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Abstract

Two experiments investigated whether forming an if-then plan or implementation intention could break the link between mood and risky behaviour. In Expt 1, participants planned how to deal with unpleasant moods. Next, as part of an ostensibly unrelated experiment, participants underwent a disguised mood induction before rating their willingness to perform a series of risky behaviours. Unpleasant mood increased subsequent risk willingness among participants who did not form a plan but did not influence risk willingness among participants who formed an implementation intention. In Expt 2, mood arousal was manipulated and participants then undertook a gambling task. One-half of the sample formed implementation intentions that focused attention on the odds of winning. Greater arousal led to more risky betting among control participants. However, forming an implementation intention promoted good risk awareness and, consequently, shielded participants' task performance from the effects of arousal. Taken together, the findings suggest that people can strategically avoid the detrimental effect of unpleasant mood and arousal on risk by forming implementation intentions directed at controlling either the experience of mood or the risky behaviour.

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... Drivers' mood changes thought stress that has been studied to understand its impacts on driving as a whole [16,[22][23][24][25][26]. The mood that impacts drivers' attention is an important parameter for safe driving [27][28][29][30][31][32][33]. ...
... However, the drivers' mood can vary anytime, and an interesting mood can change through music [24]. Physiological changes bring potential changes to the drivers' mood and behavior through some design rules [25,26]. We have found some factors in our study that are responsible for changing mood. ...
Article
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Driving stress can impact the driving performance that has an impact on the overall driving experiences. It is a vital area to focus on when the traffic scenario is challenging in terms of having traffic congestion, unruly drivers, and a lack of law enforcement. In Bangladesh, these issues are frequent on the roads. That is why we looked at self-reported stress scores of professional drivers, their personality analysis and conducted mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) user studies that provided us a clear indication of driving stress. Then the findings motivated us to design and develop a low-cost real-time stress measurement wearable through human-centered computing, users’ feedback, and experiences. This wearable unit can understand bodily stress from physiological factors using Heart Rate Variability along with road conditions. This technology can help in supporting drivers in increasing self-awareness regarding driving stress, which will have a positive impact on drivers’ wellbeing and overall driving performance.
... Prompting students to regulate their motivation is an effective strategy to foster learning (Daumiller & Dresel, 2019). The format of the implementation intention ignoring or countering a detrimental thoughtwas based on previous studies that successfully used similar plans to promote goal achievement (Achtziger et al., 2008;Palayiwa et al., 2010;Parks-Stamm et al., 2010;Webb et al., 2012). ...
Article
Most psychological interventions have to be administered repeatedly to be effective, but what is the optimal frequency? The answer will depend on how quickly the effects build up and wear off between intervention prompts. We investigated these temporal dynamics in a popular self-regulation intervention: implementation intentions. We combined a novel intervention design with objective high-resolution data of students’ learning success during 40 days of preparation for an exam. Students (n = 223) received intervention prompts on half of the days, alternating between 2 and 3 consecutive days of prompting and no-prompting. These students outperformed a no-prompt control group (n = 116) in the final exam (d = 0.21). However, the beneficial effect of prompting on learning success increased over consecutive days of prompting and decreased when prompting was discontinued. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of self-regulation prompts on learning success are highly volatile and might benefit from regular repetitions.
... The second way that if-then plans could moderate the affect-health behavior relation is by ensuring that performance of the behavior unfolds in the exact manner specified by the plan, and is thus no longer disrupted by unwanted affect. Webb, Sheeran, Totterdell, et al. (2012, Experiment 2) tested this idea using a different mood induction (arousal vs. no arousal) and a different task to index risky decision making. Participants were randomized to a goal intention condition that merely specified that they would try to make good decisions, or to an implementation intention condition that spelled out how to make good decisions (e.g., If I am asked to make a decision, then I will pay close attention to the relevant risks!). ...
Chapter
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The present chapter analyses relations between affect and health behaviors from the perspective of the Action Control Model of Affect Regulation (Webb et al., 2012). We present evidence that forming if-then plans or implementation intentions (Gollwitzer, 1999) can emancipate health actions from unwanted influence by three kinds of affect - experienced affect, anticipated affect, and implicit affect. For each of these kinds of affect, we demonstrate that emancipation can be achieved in two ways - either by directly targeting the affect itself so as to undermine the strength of the affective response, or by targeting the relationship between affect and health behavior so that the translation of affect into action is reduced or blocked. We conclude that the impact of affect on health decisions and actions is not inevitable: Affective influence can be modulated effectively using if-then plans.
... This was followed by the unsolvable anagram (tohcass), and then a third, solvable one (ehous). The unsolvable anagram was selected from one used in a study by Webb et al. (2012), the solvable anagrams were selected from another previous study (Nes, Segerstrom, & Sephton, 2005). For ethical reasons, 15 minutes was set as the maximum time for persistence on the unsolvable anagram. ...
Article
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Background: This investigation focuses on what occurs to individuals' self-regulatory resource during controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation (IAR) which is the process of deliberately influencing the internal feeling states of others. Combining the strength model of self-regulation and the resources conservation model, the investigation tested whether: (1) IAR behaviors are positively related to ego-depletion because goal-directed behaviors demand self-regulatory processes, and (2) the use of affect-improving strategies benefits from a source of resource-recovery because it initiates positive feedback from targets, as proposed from a resource-conservation perspective. Method: To test this, a lab study based on an experimental dual-task paradigm using a sample of pairs of friends in the UK and a longitudinal field study of a sample of healthcare workers in Spain were conducted. Results: The experimental study showed a depleting effect of interpersonal affect-improving IAR on a subsequent self-regulation task. The field study showed that while interpersonal affect-worsening was positively associated with depletion, as indicated by the level of emotional exhaustion, interpersonal affect-improving was only associated with depletion after controlling for the effect of positive feedback from clients. Conclusion: The findings indicate that IAR does have implications for resource depletion, but that social reactions play a role in the outcome.
... It may be important to incorporate elements into diverse interventions that focus on disrupting the tendency to respond reflexively to any intense emotion state. Implementation interventions, in which a person pre-plans specific responses to emotions (Gollwitzer, 1999), can be helpful in reducing impulsive responses to emotion (Webb et al., 2012 ). Our findings suggest that it would be reasonable to test such intervention procedures transdiagnostically. ...
Article
Introduction: This study explored the hypothesis that impulsive reactions to heightened emotion may reflect a transdiagnostic vulnerability to both externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Methods: A sample of undergraduates completed self-report measures of aggression, borderline personality disorder symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and alcohol problems, and a subset completed interviews that assessed suicidality. All participants also completed self-report measures relating to impulsivity. We predicted that emotion-reactive impulsivity, but not other aspects of impulsivity, would be related to the set of psychopathology symptoms. Results: Multiple regression analyses found that emotion-reactive impulsivity was uniquely related to each of the psychopathology scales, whereas non-emotion-relevant impulsivity was uniquely related only to alcohol problems. Conclusion: Discussion focuses on limitations and clinical implications.
... Second, strategies could be implemented to bolster control over thought and behavior during states of intense emotions. These might include enhancing patients' awareness of this possible risk following from emotion states, and also helping patients plan strategies to implement during such states (Linehan, 1993;Webb, Sheeran, Totterdell, Miles, Mansell, & Baker, 2012). ...
Article
Dual-process theories of behaviour have been used to suggest that vulnerability to depression involves elevated reactivity to emotions. This study tests that idea, examining self-reported reactivity. Comparison between persons with at least one lifetime episode of major depressive disorder (lifetime MDD) and those without this diagnosis, controlling for symptoms of alcohol use (a potential externalizing confound) and current symptoms of depression (a potential state-dependent confound). Undergraduates (N = 120) completed a clinical interview to diagnose lifetime MDD and a series of self-reports bearing on diverse aspects of self-control, including reactivity to emotion. Thirty-four people were diagnosed with lifetime MDD; 86 did not meet criteria for MDD. The groups were then compared on three factors underlying the scales assessing self-control. The MDD group had higher scores than controls on the two factors that reflect impulsive reactivity to diverse emotions, including emotions that are positive in valence. These effects were not explained by associations with either externalizing symptoms or current depressive symptoms. Reflexive reactivity to emotions characterizes depression, in addition to some externalizing problems, and it may deserve study as a potential trans-diagnostic feature. Reflexive reactivity to emotions characterizes persons diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Findings suggest desirability of focusing treatment partly on management of reflexive reactions to emotions. Limitation: Measures were self-reports, rather than behavioural responses to emotions.
