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Relationship between Frequency of Sugary Food and Drink Consumption with Occurrence of Dental Caries among Preschool Children in Titiwangsa, Kuala Lumpur

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Dental caries are attributed to various factors including diet. The present crosssectional study determined the frequency of sugary food and drink consumption and defined its relationship to dental caries among preschool children. A total of 50 preschoolers (aged 5-6 years) in three kindergartens of the Department of Community Development (KEMAS) in Titiwangsa, Kuala Lumpur participated in this study. A set of structured questionnaires was used to assess the frequency of sugary food and drink consumption. Dental check ups were performed by a dentist. The dft index (decayed, filled teeth) was used to describe incidence of caries in subjects. Results showed that 62% of the subjects had dental caries. with the mean dft score being 3.72. The frequency of sugary food consumption by the majority of subjects was 2 times a day, while the frequency of sugary drink consumption was more than 3 times a day. There was no significant relationship between frequency of sugary food and drink consumption with incidence of caries. Subjects with high dft scores were more likely to report dental pain. The prevalence of dental caries in preschoolers in this study was high, indicating a need for effective dental health promotion to improve dental health status of this age group.
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... The calculation of the dft and DMFT index involved the counting of teeth that has been affected with decay (decayed), loose tooth (missing) or teeth filling (filled). Zero dft/DFMT index shows that a person is caries-free whereas higher dft/DFMT signifies the incidence of caries [28, 29] . Subjects were regarded as having dental caries if there is a decay or dental filling even on only one tooth [29, 30] . ...
... The percentage of subjects with dental caries in the present study was lower compared to previous studies. A recent study conducted by Zahara et al. [28] among children aged 5 to 6 years in Kuala Lumpur showed 62% of subjects had caries with dft score of 3.72. In Thailand, 95.4% of 2-12 years old children had dental caries with dmft (decay, missing, filling primary teeth) score of 7.4±4.6 ...
... The present study did not find any significant relationship between the frequency of daily meal and sugary food/ drinks consumption with dental caries occurrence. This result is in line with the earlier study by Zahara et al. [28] which found no statistical significant relationship between frequencies of sugary food and drink consumption with dft score. The insignificant relationship between daily meal and sugary food/drinks consumption with dental caries occurrence can also be explained by the cross-sectional design of the study. ...
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Introduction: The role of diet in the aetiology of dental caries occurrence has been questioned recently. Aim: This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the relationship between dietary habits and dental caries among 105 children aged 2 to 5 years old in Kuala Lumpur. Methodology: Subjects were selected using convenient sampling method. Their body weight and height were measured and their dental check-up was performed by qualified dental nurses. A Structured questionnaire and 3-day food diaries were distributed to their parents/caretakers to obtain socio-demographic data, oral health practice and dietary habits of the subjects. The dft (decayed, filled teeth) score was used to describe dental caries incidence. Results: Caries was found in 36.6% subjects with mean dft score of 1.95±3.59 (range: 0-16). Energy (r=-0.334, p=0.008), carbohydrate (r=-0.353, p=0.005), fat (r=-0.325, p=0.01), protein (r=-0.264, p=0.038), and calcium (r=-0.470, p<0.001) intake were significantly correlated with dft score. The negative association between frequency of milk consumption and dental caries was lost after other confounding factors were considered. Dental caries incidence was associated with age of subjects started brushing their teeth (Adjusted OR=5.46, 95% CI=1.74 - 17.17). There was no relationship between frequency of daily meals (p=0.800) and sugary food/drinks consumption (p=0.489) with dental caries occurrence. Conclusion: Dental caries is prevalent among young children and related with dietary factors and oral health practices. Therefore, healthy dietary habits and oral health practice should be integrated in the oral health promotion targeted to parents/caregivers and young children in order to improve their dental health status.
