Perinatal Factors Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk among Preschool-Age Children in the United States: An Analysis of 1999–2008 NHANES Data

Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, Batchelor Children's Research Institute, 580 NW 10th Avenue (D820), Miami, FL 33101, USA.
International Journal of Pediatrics 05/2012; 2012(3):157237. DOI: 10.1155/2012/157237
Source: PubMed


We examined the relationships between selected perinatal and early infancy factors (maternal smoking during pregnancy, infant low birthweight, breastfeeding, and early introduction of solid foods [<6 months of age] and increased BMI [≥85th, ≥95th percentiles for age, sex]), waist circumference (WC), C-reactive protein (CRP), triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and decreased HDL cholesterol during early childhood. The population-based sample included 3,644 3-to-6-year-old Non-Hispanic White (NHW), Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic Black (NHB) children who participated in the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Analysis showed that breastfeeding was significantly protective against early childhood obesity (OR 0.43, 95% CI, 0.27-0.69) and the highest quintile for WC (OR 0.58, 95% CI, 0.37-0.32) among NHW, and against the highest quintile of non-HDL cholesterol among NHB (OR 0.56, 95% CI, 0.32-0.98). Additionally, NHW children were significantly more likely to be obese (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.30-3.78) and have higher CRP levels (OR 1.63, 95% CI, 1.05-2.51) if their mothers smoked during pregnancy. These results support the observation that breastfeeding may be protective against early childhood obesity while maternal smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for obesity and increased CRP levels among NHW young children.

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    • "Age of introduction of solids < 4 mo Kikafunda et al. 2009 [70] Age of introduction of solids > 6 mo Kramer et al. 2011 [71] Age of introduction of solids at 1, 2, 3 mo Lartey et al. 1999 [72] Age of introduction of solids > 6 mo López-Alarcón et al.1997 [73] Age of introduction of solids < 4 mo Marlin et al. 1980 [74] Age of introduction of solids < 4 mo Marquis et al. 1997 [75] Infants age group 12-15 mo Messiah et al. 2012 [76] Non specific information on how exclusive breastfeeding in BF and in CF groups Nielsen et al.1998 [77] No analysis on association between age of introduction of solids among EBF and growth Piwoz et al. 1996 [78] Age of introduction of solids < 4 mo Popkin et al. 1990 [79] Age of introduction of solids non specified Quigley et al. 2009 [80] No analysis on the type of milk received by CF group Rowland et al. 1988 [81] Age of introduction of solids non specified Saarinen & Siimes 1978 [82] Age of introduction of solids < 4 mo. Mixed feeding (formula + BM) Salmenpera et al. 1985 [83] Age of introduction of solids < 4 mo Simondon & Simondon 1997 [84] Age of introduction of solids < 4 mo Sloan et al. 2008 [85] Age of introduction of solids < 4 mo Victora et al. 1998 [86] Age of introduction of solids < 4 mo, low birth weight infants included in the analysis Wilson et al. 1998 [87] Age of introduction of solids < 4 mo Wilson et al. 2006 [88] Age of introduction of solids < 4 mo Zhou et al. 2012 [89] Age of introduction of solids > 6 mo N.B: CF complementary feeding, EBF exclusively breastfeeding, mo month "
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