Larvae of species in the caddisfly genus Diplectrona (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) are morphologically variable and found in a variety of different lotic habitats across eastern N. America. DNA sequencing of a 658-base pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene revealed 7 haplotype groups within the genus Diplectrona : Four with larvae similar to Diplectrona modesta Banks, two with larvae similar to D. metaqui Ross, and one that is a putative match to D. marianae Reeves. These results provide initial evidence supporting the need for a revision of the genus Diplectrona in N. America, and also possibly for the existence of cryptic diversity within currently recognized Diplectrona species. We discuss these results within the context of the intersection of bioassessment, molecular and morphological taxonomy, and the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2012

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... By matching an inquiry DNA sequence of an immature life stage to that of a morphologically identified adult, a species-level identification for the larva can be supplied [5]. In addition, the association of different life stages can help delimit morphologically vague species boundaries in adults, as was found in Chinese Mexipsyche (Hydropsychidae) species with distinct larval head markings but cryptic adult male genitalia [5], and in the Diplectrona modesta Banks, 1908 complex in North America [15]. ...
... Based on morphological examination and barcode analysis, 15 [8]. Larvae of only 1 of each of these species pairs were collected and examined in this study. ...
... We have made larval associations for 23 of the 32 taxa. While highly diverse, the larvae of this small collection seem to be distinguishable based on a combination of head color patterns and various setal characters (Figures 8,9,10,15,16 and 17). Since there are a large number of limnephilid species in the Churchill area, it must be remembered that the discussion below, and the key at the end of this document, is primarily based on only one or two specimens of each species. ...
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... Barcode data provide corroborative evidence, but cannot stand alone without reciprocal illumination from other genes and/or morphology. A similar example was shown by Harvey and co-workers [49], who found that distinct haplotype clusters precisely matched fixed variation in larval head morphology of the Diplectrona modesta species complex, a widely distributed caddisfly across eastern North America (see their fig. 2). ...
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Although commercial kits are available for automated DNA extraction, 'artisanal' protocols are not. In this study, we present a silica-based method that is sensitive, inexpensive and compliant with automation. The effectiveness of this protocol has now been tested on more than 5000 animal specimens with highly positive results. Ivanova). The present study seeks to overcome these constraints. Our study evaluated the effectiveness of several com- mercial glass fibre filtration (GF) plates, the core functional component in all silica-based DNA extraction kits. We worked only with 96-well plates that appeared structurally compatible with robotic systems. Specifically, we compared the performance of seven GF plates — two manufactured by BioLynx (B1, B2), three by PALL (P1-3) and two by Whatman (W1, W2). The B1 plate (no. F2008) was a 0.7- µ m glass fibre with 0.8 mL well; B2 (no. F2007) was a 1.0- µ m glass fibre with 0.8 mL well; P1 (no. 5051) was a 1.0- µ m glass fibre with 1 mL well; P2 (no. 5053) was a 3.0- µ m glass fibre media/0.2 µ m Bio-Inert membrane with 1 mL well; P3 (no. 5031) was a 1.0- µ m glass fibre media with 350 µ L well; W1 (no. 7505-0003) was a mini prep DNA binding plate with 0.8 mL well and W2 (no. 7700-7801) was a Unifilter plate with glass fibre media with 0.8 mL well. We began by identifying both buffer systems and protocols that enabled the use of these GF plates for manual DNA extraction. We then tested their performance under automation with a Biomek NX liquid-handling station (Beckman-Coulter) equipped with a filtration manifold. To provide a solid test of performance, we compared these results with those from a high performance commercial kit — the NucleoSpin96 (Machery-Nagel), hereafter termed the MN kit (Hajibabaei et al . 2005). Our performance comparisons employed DNA extracted from frozen tissues of six mammal species ( Glaucomys volans , Sorex fumeus , Clethrionomys gapperi , Blarina brevicauda,
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This paper summarizes the history and current status of efforts to implement macroinvertebrate biomonitoring protocols for surface water pollution in China, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, Russia (Far East), and Thailand. Impediments to biomonitoring in some of these countries include: (1) lack of knowledge about macroinvertebrate fauna and their tolerance values, especially during the aquatic, immature stages; (2) the scarcity of research programs and formal training opportunities for biomonitoring offered in universities; (3) the shortage of high-quality microscopes and other necessary equipment; and (4) limited government understanding and support for biomonitoring, few skilled regulatory staff, and the persistence of old and unusable biomonitoring protocols. A recently established regional network, the Aquatic Entomological Society of East Asia (AESEA), and several major recent publications are helping to coordinate and promote science and technology in East Asia.