... [17], według którego słodycze były spożywane przez dzieci średnio 2-3 razy w tygodniu. U autorów innych badań [11,12,16,18,19] także stwierdzono częste spożywanie słodyczy oraz wyrobów cukierniczych przez dzieci w wieku przedszkolnym. W wielu badaniach przedstawiono wpływ nadmiaru słodyczy i produktów dosładzanych na zwiększone ryzyko wystąpienia m.in. ...
... Ryc. 3. Rodzaje napojów podawanych dzieciom przez rodziców (n = 80). Fig. 3 wzrostu masy ciała, zaburzeń lipidowych i próchnicy [2,18,20,21]. Wśród najchętniej podawanych słodyczy rodzice w badaniu własnym wymieniali ciastka i czekoladę. W polskim sposobie żywienia obserwuje się wysoką konsumpcję tego typu produktów, które są bogatym źródłem nasyconych kwasów tłuszczowych. ...
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STRESZCZENIE Wstęp: Nadwaga i otyłość to jedne ze współczesnych problemów zdrowia publicznego, które szczególnie dotyczą dzieci i młodzieży. Do czynników mających wpływ na nadmier-ną masę ciała zalicza się głównie brak aktywności fi zycznej, a także spożywanie produk-tów obfi tujących w węglowodany proste, którymi są: słodycze, owoce, niektóre produkty zbożowe, soki, gazowane i niegazowane napoje oraz wody smakowe. Celem pracy było poznanie źródeł pokarmowych węglowodanów wśród dzieci w wieku 2-6 lat oraz ocena świadomości rodziców na temat zawartości węglowodanów prostych zamieszczonej na opakowaniach produktów spożywczych. Materiał i metody badań: Badanie przeprowadzono w okresie od lutego do maja 2018 r. we wrocławskich żłobkach i przedszkolach wśród 80 rodziców. W celu uzyskania wyni-ków posłużono się walidowanym kwesঞ onariuszem, składającym się z pytań zamkniętych. Obliczeń dokonano za pomocą programu Microso[ Excel 2010 oraz programu Stat So[ Staঞ sঞ ca 13.3. Wyniki: Dosładzanie napojów zadeklarowało ponad 56% rodziców. Najczęściej dosładzano ciepłe napoje miodem. Ponad 44% dzieci słodycze spożywało 1-2 razy w tygodniu. Połowa ankietowanych (40 osób) deklarowała spożywanie warzyw przez dzieci 2-3 razy dziennie. Na zawartość cukru na opakowaniu zawsze zwracało uwagę 47,5% rodziców (38 osób). Wnioski: Niezbędna jest edukacja żywieniowa rodziców i korygowanie ich zachowań kon-sumenckich, szczególnie w zakresie informacji o składnikach odżywczych znajdujących się na opakowaniach produktów spożywczych. Ma to znaczenie w prewencji wielu przewle-kłych chorób niezakaźnych, w tym nadwagi i otyłości. Słowa kluczowe: cukry, dzieci, świadomość, słodycze ABSTRACT Introducঞ on: Main factors contribuঞ ng to an excessive weight include lack of physical acঞ vity and consumpঞ on of food products rich in simple carbohydrates such as: sweets, fruits, some wheat products, juices and so[ drinks. The aim of this study was to explore the dietary sources of carbohydrates in children aged 2-6 and to assess parental awareness of simple carbohydrate content on food product packaging. praca oryginalna/original article
... In Malaysia, the prevalence of dental caries done among children was between 70-90% (Wan Salina et al., 2007;Zahara et al., 2010;Oo et al., 2011;Ruhaya et al., 2012). This has been observed to be increasing in the last couple of years. ...
... This could possibly then explain the relationship with dental caries. However, our study did not prove this, which was similar to other previous study (Zahara et al., 2010). Sugar consumption was not a predictor of dental caries development after conducting the regression analysis. ...
