Maternal Autonomy and Attitudes Towards Gender Norms: Associations with Childhood Immunization in Nigeria
Department of Maternal and Child Health, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB# 8120, Chapel Hill, NC, 27516, USA, .Maternal and Child Health Journal (Impact Factor: 2.24). 06/2012; 17(5). DOI: 10.1007/s10995-012-1060-5
Globally 2.5 million children under-five die from vaccine preventable diseases, and in Nigeria only 23 % of children ages 12-23 months are fully immunized. The international community is promoting gender equality as a means to improve the health and well-being of women and their children. This paper looks at whether measures of gender equality, autonomy and individual attitudes towards gender norms, are associated with a child being fully immunized in Nigeria. Data from currently married women with a child 12-23 months from the 2008 Nigeria demographic and health survey were used to study the influence of autonomy and gender attitudes on whether or not a child is fully immunized. Multivariate logistic regression was used and several key socioeconomic variables were controlled for including wealth and education, which are considered key inputs into gender equality. Findings indicated that household decision-making and attitudes towards wife beating were significantly associated with a child being fully immunized after controlling for socioeconomic variables. Ethnicity, wealth and education were also significant factors. Programmatic and policy implications indicate the potential for the promotion of gender equality as a means to improve child health. Gender equality can be seen as a means to enable women to access life-saving services for their children.
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ABSTRACT: Despite efforts towards reducing childhood morbidity and mortality, Nigeria ranks among countries with the highest rates of vaccine-preventable diseases including tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, measles, diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus. These efforts include regular rounds of immunization days and routine exercises. The government of Nigeria periodically undertakes National Demographic and Health (NDH) surveys, which tap information on various health indices including vaccination coverage. Limited studies have used the NDHS data to examine the trends in vaccination coverage for the assessment of successes or failures of the immunization efforts. This study used four NDH Surveys datasets between 1990 and 2008, which generated child health information including the proportion that had had any or all basic childhood vaccines. A combined total of 44 071 (weighted) children were involved in the study. The trend and pattern of vaccination over 18 years were examined while selected factors were regressed to obtain predictors of child vaccinations in Nigeria. The most recent survey (2008) reported more complete vaccination apart from 1990, which was said to be inaccurate. In all surveys, children from mothers with higher education, who were delivered in hospitals, lived in urban areas, and whose mothers work outside the home had significantly higher proportions of completed basic vaccination. A lower level of childhood vaccination is observed in the northern parts, while higher rates are observed in the southern parts. More complete vaccination coverage was reported in the 1990 survey, followed by 2008, 1999 and 2003. In addition, children from mothers with higher levels of education, who were delivered in hospitals, who lived in urban areas, and whose mothers work outside the home had significantly higher proportions of completed basic vaccination. Much more work needs to be done if more children are to be covered and thus reduce vaccine-preventable diseases.
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ABSTRACT: In this article we examine whether measures of gender equality, household decision making, and attitudes toward gender-based violence are associated with maternal and child health outcomes in Africa. We pooled Demographic and Health Surveys data from eight African countries and used multilevel logistic regression on two maternal health outcomes (low body mass index and facility delivery) and two child health outcomes (immunization status and treatment for an acute respiratory infection). We found protective associations between the gender equality measures and the outcomes studied, indicating that gender equality is a potential strategy to improve maternal and child health in Africa.
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ABSTRACT: Several publications have been written and reviewed to urge efforts reducing the rate of infant morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Scientific innovations and research for efficient immunization has been able to reduce the spread of poliomyelitis across the world and make this vaccine preventable disease a history. However, immunization coverage and poliomyelitis disease eradication seems to be cost effective and has continued to falter in Nigeria (Nnenna et al, 2013) due to various factors; attitude, culture, beliefs, religions, politics, economy, conspiracies, boycotts and human suspicions. The main objectives of this study are; to identify the potential factors affecting immunization coverage in Nigeria and provide recommendations towards total poliomyelitis eradication. Four electronic databases including Science Direct, Springer Link, Pub-Med and MedLine were used to access over 52 academic journal articles where detailed inclusion and exclusion criteria were adopted to select various studies related to polio immunization within the Nigerian context, but only 18 were found to be related to the topic and met inclusion criteria, using search engines like Freefullpdf, HotBot and Google Scholar. Studies pertaining polio eradication conducted in Nigeria from 2010-1014 were included in this study. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) or community participation in polio immunization had been made priority. The study was carried out from May to September 2014. Further research should explore the factors affecting community participation in polio immunization particularly on parents’ beliefs and attitudes towards poliomyelitis disease as well as design possible plans to engage community leaders achieving total immunization coverage as a whole. © 2014, Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research. All rights reserved.
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