... Results in this study are consistent with other research supporting the utility of I-I for promoting health behavior completion. 36,49,50 I-I interventions can be quickly implemented in clinical settings, especially those such as community health centers, where staff and systems may be in place for such program initiation. ...
Article
Low-income and racial/ethnic minority populations experience disproportionate colorectal cancer (CRC) burden and poorer survival. Novel behavioral strategies are needed to improve screening rates in these groups. The study aimed to test a theoretically based "implementation intentions" intervention for improving CRC screening among unscreened adults in urban safety-net clinics. Randomized controlled trial. Adults (N=470) aged ≥50 years, due for CRC screening, from urban safety-net clinics were recruited. The intervention (conducted in 2009-2011) was delivered via touchscreen computers that tailored informational messages to decisional stage and screening barriers. The computer then randomized participants to generic health information on diet and exercise (Comparison group) or "implementation intentions" questions and planning (Experimental group) specific to the CRC screening test chosen (fecal immunochemical test or colonoscopy). The primary study outcome was completion of CRC screening at 26 weeks based on test reports (analysis conducted in 2012-2013). The study population had a mean age of 57 years and was 42% non-Hispanic African American, 28% non-Hispanic white, and 27% Hispanic. Those receiving the implementation intentions-based intervention had higher odds (AOR=1.83, 95% CI=1.23, 2.73) of completing CRC screening than the Comparison group. Those with higher self-efficacy for screening (AOR=1.57, 95% CI=1.03, 2.39), history of asthma (AOR=2.20, 95% CI=1.26, 3.84), no history of diabetes (AOR=1.86, 95% CI=1.21, 2.86), and reporting they had never heard that "cutting on cancer" makes it spread (AOR=1.78, 95% CI=1.16, 2.72) were more likely to complete CRC screening. The results of this study suggest that programs incorporating an implementation intentions approach can contribute to successful completion of CRC screening even among very low-income and diverse primary care populations. Future initiatives to reduce CRC incidence and mortality disparities may be able to employ implementation intentions in large-scale efforts to encourage screening and prevention behaviors. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
... 17 Conversely, individuals with induced sadness exhibited risk-seeking tendencies on a probabilistic gambling task, 20 when selecting between jobs, 20 and in response to hypothetical life scenarios. 21 Although there exists other research evidence supporting predictions by the AIM, or risk seeking associated with positive mood and risk aversion associated with negative mood, 22 previous research has overall provided substantial evidence suggesting that the employment of mood-regulatory strategies aiming at maintaining positive mood states is generally associated with lesser tendency to engage in high-risk activities, at least under some conditions. 14 The neurobiological basis of risky decision making Risk taking and the dopamine system Risky decision making entails integration of the magnitudes and probabilities of rewards and punishments in determining the expected value and risk associated with any given response options. ...
Article
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Robin Shao,1,2 Tatia MC Lee1–31Laboratory of Neuropsychology, 2Laboratory of Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, 3The State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong KongAbstract: In this article, we characterize the relationship between natural aging and risky decision making through an integration of cognitive, emotional, and neurobiological theories on the effects of natural aging. Based on the existing evidence, we propose that the positivity emotional bias in elderly adults steers them away from taking high risks and toward more conservative approaches during decision making as part of their positive emotional regulatory strategies. However, aging is also associated with marked declines in cognitive functioning, such as attention and working memory, as well as impaired reinforcement-based associative learning, which arises from anatomical and functional declines in the dopaminergic transmission systems and in distinct brain regions such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. In consequence, elderly adults may deviate from their usual conservative stance and toward more risk-taking tendencies, as observed in a subset of studies, if the demands of the risk-taking task exceed their cognitive and learning capacities. More empirical investigations are needed to determine the key factors that influence elderly individuals' decision making and behavior in risky situations. Research in this field is likely to have important practical implications for the financial and medical decision making of elderly adults, as well as promoting designated help targeting the elderly population in making important life decisions.Keywords: risky decision making, aging, insula, cognition, dopaminergic system
... Moreover, scores on the CBS correlate strongly with depression (Black, Monahan, Schlosser, & Repertinger, 2001) and anxiety (Valence, D'Astous, & Fortier, 1988 items of the AFARS post-task between participants assigned to the arousal arm and those assigned to the non-arousal arm. The adapted AFARS has sufficient internal reliability (Webb et al., 2012), demonstrating acceptable reliability in the present study (α= .724). ...
Thesis
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The results, discussions and conclusions presented herein are identical to those in the printed version. This electronic version of the thesis has been edited solely to ensure conformance with copyright legislation and all excisions are noted in the text. The final, awarded and examined version is available for consultation via the University Library
... Similar patterns of results have been observed across a broad array of health behaviors ranging from cancer screening (e.g., Neter, Stein, Barnett-Griness, Rennert, & Hagoel, 2014) to dietary behavior (Adriaanse et al., 2011) and physical activity (Bélanger-Gravel, Godin, & Amireault, 2013). Moreover, if–then plans are especially effective when people find themselves in circumstances that impair their ability to translate healthy intentions into action (e.g., limitations in self-control, Gawrilow, Gollwitzer, & Oettingen, 2011; feelings of arousal, Webb et al., 2012; or forgetfulness, Chasteen, Park, & Schwarz, 2001). Policy implications. ...
Article
Strategies are needed to ensure that the U.S. Government meets its goals for improving the health of the nation (e.g., Healthy People 2020). To date, progress toward these goals has been undermined by a set of discernible challenges: People lack sufficient motivation, they frequently fail to translate healthy intentions into action, their efforts are undermined by the persistence of prior unhealthy habits, and they have considerable difficulty maintaining new healthy patterns of behavior. Guided by advances in psychological science, we provide innovative, evidence-based policies that address each of these challenges and, if implemented, will enhance people’s ability to create and maintain healthy behavioral practices.
... First, we showed that arousal can be used as a cue that triggers goal-directed behaviour. Previous research has used implementations to regulate arousal (Azbel-Jackson, Butler, Ellis & van Reekum, 2015) or to overcome the effects of arousal (Webb et al., 2012) but did not use arousal as a signal for eliciting desired behaviour. The application of arousal as an eliciting cue in implementation intentions is promising because an increase in affective arousal is often regarded as leading to impulsive responses (Ariely & Loewenstein, 2006;Loewenstein, Weber, Hsee, & Welch, 2001). ...
Article
Previous research has suggested that individuals who repeatedly experience self-regulatory failure in purchasing behaviour have trouble shielding themselves against temptations. Because shopping is often accompanied by increased arousal, we examined whether attending to affective arousal could help people keep their attention focused. Before participants completed a visual distraction task embedded in a shopping context, we (i) instructed them to formulate an implementation intention with affective arousal as the eliciting cue and concentrating on the task as the intention; (ii) instructed them to formulate the goal intention of concentrating on the task without mentioning an eliciting cue; or (iii) gave them no further instructions. During the task, we recorded eye movements to measure the time they looked at the target products. The findings suggest that implementation intentions with affective arousal as an eliciting cue enable consumers who repeatedly perceive self-regulatory failure to focus their attention on their initial shopping goal.