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This study aimed to assess the nutritional status (BMI), oral health behaviour, sugar consumption and the associated factors with dental caries among a group of 7 to 11 years old children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Three hundred and twelve students were recruited from February to July 2013. Information gathered were their socio-demographic characteristics, body mass index, sugar consumption, oral-health behaviour, oral hygiene index and decay-missing-filled teeth (dmft) index. Anthropometry measurements and sugar intake was measured using verified tools. Meanwhile, dmft was examined using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. 53.7% of the children were of the normal body weight with mean sugar consumption of 31.81±4.24 g/day. Prevalence of dental caries was reported at 44.6% (95% CI: 42.2, 53.3) with a mean (SD) dmft of 1.27(1.84). No association was found between dental caries and weight status distribution. Most children tend to brush their teeth 2 times or more in a day (75%), however, they spent lesser time in tooth brushing (5.4%) and do not practice flossing (78%). Regression analysis showed that age (p<0.001), duration of teeth brushing (p=0.023) and the oral hygiene index (p=0.002) were significant predictors of dental caries among this group of children. Present findings suggest that younger children, longer time taken to brush teeth and poorer oral hygiene index were predisposing factors in dental caries, especially for young children. Hence, education on dental health is important to improve oral health behaviour and oral hygiene practices to further reduce dental caries incidences among young children.
... Nutrition, however, has a systemic effect on the integrity of the oral cavity, including teeth, periodontium (supporting structure of the teeth), oral mucosa, and alveolar bone. Alterations in nutrient intake secondary to change in diet intake, absorption, metabolism, or excretion can affect the integrity of the teeth, surrounding tissues, and bone as well as the response to wound healing [28]. Sugars are undoubtedly the most important dietary constituent and the factor studied most often in the development of dental caries. ...
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Original Research Article Dental caries is the most common disease in children and up to eight times more prevalent than asthma ranked the second among all the common diseases in the world. The food habits and some types of food play an important role in induce dental caries. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between, dietary intake, dietary habits, oral hygiene practices and dental caries during childhood. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 150 children that were selected at random from public hospitals in Benghazi, Libya. Data was obtained by using a questionnaire containing information about the number of carious teeth, dietary intake, habits and oral hygiene habits. The relationship between the risk factors and dental caries was modelled using, Statistics Package Social Science (SPSS). There was a significant statistical difference in the average dental caries among children at (P<0.05) according to sugar amount consumption (P=0.02), as well as to tooth brushing per day (P= 0.03). The average dental caries decreased with increase in times of tooth brushing per day. The prevalence of dental caries in children was an average of 3 carious lesions. Socio-demographic factors, dietary and oral hygiene habits were associated with dental caries.
... These may then be used in measuring cariogenic food intake and oral health KAp in the Malaysian population, specifically for parents of preschool and primary school children. previous local studies had used the translated questionnaires that applied to other age groups, namely secondary school children, infants and toddlers (Cheah et al., 2010;Mani et al., 2010;Zahara et al., 2010: Mani et al. 2012Ruhaya et al., 2012). The reliability and validity of these questionnaires were only partially reported. ...
Article
Introduction: Cariogenic food intake and oral health knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of parents are contributing factors that influence the oral health status of children. As there is lack of a validated questionnaire in Bahasa Melayu (the Malay language) to measure the factors, this cross-sectional study was carried out to establish a linguistically valid and reliable cariogenic food frequency questionnaire (M-CFFQ) and oral health KAP questionnaire (M-OHKAPQ) in Bahasa Melayu, for parents of children aged 6-11 years in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Methods: Relevant questionnaires in English were selected and translated to Malay language. This process included forward translation, synthesis, backward translation and consolidation to produce the preliminary drafts of M-CFFQ and M-OHKAPQ. Pretesting was conducted on ten parents of children from a primary school in Kota Bharu by face-to-face interview. The findings were reviewed to produce the final versions of M-CFFQ and M-OHKAPQ. A test-retest reliability study was undertaken involving 49 parents. The participants were asked to answer the final M-CFFQ and M-OHKAPQ versions twice, within a 7-14 days interval. Data collected were entered into IBM SppS version 22 software and analysed using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) test. Results: Semantic, idiomatic, experiential, conceptual as well as content and face validity issues were successfully resolved. Fifteen categories of food/drinks for M-CFFQ and 26 items/questions M-OHKAPQ were produced. The total ICC values achieved for M-CFFQ and M-OHKAPQ were 0.887 and 0.807, respectively. Conclusion: The M-CFFQ and M-OHKAPQ appeared to be linguistically valid and reliable with excellent test-retest reliability (ICC>0.80).