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A review of various aspects of invertebrate-microbial interactions is presented. Food resources of stream invertebrates are distinguished by particle size (detritus), the presence of chlorophyll (periphyton), and high protein content (macrophytes). Invertebrate functional feeding groups such as shredders, collectors, scrapers, piercers, and predators are discussed. The interactions between temperature and quantity and quality of stream macroinvertebrate food resouces are described. Symbiotic relationships between stream invertebrates and microorganisms are discussed.
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The San-José Scale Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (SJS) is a quarantine pest in Switzerland. Its occurrence is monitored by trapping males on glue traps treated with artificial female sex pheromone that is supposed to be species-specific. However, large numbers of males were caught in locations where, for ecological reasons, this species was not expected to occur, suggesting that the pheromone is attractive for one or several otrter scale species. Because no morphological species determination key is described for males of this genus, it was not possible to test this hypothesis until now. We used randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) to establish a molecular identification key for six European Quadraspidiotus species. Because the glue used on the traps proved to be an excellent preservative, this key enabled us to identify males caught on pheromone traps in the field and to assess the species-specificity of the SJS-pheromone.
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Monitoring water quality with aquatic insects as sentinels requires taxonomic knowledge of adult and immature life stages that is not available in many parts of the world. We used deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) barcoding to expedite identification of larval caddisflies from 20 sites in the headwaters of the Tigris River in northern Iraq by comparing their mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences to a global reference library (the Trichoptera Barcode of Life). We obtained full-length DNA barcodes for 16 COI haplogroups from 11 genera in 9 Trichoptera families. The most haplogroups and genera were recorded from Sulaimani Province. Two distinct COI haplogroups were found for the genus Psychomyia, and 5 haplogroups were found for Hydropsyche. The Hydropsyche COI haplogroups do not form a monophyletic clade with reference to the world fauna, but 4 out of 5 haplogroups are related to other Palearctic species. Three larval Rhyacophila specimens in a single COI haplogroup are closely related to specimens of Rhyacophila nubila Zetterstedt and Rhyacophila dorsalis (Curtis) from Europe, but adults from Iraq are needed to confirm their species identity.
Article
We investigate the genetic structure of European lineages of the polychaete Eumida sanguinea with mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS, and demonstrate the presence of ten cryptic species. Within the E. sanguinea species complex there are six different white pigmentation patterns but only three of these are unique for a single species. No other consistent morphological differences were observed. We give new species names to seven of the lineages from our study, providing examples of combined morphological and molecular diagnoses, apply the available name E. sanguinea to one species, and leave two lineages with single representatives unnamed. We also include new data and a diagnosis for the poorly known E. notata, which also belongs to the E. sanguinea species complex.
Article
Difficulties have arisen in the use of saprobic or indicator organism systems in developing water quality criteria when organisms are not known at the species level. Generic identifications are generally useless, because particular species may vary widely in ecological tolerance. An example is given to indicate how water quality tolerances may be developed for the caddis fly genus Athripsodes. There is a need for investigations to associate immature and adult stages, develop species identification keys, and correlate species occurrence with chemical and physical parameters, particularly in conjunction with preparation of environmental impact statements.
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Interactive Tree Of Life (iTOL) is a web-based tool for the display, manipulation and annotation of phylogenetic trees. Trees can be interactively pruned and re-rooted. Various types of data such as genome sizes or protein domain repertoires can be mapped onto the tree. Export to several bitmap and vector graphics formats is supported. Availability: iTOL is available at http://itol.embl.de Contact: bork{at}embl.de
Caddisfl y (Trichoptera) records for North Carolina Interactive Tree Of Life (iTOL): an online tool for phylogenetic tree display and annotation
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