... For example, IIs to control one's mood helped participants to overcome the detrimental effects of negative moods on risky behavioral choices (eg, willingness to drive a car despite knowing that the brakes may suddenly fail; Webb, Sheeran, Totterdell, et al., 2012, Study 1). Moreover, IIs aimed at focusing on the odds of winning in a gambling task reduced the maladaptive effects of being aroused on participants' betting behavior: Participants were more aware of risks and made better decisions in the gambling task (Webb, Sheeran, Totterdell, et al., 2012;Study 2). In addition to self-regulating the effects of negative moods and arousal, IIs have also been observed to diminish the detrimental effects of positive moods on goal pursuit (Bayer et al., 2010;Study 1). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Previous research has identified a variety of ways to mitigate the ego-depletion effect (ie, whereby exerting self-control in a first task impairs performance in a second self-control task). In the present chapter, we discuss if-then planning (ie, forming implementation intentions; IIs) as an easily applicable self-regulation tool that can help individuals and groups to overcome major threats to effective task performance. After a short overview of research on ego depletion, the moderators of the ego-depletion effect, and recent conceptual developments, we review studies that have directly tested II effects on ego depletion. We differentiate between studies investigating whether IIs can prevent individuals from becoming depleted from studies exploring whether IIs can help participants to overcome the negative consequences of being depleted in subsequent self-control tasks. Because the self-regulation threat of being depleted often cooccurs with other self-regulation threats, we then expand our view to determine whether IIs can have beneficial effects not only with regard to self-regulatory resource depletion but also to other major threats to self-regulation: impulse control and cue exposure, emotional and social distress, lapse-activated pattern and abstinence violations, impairments in self-monitoring and self-awareness, the disruptive influence of other people, and alcohol intoxication. We also review research on the regulation of detrimental self-states (eg, being anxious) by IIs, and on new methods to strengthen self-regulation by combining IIs with helpful strategies such as self-affirmation, setting autonomous goals, and mental contrasting. Finally, we discuss all of these findings and their implications for both the original and more recent conceptual explications of the ego-depletion phenomenon as well as for II research, and point to venues for future investigation.
... Visateksčiai straipsniai atmesti dėl: -kokybinių tyrimų metodologijos (n = 3); -tyrimai vertino motyvacijos pokytį taikant įvairias intervencijas (n = 3); -pagrindinis reiškinys kaip motyvuojantis veiksnys, kitas psichologinis konstruktas (n = 10); -nagrinėtas tik rizikingas vairavimo stilius ir kiti su juo susiję veiksniai (n = 8); -moksliniame straipsnyje nepateikiama tyrimo dalyvių ir metodikų aprašymo (n = 1). [36,43]. Dalyje atliktų tyrimų dalyvavo homogeniškos grupės: vieną imtį sudarė jauno amžiaus moterys [12], dvi imtis -jauno ir įvairaus amžiaus vyrai [16,20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kelių eismo saugumas Lietuvoje ir toliau išlieka prioritetine sritimi. Nepaisant mokslinių tyrimų gausos rizikingo vairavimo srityje, iki šiol stokojama informacijos apie tai, kokie konkretūs rizikingo vairavimo motyvai skatina vairuotojus rinktis rizikingą vairavimo stilių įvairiomis eismo sąlygomis. Šios literatūros apžvalgos tikslas buvo išanalizuoti rizikingo vairavimo motyvų ir stiliaus bei neigiamų tokio vairavimo pasekmių empirines studijas įvertinant šių kintamųjų ryšius. Literatūros apžvalga parodė, jog rizikingo vairavimo motyvai gali būti skirstomi į išorinius ir vidinius. Vidiniai rizikingo vairavimo motyvai dar skirstomi į asmeninius, susijusius su emocijomis ir socialinius. Esant išreikštiems išoriniams rizikingo vairavimo motyvams vairuotojai linkę rinktis greito ir pavojingo vairavimo stilių. Dėl to dažniau pažeidžiamos kelių eismo taisyklės (KET), vairuotojai dažniau užfiksuojami policijos pareigūnų, taip pat dėl to vairuotojai dažniau pavojingai lenkia ir susiduria su kita transporto priemone. Vairuotojai, turintys labiau išreikštus vidinius asmeninius, socialinius ir su emocijomis susijusius rizikingo vairavimo motyvus, linkę demonstruoti priešišką vairavimo stilių. Šie vairuotojai dažniau padaro KET pažeidimus ir už tai gauna nuobaudas, dažniau sukelia eismo įvykius ir dažniau užfiksuojami policijos pareigūnų dėl padarytų KET pažeidimų.
... If ongoing research continues to document this impulsivity within depressed samples, this would suggest the value of therapeutic interventions that target these reflexive reactions towards emotions. For instance, implementation interventions, in which individuals develop a specific if-then plan of how to deal with an affective state, can help diminish reflexive behavioral responses to emotion (Gollwitzer 1999;Webb et al. 2012). To support treatment development, it will be helpful for researchers to pursue the nature of the mechanisms driving emotion-relevant impulsivity within depressed individuals and to conduct longitudinal research on the role of emotion-relevant impulsivity as a mediator of poor outcomes. ...
Article
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Previous studies indicate that emotion-relevant impulsivity is related to depression and relatedly, suicidal ideation and behavior. Little is known, however, about underlying mechanisms driving this impulsivity. We hypothesized that participants diagnosed with depression would show difficulties with emotion-related impulsivity and inhibition compared to controls, and that there would be a link between inhibition deficits and emotion-relevant impulsivity. To test these hypotheses, 60 participants diagnosed with lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD; 47 full-remission, 8 current MDD, 5 partial remission) and 100 nondepressed controls completed measures of impulsivity and current depressive symptoms, underwent a negative mood induction, and completed tasks that assessed components of inhibition: the ability to suppress pre-potent responses (antisaccade task) and the ability to resist interference (word-naming task). Although people with a history of MDD did not show cognitive inhibition deficits, they did endorse more emotion-related impulsivity, which in turn related to difficulty suppressing pre-potent responses. Limitations, as well as implications for future research and treatment are discussed.
... Interaction -0.071 -0.142 -0.225 - (1) (1) (7) (0) No interaction 0.019 -0.176 -0.066 0.098 (16) (30) (20) ...
Preprint
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This paper is a meta-analysis of experimental studies dealing with the impact of incidental emotions on risky choices, so as to explain traditional heterogeneity of outcomes in the literature. After devising a standard search strategy and filtering out studies that do not comply with a list of eligibility criteria, we include 24 articles from which 109 observations are drawn at the treatment level. At this point, we code a set of moderator variables representing experimental protocols and adopt Hedges's g as comparable metric of effect size. Subgroup analysis and meta-regressions find causal impact of both sadness and fear on risk aversion, albeit to a small extent, as well as highly contrasting patterns depending on the nature of incentives offered in the experiments. The use of monetary incentives turns out to reduce data variability and affects information processing by making subjects more susceptible to emotions. When studies provide real stakes, our results also show that individualism moderates the relationship between emotions and risk attitude by increasing risk propensity. We discuss possible interpretations of our findings.
... Interestingly, it has also been observed that the mood of the driver can be positively transformed by interventions such as music. Wider research on psychology also demonstrates the potential to manipulate moods through designed interventions e.g., [32,33]. ...
Chapter
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The possibilities of ambient intelligence in the healthcare sector are multifaceted, ranging from supporting physical to mental wellbeing in various ways. Ambient intelligence can play an important role in supporting emotional wellbeing and reducing discomfort. Real-time capability in systems to provide support during discomfort can be useful in scenarios which are traditionally neglected. Absence of concern about wellbeing among commercial vehicle drivers during stressful driving situations may lead to accidents and poor lifestyle. Ambient intelligence can play a role in determining such situations to support the drivers when it is required. The availability of low-cost Internet of Thing (IoT) based components has opened up opportunities in areas where resources are constrained. In the current chapter, the focus is on improving the wellbeing of commercial vehicle drivers in a low-income setting. The chapter focuses on understanding the concepts of discomfort and wellbeing through a detailed qualitative study followed by a possible solution approach to address the ongoing challenges. A low-cost wearable IoT-enabled system along with a long-term analytic support is proposed to improve the wellbeing of drivers using ambient intelligence. The entire system is built up using a connectivity framework. The low-cost IoT device would enable support for discomfort for community who traditionally do not receive such support. Wellbeing of drivers is important for improved driving quality and better traffic management. A system in place to support drivers in real time, named Bap re Bap is presented here in the context of Bangladesh.