... 2 In Malaysia, for instance, non-communicable disease and obesity have become the major causes of morbidity and mortality 7 while, at the same time, undernutrition 8 remains prevalent among children. Unhealthy dietary patterns such as skipping breakfast, 9 low intake of milk, 10 and high intake of sugary beverages 11 increase the risk of malnutrition among Malaysian children. ...
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A large body of epidemiological data has demonstrated that diet quality follows a sociodemographic gradient. Little is known, however, about food group intake patterns among Malaysian children. This study aimed to assess consumption pattern of 7 food groups, including cereals/grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, fish, meat/poultry, and milk/dairy products, among children 7 to 12 years of age. A total of 1773 children who participated in SEANUTS Malaysia and who completed the Food Frequency Questionnaire were included in this study. A greater proportion of children aged 10 to 12 years have an inadequate intake of cereals/grains, meat/poultry, legumes, and milk/dairy products compared with children 7 to 9 years old. With the exception of meat/poultry, food consumption of Malaysian children did not meet Malaysian Dietary Guidelines recommendations for the other 6 food groups, irrespective of sociodemographic backgrounds. Efforts are needed to promote healthy and balanced dietary habits, particularly for foods that fall short of recommended intake level.
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Background Overweight/obesity remains one of the most important health issues. Not only due to the current health consequences but also because of its long-term effect. One of the most common health problems experienced by an individual with overweight/obesity is dental problem, which can be reflected from dental pain being complained. Objective The objective of the current study was to evaluate the association of overweight/obesity to be the predictor of the occurrence of dental pain. Methods Data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) from five consecutive survey waves (1993, 1997, 2000, 2007 and 2014) that involved more than 30.000 participants and their offsprings that were grouped into three different age categories (0-4.9 years old; 5-19.9 years old; and 20-49.9 years old) were gathered and analyzed for Odds Ratio (OR) and Confidence Interval (CI). Trends of childhood overweight/obesity, the occurrence of dental pain, as well as the likelihood of individuals with childhood overweight/obesity to develop dental pain were analyzed by using STATA Data Analysis and Statistical Software version 13. Results The results of the current study revealed that all age groups exhibited an increase in numbers when it comes to the prevalence of overweight/obesity from the first wave (in 1993) up to the latest wave (in 2014). It was also revealed that those who were in the 0-4.9 years old age group, were those who were more likely to develop dental pain (OR:1.12; 95% CI: 0.84-1.5; p:0.44). Conclusion Despite the wave to wave variation, overweight/obesity has the potential to be associated with future dental problems, with dental pain in particular.
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The term 'added sugars' refers to sugars and syrup added to foods during processing or preparation, and sugars and syrups added at the table. Calls to limit the daily intakes of added sugars and its sources arose from evidence analysed by WHO, the American Heart Association and other organizations. The present review examined the best available evidence regarding levels of added sugar consumption among different age and sex groups in Ma-laysia and sources of added sugars. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys and published studies. Varying results emerged, as nationwide information on intake of sugar and foods with added sugar were obtained at different times and used different assessment methods. Data from the 2003 Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) using food frequency questionnaires suggested that on average, Malaysian adults consumed 30 grams of sweetened condensed milk (equivalent to 16 grams sugar) and 21 grams of table sugar per day, which together are below the WHO recommendation of 50 grams sugar for every 2000 kcal/day to reduce risk of chronic disease. Published studies suggested that, for both adults and the elderly, frequently consumed sweetened foods were beverages (tea or coffee) with sweetened condensed milk and added sugar. More accurate data should be obtained by conducting population-wide studies using biomarkers of sugar intake (e.g. 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose excretion or serum abundance of the stable isotope 13 C) to determine intake levels, and multiple 24 hour recalls to identify major food sources of added sugar.
