NGAL (Lcn2) monomer is associated with tubulointerstitial damage in chronic kidney disease

Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.
Kidney International (Impact Factor: 8.56). 06/2012; 82(6). DOI: 10.1038/ki.2012.195
Source: PubMed


The type and the extent of tissue damage inform the prognosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but kidney biopsy is not a routine test. Urinary tests that correlate with specific histological findings might serve as surrogates for the kidney biopsy. We used immunoblots and ARCHITECT-NGAL assays to define the immunoreactivity of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in CKD, and we used mass spectroscopy to identify associated proteins. We analyzed kidney biopsies to determine whether specific pathological characteristics associated with the monomeric NGAL species. Advanced CKD urine contained the NGAL monomer as well as novel complexes of NGAL. When these species were separated, we found a significant correlation between the NGAL monomer and glomerular filtration rate (r=-0.53, P<0.001), interstitial fibrosis (mild vs. severe disease; mean 54 vs. 167 μg uNGAL/g Cr, P<0.01), and tubular atrophy (mild vs. severe disease; mean 54 vs. 164 μg uNGAL/g Cr, P<0.01). Monospecific assays of the NGAL monomer demonstrated a correlation with histology that typifies progressive, severe CKD.Kidney International advance online publication, 13 June 2012; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.195.

Download full-text


Available from: Melanie Viltard
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing public health issue. It is therefore potentially highly advantageous to identify patients at risk of accelerated renal progression and death. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is an established urinary biomarker for acute kidney injury, but it is not known whether adding urinary NGAL (uNGAL) measurements to conventional risk factors will improve risk assessment in the setting of chronic disease.Methods This is a prospective observational cohort study of 158 patients with Stage 3 or 4 CKD. The ability of baseline uNGAL to improve prediction of outcome was assessed by multivariate modelling and a number of metrics including net reclassification analysis. A primary composite endpoint of all-cause mortality or progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) at 2 years and a secondary endpoint of ≥5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 1 year were considered.ResultsForty patients (25%) reached the primary composite endpoint, 20 of whom died. Twenty-seven patients (19%) reached the secondary endpoint of a ≥5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) decline in the eGFR. The baseline uNGAL-to-creatinine ratio (uNCR) was associated with the combined endpoint of death or initiation of RRT (HR per 5 µg/mmol increase 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01-1.60, P = 0.036) independent of conventional cardiovascular and renal risk factors, including proteinuria. In separate analysis of these two competing endpoints, however, uNCR only remained associated with increased risk of progression to ESRD requiring RRT. Higher baseline uNCR was also independently predictive of rapid renal decline over 1 year (HR per 5 µg/mmol increase 1.47, 95% CI: 1.06-2.06, P = 0.022). Addition of uNCR to the base model resulted in a significant increase in discrimination for the secondary (C-statistic 0.76-0.85, P = 0.001) but not the primary endpoint (P = 0.276). Reclassification analysis on the other hand, demonstrated an improvement in risk predication of both primary and secondary endpoints by incorporating uNCR into the base model, but only in those with low-level urine protein excretion (<28 mg/mmol), with category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI) scores of 64% (95% CI: 8-70; P = 0.019) and 79% (95% CI: 12-83; P = 0.009), respectively.Conclusion The utilization of uNCR in addition to conventional established cardiovascular and renal risk factors may improve the prediction of disease progression in elderly Caucasian pre-dialysis CKD patients with low-grade proteinuria.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: We evaluated urine NGAL as a marker of acute kidney injury in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy. We sought to identify the preoperative clinical features and surgical factors during partial nephrectomy that are associated with renal injury, as measured by increased urine NGAL vs controls. Materials and methods: Using patients treated with radical nephrectomy or thoracic surgery as controls, we prospectively collected and analyzed urine and serum samples from patients treated with partial or radical nephrectomy, or thoracic surgery between April 2010 and April 2012. Urine was collected preoperatively and at multiple time points postoperatively. Differences in urine NGAL levels were analyzed among the 3 surgical groups using a generalized estimating equation model. The partial nephrectomy group was subdivided based on a preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 60, or 60 ml/minute/1.73 m(2) or greater. Results: Of 162 patients included in final analysis more than 65% had cardiovascular disease. The median estimated glomerular filtration rate was greater than 60 ml/minute/1.73 m(2) in the radical and partial nephrectomy, and thoracic surgery groups (61, 78 and 84.5 ml/minute/1.73 m(2), respectively). Preoperatively, a 10 unit increase in the estimated glomerular filtration rate was associated with a 4 unit decrease in urine NGAL in the partial nephrectomy group. Postoperatively, urine NGAL in the partial nephrectomy group was not higher than in controls and did not correlate with ischemia time. Patients with partial nephrectomy with a preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 ml/minute/1.73 m(2) had higher urine NGAL postoperatively than those with a higher preoperative estimated rate. Conclusions: Urine NGAL does not appear to be a useful marker for detecting renal injury in healthy patients treated with partial nephrectomy. However, patients with poorer preoperative renal function have higher baseline urine levels and appear more susceptible to acute kidney injury, as detected by urine levels and Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria, than those with a normal estimated glomerular filtration rate.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · The Journal of urology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) induces phosphaturia through its effects on renal tubules. Higher levels of FGF23 associate with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and all-cause mortality, but it is unknown whether these associations differ by the degree of phosphaturia. Here, we measured serum FGF23 and 24-hour urine fractional excretion of phosphorus (FePi) in 872 outpatients with stable CVD and a mean estimated GFR of 71 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). During an average 7.5 years of follow-up, there were 337 deaths and 199 CVD events. Urinary FePi significantly modified the association of FGF23 with each outcome (P interaction<0.001 for all-cause mortality and P interaction<0.05 for CVD events). In models adjusted for CVD risk factors, kidney function, and PTH, those patients who had FGF23 above the median (≥42.3 relative units [RU]/ml) but FePi below the median (<15.7%) had the highest risks of both all-cause mortality (HR=1.98, 95% CI=1.42-2.77) and CVD events (HR=1.92, 95% CI=1.25-2.94) compared with those patients who had low concentrations of FGF23 and low FePi. In summary, associations of FGF23 with mortality and CVD events are stronger in persons with lower FePi independent of PTH and kidney function. In such individuals, the renal tubular response to FGF23 may be suboptimal.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Show more