... Implementation intentions involve creating specific ''if-then'' plans; ''if'' the participant encountered a high-risk situation, ''then'' they would employ an emotion regulation skill they had learned. Multiple previous studies indicate that implementation intention interventions successfully reduce impulsive behavior and inappropriate expression of emotion (Webb, Schweiger Gallo, Miles, Gollwitzer, & Sheeran, 2012;Webb, Sheeran, Totterdell, Miles, Mansell, & Baker, 2012). Specifically, participants identified a wish (desired change to make in their anger expression; e.g., stop yelling at my mother), and outcome (ideal result of that change, e.g., a peaceful relationship), an obstacle (difficulties in making the desired change, e.g., responding immediately when angry or a sudden heated argument), and a specific plan (e.g., using relaxation rather than discussing conflict when angry). ...
Article
Although aggression is related to manic symptoms among those with bipolar disorder, new work suggests that some continue to experience elevations of aggression after remission. This aggression post-remission appears related to a more general tendency to respond impulsively to states of emotion, labelled emotion-related impulsivity. We recently developed the first intervention designed to address aggression in the context of emotion-related impulsivity. Here, we describe feasibility, acceptability, and pilot data on outcomes for 21 persons who received treatment for bipolar disorder and endorsed high levels of aggression and emotion-related impulsivity. As with other interventions for aggression or bipolar disorder, attrition levels were high. Those who completed the intervention showed large changes in aggression using the interview-based Modified Overt Aggression Scale that were sustained through three months and not observed during wait list control. Although they also showed declines in the self-rated Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire and in self-rated emotion-related impulsivity as assessed with the Feelings Trigger Action Scale, these self-ratings also declined during the waitlist control. Despite the limitations, the findings provide the first evidence that a brief, easily disseminated intervention could have promise for reducing aggression among those with bipolar disorder.
Chapter
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Implementation intentions (Gollwitzer, 1993, 1999, 2014) are if-then plans that help individuals attain their goals. Implementation intentions have proven beneficial in various domains in which individuals fall short of attaining their goals, from health behavior through academic achievement to interpersonal issues (for reviews, see Adriaanse, Vinkers, De Ridder, Hox, & De Wit, 2011; Bélanger-Gravel, Godin, & Amireault, 2013; Gollwitzer & Sheeran, 2006; Gollwitzer, 2014; Hagger & Luszczynska, 2014). The aim of this chapter is to present research on how implementation intentions influence the affective, cognitive and conative components of consumer behavior. We outline the nature of implementation intentions and describe moderators and mediators identified in previous research. Next, we adopt the perspective of comprehensive models of consumer behavior (e.g., Bettman, 1979; Blackwell, Miniard, & Engel, 2006; Howard & Sheth, 1969) and systematically review implementation intention effects along the lines of these models. Specifically, we describe how implementation intentions affect information acquisition (i.e., perception, processing and comprehension), components of the decision process (i.e., pre- and post-decisional evaluation) and internal and external influences on behavior (i.e., affect, norms, priming and mimicry) in consumer context. We conclude by outlining topics for future research on implementation intentions in the domain of consumer behavior.
Article
With suicide being a leading cause of death in the U.S., (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013 ), research must aim to increase efficacious prevention methods. The purpose of the present study was to gain greater understanding of the difference between suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Previous research emphasizes the role of hopelessness in attempts and ideation (Acosta et al., 2012 ; Bagge, Lamis, Nadorff, & Osman, 2014 ). Yet while hopelessness offers predictive value to suicide attempt, it fails in discriminating between suicide attempters and suicide ideators (Acosta et al., 2012 ; Klonsky & May, 2014 ). Thus the goal was to examine the possible influence of different types of hopelessness on suicidal ideation and attempt. The experience of hopelessness as a temporary feeling, or state, versus as an enduring emotion, or trait, was examined in this study. The State-Trait Hopelessness Scale and 4 suicidal thought and suicidal behavior questions were assessed. Results of logistic regression analysis supported the hypothesis that state and trait hopelessness were differentially associated with ideation and attempt. While trait hopelessness was significantly positively associated with responses to all four suicidality questions (p's < 0.001), state hopelessness was only positively related to responses to one ideation question (p < 0.01). In all, these results point to the importance of understanding the role of different types of hopelessness in differentiating suicidal ideation and attempt.
Article
The present study investigated whether impulse control problems in compulsive buying are specific to consumer products, and are influenced by arousal or gender. Compulsive buyers (n = 52, mean age = 25.02, SD = 7.93, 45% male) and controls (n = 51, mean age = 28.36, SD = 13.51, 52% male) were screened using the Compulsive Buying Scale. Participants were randomized to an arousal induction (or not) and completed a modified go/no-go task in order to test impulse control for desirable consumer goods versus neutral targets. Compulsive buyers performed significantly worse than controls on all trials, demonstrating generalized problems with impulse control. No significant main effects or interactions were found for arousal or gender on go/no-go task performance. This study found evidence of generalized problems with impulse control in compulsive buying for both men and women. Impulse control training is indicated in psychological interventions for compulsive buying. A transdiagnostic perspective is also implicated across impulse control disorders to promote future research and treatments.
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Objective: Bipolar disorder has been associated with elevated impulsivity - a complex construct subsuming multiple facets. We aimed to compare specific facets of impulsivity in bipolar disorder, including those related to key psychological correlates of the illness: reward sensitivity and strong emotion. Method: Ninety-one individuals diagnosed with bipolar I disorder (inter-episode period) and 80 controls completed several well-validated impulsivity measures, including those relevant to reward (Fun-seeking subscale of the Behavioral Activation System scale) and emotion (Positive Urgency and Negative Urgency scales). Results: Bipolar participants reported higher impulsivity scores than did controls on all of the impulsivity measures, except the Fun-seeking subscale of the Behavioral Activation System scale. Positive Urgency - a measure assessing the tendency to act impulsively when experiencing strong positive emotion - yielded the largest group differences: F(1,170) = 78.69, P < 0.001, partial η(2) = 0.316. Positive Urgency was also associated with poorer psychosocial functioning in the bipolar group: ΔR(2) = 0.24, b = -0.45, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Individuals with bipolar I disorder appear to be at particular risk of behaving impulsively when experiencing strong positive emotions. Findings provide an important first step toward developing a more refined understanding of impulsivity in bipolar disorder with the potential to inform targeted interventions.
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The present review adopts an action control perspective on emotion regulation, contextualising the gap between emotion control goals (e.g., I want to remain calm) and emotional outcomes (e.g., anger, anxiety, and aggression) in terms of the broader literature on goal pursuit. We propose that failure to effectively regulate emotions can result from difficulties with the self-regulatory tasks of (i) identifying the need to regulate, (ii) deciding whether and how to regulate, and (iii) enacting a regulation strategy. Next we review evidence that a technique traditionally associated with regulating behavioural goals (forming implementation intentions or ‘‘if-then’’ planning) can help to overcome these difficulties. Meta-analysis indicated that forming implementation intentions is effective in modifying emotional outcomes, with a large effect relative to no regulation instructions (k = 21, N = 1306 d = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.61 to 1.20) and a medium-sized effect relative to goal intention instructions (k = 29, N = 1208, d = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.42 to 0.65). Our conclusion is that research on emotion regulation might benefit from an action control perspective and the interventions that this perspective offers. This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.
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The intention-to-behavior process is analyzed with respect to implementation intentions. These intentions link an intended goal-directed behavior to an anticipated situational context. The reported experimental evidence suggests that implementation intentions create a heightened accessibility of the mental representation of the specified situational cues and induce direct (automatic) control of the intended behavior through these cues. The formation of implementation intentions promotes goal achievement through both of these processes because they eliminate classic problems associated with the control of goal-directed action. Similarities and differences to other theoretical approaches on intentions, planning, and action control are discussed.