Article
Objective: Although the relationship between snack food eating and dental caries has been investigated in the United States and European groups, no data exist for Asian snack foods and diets. Our objective was to investigate snack food eating and dental caries in a Malaysian dental student group. Methodology: Frequency of eating was assessed on a basis of 2 weekday and 2 weekend day diaries for non-fasting students and one weekday and one weekend day during Ramadan, and a similar set outside Ramadan for fasting students. The sucrose and carbohydrate composition of between meal snacks and drinks was identified. The total number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth was recorded by two dental examiners. Results: The modal number of total food intakes was 2 or 3 per day on both weekdays and weekends. The number of between-meal snacks and drinks varied between 0 and 5. They were either high sucrose/low carbohydrate or high sucrose/high carbohydrate. DMFS scores were very low in all subjects but increased with between- meal snack intakes, particularly in the high sucrose/low carbohydrate category. Conclusions: Malaysian students had relatively low frequencies of food intakes but there was still an association between frequency of between-meal snacks and caries rates, as in Western countries.
Article
Objective: Although the relationship between snack food eating and dental caries has been investigated in the United States and European groups, no data exist for Asian snack foods and diets. Our objective was to investigate snack food eating and dental caries in a Malaysian dental student group. Methodology: Frequency of eating was assessed on a basis of 2 weekday and 2 weekend day diaries for non-fasting students and one weekday and one weekend day during Ramadan, and a similar set outside Ramadan for fasting students. The sucrose and carbohydrate composition of between meal snacks and drinks was identified. The total number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth was recorded by two dental examiners. Results: The modal number of total food intakes was 2 or 3 per day on both weekdays and weekends. The number of between-meal snacks and drinks varied between 0 and 5. They were either high sucrose/low carbohydrate or high sucrose/high carbohydrate. DMFS scores were very low in all subjects but increased with between-meal snack intakes, particularly in the high sucrose/low carbohydrate category. Conclusions: Malaysian students had relatively low frequencies of food intakes but there was still an association between frequency of between-meal snacks and caries rates, as in Western countries.
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To describe the dental caries status of preschool children in Hong Kong and factors which affect their caries status. 658 preschool children aged 4 to 6 years from six randomly selected kindergartens in Hong Kong were surveyed in December 1997. A questionnaire to investigate possible explanatory variables for caries status was completed by their parents. Dental caries was diagnosed according to the criteria recommended by the World Health Organization (1997). Caries experience as measured by the mean number of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) of the 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children were found to be 0.9, 1.8, and 3.3 respectively. Overall, 61% of the children had a zero dmft score. Children born in Mainland China had a higher mean dmft score (4.6) than those born in Hong Kong (1.4). Statistically significant correlations were found between the children's dental caries status and their oral health practices as well as their socio-economic background. Parents' education level, dental knowledge and attitudes were also associated with the children's dental caries experience. In general, the caries status of Hong Kong Chinese preschool children was similar to that of children in industrialised countries and was better than that of children in the nearby areas. However, special dental programmes should be made available to children from lower socio-economic classes and new immigrants from Mainland China because they are the high risk groups for caries in Hong Kong.