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When people encounter problems in translating their goals into action (e.g., failing to get started, becoming distracted, or falling into bad habits), they may strategically call on automatic processes in an attempt to secure goal attainment. This can be achieved by plans in the form of implementation intentions that link anticipated critical situations to goal-directed responses ("Whenever situation x arises, I will initiate the goal-directed response y!"). Implementation intentions delegate the control of goal-directed responses to anticipated situational cues, which (when actually encountered) elicit these responses automatically. A program of research demonstrates that implementation intentions further the attainment of goals, and it reveals the underlying processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The present study investigated the contribution of cognitive and social factors to the decision style of depressed persons. During two sessions (Times 1 and 2), depressed and nondepressed college students were asked to imagine themselves making decisions about common life situations that afforded potential benefits but that also entailed potential risks. The decision scenarios varied in content. For each situation, subjects evaluated several potential risks and benefits and indicated what decisions they would make. In both sessions and for all types of decision scenarios, the depressed assigned greater weight to risks than did the nondepressed. Furthermore, for decisions about initiating social contact and establishing intimacy, the depressed expressed a greater reluctance to take the target action than did the nondepressed, and their perceptions of risks appeared to influence their estimated decisions more strongly. The Time 2 study also revealed that most of these differences applied equally when individuals were thinking about themselves or another person. However, risk perceptions were found to contribute more to the decision style of the depressed, relative to the nondepressed, only when their thoughts were focused on themselves and not when their thoughts were focused on another person. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The authors conducted a meta-analysis of 150 studies in which the risk-taking tendencies of male and female participants were compared. Studies were coded with respect to type of task (e.g., self-reported behaviors vs. observed behaviors), task content (e.g., smoking vs. sex), and 5 age levels. Results showed that the average effects for 14 out of 16 types of risk taking were significantly larger than 0 (indicating greater risk taking in male participants) and that nearly half of the effects were greater than .20. However, certain topics (e.g., intellectual risk taking and physical skills) produced larger gender differences than others (e.g., smoking). In addition, the authors found that (a) there were significant shifts in the size of the gender gap between successive age levels, and (b) the gender gap seems to be growing smaller over time. The discussion focuses on the meaning of the results for theories of risk taking and the need for additional studies to clarify age trends. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Describes 4 views of emotion intensity and quality within the pleasure-arousal theory of emotions. It is argued that only 1 of these views is conceptually and empirically tenable. This view assumes that the quality of emotions, or at least the quality of their "affective core," is determined by the proportion of, and their intensity by the absolute degrees of, experienced pleasure or displeasure (P) and activation or deactivation (A). Results from 2 unidimensional scaling studies, in which a total of 69 affects were rated for the degree of P and A experienced at low, typical, and high intensities, were in accord with this position. 91 college students participated in these studies. To overcome a remaining problem of the theory, namely, that it does not allow one to distinguish among more than a few basic groups of emotions, a "hybrid" cognitive-P-A theory of emotion is proposed, according to which emotions are appraisal-caused patterns of P and A. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Self-regulatory strategies of goal setting and goal striving are analyzed in three experiments. Experiment 1 uses fantasy realization theory (Oettingen, in: J. Brandstätter, R.M. Lerner (Eds.), Action and Self Development: Theory and Research through the Life Span, Sage Publications Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA, 1999, pp. 315–342) to analyze the self-regulatory processes of turning free fantasies about a desired future into binding goals. School children 8–12 years of age who had to mentally elaborate a desired academic future as well as present reality standing in its way, formed stronger goal commitments than participants solely indulging in the desired future or merely dwelling on present reality (Experiment 1). Effective implementation of set goals is addressed in the second and third experiments (Gollwitzer, Am. Psychol. 54 (1999) 493–503). Adolescents who had to furnish a set educational goal with relevant implementation intentions (specifying where, when, and how they would start goal pursuit) were comparatively more successful in meeting the goal (Experiment 2). Linking anticipated situations with goal-directed behaviors (i.e., if–then plans) rather than the mere thinking about good opportunities to act makes implementation intentions facilitate action initiation (Experiment 3).
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Condom use within steady and casual sexual relationships was examined among 14-16 year old Dutch adolescents from secondary school (N = 140). It was hypothesised that among adolescents sex and subsequently condom use with casual sex partners is less likely to be considered in advance, more context-dependent and less habitual; whereas the opposite is true for steady relationships. Therefore, preparatory behaviours (buying and carrying condoms and communicating about condom use) were expected to mediate the intention-behaviour relation in the context of steady relationships, but not in the context of casual sex. Results confirmed that condom use with steady sex partners was explained by preparatory behaviours, habits, and to some extent, behavioural willingness, and that preparatory behaviours mediated the intention-behaviour relationship. Condom use with casual sex partners was predicted by risk willingness and intentions, without any mediation by preparatory behaviours. The results indicate that it is essential to increase awareness among adolescents that unexpected sexual situations may occur and to train them to take preparatory actions.
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It is well established that emotion plays a key role in human social and economic decision making. The recent literature on emotion regulation (ER), however, highlights that humans typically make efforts to control emotion experiences. This leaves open the possibility that decision effects previously attributed to acute emotion may be a consequence of acute ER strategies such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. In Study 1, we manipulated ER of laboratory-induced fear and disgust, and found that the cognitive reappraisal of these negative emotions promotes risky decisions (reduces risk aversion) in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task and is associated with increased performance in the prehunch/hunch period of the Iowa Gambling Task. In Study 2, we found that naturally occurring negative emotions also increase risk aversion in Balloon Analogue Risk Task, but the incidental use of cognitive reappraisal of emotions impedes this effect. We offer evidence that the increased effectiveness of cognitive reappraisal in reducing the experience of emotions underlies its beneficial effects on decision making.
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Intentions to do more good and less bad are reliably associated with actual efforts in the intended directions (Ajzen, 1991; Godin & Kok, 1996; Sheeran, 2002). However, intention-behavior relations are modest, largely due to the fact that people, despite having formed strang intentions, fail to act on them (Orbell & Sheeran, 1998). Given this predicament, one wonders what people can do to facilitate the translation of intentions into behavior. In this chapter, it is suggested that people should engage in a seeond act of willing by making if-then plans (i. e., implementation intentions) that specify how the (goal) Intention is to be realized. We argue that such plans produce automatic action control by intentionally delegating the control of one's goal-directed thoughts, feelings, and behaviors to specific situational cues. Thus, by forming implementation intentions, people can strategically switch from conscious and effortful control of their goal-directed behaviors to being automatically controlled by selected situational cues. We understand this type of automatic action control as strategic automaticity or instant habits (Gollwitzer, 1999), as it originates from a single act of will rather than being produced by repeated and consistent selection of a certain course of action in the same situation (i. e., principles of routinization; Anderson, 1987; Fitts & Posner, 1967; Newell & Rosenbloom, 1981). The first part of the chapter discusses research that explores how implementation intentions can help people to promote getting started on their goals. In the second part, we discuss findings on how people can use implementation intentions in an attempt to prevent straying off-course from goal attainment.
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Holding a strong goal intention ("I intend to reach Z!") does not guarantee goal achievement, because people may fail to deal effectively with selfregulatory problems during goal striving. This review analyzes wether realization of goal intentions is facilitated by forming an implementation intention that spells out the when, where, and how of goal striving in advance ("If situation Y is encountered, then I will initiate goal-directed behavior X!"). Findings from 94 independent tests showed that implementation intentions had a positive effect of medium-to-large magnitude (d= .65) on goal attainment. Implementation intentions were effective in promoting the initiation of goal striving, the shielding of ongoing goal pursuit from unwanted influences, disengagement from failing courses of action, and conservation of capability for future goal striving. There was also strong support for postulatad component processes: Implementation intention formation both enhanced the accessibility of specified opportunities and automated respective goal-directed responses. Several directions for future research are outlined.
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As both high self-efficacy beliefs (Bandura, 19975. Bandura , A. 1997. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control, New York: Freeman. View all references) and forming implementation intentions (Gollwitzer & Sheeran, 200632. Gollwitzer , P. M. and Sheeran , P. 2006. Implementation intentions and goal achievement: A meta-analysis of effects and processes. Advances of Experimental Social Psychology, 38: 69–119. [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references) are known to improve goal attainment, it is suggested that implementation intentions geared at strengthening self-efficacy should be a very helpful self-regulation strategy to achieve high scholastic test scores. In Study 1, female participants had to perform a math test either with the goal intention of solving as many problems as possible or with an additional self-efficacy strengthening implementation intention. In Study 2, male participants worked on an analytic reasoning test under either a mere achievement goal intention, an additional self-efficacy strengthening implementation intention, or an additional self-efficacy strengthening goal intention. In both studies, participants with self-efficacy strengthening implementation intentions outperformed the mere achievement goal intention participants. Moreover, Study 2 showed that additional self-efficacy strengthening goal intentions were not as effective as additional self-efficacy strengthening implementation intentions. The results are discussed in terms of their contribution to research on both self-efficacy and implementation intentions.
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As implementation intentions are a powerful self-regulation tool for thought and action (meta-analysis by P. M. Gollwitzer & P. Sheeran, 2006), the present studies were conducted to address their effectiveness in regulating emotional reactivity. Disgust- (Study 1) and fear- (Study 2) eliciting stimuli were viewed under 3 different self-regulation instructions: the goal intention to not get disgusted or frightened, respectively, this goal intention furnished with an implementation intention (i.e., an if-then plan), and a no-self-regulation control group. Only implementation-intention participants succeeded in reducing their disgust and fear reactions as compared to goal-intention and control participants. In Study 3, electrocortical correlates (using dense-array electroencephalography) revealed differential early visual activity in response to spider slides in ignore implementation-intention participants, as reflected in a smaller P1. Theoretical and applied implications of the present findings for emotion regulation via implementation intentions are discussed.
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Evidence for the role of affective states in social judgments is reviewed, and a new integrative theory, the affect infusion model (AIM), is proposed as a comprehensive explanation of these effects. The AIM, based on a multiprocess approach to social judgments, identifies 4 alternative judgmental strategies: (a) direct access, (b) motivated, (c) heuristic, and (d) substantive processing. The model predicts that the degree of affect infusion into judgments varies along a processing continuum, such that judgments requiring heuristic or substantive processing are more likely to be infused by affect than are direct access or motivated judgments. The role of target, judge, and situational variables in recruiting high- or low-infusion judgmental strategies is considered, and empirical support for the model is reviewed. The relationship between the AIM and other affect-cognition theories is discussed, and implications for future research are outlined.
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Three studies are described that assess elements of a new model of adolescent health-risk behavior, the prototype/willingness (P/W) model (F. X. Gibbons & M. Gerrard, 1995, 1997). The 1st analysis examined whether a central element of the prototype model, behavioral willingness, adds significantly to behavioral expectation in predicting adolescents' smoking behavior. The 2nd set of analyses used structural-equation-modeling procedures to provide the 1st test of the complete model in predicting college students' pregnancy-risk behavior. Finally, the 3rd study used confirmatory factor analysis to assess the independence of elements of the model from similar elements in other health behavior models. Results of the 3 studies provided support for the prototype model and, in particular, for 2 of its primary contentions: (a) that much adolescent health-risk behavior is not planned and (b) that willingness and intention are related but independent constructs, each of which can be an antecedent to risk behavior.
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We used a novel computerized decision-making task to compare the decision-making behavior of chronic amphetamine abusers, chronic opiate abusers, and patients with focal lesions of orbital prefrontal cortex (PFC) or dorsolateral/medial PFC. We also assessed the effects of reducing central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity using a tryptophan-depleting amino acid drink in normal volunteers. Chronic amphetamine abusers showed suboptimal decisions (correlated with years of abuse), and deliberated for significantly longer before making their choices. The opiate abusers exhibited only the second of these behavioral changes. Importantly, both sub-optimal choices and increased deliberation times were evident in the patients with damage to orbitofrontal PFC but not other sectors of PFC. Qualitatively, the performance of the subjects with lowered plasma tryptophan was similar to that associated with amphetamine abuse, consistent with recent reports of depleted 5-HT in the orbital regions of PFC of methamphetamine abusers. Overall, these data suggest that chronic amphetamine abusers show similar decision-making deficits to those seen after focal damage to orbitofrontal PFC. These deficits may reflect altered neuromodulation of the orbitofrontal PFC and interconnected limbic-striatal systems by both the ascending 5-HT and mesocortical dopamine (DA) projections.
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A 2-system framework is proposed for understanding the processes that enable--and undermine--self-control or "willpower" as exemplified in the delay of gratification paradigm. A cool, cognitive "know" system and a hot, emotional "go" system are postulated. The cool system is cognitive, emotionally neutral, contemplative, flexible, integrated, coherent, spatiotemporal, slow, episodic, and strategic. It is the seat of self-regulation and self-control. The hot system is the basis of emotionality, fears as well as passions--impulsive and reflexive--initially controlled by innate releasing stimuli (and, thus, literally under "stimulus control"): it is fundamental for emotional (classical) conditioning and undermines efforts at self-control. The balance between the hot and cool systems is determined by stress, developmental level, and the individual's self-regulatory dynamics. The interactions between these systems allow explanation of findings on willpower from 3 decades of research.
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Why do people's impulse controls break down during emotional distress? Some theories propose that distress impairs one's motivation or one's ability to exert self-control, and some postulate self-destructive intentions arising from the moods. Contrary to those theories, Three experiments found that believing that one's bad mood was frozen (unchangeable) eliminated the tendency to eat fattening snacks (Experiment 1), seek immediate gratification (Experiment 2), and engage in frivolous procrastination (Experiment 3). The implication is that when people are upset, they indulge immediate impulses to make themselves feel better, which amounts to giving short-term affect regulation priority over other self-regulatory goals.
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When people furnish their goal intentions ("I intend to attain the goal x!") with implementation intentions ("I will initiate the goal-directed response y when situation z arises!"), the initiation of goal-directed responses becomes automatized. As this type of automaticity stems from a single act of will, it is referred to as strategic automaticity. We report various studies demonstrating that strategic automaticity leads to immediate and efficient responding, which does not need a conscious intent. In addition, the situational cues specified in implementation intentions seem to be easily detected and readily attended to. Further research indicates that the strategic automaticity induced by implementation intentions also helps resist temptations and fight bad habits. Following Nelson's (1996; Nelson & Narens, 1994) model of metacognition, we suggest that goal intentions and, in particular, implementation intentions are important components of the metacognitive control of action geared toward its initiation, continuation, and termination.
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It is widely accepted that emotions have utilitarian as well as hedonic consequences. Nevertheless, it is typically assumed that individuals regulate emotions to obtain hedonic, rather than utilitarian, benefits. In this study, the authors tested whether individuals represent the utility of pleasant and unpleasant emotions and whether they would be motivated to experience unpleasant emotions if they believed they could be useful. First, findings revealed that participants explicitly viewed approach emotions (e.g., excitement) as useful for obtaining rewards, but viewed avoidance emotions (e.g., worry) as useful for avoiding threats. Second, this pattern was replicated in implicit representations of emotional utility, which were dissociated from explicit ones. Third, implicit, but not explicit, representations of emotional utility predicted motives for emotion regulation. When anticipating a threatening task, participants who viewed emotions such as worry and fear as useful for avoiding threats preferred to engage in activities that were likely to increase worry and fear (vs. excitement) before the task. These findings demonstrate that utilitarian considerations play an important, if underappreciated, role in emotion regulation.
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Forming an implementation intention or "if-then plan" promotes the attainment of different types of goals (Gollwitzer, 1999; Gollwitzer & Sheeran, 2006). So far, research on implementation intentions has focused on the initiation of goal striving, whereas the issue of shielding of ongoing goal striving has been largely neglected. In two field experiments concerned with dieting (Study 1) and athletic goals (Study 2), goal shielding was supported by implementation intentions geared at controlling potentially interfering inner states (i.e., cravings for junk food in Study 1, and disruptive thoughts, feelings, and physiological states in Study 2). In both experiments, forming if-then plans enhanced the rate of goal attainment. Thus, implementation intention formation can be used to promote the realization of desired outcomes not only by facilitating getting started with goal striving but also by preventing goal striving from straying off course.