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A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was designed and validated for use in an epidemiological survey measuring coronary heart disease risk factors in British children. The questionnaire asked about the frequency of children's consumption of 35 food items over the previous month and was completed by parents/guardians. Food items represented a range of food groups from which children may eat, with emphasis on foods with a high fat and fibre content. The questionnaire was validated against 14 daily recalls of consumption, using the same food list as the FFQ. The sample consisted of 272 children, aged 5-11 years, The response rate for the FFQ was 92% and for the recall, 82% in the first week and 66% in the second week. The level of agreement between the FFQ and the recall was measured by calculating (McGinnis JM & Nestle M, 1989, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 49, 23-28) the median difference between results from the two methods and (Willett WC (ed.), 1990, Nutritional epidemiology, ch. 15; Oxford University Press) the percentage of children classified by FFQ to within +/- 1 day per week of the recall. Median differences between individual items on the questionnaire and the recall were < or = 0.5 days for 91% of items and equal to 1 day for the remainder. The percentage agreement to within +/- 1 day per week between frequencies reported in the two methods ranged from 99.8% for lamb to 46.8% for low-fibre cereal. Better agreement was found for food items representative of fat intake than those of fibre intake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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To identify food sources of added sweeteners in the US diet. A descriptive study using data from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Each subject provided one 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of added sweeteners was calculated using the USDA Food Guide Pyramid servings database. A national sample of noninstitutionalized persons aged 2 years and older (N = 15,010). Mean intakes of added sweeteners from all food sources and from specific food categories; percentage contribution of added sweeteners to total energy intake; and percentage contribution of each food category to total intake of added sweeteners. All analyses were conducted for the total sample and for 12 age-gender groups. During 1994 to 1996, Americans aged 2 years and older consumed the equivalent of 82 g carbohydrate per day from added sweeteners, which accounted for 16% of total energy intake. In absolute terms, adolescent males consumed the most; as a percentage of energy, male and female adolescents had the highest intakes (averaging 20% of total energy from added sweeteners). The largest source of added sweeteners was regular soft drinks, which accounted for one third of intake. Other sources were table sugars, syrups, and sweets; sweetened grains; regular fruitades/drinks; and milk products. Intakes of added sweeteners exceed levels compatible with meeting current dietary recommendations. Knowing food sources of added sweeteners for the overall population and for specific age-gender groups can help dietitians provide appropriate nutrition education.
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Dental caries is a highly prevalent chronic disease and its consequences cause a lot of pain and suffering. Sugars, particularly sucrose, are the most important dietary aetiological cause of caries. Both the frequency of consumption and total amount of sugars is important in the aetiology of caries. ‘ The evidence establishing sugars as an aetiological factor in dental caries is overwhelming. The foundation of this lies in thenmultiplicity of studies rather than the power of any one .’ ¹ . That statement by the British Nutrition Foundation's Task Force on Oral Health, Diet and Other Factors, sums up the relationship between sugars and caries in Europe. There is no evidence that sugars naturally incorporated in the cellular structure of foods (intrinsic sugars) or lactose in milk or milk products (milk sugars) have adverse effects on health. Foods rich in starch, without the addition of sugars, play a small role in coronal dental caries. The intake of extrinsic sugars beyond four times a day leads to an increase risk of dental caries. The current dose-response relationship between caries and extrinsic sugars suggests that the sugars levels above 60 g/person/day for teenagers and adults increases the rate of caries. For pre-school and young children the intakes should be proportional to those for teenagers; about 30 g/person/day for pre-school children. Fluoride, particularly in toothpastes, is a very important preventive agent against dental caries. Toothbrushing without fluorides has little effect on caries. As additional fluoride to that currently available in toothpaste does not appear to be benefiting the teeth of the majority of people, the main strategy to further reduce the levels of caries, is reducing the frequency of sugars intakes in the diet. Dental erosion rates are considered to be increasing. The aetiology is acids in foodsand drinks and to a much lesser extent from regurgitation.
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This systematic review addresses the question: In the modern age of extensive fluoride exposure, do individuals with a high level of sugar intake experience greater caries severity relative to those with a lower level of intake? The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for English-language papers published between 1980 and 2000 using a search expression developed in conjunction with an experienced librarian. There were 809 papers located in the initial search. A review of titles and abstracts to identify clearly irrelevant papers reduced this number to 134. Two readers each read one half of these papers, and application of predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria reduced this number of papers to sixty-nine. Criteria were established for scoring the quality of each of these papers on evidence tables. The maximum score for each paper was 100; the sixty-nine papers rated scored between 12 and 79. Final judgment of results was limited to those thirty-six papers that scored 55 or higher on the evidence tables and that reported studies carried out in countries where there is moderate-to-extensive fluoride exposure. Results showed that only two papers found a strong relationship between sugar consumption and caries development, sixteen found a moderate relationship, and eighteen found weak-to-no relationship. It was concluded that the relationship between sugar consumption and caries is much weaker in the modern age of fluoride exposure than it used to be. Controlling the consumption of sugar remains a justifiable part of caries prevention, however, if not always the most important aspect.