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This paper re‐examines the commonly observed inverse relationship between perceived risk and perceived benefit. We propose that this relationship occurs because people rely on affect when judging the risk and benefit of specific hazards. Evidence supporting this proposal is obtained in two experimental studies. Study 1 investigated the inverse relationship between risk and benefit judgments under a time‐pressure condition designed to limit the use of analytic thought and enhance the reliance on affect. As expected, the inverse relationship was strengthened when time pressure was introduced. Study 2 tested and confirmed the hypothesis that providing information designed to alter the favorability of one's overall affective evaluation of an item (say nuclear power) would systematically change the risk and benefit judgments for that item. Both studies suggest that people seem prone to using an ‘affect heuristic’ which improves judgmental efficiency by deriving both risk and benefit evaluations from a common source—affective reactions to the stimulus item. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Several procedures for the experimental induction of mood states have been developed. This paper reviews nearly 250 studies from the last 10 years which concern mood induction procedures. A classification system is introduced. According to the stimuli used to influence subjects, five groups of mood induction procedures (MIPs) are differentiated. The effectiveness of MIPs is analysed and compared. The Film/Story MIP and the Gift MIP proved to be highly effective in inducing elation. For the induction of depression, the Imagination MIP, the Velten MIP, the Film/Story MIP and the Success/Failure MIP can be recommended.
Two studies conducted simultaneously investigated the influence of positive affect on risk taking. Results of the study, which employed an actual measure of subjects' willingness to bet something of value, supported the prediction of an interaction between level of risk and positive affect: subjects who had reason to be feeling elated bet more than control subjects on a low-risk bet, but wagered less than controls on a high-risk bet. At the same time, in contrast, a study involving hypothetical risk-taking showed that in general subjects were more willing to take the chance as probability of success went up; but that elated subjects were more daring than controls on a “long shot.” Differences in hypothetical vs real risk taking were noted, and the complexity (the interaction) of the influence of positive feelings on real risk taking was emphasized. The results were related to other research suggesting an influence of feeling states on cognitive processes and decision making.
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This paper re-examines the commonly observed inverse relationship between per- ceived risk and perceived benefit. We propose that this relationship occurs because people rely on aÄect when judging the risk and benefit of specific hazards. Evidence supporting this proposal is obtained in two experimental studies. Study 1 investigated the inverse relationship between risk and benefit judgments under a time-pressure condition designed to limit the use of analytic thought and enhance the reliance on aÄect. As expected, the inverse relationship was strengthened when time pressure was introduced. Study 2 tested and confirmed the hypothesis that providing information designed to alter the favorability of one's overall aÄective evaluation of an item (say nuclear power) would systematically change the risk and benefit judgments for that item. Both studies suggest that people seem prone to using an 'aÄect heuristic' which improves judgmental eÅciency by deriving both risk and benefit evaluations from a common source — aÄective reactions to the stimulus item. Copyright # 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Past implementation intention research focused on shielding goal striving from disruptive internal states (e.g., being anxious) by forming if–then plans that link these very states to instrumental coping responses. In the present line of research, we investigated whether planning out goal striving by means of if–then plans specifying opportunities to initiate goal-directed responses also protects goal striving from the negative impact of disruptive internal states. Indeed, in the face of disruptive internal states, participants who had been asked to form implementation intentions that targeted opportunities for initiating goal-directed responses outperformed participants with a mere goal intention to do well on a focal task goal. Actually, implementation intention participants performed as well as control participants who were not burdened by disruptive internal states such as being in a certain mood (Study 1), ego-depleted (Study 2), or self-definitionally incomplete (Study 3). Results are discussed by pointing to the importance of hypo-egoic self-regulation.
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Two experiments with 108 female undergraduates tested a theoretical model of behavioral self-regulation, which makes predictions about the effect of failure on a person's subsequent efforts. This model holds that degree of effort will be a product of 2 things: expectancy of being able to redress the failure and degree of self-attention. In the experiments, a failure pretreatment was used to create large within-self discrepancies among Ss. It was predicted that (a) negative outcome expectancies regarding a subsequent task would lead to decreased persistence on that task, (b) positive outcome expectancies for the subsequent task would lead to increased persistence on that task, and (c) both of these tendencies would be mediated by self-directed attention. Results support the predictions. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The authors assessed the interactive effects of self-esteem and mood on intentions to engage in unprotected sexual intercourse. Prior research has shown that people with low self-esteem tend to evaluate themselves unfavorably when in a negative mood state, whereas people with high self-esteem are less susceptible to changes in self-evaluation following a negative mood induction. The authors hypothesized that people who engage in negative self-evaluations may be more likely to report intentions to engage in unprotected sexual intercourse. Undergraduate females were randomly assigned to a positive or negative mood induction condition. Consistent with their hypotheses, the authors found that among participants who were in a negative mood state, those with low self-esteem were more likely to report intentions to have sexual intercourse without a condom than were those with high self-esteem. In contrast, among participants in a positive mood, there were no differences between those who were low and high in self-esteem.
Article
The effectiveness and validity of 11 important mood induction procedures (MIPs) were comparatively evaluated by meta-analytical procedures. Two hundred and fifty effects of the experimental induction of positive, elated and negative, depressed mood in adult, non-clinical samples were integrated. Effect sizes were generally larger for negative than for positive mood inductions. The presentation of a film or story turned out to be most effective in inducing both positive and negative mood states. The effects are especially large when subjects are explicitly instructed to enter the specified mood state. For elated mood, all other MIPs yielded considerably lower effectiveness scores. For the induction of negative mood states, Imagination, Velten, Music, Social Interaction and Feedback MIPs were about as effective as the Film/Story MIP without instruction. Induction effects covaried with several study characteristics. Effects tend to be smaller when demand characteristics are controlled or subjects are not informed about the purpose of the experiment. For behavioural measures, effects are smaller than for self-reports but still larger than zero. Hence, the effects of MIPs can be partly, but not fully due to demand effects.
Article
Forming an implementation intention (‘If I encounter situation X, then I'll perform behaviour Y!’) is thought to increase the likelihood that the person will detect a good opportunity to act. Experiment 1 found support for this hypothesis in a novel context where detection of the specified cue was very difficult. Experiments 2 and 3 extended existing paradigms to test whether this improved cue detection has costs in terms of increased false positives and/or slower responses to ambiguous stimuli. This hypothesis was not supported. Forming an implementation intention led to more accurate (Experiment 2) and faster (Experiment 3) responses to the specified cue without compromising responses to non-relevant, or ambiguous, stimuli. Overall, the findings suggest that forming an implementation intention is an effective self-regulatory tool because the specified cues are discriminated swiftly and with precision. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Despite the social importance of decisions taken in the “heat of the moment,” very little research has examined the effect of sexual arousal on judgment and decision making. Here we examine the effect of sexual arousal, induced by self-stimulation, on judgments and hypothetical decisions made by male college students. Students were assigned to be in either a state of sexual arousal or a neutral state and were asked to: (1) indicate how appealing they find a wide range of sexual stimuli and activities, (2) report their willingness to engage in morally questionable behavior in order to obtain sexual gratification, and (3) describe their willingness to engage in unsafe sex when sexually aroused. The results show that sexual arousal had a strong impact on all three areas of judgment and decision making, demonstrating the importance of situational forces on preferences, as well as subjects' inability to predict these influences on their own behavior. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
A decision-making perspective is used to review and analyze the literature on risk taking in adolescence. The advantages of such an approach are demonstrated, and then it is applied to some widely held beliefs regarding adolescents' risky behaviors. The implications of this perspective for education are briefly discussed, along with the need for a developmental theory of decision making. A large number of studies related to adolescent risk taking are reviewed, showing whether and how each addresses issues defined by a decision-making perspective. Alternative views of risk taking are also examined. In conclusion, we discuss the possible validity of the claim that adolescents are undue risk takers.
Article
One hundred female college students were administered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, to provide a measure of primary suggestibility. In a 2nd hr, each S was randomly assigned to one of five individual treatments of 20 Ss each. One group read and concentrated upon 60 self-referent statements intended to be elating: a second group read 60 statements intended to be depressing. A third group read 60 statements which were neither self-referent nor pertaining to mood. This group controlled for the effects of reading and experimental participation per se. Fourth and fifth groups received demand characteristics control treatments designed to produce simulated elation and simulated depression, respectively.Two measures of pre-treatment mood level were obtained from each S at the beginning other individual treatment. Following treatment, as criteria for elation and depression, seven behavioral task measures were obtained. Four of these distinguished significantly among the treatment groups. The comparative performance of Ss in the three control groups indicated that the obtained mood changes could not be attributed to artifactual effects. Moreover, post-experimental questionnaire data strongly supported the conclusion that Elation and Depression treatments had indeed respectively induced elation and depression.
Article
Implementation intentions are plans that specify the when, where, and how of goal striving in advance, and have been shown to enhance rates of goal attainment compared to merely forming respective goal intentions. The present research investigated whether the accessibility of the specified situation (cue accessibility) and the strength of the association between the specified situation and the intended response (cue-response linkage) explain the impact of implementation intentions on goal achievement. Findings indicated that participants who planned to undertake a verbal task better attained their goal compared to participants who did not form a plan. Crucially, implementation intention effects were mediated by the accessibility of the specified cue and by the strength of cue-response links. These findings support the idea that implementation intentions benefit performance because control of behavior is delegated to specified situational cues that initiate action automatically.
Article
The present research examines whether forming implementation intentions can help people with social anxiety to control their attention and make more realistic appraisals of their performance. In Experiment 1, socially anxious participants (relative to less anxious participants) exhibited an attentional bias toward social threat words in a Visual Dot Probe task. However, socially anxious participants who formed implementation intentions designed to control attention did not exhibit this bias. Using a spatial cuing task, Experiment 2 showed that forming implementation intentions also promoted rapid disengagement from threatening stimuli. Experiment 3 ruled out the possibility that implementation intentions were effective merely because they provided additional goal-relevant information. In Experiment 4, participants gave a speech and subsequently rated their performance. Forming implementation intentions prevented the underestimation of performance that characterizes socially anxious individuals. Together, the findings suggest that forming implementation intentions may provide an effective means of handling self-regulatory problems in social anxiety.
Article
This study examined the impact of implementation intention formation in reducing consultations for emergency contraception and pregnancy testing in young women. Teenage girls (N = 261) visiting a family planning clinic were randomly assigned to implementation intention versus control conditions and completed questionnaires at recruitment. Objective measures of consultation outcomes were obtained from clinic records at baseline and 9-month follow-up (n = 200). Forming implementation intentions significantly reduced consultations for emergency contraception and pregnancy testing at follow-up compared with the control group (38% vs. 55%). There were also differences between the groups in consultation outcomes over time. For instance, whereas 31% of implementation intention participants changed from consulting for emergency contraception and pregnancy testing at baseline to consulting for contraceptive supplies only at follow-up, only 16% of control participants did so. These results suggest that implementation intention formation is a simple yet effective means of promoting pregnancy prevention among teenagers.
Article
This paper examines cognitive antecedents of non-smoking among adolescents who reported smoking less than 1-2 times a week, and reported non-smoking intentions and willingness, in the framework of the Prototype/Willingness model. Two waves of data were obtained from a nation-wide sample of 760 Norwegian adolescents who responded to a school-based survey on smoking. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the predictive power of the social reaction pathway (prototype and willingness) of the P/W model, and in addition, the constructs from the Theory of Reasoned Action (subjective norm, attitude and intention). Results demonstrated the unique importance of the social reaction path when examining smoking behaviour among non-smoking adolescents. Implications of the findings and possible applications are discussed.
Article
Three experiments assessed the effects of mood on symptom appraisal, health behavior self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and perceptions of vulnerability. Ss in Experiments 1 and 2 were acutely ill, whereas Ss in Experiment 3 were healthy. In each experiment, happy, sad, and neutral moods were induced. In Experiment 1, Ss who experienced sadness reported more aches and pains and greater discomfort than happy Ss. Sad Ss were less confident that they could carry out illness-alleviating behaviors. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that mood's influence on vulnerability perceptions is moderated by health status. Although mood had little impact on perceptions of vulnerability among ill Ss, probability estimates of future negative health-relevant events among healthy Ss were mood sensitive. Seeing oneself as invulnerable to future negative events was accentuated among happy Ss and attenuated among sad Ss. Mood may be an important determinant of care seeking, adherence, and recovery from illness.
Article
This article evaluates a motivational intervention based on the theory of planned behavior, a volitional intervention based on implementation intentions, and a combined motivational plus volitional intervention in promoting attendance at workplace health and safety training courses in the UK. Intervention manipulations were embedded in postal questionnaires completed by participants (N=271). Subsequent attendance over a 3-month period was determined from course records. Findings showed that the volitional and combined interventions doubled the rate of attendance compared to the motivational and control conditions (rates were 39%, 32%, 12%, and 16%, respectively). The effects of the volitional intervention were independent of the effects of previous attendance, demographic variables, employment characteristics, and variables from the theory of planned behavior.
Article
Research has shown that social images or prototypes of smoking peers play a role in adolescents' decisions to start smoking. To devise effective prevention measures, specific information is needed about how adolescents evaluate characteristics associated with smoker prototypes. Such evaluation is assumed to occur through self-comparison processes, that is, 'self-consistency' and 'self-enhancement' motivations. This is one of the first studies to examine longitudinal relations between both these motivational processes and smoking behavior. Self-reported data on motivational processes and smoking were gathered at two waves (with a 1-year interval) among Dutch adolescents (12-16 years). Relations between self-comparison processes and willingness to smoke or future smoking behavior were tested among a sample of 1938 respondents. Smoker prototypes predicted adolescents' smoking onset, particularly those images that referred to daily smoking peers as being "cool" or "rebellious." Furthermore, self-consistency and self-enhancement motivations predicted smoking onset for certain characteristics associated with smoker prototypes. Evidence for the role of self-consistency and self-enhancement motivations in adolescents' smoking onset suggests that smoking prevention projects should target both similar and aspiring features associated with the image of smoking peers.
Article
The present study evaluated an implementation intention intervention that aimed to increase attendance at scheduled, initial appointments for psychotherapy by helping clients to manage negative feelings about attendance. Participants received a postal questionnaire that measured their views about attending psychotherapy. One half of the sample was randomly assigned to an implementation intention induction that was embedded in the questionnaire. Intention-to-treat analysis (N=390) indicated that participants who formed implementation intentions were more likely to attend compared to controls (75% vs. 63%), and this effect was even stronger among participants who returned the questionnaire (83% vs. 57%). Whereas anticipated affective costs (e.g., shame) had a negative impact on attendance for most participants, this effect was attenuated when participants formed implementation intentions and perceived that attendance would be beneficial. Thus, implementation intention formation can help clients to deal effectively with negative feelings that might otherwise prevent them attending their first psychotherapy appointment.
Article
Although considerable evidence suggests that forming an implementation intention increases rates of goal attainment, less research has examined the mechanisms that underlie these effects. The present research investigated the role of deliberative processes and accessibility of plan components as explanation for the relationship between implementation intentions and goal achievement. Study 1 used meta-analysis to quantify the effects of implementation intentions on goal intentions and self-efficacy. The results of 66 tests suggested that forming implementation intentions had negligible effects on both variables. Study 2 focused on the accessibility of plan components and found that the effect of implementation intentions on goal achievement was mediated simultaneously by the accessibility of specified situational cues and by the strength of the association forged between these cues and the intended response. These findings suggest that implementation intention effects are not explained by increased deliberation, but rather accrue from heightened accessibility of specified opportunities and strong opportunity-response links.
Information processing before and after the formation of an intent
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