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To report the dental caries experience of preschool children within the north Brisbane region and to investigate the association between selected social and demographic variables and disease presence. A cross-sectional sample of 2515 children aged four to six years was examined in a preschool setting using decayed, missing, filled teeth/surface (dmft/dmfs) and percentage caries free indices. A self-administered questionnaire obtained information regarding selected social and demographic variables. The data were analysed using the chi-square and one way analysis of variance procedures at the 5 per cent level of significance. Overall, 1668 (66.3 per cent) children were disease free at the examination and mean dmft was 1.4+/-2.77 and dmfs was 2.28+/-6.00. Dental caries occurred more frequently and severely in children from non-Caucasian background (p<0.000), family language other than English (p=0.001) and lower socio-economic status (p<0.000). Significant associations between child ethnicity, language spoken at home, socio-economic status and caries presence have been identified. Epidemiological data can be used for improved public oral health service planning and resource allocation within the region.
Article
To determine prevalence and severity of early childhood caries (ECC) among children in northern Philippines. Further, to describe and determine the impact of child-rearing practices and dental visits on caries status. Cross-sectional survey of 993 children aged 2-6 years. Caries was diagnosed based on WHO recommendations. Additional behavioral information was obtained from 452 children aged 3-6 years. Caries prevalence and mean dmft (+/-SD) by age were as follows: 2 years = 59% (4.2 +/- 5.3); 3 years = 85% (7.4 +/- 5.5); 4 years = 90% (8.8 +/- 5.6); 5 years = 94% (9.8 +/- 5.5); and 6 years = 92% (10.1 +/- 5.5). Caries rates mirrored those of developing countries with untreated lesions dominating all ages. Mixed breast and bottle feeding was the norm. Almost half were weaned at more than 2 years old. Majority had toothbrushing practices, but mostly without parental assistance. Toothbrushing was initiated at an average age of 2 years. Only a small proportion had a dental visit, mostly for emergency reasons. Among 3-4-year-old children, a significant increase in caries levels were noted for those who started brushing at a later age, had frequent snacks, and had a dental visit for emergency reasons. For children aged 5-6 years, those who went for emergency visits also had significantly more caries. Results indicated an urgent need to (i) increase awareness that ECC is a public health problem in these areas, (ii) advocate use of fluoride as a public health measure, and (iii) increase access to preventive dental services for preschool children.
Article
There is little if any evidence that nutrition during the time of tooth formation has any clinically significant effect on caries susceptibility of erupted teeth in man. Caries, erosion and demastication are not nutritional diseases. They are, however, diet-related diseases because erupted teeth are subject to local chemical and mechanical effects of the diet contacting the teeth. Caries is the result of a chronic undermining demineralisation of the teeth by organic acids that are produced by the bacteria of the dental biofilm while fermenting carbohydrates from the human diet. Dental erosion is the result of a chronic localised loss of dental hard tissue etched away from the surface by acids derived from the diet or from gastric reflux. The physicochemical grounds of de- and remineralisation of teeth are explained using detailed diagrams. Initial caries lesions without cavitation of the surface can remineralise (heal) under conditions of low cariogenic diet and good oral hygiene. However, once the surface has broken and cavitation occurred, there is no alternative to restorative dental therapy because remineralisation is no more possible.
Guidelines on Oral Healthcare for
  • Malaysia Kementerian Kesihatan
Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia (Ministry of Health) (2003). Guidelines on Oral Healthcare for Preschool Children: 3-4.